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454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR 10.00: Section PART 1: 10.01: 10.02: 10.03: 10.04:

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY RULES AND REGULATIONS

GENERAL

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.02 through 10.04 Authority, Purpose and Scope General Duties and Responsibilities General Performance Requirements OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT CONTROLS

PART 2: 10.05: 10.06: 10.07: 10.08: 10.09: 10.10: 10.11: 10.12:

Medical Services and First Aid Sanitation Occupational Noise Exposure Ionizing Radiation Nonionizing Radiation Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists Illumination Ventilation PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND LIFE SAVING EQUIPMENT

PART 3: 10.19: 10.20: 10.21: 10.22: 10.23: 10.24: 10.25: 10.26: 10.27:

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.20 through 10.27 Personal Protective Apparel Head Protection Hearing Protection Eye and Face Protection Respiratory Protection Safety harnesses, Lifelines, and Lanyards Safety Nets Working Over or Near Water FIRE PROTECTION AND PREVENTION

PART 4: 10.34: 10.35: 10.36: 10.37: 10.38: 10.39:

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.35 through 10.39 Fire Protection Fire Prevention Flammable and Combustible Liquids Liquified Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas) Temporary Heating Devices SIGNS, SIGNALS, AND BARRICADES

PART 5: 10.46: 10.47: 10.48: 10.49:

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.47 through 10.50 Accident Prevention Signs and Tags Signaling Barricades MATERIALS HANDLING, STORAGE, USE, AND DISPOSAL

PART 6:

10.56: General Requirements for Storage 10.57: Rigging Equipment for Material Handling 10.58: Disposal of Waste Materials

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.00: continued PART 7: 10.65: 10.66: 10.67: 10.68: 10.69: 10.70: 10.71: TOOLS - HAND AND POWER

Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.66 through 10.71 General Requirements Hand Tools Power-Operated Hand Tools Abrasive Wheels and Tools Woodworking Tools Jacks - Lever and Ratchet, Screw, and Hydraulic WELDING AND CUTTING

PART 8: 10.78: 10.79: 10.80: 10.81: 10.82:

Gas Welding and Cutting Arc Welding and Cutting Fire Prevention Ventilation and Protection in Welding, Cutting, and Heating Welding, Cutting, and Heating in Way of Preservative Coatings ELECTRICAL

PART 9: 10.90: 10.91: 10.92: 10.93: 10.94: 10.95:

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.91 through 10.95 General Requirements Grounding and Bonding Equipment Installation and Maintenance Battery Rooms and Battery Charging Hazardous Locations LADDERS AND SCAFFOLDING

PART 10: 10.102: 10.103: 10.104: 10.105:

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.103 through 10.105 Ladders Scaffolding Vehicle-mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms FLOORS AND WALL OPENINGS, AND STAIRWAYS

PART 11:

10.110: Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.111 and 10.112 10.111: Guardrails, Handrails, and Covers 10.112: Stairways PART 12: 10.119: 10.120: 10.121: 10.122: 10.123: 10.124: 10.125: CRANES, DERRICKS, HOISTS, ELEVATORS, AND CONVEYORS

Cranes and Derricks Helicopters Material hoists, Personnel hoists, and Elevators Base-mounted Drum Hoists Overhead Hoists Conveyors Aerial Lifts

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.00: continued PART 13: 10.132: 10.133: 10.134: 10.135: 10.136: 10.137: 10.138: MOTOR VEHICLES, MECHANIZED EQUIPMENT, AND MARINE OPERATIONS

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.133 through 10.139 Equipment Motor Vehicles Material Handling Equipment Pile Driving Equipment Site Clearing Marine Operations and Equipment EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING, AND SHORING

PART 14: 10.145: 10.146: 10.147: 10.148:

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.146 and 10.147 General Protection Requirements Specific Excavation Requirements Specific Trenching Requirements CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, AND SHORING

PART 15:

10.155: Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.156 and 10.157 10.156: General Provisions 10.157: Forms and Shoring PART 16: STEEL ERECTION

10.164: Flooring Requirements 10.165: Structural Steel Assembly 10.166: Bolting, Riveting, Fitting-up, and Plumbing-up PART 17: 10.173: 10.174: 10.175: 10.176: 10.177: 10.178: 10.179: TUNNELS AND SHAFTS, CAISSONS, COFFERDAMS, AND COMPRESSED AIR

Definitions Applicable to Free Air Definitions Applicable to Compressed Air Tunnels and Shafts Caissons Cofferdams Compressed Air Decompression Tables DEMOLITION

PART 18: 10.185: 10.186: 10.187: 10.188: 10.189: 10.190: 10.191: 10.192: 10.193: 10.194: 10.195:

Preparatory Operations Stairs, Passageways, and Ladders Chutes Removal of Materials through Floor Openings Removal of Walls, Masonry Sections, and Chimneys Manual Removal of Floors Removal of Walls, Floors, and Material with Equipment Storage Removal of Steel Construction Mechanical Demolition Selective Demolition by Explosives

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.00: continued PART 19: 10.202: 10.203: 10.204: 10.205: 10.206: 10.207: 10.208: 10.209: 10.210: 10.211: 10.212: 10.213: 10.214: 10.215: 10.216: BLASTING AND THE USE OF EXPLOSIVES

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.203 through 10.216 General Provisions Blaster Qualifications Surface Transportation of Explosives Underground Transportation of Explosives Storage of Explosives and Blasting Agents Loading of Explosives or Blasting Agents Initiation of Explosive Charges - Electric Blasting Use of Safety Fuse Use of Detonating Cord Firing the Blast Inspection After Blasting Misfires Underwater Blasting Blasting in Excavation Work under Compressed Air POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

PART 20: 10.225: 10.226: 10.227: 10.228: 10.229: 10.230: 10.231: 10.232: 10.233: 10.234: 10.235:

Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.226 through 10.235 General Requirements Tools and Protective Equipment Mechanical Equipment Material Handling Grounding for Protection of Employees Overhead Lines Underground Lines Construction in Energized Substations External Load Helicopters Lineman's Body Belt, Safety Straps, and Lanyards. INSTALLATION AND ERECTION OF WOOD TRUSSES

PART 21: 10.258: 10.259: 10.260: 10.261:

General Requirements Bracing for First Truss Bracing Subsequent Trusses Erection using Mechanical Equipment WORK IN CONFINED SPACES

PART 22: 10.300: 10.301: 10.302: 10.303:

Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.301 through 10.303 General Requirements Special Requirements Special Precautions

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.00: continued PART 23: 10.400: 10.401: 10.402: 10.403: 10.404: 10.405: 10.406: 10.407: 10.408: 10.409: 10.410: 10.411: 10.999: LIFT-SLAB OPERATIONS

General Requirements Filing of Work Notification Filing of Safety and Lift Plan Emergency Response Plan Work and Design Standards Time Restriction on Lifting/Jacking Operations Engineering Oversight and Site Supervision Worker Training Record Retention Independent Testing Erection of Barricades and Alarm Systems Public Records Appendix

10.01: Definitions Applicable to CMR 10.02 through 10.04 For the purpose 454 CMR 10.02 through 10.04, the following definitions shall apply. Terms not defined hereinshallbe understood as having their usual and ordinary meaning unless a different meaning is plainly required by the context, Approved. Approved by the Commissioner. Adequate. See 454 CMR 10.03(7) Requirement of quality. ANSI. American National Standards Institute. Authorized person. a person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site. Barrier. A secure fence, railing, cover or similar assembly designed and erected to prevent accidental through access. Building. A structure enclosed within exterior walls or fire walls, built, erected and framed of component structural parts designed for the housing, shelter, enclosure and support of individuals, animals or property of any kind. CMR. Code of Massachusetts Regulations. Commissioner. The Commissioner of Labor and Industries of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, or his authorized representative. Competent person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Construction Work. All work necessary to build, form, fabricate or preserve any project embraced in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00. Corrosive Substance. Any acid or caustic material, liquid, vapor or similar matter having the power to destroy by corrosive action the texture or substance of a body or thing. Dangerous Substance. Any substance known to constitute a significant health, poison, fire, or explosion hazard. Demolition Work. All work involved in the total or partial dismantling or razing of any project

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

embraced in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.01: continued Designated Person. A person selected and directed by an employer to perform a specific task or duty, who shall have the degree of competence necessary to accomplish the work in a safe manner. Division. Division of Industrial Safety, Department of Labor and Industries, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Employee. Any person directed or permitted to work by an employer, having specific regard to any of the activities included in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00. Employer. Any corporation, partnership, individual proprietorship, joint venture, firm, company or other similar legal entity engaged in activities included in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00 or any person acting in the direct interest of any of the foregoing in relation to any employee or place of employment having specific regard to any of the activities included in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00. Floor. The surface or the platform of a structure on which to walk, work or travel. General Contractor or Prime Contractor. Any employer having a contract with an owner to perform the general construction or demolition work of the project whether or not any portion of said work is in turn sub-contracted. Harmful Substance. Any material or substance known to contain ingredients the unprotected handling of which would result in injury. Hazard. Any situation inherent in the employment that is conducive to the elements of risk or danger. Job. The site of a project involving construction work or demolition work. Opening. Any opening, hole, or aperture in floors or walls into or through which a person may step or fall or through which tools, materials or equipment may fall. Others. The terms "others" as used in 454 CMR 10.00 shall mean and include Representatives of Labor Organizations, Inspectors, Salesmen and the like whose periodic business presence is required and authorized, when appropriate, during the period of the project. Owner. Any corporation, partnership, individual proprietorship, joint venture, firm, company or other similar legalentity owning, leasing, or otherwise having any property interest in any project embraced in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00, that enters into a contract with one or more parties to execute the construction work or demolition work of the project. Place of Employment. Any place in or about which an employee or other authorized person is directed or permitted to work having specific regard to any of the activities included in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00. Proper. See 454 CMR 10.03(7)(a). Qualified. One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project. SAE. Society of Automotive Engineers. Safe. The state or condition of the equipment, material, machinery, construction site and demolition site that prevents injury to persons.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.01: continued Safety factor. means the ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of a member or piece of material or equipment to the actual working stress or safe load when in use. Secretary. means the Secretary of Labor. Shall. The word shall is always mandatory. Should. The word should means recommended. Structure. An assembly of material forming a construction for occupancy or use including, but not limited to the following: Buildings, bridges, stadia, reviewing stands, platforms, stagings, observation towers, transmission towers, water tanks, trestles, piers, wharves, open sheds, coal bins, shelters, fences and display signs. Sub-Contractor. Any employer having a contract with a general contractor or prime contractor to perform the work of a particular portion of a project. Suitable. means that which fits, and has the qualities or qualifications to meet a given purpose, occasion, condition, function, or circumstance. 10.02: Authority, Purpose and Scope. (1) Authority. 454 CMR 10.00 is promulgated in accordance with the provisions of M.G.L. c. 149, 6 as most recently amended. (2) Purpose. 454 CMR 10.00 shall establish and constitute: (a) Reasonable requirements necessary for the prevention of accidents and the prevention of industrial or occupational diseases in construction and related operations. (b) Minimum standards for the prevention of injuries at the work site, pursuant to which the Department shall, on or after July 8, 1988, affirm, amend or annul 454 CMR 10.00 established by insurers, under the procedure set forth in M.G.L. c. 152, 64. In accordance with the provisions of M.G.L. c. 149, 12, if 454 CMR 10.00 conflicts with or differs from any insurer rule or regulation under the provisions of M.G.L. c. 152, 64, 454 CMR 10.00 shall prevail. (c) A basis for the determination, on or after July 8, 1988, that an employer has complied with or will comply with all laws, orders, rules and regulations relating to the health and safety of his/her employees, in accordance with the provisions of M.G.L. c. 152, 65A. (d) Minimum standards used by insurers, on or after July 8, 1988, in the inspection of risk, measurement of hazards and the determination of the adequate and reasonable rate or rates of insurance as prescribed by the provisions of M.G.L. c. 152, 65J. (3) Scope. 454 CMR 10.00 is applicable to all activities related to the erection, construction, alteration, demolition, repair or maintenance of buildings, structures, bridges, highways, roadways, dams, tunnels, sewers, underground building or structures, underground pipelines or ducts and all other construction projects or facilities. (4) Exceptions. Exceptions may be granted in any particular case where it is clearly evident that it is necessary to prevent undue hardship or where existing conditions prevent compliance; financial hardship alone will not suffice. In no case shall any exception be granted unless in the opinion of the Commissioner reasonable protection of the health and safety of workers will be maintained thereby. Requests for exception shall be submitted in writing to the Commissioner setting forth the specific requirements of 454 CMR 10.00 from which an exception is requested and the reason why the exception is sought. (5) The Commissioner or the Commissioner's authorized representative shall, pursuant to the applicable provisions of M.G.L. c. 149, 16 and 17, have right of entry to any worksite, place of employment or employer location for the purpose of conducting investigations or inspections concerning compliance with 454 CMR 10.00.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.02: continued (6) Whoever violates 454 CMR 10.00, or orders issued by the Department relating thereto, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by M.G.L. c. 149, as amended. 10.03: General Duties and Responsibilities (1) Protection of health and safety of employees and others: (a) All places where employees are directed or permitted to perform work of any kind in construction work or demolition work shall be so constructed, equipped, arranged, operated and conducted as to provide reasonable and adequate protection to the lives, health and safety of employees and others. (b) Employers, owners, contractors, sub-contractors, superintendents or foremen in charge, and other persons obligated by law to adhere to the requirements of 454 CMR 10.00 shallnot direct, or permit an employee to work under conditions which are not in compliance with or which are prohibited by 454 CMR 10.00. (c) Every employer shall inaugurate and maintain an accident prevention program for the duration of the job. Employers shall emphasize the cooperation that is needed, review accident experience, check responsibility for accident control, guide and advise job personnel. (d) On operations where there is a job safety engineer, he/she shall keep accident records, investigate accidents, hold safety meetings and carry on all phases of the safety program, otherwise the superintendent, foreman, or a safety committee shall be responsible for carrying out the above mentioned duties of the safety engineer. (e) The established safety program shall: 1. Require active participation by superintendents and foreman and they shallbe responsible for its application and compliance. The job safety engineer, superintendent, or foreman shall train all persons in job safety methods and investigate causes of accidents. 2. Require continuous education utilizing safe training instructions for all workers using methods such as safety films, accident records, safety motivation contests, safety meetings and job safety publications. 3. Control accident hazards by: a. Evaluating accident exposures which may arise from every portion of the work prior to the start of the operation. b. Establish safety methods and good practices to be carried out by the workers. c. Safeguarding equipment and machines and conducting inspections in order to maintain safe working conditions. d. Providing adequate control of occupational disease, exposures such as gases, fumes, dusts and chemicals which may be injurious to the employees. e. Providing personal protective equipment where needed and required. Persons who have been provided personal protective equipment by the contractor shall utilize all such equipment. 4. Require on the job medical program as required in 454 CMR 10.05. (f) In addition to advance safety planning, daily inspections shall be performed in order to detect and correct unsafe working conditions and practices. Safety suggestions from employees should be encouraged. (2) Unsafe equipment, safeguards, or conditions prohibited: (a) No employer shall direct or permit an employee to use machinery or equipment of which he has knowledge is not in good repair and in safe working condition. (b) All safety devices and safeguards in use shall be sound and operable. (c) Damaged or unsafe equipment shallbe removed from service until it is repaired and restored to a safe operating condition. (d) All persons having knowledge of existence of an unsafe device, safeguard, equipment or condition shall promptly report the same to the superintendent or foreman in charge. (e) A superintendent or foreman to whose attention the existence of any unsafe device, operation, safeguard or equipment is called shall take immediate steps to remedy or remove the unsafe condition.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.03: continued (3) Responsibility of employees and others: Everyemployee and other authorized job frequenter shall observe all provisions of 454 CMR 10.00 which directly concern or affect his conduct. He shall use the safety devices and equipment provided for his personal protection. (4) Required reporting of accidents: (a) Whenever an accident occurs in construction or demolition work resulting in death or hospital confinement, the employer of the injured person shall be responsible to immediately report to the Division of Industrial Safety the following pertinent information: 1. Name and address of the employer. 2. Name and address of the injured employee. 3. Date of accident. 4. Location of accident. 5. Description of accident. (b) Such reports shall also be submitted in writing and shall be mailed to the Division of Industrial Safety as promptly as possible, in any case no later than the start of the second work day after the accident occurred. (5) Permits by governmental agencies: No municipality, other agency of the Commonwealth, or any political sub-division of the Commonwealth shall grant permission to any employer to operate incontravention to the standards of safety set forth in 454 CMR 10.00. (6) Requirements of competence: When work is to be performed by or under the supervision of a designated person, that person shall have the degree of competence necessary to perform the work in a safe manner. (7) Requirements of Quality: Materials, Devices, Structures, and Methods of Procedures of operation which are required by 454 CMR 10.00 and which are described by general descriptive terms such as adequate, proper, sufficient, and the like; shall be of such kind and quality as a reasonable and prudent man experienced in construction work or demolition work, as appropriate, would require in order to effect a safe operation. (8) Safety inspections: The General Contractor and/or Sub-Contractor on any project included in the scope of 454 CMR 10.00 shall arrange to have daily inspections made by designated persons during the period of the project for the purpose of assuring compliance with 454 CMR 10.00. (9) Rules of construction: The prime contractor and any subcontractors may make their own arrangements with respect to obligations which might be more appropriately treated on a jobsite basis rather than individually. For example, the prime contractor and his subcontractors may wish to make an express agreement that the prime contractor or one of the subcontractors will provide all required first-aid or toilet facilities, thus relieving the subcontractors from the actual, but not any legal, responsibility (or, as the case may be, relieving the other subcontractors from this responsibility). In no case shall the prime contractor be relieved of overall responsibility for compliance with the requirements of this part for all work to be performed under the contract. (10) Means of Egress. (a) There shall be at least two exits provided throughout all demolition and construction projects. (b) No storage or accumulation of materials shall be allowed in any exit ways.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.04: General Performance Requirements. (1) Application. The general performance requirements contained in 454 CMR 10.04 shall not be construed or applied in contravention of any specific provisions of other sections of 454 CMR 10.00. (2) Strength of Equipment. All load-carrying equipment shall be designed and constructed throughout to safely support the intended loads. (3) Overhead Hazards. Employees or others required to work in, on, or pass anarea where materials or objects may fall shall be provided with proper overhead protection. (4) Overhead Protection. Overhead protection shallconsist of material of sufficient strength, design and construction to safely repel objects, normally consistent with construction and demolition operations, that may fall thereon. (5) High Voltage Hazards. (a) Equipment Location. No equipment or material shall be located so that by operations or manipulation such equipment or material can come within ten feet of an overhead electric line of 750 volts or more. (b) Safeguarding. When periodic work of a preventative maintenance type, such as painting, is performed on high voltage transmission towers supporting energized lines, by other than trained linemen, such towers shall have all exposure areas safely protected against the hazard of contact with the lines prior to the start of such work. No employer shall require or permit any employee, except as qualified above, to work on such towers until this requirement is met. (6) Protection of Workmen in Elevator Shafts. During the installation or replacement of elevators a tightplatformof two inch planks, inch plywood, or the equivalent, shall be installed two stories above the level at which the car or buffer installation or replacement work is being done so as to provide protection against falling material. Such platform shall cover the entire cross-sectional area of the shaft except that spaces not exceeding 12" may be left for rail clearance between the edge of the platform and the boundary of the shaft. (a) When elevators are being replaced, a solid or wire mesh partition shall be provided where necessary to prevent contact with an adjacent elevator or counterweight. (b) In new construction where men are required to work at intermediate levels, overhead protection not less than 27" wide above the area where a man is working shall be provided. (c) A life net shall be installed not more than two stories below the place of work, or, in lieu of such net, life lines and safety harness shall be provided for and used by the workmen. (d) During repair work in existing elevator shafts, all shaft doors shall be kept closed except that while a door must be kept open to perform the work, a barrier shall be erected or a person shall be stationed at the open door to prevent unauthorized entrance. (7) Air Hose. When air hose three quarters of an inch or more in diameter is used, a device such as chain, rope, etc., shallbe attached to the hose to prevent hose from whipping if coupling breaks or is accidentally disengaged. PART 2: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS 10.05: Medical Services and First Aid. (1) The employer shall insure the availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of occupational health. (2) Provisions shall be made prior to commencement of the project for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.05: continued (3) In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, hospital, or physician, that is reasonably accessible in terms of time and distance to the worksite, which is available for the treatment of injured employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the American Red Cross, or equivalent training that can be verified by documentary evidence, shallbe available at the worksite to render first aid. (4) First-Aid Kits. On all construction and demolition projects in which less than 100 workers are employed (one shift), the following first-aid kits shall be provided: Number of Employees 1 - 25 26 - 50 51 - 75 76 - 100 Number of Kits 1 2 3 4

(a) Contents. The contents of the first-aid kit shall include the following or equivalent items: 1. Adult size oralpharyngeal airway with mouthguard. 2. Thermometer. 3. Ammonia Inhalants 4. Bandages - assorted types and sizes. 5. Gauze Pads - assorted types and sizes. 6. Adhesive Tape - in various sizes. 7. Universal Dressing. 8. Scissors. 9. Tongue Depressors. 10. Elastic Bandage - various sizes. 11. Cervical Collar - various sizes. 12. Tourniquet. 13. Hot/Cold Packs. 14. Ring Cutter. 15. Flashlight. 16. Disposable Gloves. 17. Antiseptic Solution. 18. Forceps. 19. Safety Pins. 20. Triangular Bandage. 21. Eye Dressings. 22. Eye Wash Solution. 23. Eye Cup. 24. Ampoules of Betadine. 25. Eye Dropper. * Any other supplies and equipment which special circumstances may dictate.

