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especially soil and rock, and other granular materials or powders. There are several variations on the test. The principle behind a triaxial shear test is that the stress applied in the vertical direction (along the axis of the cylindrical sample) can be different from the stresses applied in the horizontal directions perpendicular to the sides of the cylinder, i.e. the confining pressure). In a homogeneous and isotropic material this produces a non-hydrostatic stress state, with shear stress that may lead to failure of the sample in shear. In homegeneous and anisotropic samples (e.g. bedded or jointed samples) failure may occur due to bending moments and, hence, failure may be tensile. Also combinations of bending and shear failure may happen in inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. A solid is defined as a material that can support shear stress without moving. However, every solid has an upper limit to how much shear stress it can support. The triaxial test is designed to measure that limit. The stress on the platens is increased until the material in the cylinder fails and forms sliding regions within itself, known as shear bands. A motion where a material is deformed under shear stress is known as shearing. The geometry of the shearing in a triaxial test typically causes the sample to become shorter while bulging out along the sides. The stress on the platen is then reduced and the water pressure pushes the sides back in, causing the sample to grow taller again. This cycle is usually repeated several times while collecting stress and strain data about the sample. During the shearing, a granular material will typically have a net gain or loss of volume. If it had originally been in a dense state, then it typically gains volume, a characteristic known as Reynolds' dilatancy. If it had originally been in a very loose state, then contraction may occur before the shearing begins or in conjunction with the shearing. From the triaxial test data, it is possible to extract fundamental material parameters about the sample, including its angle of shearing resistance, apparent cohesion, and dilatancy angle. These parameters are then used in computer models to predict how the material will behave in a larger-scale engineering application. An example would be to predict the stability of the soil on a slope, whether the slope will collapse or whether the soil will support the shear stresses of the slope and remain in place. Triaxial tests are used along with other tests to make such engineering predictions. The triaxial test can be used to determine the shear strength of a discontinuity. A homogeneous and isotropic sample (see above) fails due to shear stresses in the sample. If a sample with a discontinuity is orientated such that the discontinuity is about parallel to the plane in which maximum shear stress will be developed during the test, the sample will fail due to shear displacement along the discontinuity, and hence, the shear strength of a discontinuity can be calculated

PERMEABILITY TEST A. CONSTANT HEAD OBJECTIVE To determine the coefficient of permeability of a soil using constant head method. need and Scope The knowledge of this property is much useful in solving problems involving yield of water bearing strata, seepage through earthen dams, stability of earthen dams, and embankments of canal bank affected by seepage, settlement etc. Definition of coefficient of permeability The rate of flow under laminar flow conditions through a unit cross sectional are of porous medium under unit hydraulic gradient is defined as coefficient of permeability. Thus the study of seepage of water through soil is very important, with wide field applications. The falling head method of determining permeability is used for soil with low discharge, where as the constant head permeability test is used for coarse-grained soils with a reasonable discharge in a given time. For very fine-grained soil, capillarity permeability test is recommended. Principle of the Experiment The passage of water through porous material is called seepage. A material with continuous voids is called a permeable material. Hence permeability is a property of a porous material which permits passage of fluids through inter connecting conditions. Hence permeability is defined as the rate of flow of water under laminar conditions through a unit cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of flow through a porous medium under unit hydraulic gradient and under standard temperature conditions.

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