(5) Storage. First-aid supplies shall be stored on the job site in a central area easily accessible and adequately identified. Workers shall be advised of the area so selected. (a) Such supplies shall be stored in dustproof containers and shall be protected from excessive heat and moisture. (6) Inspection. Contents of first-aid kits shall be checked at least once each month for depletion and deterioration by a designated person. (a) Used material shall be replaced without undue delay. (b) First-aid kits shall never be locked. (c) Name, address and telephone number of the nearest available physician and ambulance service shall be conspicuously posted on each first-aid kit.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.05: continued (7) First-Aid Station. On every construction operation employing more than 100 persons, at least one first-aid or emergencyroom, suitably located and properly heated, shall be provided in which those injured or taken ill upon the premises may receive first-aid treatment or rest. (a) First-aid stations shall be suitably enclosed and shall provide a minimum of 100 square feet of floor space with provisions for adequate light, heat, water and ventilation. (b) When a first-aid station is established, the entire contents of first-aid kit shall be available in addition to the following supplies which shall be maintained at all times. 1. Bag, Valve, Mask Ventilation Unit. 2. Adult size oral pharyngeal airway with mouthgard. 3. Portable D sized oxygen unit with 2000 liter capacity with a regulator, an adapter, tubing and an adult sized mask. 4. Portable suction machine with pharyngeal tips. 5. Daily Log. 6. Telephone and direct outside dialing. 7. Paper Cups. 8. Stretcher. 9. Pillows with waterproof covers. 10. Sheets. 11. Disposable Gloves. 12. Paper Towels. 13. Soap Dispenser. 14. Absorbent Cotton. 15. Basin. 16. Arm/Leg Air Splints. 17. Antiseptic. 18. Stethoscope. 19. Blood Pressure Apparatus. 20. Isopropyl Alcohol. 21. Cotton Tip Applicators. 22. Petroleum Jelly. 23. Instant hot/cold packs. (c) Where hospital service or first-aid service is available within the project or near the project, first-aid stations may be omitted when approved by the Commissioner. (8) Records. A listing of each injury to worker requiring hospitalization or immediate treatment by a doctor shall be recorded. Such records shall be available at the site for examination by the Commissioner during the period of the project. (9) First-Aid Personnel. The number of workers qualified in first aid required on construction and demolition projects shall be in accordance with the following: Number of Workers 30 to 100 100 to 200 Over 200 Number of First-Aid People One on Project Site Two on Project Site One Available at First-Aid Station

(a) The names and trades of the first-aid personnel shall be posted at the first-aid station. (b) A first-aid person shall be a person with a current certificate in first aid issued by an approved organization. (c) On projects where a doctor or registered nurse is on duty at all hours when work is in progress, first-aid personnel are not required. (10) Proper equipment for prompt transportation of the injured person to a physician or hospital, or a communication system for contacting necessary ambulance service, shall be provided. (11) The telephone numbers of the physicians, hospitals, or ambulances shall be conspicuously posted.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.05: continued (12) SkinIrritants. In areas where workers are exposed to poisonous plants or chemical irritants such as lime, creosote, epoxy resins and other harmful substances, the following protective measures, as pertinent, shall be provided: (a) Where practical, poisonous plants shall be removed or destroyed. (b) All employees shall be instructed in the safe use of harmful substances. (c) At no time shall such plants be burned on a construction or demolition site. (d) Appropriate protective clothing, gloves, etc., shall be provided by the employer. (e) Protective clothing provided shall be worn by the employee. (f) Protective ointment shall be provided. (g) Soap and water shall be available for washing exposed parts. (h) Approved first-aid remedies shall be provided for treatment of affected skin areas and eyes. 10.06: Sanitation (1) Toilet Facilities. From the start of work on all construction or demolition operations there shall be provided on the site water closets or approved chemical toilets to accommodate the workmen to be employed thereon. The use of privies is prohibited unless approved by the Commissioner. (2) Water Closets. Water closets and connections shall conform to all existing local or State Laws pertaining thereto. (a) Installation and connection to the existing disposal system shall be made as soon as water supply and sewage connections are made. (b) Such toilets shall be so covered and protected that the occupants are sheltered from view and protected against falling objects. (c) The employer shall designate one or more employees whose duty it shall be to thoroughly clean the toilet compartments and fixtures at least once each day. 1. The employer shall provide a supply of sanitary toilet paper and paper towels in all toilet installations. 2. The employees shall cooperate in keeping the toilets and compartments clean and orderly. (3) Ventilation. Toilet facilities shall have adequate ventilation and natural or artificial illumination as well as reasonable heat during the winter season. (4) Required Number. Water closets or chemical toilets shall be provided in not less than the following ratio: Number of Workers 25 or less employees 25 to 50 employees 50 to 75 employees 75 to 100 employees Number of Units 1 2 3 4

For each additional 30 employees in excess of 100, one more unit. (5) Accessibility. Toilet facilities shall be readily accessible and in no case, except on road work, shall such facilities be located more than 300' distant from work locations. (a) On projects more than four stories in height, toilet facilities shall be provided on the third floor and each succeeding fourth floor. (b) On all projects where females are employed, separate toilet facilities shall be provided and properly designated, unless a lock is provided on the inside of the door. (6) Washing Facilities. (a) Required Accommodations. Washing accommodations shall be made available for all employees. (b) On projects employing less than 100 employees, one of the following shall be provided: 1. A supply of fresh, clean water and a container for each five persons.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.06: continued 2. A fresh, clean running water outlet shall be provided for each 30 persons. 3. On projects employing 100 or more employees on one shift a washroom shall be provided with a supply of running fresh, clean water with a fixed wash basin for each 20 persons. (7) Special Washing Facilities. A supply of clean, warm and cold water, soap and paper towels shall be provided for all employees required to use or handle corrosive or harmful substances. (8) Change Houses. Where employees change their clothes on the job, change houses or other enclosed and sheltered locations of sufficient size to accommodate the employees shall be provided. Such change houses or locations shallhave proper lighting and ventilation and shall be adequately heated. (9) Drinking Water. Adequate Supply. There shall be provided in readily accessible locations on every construction site, a sufficient supply of clean, pure and cool drinking water, secured from the city or town water system. (a) In such districts where no local water system is available, the drinking water shall be obtained from a reputable source that will assure the purity of the water supplied. (b) The drinking water if made available to employees from the usual piping systems shall be equipped at the outlet with a bubbler-type drinking attachment. (c) All other drinking water supplied shall be provided from a tightly covered container, with a filler opening sufficient in size to permit proper cleansing. 1. The container shall be equipped with either the bubbler-type, or faucet, for use in controlling the discharge of the water. 2. Individual drinking cups shall be provided at each drinking station. 3. The use of the common drinking cup is prohibited. (10) Vermin Control. Every enclosed workplace shall be so constructed, equipped, and maintained, so far as reasonably practicable, as to prevent the entrance or harborage of rodents, insects, and other vermin. A continuing and effective extermination program shall be instituted where their presence is detected. (11) Food Handling. All employees' food service facilities and operations shall meet the applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations of the jurisdictions in which they are located. (12) Temporary Sleeping Quarters. When temporary sleeping quarters are provided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted. 10.07: Occupational Noise Exposure (1) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table 10.07-1 of 454 CMR 10.07 when measured on the A-scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response. (2) When employees are subjected to sound levels exceeding those listed in Table 10.07-1, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. Ifsuchcontrols fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table, personal protective equipment as required in 454 CMR 10.00, Part 3, shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table. (3) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of one second or less, it is to be considered continuous. (4) In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values shown herein, a continuing, effective hearing conservation program shall be administered.

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10.07: continued TABLE 10-07-1 PERMISSIBLE NOISE EXPOSURES S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Sound level Duration per day, hours dBA slow response S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

(5) When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined effect should be considered, rather than the individualeffect of each. Exposure to different levels for various periods of time shall be computed according to the formula set forth in 454 CMR 10.07(5)(a). (a) Fe=(T1/L1)+(T2/L2)+ ... + (Tn/Lm ) where: Fe=The equivalent noise exposure factor. T= The period of noise exposure at any essentially constant level. L= The duration of the permissible noise exposure at the constant level (from Table 10-07-1). If the value of Fe exceeds unity (1) the exposure exceeds permissible levels. (b) A sample computation showing an application of the formula in 454 CMR 10.07(5)(a) is as follows. An employee is exposed at these levels for these periods: 110 db A hour. 100 db A hour. 90 db A 1 hours. Fe=(1/4/1/2) + (1/2/2) + (1 1/2/8) Fe=0.500 + 0.25 + 0.188 Fe=0.938 Since the value of Fe does not exceed unity, the exposure is within permissible limits. (6) Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level. 10.08: Ionizing Radiation (1) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation (10 CFR Part 20), relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.

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10.08: continued (2) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or X-rays, whether or not under license fromthe Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under Commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work. (3) Sources of ionizing radiation including radioactive material and ionizing radiation producing equipment shall be registered with the Commissioner of Labor and Industries in accordance with the provisions of 453 CMR 4.00. The medical requirements of 453 CMR 4.00 shall also be observed where applicable. 10.09: Nonionizing Radiation (1) Ultraviolet Radiation (200 - 400 nanometers) The Threshold Limit Values (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists shall apply in the absence of Commonwealth or Federal regulatory criteria or standards. See Physical Data Sheet No. 3 onUltravioletRadiationissued by Massachusetts Division of Occupational Hygiene, for additionalinformationand recommended safe practices. (2) Infrared Radiation (700 - 1,000,000 nonometers) The Threshold Limit Values (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists shall apply in the absence of Commonwealth or Federal regulatory criteria or standards. See Physical Data Sheet No. 4 for Infrared Radiation issued by Massachusetts Division of Occupational Hygiene, for information and recommended safe practices. (3) Laser Radiation (a) The energy (radiation) transmitted by lasers ranges from ultraviolet to infrared, depending on the source of emissionor lasingmedium. Safety procedures necessary for laser operation vary with the laser hazard classification. Laser classification is given in the manufacturer's label for lasers made for sale in the U.S.A. since August 2, 1976. A laser without a classification shall have its applicable class established after determining the required radiometric parameters using the guidance provided in Section 3.2 and the Appendix A tables contained in ANSI Z136.1-1986. (b) Laser Classification: 1. Class I. This class includes the lowest powered lasers and is normally limited to gallium-arsenide lasers or certain enclosed lasers. A Class I laser is one that is considered to be incapable of producing damaging radiation levels and is, therefore exempt from any control measures or other forms of surveillance. 2. Class II. This class laser emits in the visible portion of the spectrum (0.4 to 0.7 pm) and eye protection is normally afforded by the aversion response including the blink reflex. Class II lasers are frequently termed low-power, but should have a caution label affixed to indicate that an individual should not purposefully stare into the laser. 3. Class III. Class III lasers (medium-power) are divided into two subclasses, 3a and 3b. Class III lasers are those which can cause injury within the natural aversion response time, i.e., faster than the blink reflex (0.25 second). These lasers are not capable of causing serious skin injury or hazardous diffuse reflections under normal use. Class III lasers must have danger labels. A Class III laser is normally not a fire hazard. 4. Class IV. A Class IV laser (high power) is a hazard to the eye and skin from the direct beam and sometimes from a diffuse reflection. A Class IV laser can be a fire hazard. (c) Laser Safety Precautions and Controls: 1. Class I Controls: No user safety rules are necessary.

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10.09: continued 2. Class II Controls: a. No person shall be permitted to continuously stare into the laser source if exposure levels exceed the applicable permissible exposure level for the duration of the intended stare. b. The laser beam shall not be directed at employees or members of the public. 3. Class III Controls: a. The laser shall not be aimed at an individual's eye. b. Only qualified and trained personnel shall be assigned to install, adjust and operate Class III lasers. c. Beam path shall be enclosed to maximum practical extent. Use of transparent enclosure shall be used if necessary to prevent individuals from placing their head or reflecting objects within the beampath. Terminations shall be used at the end of the useful paths of the direct and any secondary beams. d. Shutters, polarizers and optical filters shall be placed at the laser exit port to reduce the beam power to the minimalusefullevel. Laser shall be turned off when laser transmission is not actually required, or when laser is left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as during lunch hour, overnight, or at change of shifts. e. Spectators shall be controlled and kept away from beam path. f. A warning light or audible alarm such as buzzer shall be used to indicate laser operation. (This is especially needed if the beam is not visible, i.e., for infrared lasers.) g. Laser tracking of nontarget vehicles or aircraft shall not be permitted. h. Laser shall only be operated in a restricted area and standard laser warning signs shall be conspicuously posted. i. Laser beam path shall be placed well above or well below the eye level of any sitting or standard employee or observer whenever possible. The laser shall be mounted firmly to assure that the beams travels only along its intended path. j. Proper laser eye protection as specified in Part 3 shall be used if a potential eye hazard exists for the direct beam or a specular reflection. k. A key switch shall be installed to minimize tampering by unauthorized individuals. l. The beam or its specular reflection shall never be directly viewed with optical instruments such as binoculars or telescopes. m. All unnecessary mirror-like surfaces shall be removed from within the vicinity of the laser beam path. n. When it is raining or snowing, or where there is dust or fog in the air, laser operation shall be prohibited where practicable; in any event, all personnel shall be kept out of range of the area of source and target during such weather conditions. 4. Class IV Controls: a. Class IV lasers shall be operated within a localized enclosure, or in a controlled workplace, or where the beamis directed into outer space. If a complete local enclosure is not possible, laser operation indoors shall be in a light-tight room with interlocked entrances to assure that the laser cannot emit while a door is open. b. Eye protection as specified in Part 3 shall be used by allindividuals working within the controlled area. If the laser beam irradiance is sufficient to be a serious skin or fire hazard, a suitable shield shall be used between the laser beam and any personnel. c. Remote firing with video monitoring or other safe remote viewing techniques shall be chosen when feasible. d. Outdoor Class IV laser devices such as a satellite laser transmission system and laser radar (LIDAR) shall have positive stops on the azimuth and elevation traverse to assure that the beam cannot intercept occupied areas or non-target aircraft. e. Beam shutters, beam polarizers, and beam filters shall always be used to limit use to authorized personnel only. The flashlamps in optical pump systems shall be shielded to eliminate any direct viewing.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.09: continued f. Backstops shall be diffusely reflecting-fire resistant target such as fire brick, asbestos or earthen, where feasible. Safety enclosures shall be used around microwelding and microdrilling work pieces to contain hazardous reflections from the work area. 10.10: Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists (1) Exposure of employees to inhalation, ingestion, skin absorption, or contact with any material or substance at a concentration above those specified in the "Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants"for 1988-89 of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, shall be avoided. (2) To achieve compliance with 454 CMR 10.10(1) administrative or engineering controls must first be implemented whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, protective equipment or other protective measures shall be used to keep the exposures of employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in 454 CMR 10.10. Any equipment and technical measures used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, their use shall comply with 454 CMR 10.24-1. 10.11: Illumination (1) General. Construction areas, ramps, runways, corridors, offices, shops, and storage areas shall be lighted to not less than the minimum illumination intensities listed in Table 10.11-1 while any work is in progress: TABLE 10.11-1 - MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES IN FOOT-CANDLES S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Foot-candles Area of operation

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General construction area lighting. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General construction areas, concrete placement, excavation and waste areas, accessways, active storage areas, loading platforms, refueling, and field maintenance areas. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indoors: warehouses, corridors, hallways, and exitways. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tunnels, shafts, and general underground work areas: (Exception: minimum of ten foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading during drilling, mucking, and scaling. Bureau of Mines approved cap lights shall be acceptable for use in the tunnel heading.) 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General construction plant and shops (e.g., batch plants, screening plants, mechanical and electrical equipment rooms, carpenter shops, rigging lofts and active storerooms, barracks or living quarters, locker or dressing rooms, mess halls, and indoor toilets and workrooms). 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices. (2) Other areas. For areas or operations not covered above, refer to the American National Standard A11.1-1979, RP-7 1983, Practice for Industrial Lighting, for recommended values of

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

illumination.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.12: Ventilation (1) General. Whenever hazardous substances such as dust, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases exist or are produced in the course of construction work, their concentrations shall not exceed the limits specified in454 CMR10.10(1). When ventilation is used as an engineering control method, the system shall be installed and operated according to the requirements of 454 CMR 10.12. (2) Local Exhaust Ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation when used as described in 454 CMR 10.10(2) shallbe designed to prevent dispersion into the air of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases in concentrations causing harmful exposure. Such exhaust systems shall be so designed that dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases are not drawn through the work area of employees. (3) Design and Operation. Exhaust fans, jets, ducts, hoods, separators, and all necessary appurtenances, including refuse receptacles, shallbe so designed, constructed, maintained and operated as to ensure the required protection by maintaining a volume and velocity of exhaust air sufficient to gather dusts, fumes, vapors, or gases from said equipment or process, and to convey themto suitable points of safe disposal, thereby preventing their dispersion in harmful quantities into the atmosphere where employees work. (4) Duration of Operations. The exhaust system shall be in operation continually during all operations which it is designed to serve. If the employee remains in the contaminated zone, the system shall continue to operate after the cessation of said operations, the length of time to depend upon the individual circumstances and effectiveness of the general ventilation system. Since dust capable of causing disability is, according to the best medical opinion, of microscopic size, tending to remain for hours in suspension in still air, it is essential that the exhaust system be continued in operation for a time after the work process or equipment served by the same shall have ceased, in order to ensure the removal of the harmful elements to the required extent. For the same reason, employees wearing respiratory equipment should not remove same immediately until the atmosphere seems clear. (5) Disposal of Exhaust Materials. The air outlet from every dust separator, and the dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases collected by an exhaust or ventilating system shall discharge to the outside atmosphere. Collecting systems which return air to work area may be used if concentrations which accumulate in the work area air do not result in harmful exposure to employees. Dust and refuse discharge from an exhaust system shall be disposed of in such a manner that it will not result in harmful exposure to employees. PART 3: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND LIFE SAVING EQUIPMENT 10.19: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.20 through 10.27 Contaminant. Any material which by reason of its action upon, within, or to a person is likely to cause physical harm. Lanyard. A rope, suitable for supporting one person. One end is fastened to a safety harness and the other end is secured to a substantial object or a safety line. Lifeline. A rope, suitable for supporting one person, to which a lanyard or safety harness is attached. O.D. Optical density and refers to the light refractive characteristics of a lens. Radiant Energy. Energy that travels outward in all directions from its sources.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.19: continued Safety Harness. A design of simple or compound straps that may be secured about the wearer in such a manner as to distribute the stopping forces over the thighs, buttock, chest, and shoulders, or any combination thereof, and with provision for attaching a lanyard in the back between chest and shoulder level. Life Net. A type of protective equipment for use when unusual work conditions prevail. 10.20: Personal Protective Apparel (1) Boots. The direct employer shall provide to every employee required to work in water, wet concrete or other wet footing, waterproof boots with safety insoles. (2) Waterproof Clothing. The direct employer shall provide to every employee required to work in rain or other wetting conditions a waterproof coat and hat. (3) Corrosive and Dangerous Substances. The direct employer shall provide to every employee required to use or handle any dangerous or corrosive substances appropriate protective apparel. (4) Maintenance. All personal equipment shall be kept clean and in good repair. Before being transferred from one employee to another, hats, boot liners, goggles, glasses and welders shields shall be made clean and sanitary. 10.21: Head Protection (1) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head injury from impact, or from falling or flying objects, or from electrical shock and burns, shall be protected by protective helmets. (2) Helmets for the protection of employees against impact and penetration of falling and flying objects shall meet the specifications contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.1-1981, Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection. (3) Helmets for the head protection of employees exposed to high voltage electrical shock and burns shall meet the specifications contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.2-1971. (4) Such hats shall be provided by the direct employers for the employees and by the general contractor for other persons. 10.22: Hearing Protection (1) Wherever it is not feasible to reduce the noise levels or duration of exposures to those specified in Table 10.7-1, Permissible Noise Exposures, in hearing protective devices shall be provided and used. (2) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or determined individually by competent persons. (3) Plain cotton is not an acceptable protective device. 10.23: Eye and Face Protection (1) General. Employees shall be provided with eye and face protection equipment when machines or operations present potential eye or face injury from physical, chemical, or radiation agents. (a) Eye and face protection equipment required by this Part shall meet the requirements specified in American National Standards Institute, Z87.1-1979, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.23: continued (b) Employees whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses in spectacles, when required by 454 CMR 10.23 to wear eye protection, shall be protected by goggles or spectacles of one of the following types: 1. Spectacles whose protective lenses provide optical correction; 2. Goggles than can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of the spectacles; 3. Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective lenses. (c) Face and eye protection equipment shall be kept clean and in good repair. The use of this type equipment with structural or optical defects shall be prohibited. (d) Table 10.23-1 shall be used as a guide in the selection of face and eye protection for the hazards and operations noted. TABLE 10.23-1 EYE AND FACE PROTECTORS SELECTION GUIDE

1. GOGGLES, Flexible Fitting Regular Ventilation 2. GOGGLES, Flexible Fitting, Hooded Ventilation 3. GOGGLES, Cushioned Fitting, Rigid Body *4. SPECTACLES, Metal Frame, with Sideshields *5. SPECTACLES, Plastic Frame, with Sideshields *6. SPECTACLES, Metal-Plastic Frame, with Sideshields **7. WELDING GOGGLES, Eyecup Type, Tinted Lenses (illustrated) 7A. CHIPPING GOGGLES, Eyecup Type, Clear Safety Lenses (Not Illustrated) **8. WELDING GOGGLES, Coverspec Type Tinted Lenses (Illustrated) 8A. CHIPPING GOGGLES, Coverspec Type, Clear Safety Lenses (Not Illustrated) **9. WELDING GOGGLES, Coverspec Type, Tinted Plate Lens 10. FACE SHIELD (Available with Plastic or Mesh Window) **11. WELDING HELMETS *Non-side shield spectacles are available for limited hazard use requiring only frontal protection. **See Table 10-23-2, of 454 CMR 10.23, Filter Lens Shade Numbers for ProtectionAgainstRadiant Energy.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.23: continued TABLE 10-23-2 APPLICATIONS Recommended protectors: Bold type numbers signify signify preferred protection 7, 8, 9.

Operation Acetylene-Burning, Acetylene-Cutting, Acetylene-

Hazards Sparks, harmful rays, molten metal, flying particles. Splash, acid burns, fumes. Flying particles Sparks, intense rays, molten metal. Glare, heat, molten

Chemical Handling

2, 10 (For severe exposure add 10 over 2). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7A, 8A. 9, 11, (11 in combination with 4, 5, 6, in tinted lenses, advisable). 7, 8, 9 (For severe exexposure add 10). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10. 1, 3, 7A, 8A (For severe exposure add 10). 1, 3, 7A, 8A (For severe exposure add 10). 2 (10 when in combination with 4, 5, 6). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10. 7, 8, (10 in combination with 4, 5, 6, in tinted lenses). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10.

Chipping Electric (arc) welding

Furnace operations

Grinding-Light Grinding-Heavy Grinding-Heavy

Flying particles Flying particles Flying particles

Laboratory

Chemical splash, glass breakage Flying particles Heat, glare, sparks, splash

Machining Molten metals

Spot welding

Flying particles,

(2) Protection Against Radiant Energy. Selection of Shade Numbers for Welding Filter. Table 10-23-3 shall be used as a guide for the selection of the proper shade numbers of filter lenses or plates used in welding. Shades more dense than those listed may be used to suite the individual's needs. TABLE 10-23-3 FILTER LENS SHADE NUMBERS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY

Welding Operation

Shade Number

Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-,

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5/32-inch diameter electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.23: continued TABLE 10-23-3 (continued) FILTER LENS SHADE NUMBERS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIANT ENERGY Welding Operation Shade Number 12 14 10-14 14 2 3 or 4 3 or 4 4 or 5 5 or 6 4 or 5 5 or 6 6 or 8

Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16-, 7/32-, -inch diameter electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5/16-, d-inch diameter electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atomic hydrogen welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon-arc welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soldering ........................................................ Torch brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light cutting, up to 1 inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heavy cutting, over 6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas welding (light), up to c-inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas welding (medium), c-inch to -inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas welding (heavy), over -inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(a) Laser Protection. Employees whose occupation or assignment requires exposure to laser beams shall be furnished suitable laser safety goggles which will protect for the specific wavelength of the laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy involved. Table 10-23-4 lists the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by glasses of optical densities from five through eight. TABLE 10-23-4 SELECTING LASER SAFETY GLASS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Intensity, CW maximum power density (watts/ cm2) 10 2 10 1 1.0 10.0 Attenuation Optical density (O.D.) 5 6 7 8

Attenuation factor 105 106 107 108

Output levels falling between lines in this table shall require the higher optical density. All protective goggles shall bear a label identifying the following data: 1. The laser wavelengths for which use is intended; 2. The optical density of those wavelengths; 3. The visible light transmission. 10.24: Respiratory Protection (1) General. In emergencies, or when controls required by Part 2 either fail or are inadequate to prevent harmfulexposure to employees, appropriate respiratory protective devices shall be provided by the employer and shall be used. Respiratory protective devices shall be approved by the U.S. Bureau of Mines or acceptable to the Department of Labor for the specific contaminant to which the employee is exposed.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.24: continued (2) Respirator Selection. The chemical and physical properties of the contaminant, as well as the toxicity and concentration of the hazardous material, shall be considered in selecting the proper respirators. (a) The nature and extent of the hazard, work requirements, and conditions, as well as the limitations and characteristics ofthe available respirators, shall also be factors considered in making the proper selection. (b) The following table lists the types of respirators required for protection in dangerous atmospheres: TABLE 10.24-1 SELECTION OF RESPIRATORS Hazard Oxygen deficiency Respirator (See Note) Self- contained breathing apparatus. Hose mask with blower. Combination air-line respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply or an air-storage receiver with alarm.

Gas and vapor contaminants Self-contained breathing apparatus. Hose mask with blower. Airimmediately dangerous to life and purifying, full facepiece respirator with canister (gas mask). Self-rescue health mouthpiece respirator (for escape only). Combination air-line respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply or an air-storage receiver with alarm. Not immediately dangerous to life Air-line respirator. Hose mask withoutblower. Air-purifying, half-mask and health. or mouth-piece respirator with chemical cartridge P a rtic ula t e c o n t a mina nts Self-contained breathing apparatus. Hose mask with blower. immediately dangerous to life and Air-purifying, full facepiece respirator with appropriate filter. Self-rescue health. mouthpiece respirator (for escape only). Combination air-line respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply or an air-storage receiver with alarm. Not immediately dangerous to life Air-purifying, half-mask or mouthpiece respirator with filter pad or and health cartridge. Air-line respirator. Air-line abrasive blasting as hosemask without blower. Combination gas, vapor, and p a r t i c u la te c o nta mina n t s immediately dangerous to life and health. Not immediately dangerous to life and health. Self-contained breathing apparatus. Hose mask with blower. Airpurifying, full facepiece respirator with chemical canister and appropriate filter (gas mask with filter). Self-rescue mouthpiece respirator (for escape only). Combination air-line respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply or an air-storage receiver with alarm. Air-line respirator. Hose mask without blower. Air-purifying, half-mask or mouth-piece respirator with chemical cartridge and appropriate filter

NOTE: For the purpose of this part, "immediately dangerous to life and health"is defined as a condition that either poses an immediate threat to life and health or an immediate threat of severe exposure to contaminants, such as radioactive materials, which are likely to have adverse delayed effects on health. (3) Selection, Issuance, Use and Care of Respirators. Employees required to use respiratory protective equipment approved for use in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life shall be thoroughly trained in its use. Employees required to use other types of respiratory protective equipment shall be instructed in the use and limitations of such equipment.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.24: continued (a) Respiratory protective equipment shall be inspected regularly and maintained in good condition. Gas mask canisters and chemical cartridges shall be replaced as necessary so as to provide complete protection. Mechanical filters shall be cleaned or replaced as necessary so as to avoid undue resistance to breathing. (b) Respiratory protective equipment which has been previously used shall be cleaned and disinfected before it is issued by the employer to another employee. Emergency rescue equipment shall be cleaned and disinfected immediately after each use. (c) Written standard operating procedures governing the selection and use of respirators shall be established. (d) Where practicable, the respirators should be assigned to individual workers for their exclusive use. (e) Respirators shall be stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary location. (f) Respirators used routinely shall be inspected during cleaning. Worn or deteriorated parts shall be replaced. Respirators for emergency use such as self-contained devices shall be thoroughly inspected at least once a month and after each use. (g) Persons should not be assigned to tasks requiring use of respirators unless it has been determined that they are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment. The local physician shall determine what health and physical conditions are pertinent. The respirator user's medical status should be reviewed periodically (for instance, annually). (h) For safe use of any respirator, it is essential that the user be properly instructed in its selection, use, and maintenance. Both supervisors and workers shall be so instructed by competent persons. Training shall provide the men an opportunity to handle the respirator, have it fitted properly, test its face piece-to-face seal, wear it in normalair for a long familiarity period, and finally, to wear it in a test atmosphere. (i) Every respirator wearer shallreceive fitting instructions including demonstrations and practice in how the respirator should be worn, how to adjust it, and how to determine if it fits properly. Respirators shall not be worn when conditions prevent a good face seal. Such conditions may be a growth of beard, sideburns, a skull cap that projects under the facepiece, or temple pieces on glasses. Also, the absence of one or both dentures can seriously affect the fit of a facepiece. The worker's diligence in observing these factors shall be evaluated by periodic check. To assure proper protection, the facepiece fit shall be checked by the wearer each time he puts on the respirator. This may be done by following the manufacturer's facepiece fitting instructions. (4) Air Quality. Compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, and liquid oxygen used for respiration shall be of high purity. Oxygen shall meet the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia for medical or breathing oxygen. Breathing air shall meet at least the requirements of the specification for Grade D breathing air as described in Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification G- 7.1-1966. Compressed oxygen shall not be used in supplied-air respirators or in open circuit self-contained breathing apparatus that have previously used compressed air. Oxygen must never be used with air line respirators. (a) Breathing air may be supplied to respirators from cylinders or air compressors. 1. Cylinders shall be tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping Container Specification Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR Part 178). 2. The compressor for supplying air shall be equipped with necessary safety and standby devices. A breathing air-type compressor shall be used. Compressors shall be constructed and situated so as to avoid entry of contaminated air into the system and suitable in-line air purifying sorbent beds and filters installed to further assure breathing air quality. A receiver of sufficient capacity to enable the respirator wearer to escape froma contaminated atmosphere in event of compressor failure, and alarms to indicate compressor failure and overheating shall be installed in the system. If an oil- lubricated compressor is used, it shall have a high-temperature or carbon monoxide alarm, or both. If only a high-temperature alarmis used, the air from the compressor shall be frequently tested for carbon monoxide to insure that it meets the specifications in 454 CMR 10.24(4).

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.24: continued (b) Air line couplings shall be incompatible with outlets for other gas systems to prevent inadvertent servicing of air line respirators with nonrespirable gases or oxygen. (c) Breathing gas containers shall be marked in accordance with American National Standard Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers to Identify the Material Contained, Z48.1-1954; Federal Specification BB-A-1034a, June 21, 1968, Air, Compressed for Breathing Purposes; or Interim Federal Specification GG-B- 00675b, April 27, 1965, Breathing Apparatus, Self-Contained. 10.25: Safety Harness Lifelines, and Lanyards (1) Lifelines, safety harness and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety harness or lanyard actually subjected to inservice loading, as distinguished from static load testing, shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee safeguarding. (2) Lifelines shall be secured above the point of operation to an anchorage or structural member capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 5,400 pounds. Padding, wrapping or similar means shall be provided to protect every lifeline from contact with edges or objects which may cut or severely abrade it. (3) Lifelines used on rock-scalingoperations, or in areas where the lifeline may be subjected to cutting or abrasion, shall be a minimum of f-inch wire core manila rope. For all other lifeline applications, a minimum of -inch manila or equivalent, with a minimum breaking strength of 5,400 pounds, shall be used. (4) Safety harness lanyard shallbe a minimum of -inch nylon, or equivalent, with a maximumlength to provide for a fall of no greater than six feet. The rope shall have a nominal breaking strength of 5,400 pounds. (5) All safety harness and lanyard hardware shall be drop forged or pressed steel, cadmium plated in accordance with type, 1, Class B plating specified in FederalSpecificationQQ-P-416. Surface shall be smooth and free of sharp edges. (6) All safety harness and lanyard hardware, except rivets, shallbe capable of withstanding a tensile loading of 4,000 pounds without cracking, breaking, or taking a permanent deformation. (7) Required Use. A life line and safety harness or life net, as appropriate, shallbe provided for and used by workmen engaged in the following operations: (a) Securing or shifting thrustouts. (b) Inspection or working on overhead machines, supporting scaffolds or other high riggings. (c) Steeply pitched roofs. (d) Employees exposed to the hazard of falling more than 25' above land, or temporary or permanent floor. (e) Employees exposed to the hazard of falling more than 50' above water. (f) Working in confined space. (g) As directed by his employer or his employer's authorized agent. 10.26: Safety Nets (1) Safety nets shall be provided when workplaces are more than 25' above the ground or water surface, or other surfaces where the use of ladders, scaffolds, catch platforms, temporary floors, safety lines, or safety harness is impractical. (2) Where safety net protection is required by this part, operations shall not be undertaken until the net is in place and has been tested.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.26: continued (3) Nets shallextend eight feet beyond the edge of the work surface where employees are exposed and shall be installed as close under the work surface as practical but in no case more than 25' below such work surface. Nets shall be hung with sufficient clearance to prevent user's contact with the surfaces or structures below. Such clearances shall be determined by impact load testing. It is intended that only one level of nets be required for bridge construction. (4) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6" x 6". All new nets shall meet accepted performance standards of 17,500 foot-pounds minimum impact resistance as determined and certified by the manufacturers, and shall bear a label of proof tests. Edge ropes shall provide a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds. (5) Forged steel safety hooks or shackles shall be used to fasten the net to its supports. (6) Connections between net panels shall develop the full strength of the net. (7) Each life net shall be inspected by a designated person before each installation and periodically thereafter while in use. No life net which shows mildew, wear, damage or deterioration materially affecting the strength of any portion shall be installed. Defective nets shall be removed from the job site. 10.27: Working Over or Near Water (1) Employees working over or near water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jacket or buoyant work vests. (2) Prior to and after each use, the buoyant work vests or life preservers shall be inspected for defects which would alter their strength or buoyancy. Defective units shall not be used. (3) Ring buoys with at least 90' of line shall be provided and readily available for emergency rescue operations. Distance between ring buoys shall not exceed 200'. (4) Life Preservers. Life preservers or buoyant work vests of an approved type shall be provided and used by all workmen when the following conditions exist: (a) When on structures or buildings extending over the adjoining water of sufficient depth to be a drowning hazard; except where proper barriers, safety harness, life lines or life nets are provided and used. (b) When working alone at night where there are potential drowning hazards regardless of other safeguards provided. (5) Required Buoyancy. Life preservers and buoyantwork vests shall be removed from service when the buoyancy rating drops below the approved level. (6) Life Saving Boats. One or more life saving boats shall be provided during working hours at locations where men will work over or adjacent to waters that expose them to drowning hazards. (a) Life saving boats shall be kept afloat or ready for instant launching. (b) Life saving boats shall be used only for emergencies and life saving drills. (c) Life saving boats shall be equipped as follows: 1. Four Oars. 2. Oarlocks securely attached to gunwales or the oars. 3. One ball-pointed boat hook. 4. One 30" approved ring buoy with 50' of d" rope attached. 5. One life preserver per person. (d) In locations where the waters are extremely rough or swift or where manually operated boats are not practical a power boat suitable for the waters involved shall be provided and equipped with equipment noted in 454 CMR 10.27(6)(c)3. through 5..

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.27: continued PART 4: FIRE PROTECTION AND PREVENTION 10.34: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.35 Through 10.39 Approved. For the purpose of 454 CMR 10.34 through 10.39, equipment that has been listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory such as Factory Mutual Engineering Corp., or Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., or Federal agencies such as Bureau of Mines, or U.S. Coast Guard, which issue approvals for such equipment. Closed container. A container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures. Combustible liquids. Any liquid having a flash point at or above 140F (60C), and below 200F (93.4C). Combustion. Any chemical process that involves oxidation sufficient to produce light or heat. Fire brigade. An organized group of employees that are knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in the safe evacuation of employees during emergency situations and in assisting in fire fighting operations. Fire resistance. So resistant to fire that, for specified time and under conditions of a standard heat intensity, it will not fail structurally and will not permit the side away from the fire to become hotter than a specified temperature. For purposes of 454 CMR 10.34 through 10.39, fire resistance shall be determined by the Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969. Flammable. Capable of being easily ignited, burning intensely, or having a rapid rate of flame spread. Flammable liquids. Any liquid having a flash point below 140F. and having a vapor pressure not exceed 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100F. Flash point of the liquid. The temperature at which it gives off vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with the air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used as determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified below. (a) The flash point of liquids having a viscosity less than 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) at100F. (37.8C.) and a flash point below 175F. (79.4C.) shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by the Tag Closed Tester, ASTM D-56-69. (b) The flash point of liquids having a viscosity of 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) or more at 175F. (79.4C.) or higher shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by the Pensky Martens Closed Tester, ASTM D-93-69. Liquefied petroleum gases, LPG and LP Gas. Include any material which is composed predominantly ofanyofthe following hydrocarbons, or mixtures of them, such as propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or iso-butane), and butylenes. Portable tank. A closed container having a liquid capacity more than 60 U.S. gallons, and not intended for fixed installation. Safety can. An approved closed container, of not more than five gallons capacity, having a flash-arresting screen, spring-closed lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.34: continued Vapor pressure. The pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute), exerted by a volatile liquid as determined bythe "Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)." (ASTM D-323-58). 10.35: Fire Protection (1) General Requirements. The employer shall be responsible for the development ofa fire protection program to be followed throughout all phases of the construction and demolition work, and he shall provide for the firefighting equipment as specified in 454 CMR 10.34 through 10.39. As fire hazards occur, there shall be no delay in providing the necessary equipment. (a) Access to all available firefighting equipment shall be maintained at all times. (b) All firefighting equipment, provided by the employer, shall be conspicuously located. (c) All firefighting equipment shallbe periodically inspected and maintained in operating condition. Defective equipment shall be immediately replaced. (d) As warranted by the project, the employer shall provide a trained and equipped firefighting organization (Fire Brigade) to assure adequate protection to life. (2) Water Supply. A temporary or permanent water supply, of sufficient volume, duration, and pressure, required to properly operate the fire-fighting equipment shall be made available as soon as combustible materials accumulate. Where underground water mains are to be provided, they shall be installed, completed, and made available for use as soon as practicable. (3) Portable Firefighting Equipment. (a) Fire Extinguishers and Small Hose Lines. A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A, shallbe provided for each 3,000 square feet of the protected building area, or major fraction thereof. Travel distance from any point of the protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher shall not exceed 100'. 1. One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire extinguisher having a 2A rating. 2. A -inch diameter garden-type hose line, not to exceed 100' in length and equipped with a nozzle, may be substituted for a 2A-rated fire extinguisher, providing it is capable of discharging a minimum of five gallons per minute with a minimum hose stream range of 30' horizontally. The garden-type hose lines shall be mounted on conventional racks or reels. The number and location of hose racks or reels shall be such that at least one hose stream can be applied to all points in the area. 3. One or more fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, shall be provided on each floor. In multistory buildings, at least one fire extinguisher shall be located adjacent to stairway. 4. Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be protected from freezing. 5. A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 10B, shall be provided within 50' of wherever more than five gallons of flammable or combustible liquids or five pounds of flammable gas are being used on the jobsite. 454 CMR 10.35 does not apply to the integral fuel tanks of motor vehicles. 6. Carbon tetrachloride and other toxic vaporizing liquid fire extinguishers are prohibited. 7. Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected periodically and maintained in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA No. 10-1984. 8. Fire extinguishers which have been listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, shall be used to meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.34 through 10.39. 9. Table Table 10.35-1 may be used as a guide for selecting the appropriate portable fire extinguishers.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.35: continued TABLE 10.35-1 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS DATA

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.35: continued (b) Fire Hose and Connections. 100 feet, or less, of 1 inch hose, with a nozzle capable of discharging water at 25 gallons or more per minute, may be substituted for a fire extinguisher rated not more than 2A in the designated area provided that the hose line can reach all points in the area. 1. If fire hose connections are not compatible with local firefighting equipment, the contractor shall provide adapters, or equivalent, to permit connections. 2. During demolition involving combustible materials, charged hose lines, supplied by hydrants, water tank trucks with pumps, or equivalent, shall be made available. (4) Fixed Firefighting Equipment. Sprinkler Protection. (a) If the facility being constructed includes the installation of automatic sprinkler protection, the installation shall closely follow the construction and be placed in service as soon as applicable laws permit following completion of each story. During demolition or alterations, existing automatic sprinkler installations shall be retained in service as long as reasonable. The operation of sprinkler control valves shall be permitted only by properly authorized persons. Modification of sprinkler systems to permit alterations or additional demolition should be expedited so that the automatic protection may be returned to service as quickly as possible. Sprinkler control valves shall be checked daily at close of work to ascertain that the protection is in service. (b) Standpipes. In all structures in which standpipes are required, or where standpipes exist in structures being altered, they shall be brought up as soon as applicable laws permit, and shall be maintained as construction progresses in such a manner that they are always ready for fire protection use. The standpipes shall be provided with Siamese fire department connections on the outside of the structure, at the street level, which shall be conspicuously marked. There shall be at least one standard hose outlet at each floor. (5) Fire AlarmDevices. An alarm system, e.g., telephone system, siren, etc., shall be established by the employer whereby employees on the site and the local fire department can be alerted for an emergency. The alarm code and reportinginstructions shallbe conspicuouslyposted at phones and at employee entrances. (6) Fire Cutoffs. Fire walls and exit stairways, required for the completed buildings, shall be given construction priority. Fire doors, with automatic closing devices, shall be hung on openings as soon as practicable. Fire cutoffs shall be retained in buildings undergoing alterations or demolition until operations necessitate their removal. 10.36: Fire Prevention (1) Ignition Hazards. Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power purposes shall be installed in compliance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1987; ANSI C2- 1984 (Rev. of 1968), and the requirements of Part 9. (a) Internalcombustion engine powered equipment shall be so located that the exhausts are well away from combustible materials. When the exhausts are piped to outside the building under construction, a clearance of at least six inches shall be maintained between such piping and combustible material. (b) Smoking shall be prohibited at or in the vicinity of operations which constitute a fire hazard, and shall be conspicuously posted: "No Smoking or Open Flame." (c) Portable battery powered lighting equipment, used in connection with the storage, handling, or use of flammable gases or liquids, shall be of the type approved for the hazardous locations. (d) The nozzle of air, inert gas, and steam lines or hoses, when used in the cleaning or ventilation of tanks and vessels that contain hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors, shallbe bonded to the tank or vessel shell. Bonding devices shall not be attached or detached in hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.36: continued (2) Temporary Buildings. No temporary building shall be erected where it will adversely affect any means of exit. (a) Temporary buildings, when located within another building or structure, shall be of either noncombustible construction or of combustible construction having a fire resistance of not less than one hour. (b) Temporary buildings, located other than inside another building and not used for the storage, handling, or use of flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, explosives, or blasting agents, or similar hazardous occupancies, shall be located at a distance of not less than ten feet from another buildingor structure. Groups oftemporary buildings, not exceeding 2,000 square feet in aggregate, shall, for the purposes of 454 CMR 10.36(2), be considered a single temporary building. (3) Open Yard Storage. Combustible materials shallbe piled with due regard to the stability of piles and in no case higher than 20'. (a) Driveways between and around combustible storage piles shall be at least 15' wide and maintained free from accumulation of rubbish, equipment, or other articles or materials. Driveways shall be so spaced that a maximum grid system unit of 50' by 150' is produced. (b) The entire storage site shall be kept free from accumulation of unnecessary combustible materials. Weeds and grass shall be kept down and a regular procedure provided for the periodic cleanup of the entire area. (c) When there is a danger of an underground fire, that land shall not be used for combustible or flammable storage. (d) Method of piling shall be solid wherever possible and in orderly and regular piles. No combustible material shall be stored outdoors within ten feet of a building or structure. (e) Portable fire extinguishing equipment, suitable for the fire hazard involved, shall be provided atconvenient, conspicuouslyaccessible locations in the yard area. Portable fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, shall be placed so that maximum travel distance to the nearest unit shall not exceed 100'. (4) Indoor Storage. Storage shall not obstruct, or adversely affect, means of exit. (a) All materials shall be stored, handled, and piled with due regard to their fire characteristics. (b) Noncompatible materials, which may create a fire hazard, shall be segregated by a barrier having a fire resistance of at least one hour. (c) Material shall be piled to minimize the spread of fire internally and to permit convenient access for firefighting. Stable piling shall be maintained at all times. Aisle space shall be maintained to safely accommodate the widest vehicle that may be used within the building for firefighting purposes. (d) Clearance of at least 36" shall be maintained between the top levelof the stored material and the sprinkler deflectors. (e) Clearance shallbe maintained around lights and heating units to prevent ignition of combustible materials. (f) A clearance of 24" shall be maintained around the path of travel of fire doors unless a barricade is provided, in which case no clearance is needed. Material shall not be stored within 36" of a fire door opening. 10.37: Flammable and Combustible Liquids (1) GeneralRequirements. Only approved containers, properly labeled, and portable tanks shall be used for storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids. Approved metal safety cans shall be used for the handling and use of flammable liquids in quantities greater than one gallon, except that this shall not apply to those flammable liquid materials which are highly viscid (extremely hard to pour), which may be used and handled in original shippingcontainers. For quantities of one gallon or less, only the original container or approved metal safety cans shall be used for storage, use, and handling of flammable liquids. Flammable or combustible liquids shall not be stored in areas used for exits, stairways, or normally used for the safe passage of people.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.37: continued (2) Indoor Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids. No more than 25 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored in a room outside of an approved storage cabinet. For storage of liquefied petroleum gas, see 454 CMR 10.38. (a) Quantities of flammable and combustible liquid in excess of 25 gallons shall be stored in an acceptable or approved cabinet meeting the following requirements: 1. Acceptable wooden storage cabinets shall be constructed in the following manner, or equivalent: The bottom, sides, and top shall be constructed of an exterior grade of plywood at least one inch inthickness, which shall not break down or delaminate under standard fire test conditions. All joints shall be rabbeted and shall be fastened in two directions with flathead wood screws. When more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbeted overlap of not less than one inch. Steel hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as to not lose their holding capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to fire. Such cabinets shall be painted inside and out with fire retardant paint. 2. Approved metal storage cabinets will be acceptable. 3. Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, "Flammable - Keep Fire Away." (b) Not more than 60 gallons of flammable or 120 gallons of combustible liquids shallbe stored in any one storage cabinet. Not more than three such cabinets may be located in a single storage area. Quantities in excess of this shall be stored in an inside storage room. (c) Inside storage rooms shall be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction shall comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Test of Building Construction and Material, NFPA251-1985. 1. Where an automatic extinguishing system is provided, the system shall be designed and installed in an approved manner. Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least four inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least four inches below the surrounding floor. Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The room shall be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench, inside of the room, which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the building or other buildings are exposed, windows shall be protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1983, for Class E or F openings. Wood of at least one-inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations. 2. Materials which will react with water and create a fire hazard shall not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids. 3. Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table 10.37-1 following: TABLE 10-37.1 Fire protection provided Yes No Yes No Fire resistance Maximum size Total allowable quantities gals./ sq. ft./floor area 10 4 5 2

2 hrs 2 hrs 1 hr 1 hr

500 sq. ft. 500 sq. ft. 150 sq. ft. 150 sq. ft.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.37: continued NOTE: Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide or other system approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory for this purpose. 4. Electrical wiringand equipment located in inside storage rooms shall be approved for Class 1, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. For definition of Class 1, Division 1, Hazardous Locations, see 454 CMR 10.95. 5. Every inside storage room shall be provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhausting system. Such system shall commence not more than 12" above the floor and be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least six times per hour. If a mechanical exhausting system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures shall be operated by the same switch. An electric pilot light shall be installed adjacent to the switch if flammable liquids are dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhausting outlet from the room, shall be on the exterior ofthe building in which the room is located. 6. In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one clear aisle at least three feet wide. Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other. 7. Flammable and combustible liquids in excess of that permitted in inside storage rooms in accordance with 454 CMR 10.37(2)(c) shall be stored outside of buildings. (3) Storage Outside Buildings. Storage of containers (not more than 60 gallons each) shall not exceed, 1,100 gallons in any one pile or area. Piles or groups of containers shall be separated by a five-foot clearance. Piles or groups of containers shall not be nearer than 20' to a building. (a) Within 200' of each pile of containers, there shall be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus. (b) The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away frombuildings or other exposures, or shall be surrounded by a curb or earth dike at least 12"high. When curbs or dikes are used, provisions shall be made for draining off accumulations of ground or rain water, or spills of flammable or combustible liquids. Drains shall terminate at a safe location and shall be accessible to operation under fire conditions. (c) Outdoor portable tank storage: Portable tanks shall not be nearer than 20' from any building. Two or more portable tanks, grouped together, having a combined capacity in excess of 2,200 gallons, shall be separated by a five-foot-clear area. Individual portable tanks exceeding 1,100 gallons shall be separated by a five-foot-clear area. Within 200' of each portable tank, there shall be a 12 foot wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus. (d) Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, and other combustible material not necessary to the storage. (e) Portable tanks, not exceeding 660 gallons, shall be provided with emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters III and IV of NFPA 30-1987, The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. (f) Portable tanks, in excess of 660 gallons, shall have emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters II and III of The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, NFPA 30-1984. (4) Fire Control for Flammable or Combustible Liquid Storage. At least one portable fire extinguisher, having a rating of not less than 20-B units, shall be located outside of, but not more than ten feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage of more than 60 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids. (a) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B units shall be located not less than 25', nor more than 75', from any flammable liquid storage area located outside. (b) When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13-1987. (c) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C units shall be provided on all tank trucks or other vehicles used for transporting and/or dispensing flammable or combustible liquids.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.37: continued (5) Dispensing Liquids. Areas in which flammable or combustible liquids are transferred at one time, in quantities greater than five gallons from one tank or container to another tank or container, shall be separated from other operations by 25-feet distance or by construction having a fire resistance of at least one hour. Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or mechanicalventilation shall be provided to maintain the concentration of flammable vapor at or below 10% of the lower flammable limit. (a) Transfer to flammable liquids from one container to another shall be done only when containers are electrically interconnected (bonded). (b) Flammable or combustible liquids shall be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or tanks within a building or outside only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container, or portable tanks, by gravity or pump, through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks is prohibited. (c) The dispensing units shall be protected against collision damage. (d) Dispensing devices and nozzles for flammable liquids shall be of an approved type. (6) Handling Liquids at Point of Final Use. Flammable liquids shall be kept in closed containers when not actually in use. (a) Leakage or spillage of flammable or combustible liquids shall be disposed of promptly and safely. (b) Flammable liquids may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within 50' of the operation, unless conditions warrant greater clearance. (7) Service and Refueling Areas. Flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers, in tanks located underground, or in aboveground portable tanks. (a) The tank trucks shall comply with the requirements covered in the Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, NFPA No. 385-1987. (b) The dispensing hose shall be an approved type. (c) The dispensing nozzle shall be an approved automatic-closing type without a latch-open device. (d) Underground tanks shall not be abandoned. (e) Clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) shall be provided at a location remote from dispensing devices to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency. (f) Heating equipment of an approved type may be installed in the lubrication or service area where there is no dispensing or transferring of flammable liquids, provided the bottomof the heating unit is at least 18" above the floor and is protected from physical damage. Heating equipment installed in lubrication or service areas, where flammable liquids are dispensed, shall be of an approved type for garages, and shall be installed at least eight feet above the floor. (g) There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable or combustible liquids. (h) Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted. (i) The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation. (j) Each service or fueling area shall be provided with at least one fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C located so that an extinguisher will be within 75' of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service area. 10.38: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas) (1) Approval of Equipment and Systems. Each system shall have containers, valves, connectors, manifold valve assemblies, and regulators of an approved type. Allcylinders shallmeet the Department of Transportation specification identification requirements published in 49 CFR Part 178, Shipping Container Specifications.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.38: continued (2) Welding on LP-Gas Containers. Welding is prohibited on containers. (3) Container Valves and Container Accessories. Valves, fittings, and accessories connected directly to the container, including primary shut off valves, shall have a rated working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g. and shall be of material and design suitable for LP-Gas service. Connections to containers, except safety relief connections, liquid level gauging devices, and plugged openings, shall have shutoff valves located as close to the container as practicable. (4) Safety Devices. Every container and every vaporizer shall be provided with one or more approved safety relief valves or devices. These valves shall be arranged to afford free vent to the outer air with discharge not less than five feet horizontally away from any opening into a building which is below such discharge. (a) Shutoff valves shall not be installed between the safety relief device and the container, or the equipment or piping to which the safety reliefdevice is connected, except that a shutoff valve may be used where the arrangement of this valve is such that full required capacity flow through the safety relief device is always afforded. (b) Container safety relief devices and regulator relief vents shall be located not less than five feet in any direction from air openings into sealed combustion system appliances or mechanical ventilation air intakes. (5) Dispensing. Filling of fuel containers for trucks or motor vehicles from bulk storage containers shall be performed not less than ten feet from the nearest masonry-walled building, or not less than 25' from the nearest building or other construction and, in any event, not less than 25' from any building opening. Filling of portable containers or containers mounted on skids from storage containers shall be performed not less than 50' from the nearest building. (6) Requirements for Appliances. LP-Gas consuming appliances shall be approved types. Any appliance that was originally manufactured for operation with a gaseous fuel other than LP-Gas, and is in good condition, may be used with LP-Gas only after it is properly converted, adapted, and tested for performance with LP-Gas before the appliance is placed in use. (7) Containers and Regulating Equipment Installed Outside of Buildings or Structures. Containers shall be upright upon firm foundations or otherwise firmly secured. The possible effect on the outlet piping of settling shall be guarded against by a flexible connection or special fitting. (8) Containers and Equipment Used Inside ofBuildings or Structures. When operational requirements make portable use of containers necessary, and their location outside of buildings or structures is impracticable, containers and equipment shall be permitted to be used inside of buildings or structures in accordance with 454 CMR 10.38(8)(a) through (j). (a) "Containers in use" means connected for use. (b) Systems utilizing containers having a water capacity greater than 2 pounds (nominal one pound LP-Gas capacity) shall be equipped with excess flow valves. Such excess flow valves shall be either integral with the container valves or in the connections to the container valve outlets. (c) Regulators shall be either directly connected to the container valves or to manifolds connected to the container valves. The regulator shall be suitable for use with LP-Gas. Manifolds and fittings connecting containers to pressure regulator inlets shallbe designed for at least 250 p.s.i.g. service pressure.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.38: continued (d) Valves on containers having water capacity greater than 50 pounds (nominal 20 pounds LP-Gas capacity) shall be protected from damage while in use or storage. (e) Aluminum piping or tubing shall not be used. (f) Hose shall be designed for a working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g. Design, construction, and performance of hose, and hose connections shall have their suitability determined by listing by a nationally recognized testing agency. The hose length shall be as short as practicable. Hoses shall be long enough to permit compliance with spacing provisions of 454 CMR 10.38(8)(a) through (l), without kinking or straining, or causing hose to be so close to a burner as to be damaged by heat. (g) Portable heaters, including salamanders, shall be equipped with an approved automatic device to shut off the flow of gas to the main burner, and pilot if used, in the event of flame failure. Such heaters, having inputs above 50,000 B.t.u. per hour, shall be equipped with either a pilot, which must be lighted and proved before the main burner can be turned on, or an electrical ignition system. NOTE: The provisions of this subparagraph do not apply to portable heaters under 7,500 B.t.u. per hour input when used with containers having a maximum water capacity of 2# pounds. (h) Container valves, connectors, regulators, manifolds, piping, and tubing shall not be used as structural supports for heaters. (i) Containers, regulating equipment, manifolds, pipe, tubing, and hose shall be located to minimize exposure to high temperatures or physical damage. (j) Containers having a water capacity greater than 2 pounds (nominal one pound LP-Gas capacity) connected for use shall stand on a firm and substantially level surface and, when necessary, shall be secured in an upright position. (k) The maximum water capacity of individual containers shall be 245 pounds (nominal 100 pounds LP-Gas capacity). (l) For temporary heating, heaters (other than integral heater-container units) shall be located at least six feet from any LP- Gas container. This shall not prohibit the use of heaters specifically designed for attachment to the container or to a supporting standard, provided they are designed and installed so as to prevent direct or radiant heat application from the heater onto the containers. Blower and radiant type heaters shall not be directed toward any LP-Gas container within 20'. (m) If two or more heater-container units, of either the integral or nonintegral type, are located in an unpartitioned area on the same floor, the container or containers of each unit shall be separated from the container or containers of any other unit by at least 20'. (n) When heaters are connected to containers for use in an unpartitioned area on the same floor, the total water capacity of containers, manifolded together for connection to a heater or heaters, shallnot be greater than 735 pounds (nominal 300 pounds LP-Gas capacity). Such manifolds shall be separated by at least 20'. (o) Storage of containers awaiting use shall be in accordance with 454 CMR 10.38(10) and (11). (9) Multiple Container Systems. Valves in the assembly of multiple container systems shall be arranged so that replacement of containers can be made without shutting off the flow of gas in the system. This provision is not to be construed as requiring an automatic changeover device. (a) Heaters shall be equipped with an approved regulator in the supply line between the fuel cylinder and the heater unit. Cylinder connectors shall be provided with an excess flow valve to minimize the flow of gas in the event the fuel line becomes ruptured. (b) Regulators and low-pressure relief devices shall be rigidly attached to the cylinder valves, cylinders, supporting standards, the building walls, or otherwise rigidly secured, and shall be so installed or protected from the elements. (10) Storage of LPG Containers. Storage of LPG within buildings is prohibited.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.38: continued (11) Storage Outside of Buildings. Storage outside of buildings, for containers awaiting use, shallbe located from the nearest building or group of buildings, in accordance with the following: TABLE 10.38-1 Quantity of LP-Gas Stored Distance (feet)

500 lbs. or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 501 to 6,000 lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6,001 to 10,000 lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Over 10,000 lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Containers shall be in a suitable ventilated enclosure or otherwise protected against tampering. (12) Fire Protection. Storage locations shall be provided with at least one approved portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C. 10.39: Temporary Heating Devices (1) Ventilation. Fresh air shall be supplied in sufficient quantities to maintain the health and safety of workers. Where natural means of fresh air supply is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided. When heaters are used in confined spaces, special care shall be taken to provide sufficient ventilation in order to ensure proper combustion, maintain the health and safety of workers, and limit temperature rise in the area. (2) Clearance and Mounting. Temporary heating devices shall be installed to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the amount shown in Table 10.39-1. Temporary heating devices, which are listed for installation with lesser clearances than specified in Table 10.39-1, may be installed in accordance with their approval. TABLE 10-39-1 Minimum clearance, (inches) Chimney Sides Rear connector 12 12 18 36 36 18

Heating appliances Room heater, circulating type Room heater, radiant type

(b) Heaters not suitable for use on wood floors shall not be set directly upon them or other combustible materials. When such heaters are used, they shall rest on suitable heat insulating material or at least one-inch concrete, or equivalent. The insulating material shall extend beyond the heater two feet or more in all directions. (c) Heaters used in the vicinity of combustible tarpaulins, canvas, or similar coverings shall be located at least ten feet from the coverings. The coverings shall be securely fastened to prevent ignition or upsetting of the heater due to wind action on the covering or other material. (3) Stability. Heaters, when in use, shall be set horizontally level, unless otherwise permitted by the manufacturer's markings.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.39: continued (4) Solid Fuel Salamanders. Solid fuel salamanders are prohibited in buildings and on scaffolds. (5) Oil-fired Heaters. Flammable liquid-fired heaters shall be equipped with a primary safety control to stop the flow of fuel in the event of flame failure. Barometric or gravity oil feed shall not be considered a primary safety control. (a) Heaters designed for barometric or gravity oil feed shall be used only with the integral tanks. (b) Heaters specifically designed and approved for use with separate supply tanks may be directly connected for gravity feed, or an automatic pump, from a supply tank. PART 5: SIGNS, SIGNALS AND BARRICADES 10.46: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.47 Through 10.50 Barricade. A barrier or obstruction encited specifically to deter passage of persons or vehicles. Signs. The warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently affixed or placed, at locations where hazards exist. Signals. Moving signs, provided by workers, such as flagmen, or by devices, such as flashing lights, to warn of possible or existing hazards. Tags. Temporary signs, usually attached to a piece of equipment or part of a structure, to warn of existing or immediate hazards. 10.47: Accident Prevention Signs and Tags (1) General. Signs and symbols required by Part 5 shall be visible at all times when work is being performed, and shall be removed or covered promptly when the hazards no longer exist. (2) Danger Signs. Danger signs (see Figure 10-47-1) shall be used only where an immediate hazard exists. Danger signs shall have red as the predominating color for the upper panel; black outline on the borders; and a white lower panel for additional sign wording. (3) Caution Signs. Caution signs (see Figure 10.47-1) shall be used only to warn against potential hazards or to caution against unsafe practices. Caution signs shall have yellow as the predominating color; black upper panel and borders: yellow lettering of "caution" on the black panel; and the lower yellow panel for additional sign wording. Black lettering shall be used for additional wording.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.47: continued FIGURE 10-47-1

(4) Exit Signs. Exit signs, when required, shall be lettered in legible red letters, not less than six inches high, on a white field and the principal stroke of the letters shall be at least inch in width. (5) Safety Instruction Signs. Safety instruction signs, when used, shall be white with green upper panel with white letters to convey the principal message. Any additional wording on the sign shall be black letters on the white background. (6) Directional Signs. Directional signs, other than automotive traffic signs specified in 454 CMR 10.47(7), shall be white with a black panel and a white directional symbol. Any additional wording on the sign shall be black letters on the white background. (7) Traffic Signs. Construction areas shall be posted with legible traffic signs at points of hazard. All traffic control signs or devices used for protection of construction workmen shall conform to American National Standards Institute D6.1-1971, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. (8) Accident Prevention Tags. Accident prevention tags shall be used as a temporary means of warning employees of an existing hazard, such as defective tools, equipment, etc. They shall not be used in place of, or as a substitute for, accident prevention signs. Specifications for accident prevention tags similar to those in Table 10.47-2 shall apply. TABLE 10-47-2

White tag White letters on red square

White tag White letters on red oval with a

White Tag White letters on black back-

Yellow tag Yellow letters on black background

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

black square

ground

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.47: continued Basic Stock (Background) White Safety Colors Copy Specification (Ink) (Letters) Do Not Operate

Red

White

Black and Red

Danger

Yellow

Black

Caution

White

Black

Out of Order Do Not Use

(9) Additional Rules. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z35.1-1972, Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs, and Z35.2-1968, Specifications for Accident Prevention Tags, contain rules which are additional to 454 CMR 10.47 in 457 CMR 10.47. The employer shallcomply with ANSI Z35.1-1968 and Z35.2.-1968 with respect to rules not specifically prescribed in 454 CMR 10.47. 10.48: Signaling (1) Flagmen. When operations are such that signs, signals, and barricades do not provide the necessary protection on or adjacent to a highwayor street, flagmen or other appropriate traffic controls shall be provided. (a) Signaling directions by flagmen shall conform to American National Standards Institute D6.1-1971, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. (b) Hand signaling by flagmen shall be by use of red flags at least 18" square or sign paddles, and in periods of darkness, red lights. (c) Flagmen shall be provided with and shall wear a red or orange warning garment while flagging. Warning garments worn at night shall be of reflectorized material. (2) Crane and Hoist Signals. Regulations for crane and hoist signaling will be found in applicable American National Standards Institute standards. 10.49: Barricades Barricades for protection of employees shall conform to the portions of the American National Standards Institute D6.1-1971, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, relating to barricades. PART 6: MATERIALS - HANDLING, STORAGE, USE AND DISPOSAL 10.56: General Requirements for Storage (1) General. All materials stored in tiers shall be stacked, racked, blocked, interlocked, or otherwise secured to prevent sliding, falling or collapse. (a) Maximumsafe load limits of floors within buildings and structures, in pounds per square foot, shall be conspicuously posted in all storage areas, except for floor or slab on grade. Maximum safe loads shall not be exceeded. (b) Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear to provide for the free and safe movement of material handling equipment or employees. Such areas shall be kept in good repair.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.56: continued (c) When a difference in road or working levels exist, means such as ramps, blocking, or grading shall be used to ensure the safe movement of vehicles between the two levels. (2) Material Storage. Material stored inside buildings under construction shall not be placed within six feet of any hoistway or inside floor openings, nor within ten feet of an exterior wall which does not extend above the top of the material stored. (a) Employees required to work on stored material in silos, hoppers, tanks, and similar storage areas shall be equipped with lifelines and safety harness meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.25. (b) Noncompatible materials shall be segregated in storage. (c) Bagged materials shall be stacked by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the bags at least every ten bags high. (d) Materials shall not be stored on scaffolds or runways in excess of supplies needed for immediate operations. (e) Brick stacks shall not be more than seven feet in height. When a loose brick stack reaches a height of four feet, it shallbe tapered back two inches in every foot of height above the four foot level. (f) When masonry blocks are stacked higher than six feet, the stack shall be tapered back block per tier above the six-foot level. (g) Lumber: 1. Used lumber shall have all nails withdrawn before stacking. 2. Lumber shall be stacked on level and solidly supported sills. 3. Lumber shall be so stacked as to be stable and self-supporting. 4. Lumber piles shall not exceed 20' in height provided that lumber to be handled manually shall not be stacked more than 16' high. (h) Structural steel, poles, pipe, bar stock, and other cylindrical materials, unless racked, shall be stacked and blocked so as to prevent spreading or tilting. 10.57: Rigging Equipment for Material Handling (1) General. Rigging equipment for material handling shall be inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to ensure that it is safe. Defective rigging equipment shall be removed from service. (a) Rigging equipment shall not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load, as prescribed in Tables 10.57-1 through 10.57-20. (b) Rigging equipment, when not in use, shall be removed from the immediate work area so as not to present a hazard to employees. (c) Special custom design grabs, hooks, clamps, or other lifting accessories, for such units as modular panels, prefabricated structures and similar materials, shall be marked to indicate the safe working loads and shall be proof-tested prior to use to 125% of their rated load. (d) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices. (e) Sling legs shall not be kinked. (f) Slings shall be padded or protected from the sharp edges of their loads. (g) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling and its load while the sling is being tightened around the load. (h) Shock loading is prohibited. (i) A sling shall not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling. (j) Removal from service. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present: 1. Abnormal wear. 2. Powdered fiber between strands. 3. Broken or cut fibers. 4. Variations in the size or roundness of strands. 5. Discoloration or rotting. 6. Distortion of hardware in the sling.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued (2) Alloy Steel Chains. Welded alloy steel chain slings shall have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity, and sling manufacturer. (a) Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear-shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links, or other attachments, when used with alloy steel chains, shallhave a rated capacity at least equal to that of the chain. (b) Job or shop hooks and links, or makeshift fasteners, formed from bolts, rods, etc., or other such attachments, shall not be used. (c) Rated capacity (working load limit) for alloy steel chain slings shall conform to the values shown in Table 10.57-1. (d) Whenever wear at any point of any chain link exceeds that shown in Table 10.57-2, the assembly shall be removed from service. (3) Wire Rope. Tables 10.57-3 through 10.57-14 shall be used to determine the safe working loads of various sizes and classifications of improved plow steel wire rope and wire rope slings with various types of terminals. For sizes, classifications, and grades not included in these tables, the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer for specific, identifiable products shall be followed, provided that a safety factor of not less than five is maintained. (a) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted. (b) Wire rope shall not be secured by knots, except on haul back lines on scrapers. (c) The following limitations shall apply to the use of wire rope: 1. An eye splice made in any wire rope shall have not less than three full tucks. However, this requirement shall not operate to preclude the use of another form of splice or connection which can be shown to be as efficient and which is not otherwise prohibited. 2. Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in pulling loads, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice. 3. Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, or bull wires shall not be formed by wire rope clips or knots. 4. Wire rope shall not be used if, in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds ten percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect. 5. Minimum sling lengths. Cable laid and 6 x 19 and 6 x 37 slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope ten times the component rope diameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings. (d) When U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes, Table 10.57.20 shall be used to determine the number and spacing of clips. When used for eye splices, the U-bolt shall be applied so that the "U" section is in contact with the dead end of the rope. (4) Natural Rope, and Synthetic Fiber - General. When using natural or synthetic fiber rope slings, Tables 10.57-15, 16, 17, and 18 shall apply. All splices in rope slings provided by the employer shall be made in accordance with fiber rope manufacturers recommendations. (a) In manila rope, eye splices shall contain at least three full tucks, and short splices shall contain at least six full tucks (three on each side of the centerline of the splice). (b) In layed synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall contain at least four full tucks, and short splices shall contain at least eight full tucks (four on each side of the centerline of the splice). (c) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed short (flush with the surface of the rope) immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This precaution applies to both eye and short splices and all types of fiber rope. For fiber ropes under one-inch diameter, the tails shall project at least six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber ropes one inch in diameter and larger, the tails shall project at least six inches beyond the last full tuck. In applications where the projecting tails may be objectionable, the tails shall be tapered and spliced into the body of the rope using at least two additionaltucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued (d) For alleye splices, the eye shall be sufficient large to provide an included angle of not greater than 60 at the splice when the eye is placed over the load or support. (e) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices. (5) Synthetic Webbing (Nylon, Polyester, and Polypropylene). (a) The employer shall have each synthetic web sling marked or coded to show: 1. Name or trademark of manufacturer. 2. Rated capacities for the type of hitch. 3. Type of material. (b) Rated capacity shall not be exceeded. (6) Synthetic Web Slings. (a) Webbing. Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width. (b) Fittings. Fittings shall be: 1. Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling. 2. Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the webbing. (7) Attachment of End Fittings to Webbing and Formation of Eyes. Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the sling. (8) Environmental Conditions. When synthetic web slings are used, the following precautions shall be taken: (a) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present. (b) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present. (c) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present. (9) Safe Operating Temperatures. Synthetic web slings of polyester and nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180F. Polypropylene web slings shallnotbe used at temperatures in excess of 200F. (10) Removal from Service. Synthetic web slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present: (a) Acid or caustic burns; (b) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface; (c) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts; (d) Broken or worn stitches; or (e) Distortion of fittings. (11) Shackles and Hooks. Table 10.57.19 shall be used to determine the safe working loads of various sizes of shackles, except that higher safe working loads are permissible when recommended by the manufacturer for specific, identifiable products, provided that a safety factor of not less than five is maintained. The manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed in determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available shall be tested to twice the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-1 RATED CAPACITY FOR ALLOY STEEL CHAIN SLINGS 1 - Rated Capacity (Working Load Limit), Pounds 2 - Horizontal angles shown in parentheses Single branch sling 90 loading 3,250 6,600 11,250 16,500 23,000 28,750 38,750 44,500 57,500 67,000 80,000 100,000 30 (60) 5,560 11,400 19,500 28,500 39,800 49,800 67,100 77,000 99,500 116,000 138,000 172,000 Double sling vertical Angle (1) Degrees 45 (45) 4,550 9,300 15,900 23,300 32,500 40,600 54,800 63,000 81,000 94,000 112,500 140,000 60 (30) 3,250 6,600 11,250 16,500 23,000 28,750 38,750 44,500 57,500 67,000 80,000 100,000 Triple & quadruple sling vertical Angle (1) Degrees 30 (60) 8,800 17,000 29,000 43,000 59,500 74,500 101,000 115,500 149,000 174,000 207,000 258,000 45 (45) 8,400 14,000 24,000 35,000 48,500 61,000 82,000 94,500 121,500 141,000 169,000 210,000 60 (30) 4,900 9,900 17,000 24,500 34,500 43,000 58,000 66,500 86,000 100,500 119,500 150,000

Chain size (inches)

d e f 1 1c 1 1d 1 1

Other grades of proof tested steel chain include Proof Coil, BBB Coil and Hi-Test Chain. These grades are not recommended for overhead lifting and therefore are not covered by 454 CMR. (1) Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading measured as the included angle between the inclined leg and the vertical. (2) Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of the load. TABLE 10.57-2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WEAR AT ANY POINT OF LINK Chain size (inches) d e f Maximum allowable wear (inch) 3/64 3/64 7/64 8/64 8/32 11/64 Chain size (inches) 1 1c 1 1d 1 1 Maximum allowable wear (inch) 3/18 7/32 8/32 5/16 11/32

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-3 - RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS 6x19 & 6x37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope with Fiber Core(FC)
Rope Dia. (Inches) 5/16 d 7/16 9/16 e f 1 1c 1 1d 1 1e 1 2 Constr 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 Vertical HT 0.49 0.76 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.8 3.9 5.1 6.7 8.4 9.8 12.0 14.0 16.0 19.0 25.0 MS 0.51 0.79 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.1 4.4 5.9 7.7 9.5 11.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 21.0 28.0 S 0.55 0.85 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.7 3.3 4.8 6.4 8.4 10.0 12.0 15.0 17.0 21.0 24.0 31.0 HT 0.37 0.57 0.80 1.1 1.4 1.7 2.1 2.9 3.9 5.0 6.3 7.4 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 18.0 Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.) Choker MS 0.38 0.59 0.85 1.1 1.5 1.9 2.3 3.3 4.5 5.8 7.1 8.3 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 21.0 S 0.41 0.64 0.91 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.5 3.6 4.8 6.3 7.9 9.2 11.0 13.0 15.0 18.0 23.0 HT 0.99 1.5 2.1 2.9 3.7 4.6 5.6 7.8 10.0 13.0 17.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 33.0 38.0 49.0 Vertical basket MS 1.0 1.6 2.2 3.0 3.9 5.0 6.2 8.8 12.0 15.0 19.0 22.0 27.0 32.0 37.0 43.0 55.0 S 1.1 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.3 5.4 6.7 9.5 13.0 17.0 21.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 41.0 48.0 62.0

TABLE 10.57-4 - RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS 6x19 & 6x37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope with Independent Wire Rope Core(IWRC)
Rope Dia. (Inches) 5/16 d 7/16 9/16 e f 1 1c 1 1d 1 1e 1 2 Constr 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 Vertical HT 0.53 0.81 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.2 5.5 7.2 9.0 10.0 13.0 15.0 18.0 20.0 26.0 MS 0.56 0.87 1.2 1.7 2.2 2.7 3.4 4.9 6.6 8.5 10.0 12.0 15.0 17.0 20.0 24.0 30.0 S 0.59 0.92 1.3 1.8 2.3 2.9 3.6 5.1 6.9 9.0 11.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 22.0 26.0 33.0 HT 0.40 0.61 0.86 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 3.1 4.1 5.4 6.8 7.9 9.6 11.0 13.0 15.0 20.0 Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.) Choker MS 0.42 0.65 0.93 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.5 3.6 4.9 6.4 7.8 9.2 11.0 13.0 15.0 18.0 23.0 S 0.44 0.69 0.98 1.3 1.7 2.2 2.7 3.8 5.2 6.7 8.5 9.9 12.0 14.0 17.0 19.0 25.0 HT 1.0 1.6 2.3 3.1 3.9 4.9 6.0 8.4 11.0 14.0 18.0 21.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 41.0 53.0 Vertical basket MS 1.1 1.7 2.5 3.4 4.4 5.5 6.8 9.7 13.0 17.0 21.0 24.0 29.0 35.0 41.0 47.0 61.0 S 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.5 4.6 5.8 7.2 10.5 14.0 18.0 23.0 26.0 32.0 38.0 44.0 51.0 66.0

These values only apply when the D/d ratio for HT slings is ten or greater, and for MS and S Slings is 20 or greater where: D=Diameter of curvature around whichthe body of the sling is bent. d=Diameter of rope. HT=Hand Tucked Splice: For hidden tuck splice (IWRC) use Table 10.57(3) values in HT column. MS=Mechanical Splice. S=Swaged or Zinc Poured Socket.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-5 - RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS Cable Laid Rope - Mechanical Splice Only 7x7x7 and 7x7x19 Constructions Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope 7x6x19 IWRC Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope Rope Rated capacities, tons 2,000 lb. Constr. Vertical Choker Vert. Basket1 7x7x7 0.50 0.38 1.0 7x7x7 1.1 0.81 2.2 7x7x7 1.8 1.4 3.7 7x7x7 2.8 2.1 5.5 7x7x7 3.8 2.9 7.6 7x7x19 2.9 2.2 5.8 7x7x19 4.1 3.0 8.1 7x7x19 5.4 4.0 11.0 7x7x19 6.9 5.1 14.0 7x7x19 8.2 6.2 16.0 7x7x19 9.9 7.4 20.0 7x6x19 3.8 2.8 7.6 7x6x19 5.0 3.8 10.0 7x6x19 6.4 4.8 13.0 7x6x19 7.7 5.8 15.0 7x6x19 9.2 6.9 18.0 7x6x19 10.0 7.5 20.0 1d2 7x6x19 11.0 8.2 22.0 2 1 7x6x19 13.0 9.6 26.0 1 These values only apply when the D/d ratio in ten or greater where: D = Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent. d = Diameter of rope. Dia (inches) d e e f 1 1c 1 2 f2 12 1c2 12 1-5/162 TABLE 10.57-6 - RATED CAPACITIES FOR SINGLE LEG SLINGS 8-Part and 6-Part Braided Rope 6x7 and 6x19 Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope 7x7 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope Component Ropes Rated Capacities, tons (2,000 lb) Diameter Vertical Choker Basket Vertical to 301 (inches) Const. 8-Part 6-Part 8-part 6-part 8-part 6-part 3/22 6x7 0.42 0.32 0.32 0.24 0.74 0.55 c 6x7 0.76 0.57 0.57 0.42 1.3 0.98 3/16 6x7 1.7 1.3 1.3 0.94 2.9 2.2 3/22 7x7 0.51 0.39 0.38 0.29 0.89 0.67 c 7x7 0.95 0.71 0.71 0.53 1.6 1.2 3/16 7x7 2.1 1.5 1.5 1.2 3.6 2.7 3/16 6x19 1.7 1.3 1.3 0.98 3.0 2.2 6x19 3.1 2.3 2.3 1.7 5.3 4.0 5/16 6x19 4.8 3.6 3.6 2.7 8.3 6.2 c 6x19 6.8 5.1 5.1 3.8 12.0 8.9 3/16 6x19 9.3 6.9 6.9 5.2 16.0 12.0 6x19 12.0 9.0 9.0 6.7 21.0 15.0 3/16 6x19 15.0 11.0 11.0 8.5 26.0 20.0 e 6x19 19.0 14.0 14.0 10.0 32.0 24.0 6x19 27.0 20.0 20.0 15.0 46.0 35.0 f 6x19 36.0 27.0 27.0 20.0 62.0 47.0 1 6x19 47.0 35.0 35.0 26.0 81.0 61.0

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

These values only apply when the D/d ratio is 20 or greater where: D=Diameter of curvature around which the body of the sling is bent. d=Diameter of component rope.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-7 - Rates Capacities for 2-Leg & 3-Leg Bridle Slings 6x19 & 6x37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope with
Rope 30 (60o)2 HT 0.85 1.3 1.8 2.5 3.2 4.0 4.8 6.8 8.9 11.0 14.0 17.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 33.0 43.0 MS 0.88 1.4 1.9 2.6 3.4 4.3 5.3 7.6 10.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 23.0 27.0 32.0 37.0 48.0 HT 0.70 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.6 3.2 4.0 5.5 7.3 9.4 12.0 14.0 17.0 20.0 23.0 27.0 35.0 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37
o1

Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb) 2-leg bridle slings 3-leg brigle slings
o1

Dia. (inches) Constr 5/16 d 7/16 9/16 d f 1 1c 1 1d 1 1e 1 2

45 angle MS 0.72 1.1 1.6 2.2 2.8 3.5 4.4 6.2 8.4 11.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 22.0 26.0 30.0 39.0

60 (30o) 2 HT 0.49 0.76 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.8 3.9 5.1 6.7 8.4 9.8 12.0 14.0 16.0 19.0 25.0 MS 0.51 0.79 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.1 4.4 5.9 7.7 9.5 11.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 21.0 28.0

30 (60o) 2 HT 1.3 2.0 2.8 3.7 4.8 6.0 7.3 10.0 13.0 17.0 22.0 25.0 31.0 36.0 43.0 49.0 64.0 MS 1.3 2.0 2.9 4.0 5.1 6.5 8.0 11.0 15.0 20.0 24.0 29.0 35.0 41.0 48.0 56.0 72.0

o1

45o angle HT 1.0 1.6 2.3 3.0 3.9 4.9 5.9 8.3 11.0 14.0 18.0 21.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 52.0 MS 1.1 1.7 2.4 3.2 4.2 5.3 6.5 9.3 13.0

60o1 (30o) 2 HT 0.74 1.1 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.4 4.2 5.8 7.7 MS 0.7 1.2 1.7 2.3 3.0 3.7 4.6 6.6 8.9 11.0 14.0 17.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 32.0 41.0

16.0 10.0 20.0 13.0 23.0 15.0 28.0 18.0 33.0 21.0 39.0 25.0 45.0 28.0 59.0 37.0

TABLE 10.57-8 - Rates Capacities for 2-Leg & 3-Leg Bridle Slings 6x19 & 6x37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope with Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)
Rope 2-leg bridle slings 30o1 (60o)2 Dia. (inches) Constr 5/16 d 7/16 9/16 d f 1 1c 1 1d 1 1e 1 2 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 6x37 HT 0.92 1.4 2.0 2.7 3.4 4.3 5.2 7.3 9.6 MS 0.97 1.5 2.1 2.9 3.8 4.8 5.9 8.4 11.0 HT 0.75 1.1 1.6 2.2 2.8 3.5 4.2 5.9 7.8 10.0 13.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 25.0 29.0 37.0 45o angl MS 0.79 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.1 3.9 4.8 6.9 9.3 12.0 15.0 17.0 21.0 25.0 29.0 33.0 43.0 60o1 (30 o) 2 HT 0.53 1.81 1.1 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.2 5.5 7.2 9.0 10.0 13.0 15.0 18.0 20.0 26.0 MS 0.56 0.87 1.2 1.7 2.2 2.7 3.4 4.9 6.6 8.5 10.0 12.0 15.0 17.0 20.0 24.0 30.0 30o1 (60o) 2 HT 1.4 2.1 3.0 4.0 5.1 6.4 7.8 11.0 14.0 19.0 23.0 27.0 33.0 39.0 46.0 53.0 68.0 MS 1.4 2.3 3.2 4.4 5.7 7.1 8.8 13.0 17.0 22.0 27.0 32.0 38.0 45.0 53.0 61.0 79.0 HT 1.1 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.2 5.2 6.4 8.9 12.0 15.0 19.0 22.0 27.0 32.0 38.0 43.0 56.0 Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.) 3-leg bridle slings 45o angle MS 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.6 4.6 5.8 7.2 10.0 14.0 18.0 22.0 26.0 31.0 37.0 43.0 50.0 65.0 60o1 (30o) 2 HT 0.79 1.2 1.7 2.3 3.0 3.7 4.5 6.3 8.3 11.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 23.0 27.0 31.0 40.0 MS 0.84 1.3 1.9 2.5 3.3 4.1 5.1 7.3 9.9 13.0 16.0 18.0 22.0 26.0 31.0 35.0 46.0

12.0 15.0 16.0 18.0 18.0 21.0 22.0 25.0 26.0 30.0 31.0 35.0 35.0 41.0 46.0 53.0

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

HT=Hand Tucked Splice - MS=Mech. Splice -

Vert. angles

Horz. angles

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-9 - Rated Capacities for 2-Leg & 3-Leg Bridle Slings Cable Laid Rope - Mechanical Splice Only 7x7x7 and 7x7x19 Constructions Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope 7x6x19 IWRC Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope
Rope Dia. (") d e e f 1 1c 1 f 1 1c 1 1-5/16 1d 1 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x6x19 IWRC 7x6x19 IWRC 7x6x19 IWRC 7x6x19 IWRC 7x6x19 IWRC 7x6x19 IWRC 7x6x19 IWRC 7x6x19 IWRC 30 (60 o) 2 0.87 1.9 3.2 4.8 6.6 5.0 7.0 9.3 12.0 14.0 17.0 6.6 8.7 11.0 13.0 16.0 17.0 19.0 22.0
o1

Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.) 2-leg bridle sling 3-leg bridle sling 60 (30o) 2 0.50 1.1 1.8 2.8 3.8 2.9 4.1 5.4 6.9 8.2 9.9 3.8 5.0 6.4 7.7 9.2 10.0 11.0 13.0
o1

Constr.

45 angle 0.71 1.5 2.6 3.9 5.4 4.1 5.7 7.6 9.7 12.0 14.0 5.4 7.1 9.0 11.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 18.0

30o1 (60o) 2 1.3 2.8 4.8 7.2 9.9 7.5 10.0 14.0 18.0 21.0 26.0 9.9 13.0 17.0 20.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 33.0

45o angle 1.1 2.3 3.9 5.9 8.1 6.1 8.6 11.0 14.0 17.0 21.0 8.0 11.0 13.0 16.0 20.0 21.0 23.0 27.0

60o1 (30o) 2 0.75 1.6 2.8 4.2 5.7 4.3 6.1 8.1 10.0 12.0 15.0 5.7 7.5 9.6 11.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 19.0

TABLE 10.57-10 - Rated Capacities for 2-Leg and 3-Leg Bridle Slings 8-Part and 6-Part Braided Rope 6x7 and 6x19 Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope 7x7 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope Rope 2-leg bridle slings Dia. (") 3/22 c 3/16 3/22 c 3/16 3/16 5/16 d 7/16 8/16 e f 1 30 (60) 2 Constr 6x7 6x7 6x7 7x7 7x7 7x7 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 6x19 8-Pt 0.74 1.3 2.9 0.89 1.6 3.6 3.0 5.3 8.3 12.0 16.0 21.0 26.0 32.0 46.0 62.0 81.0 6-Pt 0.55 0.98 2.2 0.67 1.2 2.7 2.2 4.0 6.2 8.9 12.0 15.0 20.0 24.0 35.0 47.0 61.0
1

Rated capacities, tons (2,000 lb.) 3-leg bridle slings 60 (30) 2 8-Pt 0.42 0.80 1.8 0.51 0.95 2.1 1.7 3.1 4.8 6.8 9.3 12.0 15.0 19.0 27.0 36.0 47.0 6-Pt 0.32 0.57 1.3 0.39 0.71 1.5 1.3 2.3 3.6 5.1 6.9 9.0 11.0 14.0 20.0 27.0 35.0 0.45 0.80 1.8 0.55 1.0 2.2 1.8 3.2 5.0 7.2 9.8 13.0 16.0 20.0 28.0 38.0 50.0
1

45 angle 8-Pt 0.60 1.1 2.4 0.72 1.3 2.9 2.4 4.3 6.7 9.7 13.0 17.0 21.0 26.0 38.0 51.0 66.0 6-Pt

30 (60) 2 8-Pt 1.1 2.0 4.4 1.3 2.5 5.4 4.5 8.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 31.0 39.0 48.0 69.0 94.0 22.0 6-Pt 0.83 1.5 3.3 1.0 1.8 4.0 3.4 6.0 9.3 13.0 18.0 23.0 29.0 36.0 52.0 70.0 91.0

45 angle 8-Pt 0.90 1.6 3.6 1.1 2.0 4.4 3.7 6.5 10.0 14.0 20.0 25.0 32.0 40.0 56.0 76.0 99.0 6-Pt 0.68 1.2 2.7 0.82 1.5 3.3 2.8 4.9 7.6 11.0 15.0 19.0 24.0 30.0 42.0 57.0 74.0 8-Pt

60 1 (30) 2 6-Pt 0.48 0.85 1.9 0.58 1.1 2.3 1.9 3.4 5.4 7.7 10.0 13.0 17.0 21.0 30.0 40.0 53.0 0.64 1.1 2.5 0.77 1.4 3.1 2.6 4.6 7.1 10.0 14.0 18.0 23.0 28.0 40.0 54.0 70.0

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

Vertical angles

Horizontal angles

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-11 Rated capacities for Strand Laid Grommet - Hand Tucked Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope
Rope Body Dia. () 5/16 d 7/16 9/16 e f 1 1c 1 1d 1
1

TABLE 10.57-13 - Rated Capacities for Strand Laid Endless Slings Mechanical Joint Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope
Rope Body Rated capacities (2,000 lb.)

Rated capacities (2,000 lb.) Const. 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 7x19 Vert. 0.85 1.3 1.9 2.6 3.3 4.2 5.2 7.4 10.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 22.0 26.0 Chk. 0.64 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.5 3.1 3.9 5.6 7.5 9.7 12.0 14.0 16.0 19.0 Vert Bask1 1.7 2.6 3.8 5.2 6.7 8.4 10.0 15.0 20.0 26.0 32.0 37.0 44.0 52.0 Dia. () e e f 1 1 1 1d 1
1 2 2

Const. 6x19 6x19 2 6x19 2 6x19 2 6x19 2 6x19 2 6x19 2 6x19 2 6x37 2 6x37 2 6x37

Vert. 0.92 2.0 3.6 5.6 8.0 11.0 14.0 18.0 21.0 25.0 29.0

Chk. 0.69 1.5 2.7 4.2 6.0 8.1 11.0 13.0 15.0 19.0 22.0

Vert Bask1 1.8 4.1 7.2 11.0 16.0 21.0 28.0 35.0 41.0 50.0 59.0

These Values apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater w here D = Diameter of the curcature around which rope is bent. d = Diameter of rope body

These Values apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where D = Diameter of the curcature around which rope is bent. d = Diameter of rope body 2 IWRC

TABLE 10.57-12 - Rated Capacities for Cable Laid Grommet - Hand Tucked 7x6x7 and 7x6x19 Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope 7x7x7 Construction Galvanized Aircraft Grade Rope
Rope Body Dia. () d 5/16 e d 9/16 e e 1-5/16 1c 15/16 1 1-11/16 1f 2 2e
1

TABLE 10.57-14 Rated Capacities for Cable Laid Endless Slings Mechanical Joint 7x7x7 & 7x7x19 Const. Galv. Aircft. Grade Rope 7x6x19 IWRC Const. Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope
Rope Body Dia. () d e e f 1 1c 1 f 1 1c 1 1d 1
1

Rated capacities (2,000 lb.) Vert. Chk. Vert Bask1

Const.

Rated capacities (2,000 lb.) Vert. Chk. Vert Bask1

Const.

7x6x7 7x6x7 7x6x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19 7x6x19

1.3 2.8 3.8 1.6 3.5 4.5 3.9 5.1 7.9 11.0 15.0 19.0 24.0 30.0 42.0 56.0

0.95 2.1 2.8 1.2 2.6 3.4 3.0 3.8 5.9 8.4 11.0 14.0 18.0 22.0 31.0 42.0

2.5 5.6 7.6 3.2 6.9 9.0 7.9 10.0 16.0 22.0 30.0 39.0 49.0 60.0 84.0 112.0

7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x7 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x7x19 7x7x19 2 7x6x19 2 7x6x19 2 7x6x19 2 7x6x19 2 7x6x19 2 7x6x19 2 7x6x19 2 7x6x19

0.83 1.8 3.0 4.5 6.3 4.7 6.7 8.9 11.0 14.0 17.0 6.2 8.3 10.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 22.0

0.62 1.3 2.3 3.4 4.7 3.5 5.0 6.6 8.5 10.0 12.0 4.7 6.2 7.9 9.7 12.0 14.0 16.0

1.6 3.5 6.1 9.1 12.0 9.5 13.0 18.0 22.0 28.0 33.0 12.0 16.0 21.0 26.0 31.0 37.0 43.0

Thes e Values apply when the D/d ratio is 5 or greater where D = Diameter of the curcature around which rope is bent. d = Diameter of rope body

These Values apply when the D/d rat io is 5 or greater where D = Diameter of the curcature around which rope is bent. d = Diameter of rope body 2 IWRC

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued Table 10.57-15 - Manila Rope Slings


RAT ED CAPACIT Y IN POUNDS (Safety Factor = 5) EYE AND EYE SLING ROPE DIAME T ER Nominal in Inches Nominal W eight per 100 ft in Pounds Minimum Breaking Strength in Pounds Angle of Rope to Vertical VERTICAL CH HITCH OKER HITCH 3 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Vertical CHO KER HITCH VERTICAL HITCH 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Horizontal Angle of Rope to Horizontal BASKET HIT CH ENDLESS SLING BASKET HIT CH

9/16 e 13/16 f 1 1-1/16 1c 1 1-5/16 1 1e 1 2 2c 2 2 2e

7.5 10.4 13.3 16.7

2,650 3,450 4,400 5,400

550 700 900 1,100 1,300 1,500 1,800 2,100 2,400 2,700 3,000 3,700 4,500 5,300 6,200 7,200 8,200 9,300 10,500

250 350 450 550 650 750 900 1,100 1,200 1,400 1,500 1,850

1,100 1,400 1,800 2,200 2,600 3,100 3,600 4,200 4,800 5,400 6,000 7,400

900 1,200 1,500 1,900 2,300 2,700 3,100 3,600 4,200 4,700 5,200 6,400

750 1,000 1,200 1,500 1,800 2,200 2,600 3,000 3,400 3,800 4,300 5,200

550 700 900 1,100 1,300 1,500 1,800 2,100 2,400 2,700 3,000 3,700 4,500 5,300 6,200 7,200 8,200 9,300 10,500

950 1,200 1,600 2,000 2,300 2,800 3,200 3,800 4,300 4,900 5,400 6,700 8,100 9,300 11,000 13,000 15,000 16,500 18,500

500 600 800 950 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,900 2,200 2,400 2,700 3,300 4,100 4,800 5,600 6,500 7,400 8,100 9,500

1,900 2,500 3,200 3,900 4,700 5,600 6,500 7,600 8,600 9,700 11,000 13,500 16,000 19,000 22,500 26,000 29,500 33,500 37,500

1,700 2,200 2,700 3,400 4,100 4,800 5,600 6,600 7,500 8,400 9,400 11,500 14,000 16,500 19,500 22,500

1,400 1,800 2,200 2,800 3,300 3,900 4,600 5,400 6,100 6,900 7,700 9,400 11,500 13,500 16,000 18,500

950 1,200 1,600 2,000 2,300 2,800 3,200 3,800 4,300 4,900 5,400 6,700 8,000 9,500 11,000 13,000 15,000 16,500 18,500

19.5 6,500 22.5 7,700 27.0 9,000 31.3 10,500 36.0 41.7 47.9 59.9 74.6 89.3 107.5 125.0 12,000 13,500 15,000 18,500 22,500 26,500 31,000 36,000

2,300 9,000 2,700 10,500 3,100 12,500 3,600 14,500 4,100 16,500 4,700 18,500 5,200 21,000

7,800 6,400 9,200 7,500 10,500 8,800 12,500 10,000 14,000 11,500 16,000 13,000 18,000 14,500

146.0 41,000 166.7 46,500 190.8 52,000

25,500 21,000 29,000 23,500 32,500 26,500

TABLE 10.57-16 Nylon Rope Slings


RAT ED CAPACIT Y IN POUNDS (Safety Factor = 5) EYE AND EYE SLING ROPE DIAME T ER Nominal in Inches Nominal W eight per 100 ft in Pounds Minimum Breaking Strength in Pounds Angle of Rope to Vertical CH OKER HITCH VERTICAL HITCH 3 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Vertical CHO KER HITCH VERTICAL HITCH 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Horizontal Angle of Rope to Horizontal BASKET HIT CH ENDLESS SLING BASKET HIT CH

9/16 e 13/16 f 1 1-1/16 1c 1 1-5/16 1 1e 1 2 2c 2 2 2e

6.5 6,080 8.3 7,600 10.5 9,880 14.5 13,490 17.0 20.0 26.0 29.0 34.0 40.0 45.0 55.0 68.0 83.0 95.0 109.0 16,150 19,000 23,750 27,360 31,350 35,625 40,850 50,350

700 850 1,100 1,500 1,800 2,100 2,600 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,600

350 400 550 750 900 1,100 1,300 1,500

1,400 1,700 2,200 3,000 3,600 4,200 5,300 6,100

1,200 1,500 1,900 2,600 3,100 3,700 4,600 5,300 6,000 6,900 7,500 9,700

950 1,200 1,600 2,100 2,600 3,000 3,700 4,300 5,000 5,600 6,400 7,900

700 850 1,100 1,500 1,800 2,100 2,600 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,600 6,900 8,200 9,700 11,000 13,000 15,000 17,000

1,200 1,500 2,000 2,700 3,200 3,800 4,800 5,500 6,300 7,100 8,200 10,000 12,500 15,000 17,500 20,000 24,000 26,500 31,000

600 750 1,000 1,400 1,600 1,900 2,400 2,700 3,100 3,600 4,100 5,000 6,200 7,400 8,700 10,000 12,000 13,500 15,500

2,400 3,000 4,000 5,400 6,400 7,600 9,500 11,000 12,500 14,500 16,500 20,000 24,500 29,500 35,000 40,500 47,500 53,000 61,500

2,100 2,600 3,400 4,700 5,600 6,600 8,200 9,500

1,700 2,200 2,800 3,800 4,600 5,400 6,700 7,700

1,200 1,500 2,000 2,700 3,200 3,800 4,800 5,500 6,300 7,100 8,200 10,000 12,500 15,000 17,500 20,000 24,000 26,500 31,000

1,700 7,000 2,000 7,900 2,300 9,100 2,800 11,000 3,400 4,100 4,900 5,600 13,500 16,500 19,500 22,500

11,000 8,900 12,500 10,000 14,000 12,000 17,500 14,000 21,500 27,500 30,500 35,000 17,500 21,000 24,500 28,500

6,900 61,750 8,200 74,000 9,700 87,400 100,700 11,000

12,000 9,700 14,500 11,500 17,000 13,500 19,500 16,000 23,000 18,500 25,500 21,000 29,500 24,000

129.0 118,750 13,000 149.0 132,000 15,000 169.0 153,900 17,100

6,600 26,500 7,400 29,500 8,600 34,000

41,000 33,500 46,000 37,500 53,500 43,500

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-17 - Polyester Rope Strings


RAT ED CAPACIT Y IN POUNDS (Safety Factor = 9) EYE AND EYE SLING ROPE DIAME T ER Nominal in Inches Nominal W eight per 100 ft in Pounds Minimum Breaking Strength in Pounds Angle of Rope to Vertical VERTICAL CH HITCH OKER HITCH 3 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Vertical CHO KER HITCH VERTICAL HITCH 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Horizontal Angle of Rope to Horizontal BASKET HIT CH ENDLESS SLING BASKET HIT CH

9/16 e 13/16 f 1 1-1/16 1c 1 1-5/16 1 1e 1 2 2c 2 2 2e

8.0 6,080 10.2 7,600 13.0 9,500 17.5 11,875 21.0 25.0 30.5 34.5 40.0 46.3 52.5 66.8 82.0 98.0 118.0 135.0 14,725 17,100 20,900 24,225 28,025 31,540 35,625 44,460 54,150 64,410 76,000 87,400

700 850 1,100 1,300 1,600 1,900 2,300 2,700 3,100 3,500 4,000 4,900 6,000 7,200 8,400 9,700

350 400 550 650 800 950 1,200 1,300 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,600 4,200 4,900

1,400 1,700 2,100 2,600 3,300 3,800 4,600 5,400 6,200 7,000 7,900 9,900 12,000 14,500 17,000 19,500

1,200 1,500 1,800 2,300 2,800 3,300 4,000 4,700 5,400 6,100 6,900 8,600

950 1,200 1,500 1,900 2,300 2,700 3,300 3,800 4,400 5,000 5,600 7,000

700 850 1,100 1,300 1,600 1,900 2,300 2,700 3,100 3,500 4,000 4,900 6,000 7,200 8,400 9,700 11,500 13,000 14,500

1,200 1,500 1,900 2,400 2,900 3,400 4,200 4,800 5,600 6,300 7,100 8,900 11,000 13,000 15,000 17,500 20,500 23,000 26,000

600 750 950 1,200 1,500 1,700 2,100 2,400 2,800 3,200 3,600 4,400 5,400 6,400 7,600 8,700 10,000 11,500 13,000

2,400 3,000 3,800 4,800 5,900 6,800 8,400 9,700 11,000 12,500 14,500 18,000 21,500 26,000 30,500 55,000 40,500 46,500 52,000

2,100 2,600 3,300 4,100 5,100 5,900 7,200 8,400

1,700 2,200 2,700 3,400 4,200 4,800 5,900 6,900

1,200 1,500 1,900 2,400 2,900 3,400 4,200 4,800 5,600 6,300 7,100 8,900 11,000 13,000 15,000 17,500 20,500 23,000 26,000

9,700 7,900 11,000 8,900 12,500 10,000 15,500 12,500 19,000 22,500 26,500 30,500 15,500 18,000 21,500 24,500

10,400 8,500 12,500 10,000 14,500 12,000 17,000 13,500 19,500 16,000 22,500 18,000 25,000 20,500

157.0 101,650 11,500 181.0 115,900 13,000 205.0 130,150 14,500

5,700 22,500 6,400 26,000 7,200 29,000

35,000 29,000 40,000 33,000 45,000 37,000

TABLE 10.57-18 - Polypropylrnr Rope Slings


RAT ED CAPACIT Y IN POUNDS (Safety Factor = 5) EYE AND EYE SLING ROPE DIAME T ER Nominal in Inches Nominal W eight per 100 ft in Pounds Minimum Breaking Strength in Pounds Angle of Rope to Vertical CH OKER HITCH VERTICAL HITCH 3 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Vertical CHO KER HITCH VERTICAL HITCH 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. 0 deg. 30 deg. 45 deg. 60 deg. Angle of Rope to Horizontal Angle of Rope to Horizontal BASKET HIT CH ENDLESS SLING BASKET HIT CH

9/16 e 13/16 f 1 1-1/16 1c 1 1-5/16 1 1e 1 2 2c 2 2 2e

4.7 6.1 7.5 10.7

3,990 4,845 5,890 8,075

650 800 1,000 1,300 1,600 1,800 2,200 2,500 2,900 3,300 3,700 4,700

350 400 500 700 800 900 1,100 1,300 1,500 1,700 1,900 2,400

1,300 1,600 2,000 2,700 3,100 3,600 4,400 5,100 5,800 6,700 7,400 9,400

1,200 1,400 1,700 2,300 2,700 3,200 3,800 4,400 5,000 5,800 6,400 8,100

950 1,100 1,400 1,900 2,200 2,600 3,100 3,600 4,100 4,700 5,300 6,700

650 800 1,000 1,300 1,600 1,800 2,200 2,500 2,900 3,300 3,700 4,700

1,200 1,500 1,800 2,400 2,800 3,300 4,000 4,600 5,200 6,000 6,700 8,500

600 750 900 1,200 1,400 1,600 2,000 2,300 2,600 3,000 3,400 4,200

2,400 2,900 3,500 4,900 5,600 6,600 8,000 9,100 10,500 12,000 13,500 17,000

2,100 2,500 3,100 4,200 4,900 5,700 6,900 7,900

1,700 2,100 2,500 3,400 4,000 4,600 5,600 6,500

1,200 1,500 1,800 2,400 2,800 3,300 4,000 4,600 5,200 6,000 6,700 8,500

12.7 9,405 15.0 10,925 18.0 13,300 20.4 15,200 23.7 27.0 30.5 38.5 17,385 19,950 22,325 28,215

9,000 7,400 10,500 8,500 11,500 9,500 14,500 12,000

47.5 57.0 69.0 80.0

34,200 40,850 49,400 57,950

5,700 6,800 8,200 9,700 1,100 12,500 14,500

2,900 3,400 4,100 4,800

11,500 13,500 16,500 19,500

9,900 8,100 12,000 9,600 14,500 11,500 16,500 13,500 19,000 15,500 22,000 18,000 24,500 20,000

5,700 6,800 8,200 9,700 11,000 12,500 14,500

10,500 12,500 15,000 17,500 19,500 23,000 25,500

5,100 6,100 7,400 8,700 9,900 11,500 13,000

20,500 24,500 29,500 35,000 39,500 45,500 51,500

18,000 21,000 25,500 30,100

14,500 17,500 21,000 24,500

10,500 12,500 15,000 17,500 19,500 23,000 25,500

92.0 65,550 107.0 76,000 120.0 85,500

5,500 22,000 6,300 25,500 7,100 28,500

34,000 28,000 39,500 32,500 44,500 36,500

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.57: continued TABLE 10.57-19 - SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR SHACKLES (in tons of 2,000 pounds) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Material Size Pin Safe diameter working (inches) load S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q e f 1 1c 1 1d 1 1 2 e f 1 1c 1 1d 1 1e 2 2 1.4 2.2 3.2 4.3 5.6 6.7 8.2 10.0 11.9 16.2 21.2

TABLE 10.57-20 - NUMBER AND SPACING OF U-BOLT WIRE ROPE CLIPS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Number of clips Improved plow steel rope diameter (inches) Minimum spacing (inches)

Drop Other forged material S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q e f 1 1c 1 1d 1 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9

10.58: Disposal of Waste Materials (1) Whenever materials are dropped more than 20' to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the building, an enclosed chute of wood, or equivalent material, shall be used. For the purpose of 454 CMR 10.58, an enclosed chute is a slide, closed in on allsides, through which materialis moved from a high place to a lower one.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

(2) When debris is dropped through holes in the floor without the use of chutes, the area onto which the material is dropped shall be completely enclosed with barricades not less than 42" high and not less than six feet back from the projected edge of the opening above. Signs warning of the hazard of falling materials shall be posted at each level. Removal shall not be permitted in this lower area until debris handling ceases above.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.58: continued (3) All scrap lumber, waste material, and rubbish shall be removed from the immediate work area as the work progresses. (4) Disposal of waste material or debris by burning shall comply with local fire regulations. (5) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire resistant covered containers until removed from worksite. (6) Chutes. (a) Specifications. Chutes provided for the removal of materials and which are at an angle or more than 45 with the horizontal, shall be entirely enclosed on allsides, except openings used for the receiving or discharging of material. 1. Such openings shallnot exceed 48"in height, measured along the wall of the chute, and all openings, except the top opening, shall be closed when not in use. 2. Chutes at an angle of 45 or less with the horizontal may be open on the upper side. 3. Chutes shall be designed and constructed of such strength as to eliminate failure due to impact of material or debris loaded therein. a. A strong gate shall be constructed at the lower end of every loading chute to control the loading of material into trucks. b. Splash boards or baffles shall be erected when required to prevent materials from rebounding. 4. A bumper curb not less than four inches by four inches in section shall be provided at each chute opening where such opening is level with or below the floor or platform. a. Every space between the chute and the edge of the opening in the floor or platform shall be solidly planked. 5. Danger signs shallbe placed in a conspicuous position at the discharge end of every chute to warn the workmen and public. PART 7: TOOLS - HAND AND POWER 10.65: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.66 through 10.71 Approved Tool. An explosive actuated tool, also known as tool, meeting the requirements of this section and acceptable to the Commissioner after testing by a nationally recognized testing agency when required. Explosive Load. Any substance in any form capable of producing a propellant force by application of energy created by the detonation or ignition of an explosive element in the substance and which is specifically designed and manufactured for use in the tool involved. Protective Shield of Guard. A device or guard attached to the muzzle end of the tool which is designed to confine flying particles. Qualified Instructor. A designated person who has completed an approved course of instruction, established by the manufacturer, designed to qualify him as an instructor of applicants for operators' cards in the safe use of explosive actuated fastening tools, pursuant to the requirements of 454 CMR 10.65. Qualified Operator. A designated person holding a valid "operator's card" issued pursuant to 454 10.68(5)(ee). Stud, Pin or Fastener. A fastening device specifically designed and manufactured for use in explosive actuated fastening tools.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.65: continued Tool Classifications. (a) High Velocity. A tool which, when used with an explosive load of a type specified by the manufacturer, propels or discharges a stud, pin, or fastener at velocities in excess of 300' per second, when measured six and one half feet from the muzzle end of the barrel by acceptable ballistic test methods for the purpose of impinging it upon, affixing it to, or penetrating another object or material. (b) Low Velocity: (Piston Type) A tool which, when used with an explosive load of a type specified by the manufacturer, utilizes a piston, designed to be captive, to drive a stud, pin or fastener into a work surface at velocities not in excess of 300' per second when measured six and one half feet from the muzzle end of the barrel by acceptable ballistic test methods. (c) Low Velocity. (Explosive Assisted Hammer Drive Type) A tool which by means of a heavy mass hammer supplemented by an explosive load of a type specified by the manufacturer propels a piston, designed to be captive, to drive a stud, pin or fastener, positioned at rest and in contact with the work surface into such surface at velocities not in excess of 300' per second when measured 6 feet from the muzzle end of the barrel by acceptable ballistic test methods. 10.66: General Requirements (1) Conditions of Tools. All hand and power tools and similar equipment, whether furnished by the employer or the employee, shall be maintained in a safe condition. (2) Guarding. When power operated tools are designed to accommodate guards, they shall be equipped with such guards when in use. (a) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating or moving parts of equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements as set forthin American National Standards Institute, B15.1-1984 (R1958), SafetyCode for Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus. (3) Personal Protective Equipment. Employees using hand and power tools and exposed to the hazard of falling, flying, abrasive, and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases shall be provided with the particular personal protective equipment necessary to protect them from the hazard. All personal protective equipment shall meet the requirements and be maintained according to 454 CMR 10.05 through 10.27. (4) Switches. All hand-held powered platen sanders, grinders with wheels two-inch diameter or less, routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws, and jigsaws with blade shanks of an inch wide or less may be equipped with only a positive "on-off" control. (a) Allhand-held powered drills, tappers, fastener drives, horizontal, vertical, and angle grinders with wheels greater than two inches in diameter, disc sanders, belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and othersimilaroperating powered tools shall be equipped with a momentary contact "on- off" control and may have a lock-on controlprovided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on. (b) All other hand-held powered tools, such as circular saws, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means, shall be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released. c) Exception: 454 CMR 10.66(4) does not apply to concrete vibrators, concrete breakers, powered tampers, jack hammers, rock drills, and similar hand operated power tools. 10.67: Hand Tools (1) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.67: continued (2) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs. (3) Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads. (4) The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool. 10.68: Power-Operated Hand Tools (1) Electric Power-Operated Tools. Electric power operated tools shall either be of the approved double-insulated type or grounded in accordance with 454 CMR 10.90 through 10.94. The use of electric cords for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted. (2) Pneumatic Power Tools. Pneumatic power tools shall be secured to the hose or whip by some positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected. (a) Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact (percussion) tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled. (b) All pneumatically driven nailers, staplers, and other similar equipment provided with automatic fastener feed, which operate at more than 100 p.s.i. pressure at the tool shall have a safety device on the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting fasteners, unless the muzzle is in contact with the work surface. (c) Compressed air shall not be used for cleaning purposes except where reduced to less than 30 p.s.i. and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment which meets the requirements of 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.27. The 30 p.s.i. requirement does not apply for concrete form, mill scale and similar cleaning purposes. (d) The manufacturer's safe operating pressure for hoses, pipes, valves, filters, and other fittings shall not be exceeded. (e) The use of hoses for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted. (f) All hoses exceeding inch inside diameter shall have a safety device at the source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure. (g) Airless spray guns of the type which atomize paints and fluids at high pressures (1,000 pounds or more per square inch) shall be equipped with automatic or visible manual safety devices which will prevent pulling of the trigger to prevent release of the paint or fluid until the safety device is manually released. (h) In lieu of the above, a diffuser nut which will prevent high pressure, high velocity release, while the nozzle tip is removed, plus a nozzle tip guard which will prevent the tip from coming into contact with the operator, or other equivalent protection, shall be provided. (i) Abrasive Blast Cleaning Nozzles. The blast cleaning nozzles shall be equipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually. A support shall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use. (3) Fuel Powered Tools. All fuel powered tools shall be stopped while being refueled, serviced, or maintained, and fuel shall be transported, handled, and stored in accordance with 454 CMR 10.34 through 10.39. When fuel powered tools are used in enclosed spaces, the applicable requirements for concentrations oftoxic gases and use of personal protective equipment, as outlined in 454 CMR 10.05 through 10.27 shall apply. (4) Hydraulic Power Tools. The fluid used in hydraulic powered tools shall be fire-resistant fluids approved under Schedule 30 of the U.S.Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, and shall retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed. The manufacturer's safe operating pressures for hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings shall not be exceeded.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.68: continued (5) Use of Explosive Actuated Fastening Tools. (a) 454 CMR 10.68(5) provides safety requirements for a tool which, by explosive actuation or by any similar means, propels a stud, pin, fastener or other object for the purpose of affixing it by penetration to any other object. 454 CMR 10.68(5)(a)1. does not apply to tools or devices designed for attaching objects to soft construction materials suchas wood, plaster, tar, dry wallboard and the like, or to stud welding equipment. (b) Required Approval. Only tools approved by the Commissioner shall be permitted for use. 1. Numbering. Each approved tool shall legibly bear a permanent indication as to its model number which shall serve as a means of identification for checking approved tools. 2. Each approved tool shall bear a permanent and unique manufacturer's serial number. (c) High Velocity Tools. High velocity tools shall have characteristics outlined below and, at the discretion of the manufacturer, any additional safety features he may wish to incorporate. 1. The muzzle end of the tool shall have a protective shield or guard at least three and a half inches in diameter, mounted perpendicular to and concentric with the barrel, and designed to confine any flying fragments or particles that might otherwise create a hazard at the time of firing. 2. Where a standard shield or guard cannot be used, or where it does not cover all apparent avenues through which flying particles might escape, a special shield or guard, fixture, or jig, designed and built by the manufacturer of the tool being used, which provides this degree of protection, shall be used as a substitute. 3. The tool shall be so designed that it cannot be fired unless it is equipped with a standard protective shield or guard, or a special shield guard, fixture or jig. 4. The firing mechanism shall be so designed that the tool cannot fire during loading or preparation to fire, or if the tool is dropped while loaded. 5. Firing of the tool shall be dependent upon at least two separate and distinct operations of the operator, with the final firing movement being separate from the operation of bringing the tool into the firing position. 6. The tool shall be so designed as not to be operable other than against a work surface, and unless the operator is holding the tool against the work surface with a force of at least five lbs. greater than the total weight of the tool. 7. The tool shall be so designed that it will not operate when equipped with the standard guard indexed to the center position if any bearing surface of the guard is tilted more than eight degrees from contact with the work surface. (d) Low Velocity Tools: (Piston Type). Low velocity tools of the piston type shall have characteristics outlined below and, at the discretion of the manufacturer, any additional safety features he may wish to incorporate. 1. The muzzle end of the tool shall be designed so that suitable protective shields, guards, jigs, or fixtures, designed and built by the manufacturer of the tool being used, can be mounted perpendicular to the barrel. 2. The tool shall be designed so that it shall not propel or discharge a stud, pin, or fastener while loading or during preparation to fire, or if the tool is dropped while loaded. 3. Firing of the tool shall be dependent upon at least two separate and distinct operations of the operator, with the final firing movement being separate from the operation of bringing the tool into the firing position. 4. The tool shall be so designed as not to be operable other than against a work surface, and unless the operator is holding the tool against the work surface with a force of at least five pounds greater than the total weight of the tool. (e) Low Velocity Tools: (Explosive Assisted Hammer-drive Type). Low velocity tools of the explosive assisted hammer-drive type shall have characteristics outlined below and, at the discretion of the manufacturer, any additional safety features he may wish to incorporate.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.68: continued 1. The muzzle end of the tool shall be designed so that suitable protective shields, guards, jigs, or fixtures, designed and built by the manufacturer of the tool being used, can be mounted perpendicular to the barrel. 2. The tool shall be designed so that it shall not propel or discharge a stud, pin, or fastener while loading or during preparation to fire, or if the tool is dropped while loaded. 3. The firing mechanism shall be designed to be insensitive except to a heavy hammer blow (in excess of three ft./lbs.). It shall consist of a broad firing surface on which the explosive load impinges, the explosive load beingcontained in the power ram struck by the hammer, the actual firing point of the explosive load being variable axially and determined by the length of the fastener used. 4. Firing of the toolshall be dependent upon at least two separate and distinct operations of the operator, with the final firing movement being separate from the operation of bringing the tool into the firing position. (f) Construction. All tools shall be so designed that all parts of the tool will be of adequate strength to resist maximum stresses expected upon firing, when using any commercially available explosive load of a type specified by the manufacturer. (g) Variable Power. All tools shallbe so designed that positive means of varying the power are available, or can be made available, to the operator as part of the tool, or as an auxiliary, in order to make it possible for the operator to select a power level adequate to perform the desired work without excessive force. (h) Inspection. All tools shall be so designed that all breaching parts shall be reasonably visible to allow a check for any foreign matter that may be present. (i) Explosive Load Identification. A standard means of identifying the strength of explosive load charges contained in the various cartridges to be used in all tools shall be used as follows: 1. The explosive load strength shall be described by load numbers ranging from one to 12 with the strengths increasing in steps as the load numbers increase. 2. Color identification as provided herein shall be placed on the cartridge or wadding of each explosive load. The cartridge case color for load numbers one through six shall be brass and the cartridge case color load numbers seven through 12 shall be nickel. 3. The load color in combination with the cartridge case color shall identify each explosive load strength as shown in the following table: TABLE 10.68-1 Color Identification Cartridge Case Color Brass Brass Brass Brass Brass Brass Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel

Load Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 12

Load Color Gray Brown Green Yellow Red Purple Gray Brown Green Yellow Red Purple

(j) Optional Identification. Where means other than the size of the charge in explosive load charges are to be used to control the penetration, an identification method acceptable to the Commissioner shall be employed. (k) Explosive Load Containers. Separate containers shall be used for explosive loads of the various strengths. At least one panel of each such container shall be clearly marked with an explosive load dial not less than 1 d" in diameter.

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10.68: continued 1. This explosive load dial shall display the load number with a properly located pointer on the appropriate color background in accordance with the explosive load table shown in 454 CMR 10.68(5)(i)3. 2. In addition, the explosive load caliber and identification of color in writing, i.e. gray, brown, green, etc., shall be clearly shown. Example: Container marking for No. 5 explosive load (exact size recommended). FIGURE 10.68-1

Note: Explosive loads for Piston-Type Low Velocity and Explosive Assisted Hammer-Drive Tools shall also be color coded to identify their charges in accordance with the uniform system on preceding page. (l) Restricted Use of Fasteners. All studs or other fasteners used in tools shall be only those specifically manufactured for use in such tools. (m) Inspection. Before using tool, the operator shall inspect it to determine to his satisfaction that it is clean, that all moving parts operate freely, and that the barrel is free from obstruction. (n) Tool Handling. No tool shall be loaded unless being prepared for immediate use. Loaded tools shall never be left unattended. (o) Protection of Operator. No operator shall use a tool unless he is wearing approved safety goggles or safety glasses which shall be provided by the direct employer. (p) Defect During Use. When a tool develops a defect during use, the operator shall immediately cease to use it, and contact competent service personnel to make whatever repairs may be necessary. (q) Misfires. In case of a misfire, the operator shall hold the tool in the operating position for at least 15 seconds. He shall then try to operate the tool a second time. He shall wait another 15 seconds, holding the tool in the operating position; then he shall proceed to remove the power load in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Misfired cartridges shall be placed carefully in a metal container filled with water until properly disposed of. (r) Safeguarding and Storage. All tools, explosive loads and fasteners shall never be left unattended in a place where they would be available to unauthorized persons. They shall be stored in a locked area. (s) Servicing. Tools in use shall be tested by a designated person each day before loading to see that safety devices are in proper working condition.

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10.68: continued 1. Method oftestingshallbe in accordance with the manufacturer's recommended procedure. 2. Any tool not found in proper working order shall be immediately removed from service and not used until proper repairs are made. 3. The owner of the tool shall have it inspected at regular intervals as recommended by the tool manufacturer, serviced by a designated person, and shall not permit it to be altered or repaired except by competent repair men. (t) Explosive Atmosphere. Tools shall not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere. (u) Restricted Materials. Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including, but not limited to, cast iron, glazed tile, surface hardened steel, glass block, live rock, face brick, or hollow tile. (v) Piercing of Materials. Driving into soft materials shall be avoided unless they are backed by a substance that will prevent the pin or fastener from passing completely through and creating a flying missile hazard on the other side. (w) Distance from Edge. Fasteners shall not be driven directly into materials such as brick or concrete closer than three inches from the unsupported edge or corner, or into steel surfaces closer than inch from the unsupported edge or corner, unless a special guard, fixture, or jig is used. When fastening other materials, such as a two inches x four inches wood section to a concrete surface, it is permissible to drive a fastener of no greater than 7/32" shank diameter not closer than two inches from the unsupported edge or corner of the work surface. (x) Pre-drilled Holes. Fasteners shallnot be driven through existing holes unless a positive guide is used to secure accurate alignment. (y) Spalling. No fastener shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening. (z) Guards, Shields, and Attachments. All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment recommended by the manufacturer. (aa) Operator to Know Conditions. The operator shall not fire a fastener into a surface unless he is assured to his own satisfaction that there is no person on the opposite side of such surface who will be endangered in event of accidental complete penetration of such surface. (bb) Bystanders. The person in charge of the work on which a tool is used shall take measures to insure that it is used only in such manner and in such places as will not endanger persons who may be in the vicinity. (cc) Pointing or Holding. No operator shall at any time point a tool, whether loaded or unloaded, at any person. (dd) Minimum Requirements. Every user of explosive actuated fastening tools shall have the following qualifications: 1. He shall be able to use the tool effectively under varying conditions and to disassemble, clean and reassemble its normally removable parts correctly. 2. He shall be able to recognize worn or defective parts of defective operation and be capable of selecting proper explosive loads and fasteners for the work involved. 3. He shall be familiar with and be able to demonstrate his knowledge of the requirements of 454 CMR 10.68 to the satisfaction of the Commissioner, when required. (ee) Training and Testing. The tool operator shall be permitted to operate an explosive actuated fastening tool only when in possession of an operator's card issued personally to him by a qualified instructor. 1. The training conducted by a qualified instructor shall result in qualifying the operator to meet the minimum requirements specified in 454 CMR 10.68(5)(dd). 2. Testing of the operator, by a qualified instructor to determine his competence, shall consist of actual operation of the tool and written tests of a type approved by the Commissioner. Each applicant's test papers shall be preserved by the qualified instructor for review by the Commissioner, if required. (ff) Description of Card. The purpose of the Operator's Card is to certify that the operator has completed the required training to become a qualified operator.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.68: continued 1. The card shall be of a convenient size (approximately two inches x three inches) which will readily fit into a wallet. 2. The face of the card should include the following or equivalent text: QUALIFIED OPERATOR - EXPLOSIVE ACTUATED FASTENING TOOL a t

S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))Q O p e r a t o r ' s C a r d N u m b e r

S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))Q This certifies that (name of operator) has received the required training in the operation of explosive actuated fastening tools manufactured by (name of manufacturer). S ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ))))))))))))Q S)))))))))))))))))))))Q S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))Q Qualified Instructor (Signature) 3. There shall be a signed statement on the card by the holder to the effect: "I have received the required instruction in the safe operation of explosive actuated fastening tools of the makes and models specified and I agree to conform to the rules and regulations governing their use." (gg) Method of Issuance of Card. The manufacturer of a tool shall establish an appropriate program to instruct personnel of its various employees, dealers and distributors, or qualified instructors in the proper technical training and testing of operators and issuance of operator's cards in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.68(5)(ee). Operator's Cards, with respect to tools of a particular manufacturer, may be issued to persons entitled thereto, as herein above provided, by either: 1. A dealer or distributor of such tools, who has been authorized by the toolmanufacturer to issue such cards; or 2. By employees of such tool manufacturer who are so authorized by such tool manufacturer; or 3. By qualified instructors. (hh) Revocation of Card. Failure to comply with any or all rules and regulations herein contained shall be sufficient cause for the immediate revocation of an Operator's Card, and shall be surrendered upon demand of the Commissioner. 10.69: Abrasive Wheels and Tools (1) Power. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation. (2) Guarding. Grinding machines shall be equipped with safety guards in conformance with the requirements of American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1978, Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, and 454 CMR 10.69(4). (3) Use of Abrasive Wheels. Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximumangular exposure of M o d e l( s )

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall be not more than 90, except that when work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, the angular exposure shall not exceed 125. In either case, the exposure shall begin not more than 65 above the horizontal plane of the spindle. Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a bursting wheel. (a) Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests which are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Such work rests shall be kept at a distance not to exceed c inch from the surface of the wheel.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.69: continued (b) Cup type wheels used for external grinding shall be protected by either a revolving cup guard or a band type guard in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1978 SafetyCode for the Use, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels. Allother portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.69(3)(d), except as follows: 1. When the work location makes it impossible, a wheel equipped with safety flanges, as described in 454 CMR 10.69(3)(e), shall be used; 2. When wheels two inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used. (c) Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided with safety flanges (protection flanges) meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.69(3)(e), except as follows: 1. When wheels two inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used; 2. If the wheel is entirely within the work being ground while in use. (d) When safety guards are required, they shall be so mounted as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the guard and its fastenings shallbe of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the wheel in case of accidental breakage. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180. (e) When safety flanges are required, they shall be used only with wheels designed to fit the flanges. Only safety flanges, of a type and design and properly assembled so as to ensure that the pieces of the wheel will be retained in case of accidental breakage, shall be used. (f) All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring-tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects. (g) Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place. (h) All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by eye protection equipment in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.23, except when adequate eye protection is afforded by eye shields which are permanently attached to the bench or floor stand. (4) Other Requirements. All abrasive wheels and tools used by employees shall meetother applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, B7.1-1978, Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels. 10.70 Woodworking Tools (1) Disconnect Switches. All fixed power driven woodworking tools shall be provided with a disconnect switch that can either be locked or tagged in the off position. (2) Speeds. The operating speed shall be etched or otherwise permanently marked on all circular saws over 20" in diameter or operating at over 10,000 peripheral feet per minute. Any saw so marked shall not be operated at a speed other than that marked on the blade. When a marked saw is retensioned for a different speed, the marking shall be corrected to show the new speed. (3) Self-Feed. Automatic feeding devices shall be installed on machines whenever the nature of the work will permit. Feeder attachments shall have the feed rolls or other moving parts covered or guarded so as to protect the operator from hazardous points. (4) Guarding. All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard shall automatically and instantly return to the covering position.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.70: continued (5) Personal Protective Equipment. All personal protective equipment provided for use shall conform to 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.24. (6) General Requirements for Saw Stations. (a) Station Security. Stationary power-driven saws shall be securely installed on firm and level foundations prior to operation. Adequate footing and space to maneuver shall be provided for operators. (b) Supervision. Allwork performed at stationary power-driven saw stations shall be under the supervision of a designated person. 1. Such designated person shall assure that all machinery is carefully inspected and tested prior to use and that all guards and grounding are properly secured in place and functioning properly. 2. Such designated person shallassure that subordinate operators are thoroughly familiar with the correct and safe use of the machines and are provided, when required, with approved eye protection. (c) Installation. All equipment and machinery in use at stationary power-driven saw stations shall be installed, maintained and used in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications and instructions for servicing. 1. When servicing operations require removal of guarding devices, all such devices shall be re-installed prior to re-activation of the machine. 2. Such servicing shall be performed only after the power of transmission has been shut off and locked out. (d) Housekeeping. Debris and residue material from cutting operations shall not be allowed to accumulate in the area to an extent that an unsafe footing hazard is created. Such residue shall be removed daily or more frequently as required. (e) Lighting. Allsaw stations shall be adequately lighted in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.11. (f) Constant Attendance. At no time shall power-driven saws be left running unattended. (g) Other Requirements. All woodworking tools and machinery shall meet other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, 01.1-1975, Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery. 10.71 Jacks - Lever and Ratchet, Screw, and Hydraulic (1) General Requirements. The manufacturer's rated capacity shall be legibly marked on all jacks and shall not be exceeded. All jacks shall have a positive stop to prevent overtravel. (2) Lift Slab Construction. Hydraulic jacks used in lift slab construction shall have a safety device which will cause the jacks to support the load in any position in the event the jack malfunctions. If lift slabs are automatically controlled, a device shall be installed which will stop the operation when the inch leveling tolerance is exceeded. (3) Blocking. When it is necessary to provide a firm foundation, the base of the jack shall be blocked or cribbed. Where there is a possibility of slippage of the metal cap of the jack, a wood block shall be placed between the cap and the load. (4) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an adequate antifreeze liquid. (5) All jacks shall be properly lubricated at regular intervals. The lubricating instructions of the manufacturer shall be followed, and only lubricants recommended by him should be used. (6) Each jack shall be thoroughly inspected at times which depend upon the service conditions. Inspections shall be not less frequent than the following: (a) For constant or intermittent use at one locality, once every 6 months, (b) For jacks sent out of shop for special work, when sent out and when returned.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.71: continued (c) For a jack subjected to abnormal load or shock, immediately before and immediately thereafter. (d) Repair or replacement parts shall be examined for possible defects. (e) Jacks which are out of order shall be tagged accordingly, and shall not be used until repairs are made. (7) Loads. When the load has been lifted to the desired height, blocking or cribbing shall immediately be placed under it. (8) Supervision. The use of jacks shall at all times be under the direct supervision of a designated person. PART 8: WELDING AND CUTTING 10.78: Gas Welding and Cutting (1) Transporting, Moving, and Storing Compressed Gas Cylinders. Valve protection caps shall be in place and secured. (a) When cylinders are hoisted, they shall be secured on a cradle, sling-board, or pallet. They shall not be hoisted or transported by means of magnets or choker slings. (b) Cylinders shallbe moved by tilting and rolling them on their bottom edges. They shall not be intentionally dropped, struck, or permitted to strike each other violently. (c) When cylinders are transported by powered vehicles, they shall be secured in a vertical position. (d) Valve protection caps shall not be used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to another. Bars shall not be used under valves or valve protection caps to pry cylinders loose when frozen. Warm, not boiling, water shall be used to thaw cylinders loose. (e) Unless cylinders are firmly secured on a special carrier intended for this purpose, regulators shall be removed and valve protection caps put in place before cylinders are moved. (f) A suitable cylinder truck, chain, or other steady device shall be used to keep cylinders from being knocked over while in use. (g) When work is finished, when cylinders are empty, or when cylinders are moved at any time, the cylinder valve shall be closed. (h) Compressed gas cylinders shall be secured in an upright position at all times except, if necessary, for short periods of time while cylinders are actually being hoisted or carried. (2) Placing Cylinders. Cylinders shall be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operation so that sparks, hot slag, or flame will not reach them. When this is impractical, fire resistant shields shall be provided. (a) Cylinders shall be placed where they cannot become part of an electricalcircuit. Electrodes shall not be struck against a cylinder to strike an arc. (b) Fuel gas cylinders shall be placed with valve end up whenever they are in use. They shallnot be placed in a location where they would be subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat. (c) Cylinders containing oxygen or acetylene or other fuel gas shall not be taken into confined spaces. (3) Treatment of Cylinders. Cylinders, whether full or empty, shall not be used as rollers or supports. (a) No person other than the gas supplier shall attempt to mix gases in a cylinder. No one except the owner of the cylinder or person authorized by him, shall refill a cylinder. No one shall use a cylinder's contents for purposes other than those intended by the supplier. All cylinders used shall meet the Department of Transportation requirements published in 49 CFR Part 178, for Cylinders. (b) No damaged or defective cylinder shall be used.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.78: continued (4) Use of Fuel Gas. The employer shall thoroughly instruct employees in the safe use of fuelgas, as follows: (a) Before a regulator to a cylinder valve is connected, the valve shall be opened slightly and closed immediately. (This action is generally termed "cracking" and is intended to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise enter the regulator.) The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder shall not be cracked where the gas would reach welding work, sparks, flame, or other possible sources of ignition. (b) The cylinder valve shall always be opened slowly to prevent damage to the regulator. For quick closing, valves on fuel gas cylinders shall not be opened more than 1 turns. When a special wrench is required, it shall be left in position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in use so that the fuel gas flow can be shut off quickly in case of an emergency. In the case of manifolded or coupled cylinders, at least one such wrench shall always be available for immediate use. Nothing shall be placed on top of a fuel gas cylinder, when in use, which may damage the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve. (c) Fuel gas shall not be used from cylinders through torches or other devices which are equipped with shutoff valves without reducing the pressure through a suitable regulator attached to the cylinder valve or manifold. (d) Check Valves. A check valve of flash back arrester shall be installed after the cylinder regulator, or before torch coupling.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.78: continued

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

Check valves are opened wide for full flow at only 4 oz. of pressure. But if Reverse Flow starts - the valve closes instantly...with total shut off at only ten ounces of back pressure!

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.78: continued (e) Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve shall always be closed and the gas released from the regulator. (f) If, when the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened, there is found to be a leak around the valve stem, the valve shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If this action does not stop the leak, the use of the cylinder shall be discontinued, and it shall be properly tagged and removed from the work area. In the event that fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve, rather than from the valve stem, and the gas cannot be shut off, the cylinder shall be properly tagged and removed fromthe work area. If a regulator attached to a cylinder valve will effectively stop a leak through the valve seat, the cylinder need not be removed from the work area. (g) If a leak should develop at a fuse plug or other safety device, the cylinder shall be removed from the work area. (5) Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds (a) Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall bear the name of the substance they contain in letters at least one inch high which shall be either painted on the manifold or on a sign permanently attached to it. (b) Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall be placed in safe, well ventilated, and accessible locations. They shall not be located within enclosed spaces. (c) Manifold hose connections, including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the manifold, shall be such that the hose cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and oxygen manifolds and supply header connections. Adapters shall not be used to permit the interchange of hose. Hose connections shall be kept free of grease and oil. (d) When not in use, manifold and header hose connections shall be capped. (e) Nothing shallbe placed on top of a manifold, when in use, which will damage the manifold or interfere with the quick closing of the valves. (6) Hose. (a) Fuelgas hose and oxygen hose shall be easily distinguishable from each other. The contrast may be made by different colors or by surface characteristics readily distinguishable by the sense of touch. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses shall not be interchangeable. A single hose having more than one gas passage shall not be used. (b) When parallel sections of oxygen and fuel gas hose are taped together, not more than four inches out of 12" shall be covered by tape. (c) All hose in use, carrying acetylene, oxygen, natural or manufactured fuel gas, or any gas substance which may ignite or enter into combustion, or be in any way harmful to employees, shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift. Defective hose shall be removed from service. (d) Hose which has been subject to flashback, or which shows evidence of severe wear or damage, shall be tested to twice the normal pressure to which it is subject, but in no case less than 300 p.s.i. Defective hose, or hose in doubtful condition, shall not be used. (e) Hose couplings shall be of the type that cannot be unlocked or disconnected by means of a straight pull without rotary motion. (f) Boxes used for the storage of gas hose shall be ventilated. (g) Hoses, cables, and other equipment shall be kept clear of passageways, ladders and stairs. (7) Torches. Clogged torch tip openings shall be cleaned with suitable cleaning wires, drills, or other devices designed for such purpose. (a) Torches in use shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift for leaking shutoff valves, hose couplings, and tip connections. Defective torches shall not be used. (b) Torches shall be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices, and not by matches or from hot work. (8) Regulators and Gauges. Oxygen and fuel gas pressure regulators, including their related gauges, shall be in proper working order while in use.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.78: continued (9) Oil and Grease Hazards. Oxygen cylinders and fittings shall be kept away from oil or grease. Cylinders, cylinder caps and valves, couplings, regulators, hose, and apparatus shall be kept free from oil or greasy substances and shall not be handled with oily hands or gloves. Oxygen shall not be directed at oily surfaces, greasy clothes, or within a fuel oil or other storage tank or vessel. (10) Additional Rules. For additional details not covered in this part, applicable technical portions of American National Standards Institute, Z49.1-1983, Safety in Welding and Cutting, shall apply. 10.79 Arc Welding and Cutting (1) Manual Electrode Holders. Only manual electrode holders which are specifically designed for arc welding and cutting, and are of a capacity capable of safely handling the maximum rated current required by the electrodes, shall be used. Any current-carrying parts passing through the portion of the holder which the arc welder or cutter grips in his hand, and the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder, shall be fully insulated against the maximum voltage encountered to ground. (2) Welding Cables and Connectors. All arc welding and cutting cables shall be of the completely insulated, flexible type, capable of handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress, taking into account the duty cycle under which the arc welder or cutter is working. (a) Only cable free from repair or splices for a minimum distance of ten feet from the cable end to which the electrode holder is connected shall be used, except that cables with standard insulated connectors or with splices whose insulating quality is equal to that of the cable are permitted. (b) When it becomes necessary to connect or splice lengths of cable one to another, substantial insulated connectors of a capacity at least equivalent to that of the cable shall be used. If connections are effected by means of cable lugs, they shall be securely fastened together to give good electrical contact, and the exposed metal parts of the lugs shall be completely insulated. (c) Cables in need of repair shall not be used. When a cable, other than the cable lead referred to in 454 CMR 10.79(2)(a), becomes worn to the extent of exposing bare conductors, the portion thus exposed shall be protected by means of rubber and friction tape or other equivalent insulation. (3) Ground Returns and Machine Grounding. A ground return cable shall have a safe current carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the specified maximum output capacity of the arc welding or cutting unit which it services. When a single ground return cable services more than one unit, its safe current-carrying capacity shall equal or exceed the total specified maximum output capacities of all the units which it services. (a) Pipelines containing gases or flammable liquids, or conduits containing electricalcircuits, shall not be used as a ground return. For welding on natural gas pipelines, the technical portions or regulations issued by the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety, 49 CFR Part 192, Minimum Federal Safety Standards for Gas Pipelines, shall apply. (b) When a structure or pipeline is employed as a ground return circuit, it shall be determined that the required electrical contact exists at all joints. The generation of an arc, sparks, or heat at any point shall cause rejection of the structures as a ground circuit. (c) When a structure or pipeline is continuously employed as a ground return circuit, all joints shall be bonded, and periodic inspections shall be conducted to ensure that no condition of electrolysis or fire hazard exists by virtue of such use. (d) The frames of all arc welding and cutting machines shall be grounded either through a third wire in the cable containing the circuit conductor or through a separate wire which is grounded at the source of the current. Grounding circuits, other than by means of the structure, shall be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor has resistance low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current.

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10.79: continued (e) All ground connections shall be inspected to ensure that they are mechanically strong and electrically adequate for the required current. (4) Operating Instructions. Employers shallinstruct employees in the safe means of arc welding and cutting as follows: (a) When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes shall be removed and the holders shall be so placed or protected that they cannot make electrical contact with employees or conducting objects. (b) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water; to do so may expose the arc welder or cutter to electric shock. (c) When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to leave his work or to stop work for any appreciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting machine is to be moved, the power supply switch to the equipment shall be opened. (d) Any faulty or defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor. (e) Other requirements, as outlined in Article 630, National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1987; ANSI C2-1984 (Rev. of 1968), Electric Welders, shall be used when applicable. (5) Shielding. Whenever practicable, all arc welding and cutting operations shall be shielded by noncombustible or flameproof screens which will protect employees and other persons working in the vicinity from the direct rays of the arc. Work Above Others. Unless unavoidable, welding or cutting operations shall not be performed above workers exposed to falling hot slag or oxide. When unavoidable, an incombustible shield shallbe provided between the work and the workers beneath. 10.80: Fire Prevention (1) When practical, objects to be welded, cut, or heated shall be moved to a designated safe location or, if the objects to be welded, cut, or heated cannot be readily moved, all movable fire hazards in the vicinity shall be taken to a safe place, or otherwise protected. (2) If the object to be welded, cut, or heated cannot be moved and if all the fire hazards cannot be removed, positive means shall be taken to confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards from them. (3) No welding, cutting, or heating shall be done where the application of flammable paints, or the presence of other flammable compounds, or heavy dust concentrations creates a hazard. (4) Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be immediately available in the work area and shall be maintained in a state of readiness for instant use. (5) When the welding, cutting, or heating operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire while the actual welding, cutting, or heating operation is being performed, and for a sufficient period of time after completion of the work to ensure that no possibility of fire exists. Such personnel shall be instructed as to the specific anticipated fire hazards and how the firefighting equipment provided is to be used. (6) When welding, cutting, or heating is performed on walls, floors, and ceilings, since direct penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to an adjacent area, the same precautions shall be taken on the opposite side as are taken on the side on which the welding is being performed.

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10.80: continued (7) For the elimination of possible fire in enclosed spaces as a result of gas escaping through leaking or improperly closed torch valves, the gas supply to the torch shall be positively shut off at some point outside the enclosed space whenever the torch is not to be used or whenever the torch is left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as during the lunch period. Overnight and at the change of shifts, the torch and hose shall be removed from the confined space. Open end fuel gas and oxygen hoses shall be immediately removed from enclosed spaces when they are disconnected from the torch or other gas-consuming device. (8) Except when the contents are being removed or transferred, drums, pails, and other containers which contain or have contained flammable liquids shall be kept closed. Empty containers shall be removed to a safe area apart from hot work operations or open flames. (9) Drums, containers, or hollow structures which have contained toxic of flammable substances shall, before welding, cutting, or heating is undertaken on them, either be filled with water or thoroughly cleaned of such substances and ventilated and tested. For welding, cutting and heating on steel pipelines containing natural gas, the pertinent portions or regulations issued by the Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety, 49 CFR Part 192, Minimum Federal Safety Standards for Gas Pipelines, shall apply. (10) Before heat is applied to a drum, container, or hollow structure, a vent or opening shall be provided for the release of any built-up pressure during the application of heat. Such containers shall be thoroughly purged of all residual liquid and vapor to assure complete neutralization of the hazardous atmosphere. (11) Special Precautions. When welding, cutting or heating operations are performed on tank shells, decks or metal partitions or walls, fire prevention precautions shall include possible exposed areas on the opposite side of the work. 10.81: Ventilation and Protection in Welding, Cutting, and Heating (1) MechanicalVentilation. For purposes of 454 CMR 10.81, mechanical ventilation shall meet the following requirements: (a) Mechanical ventilation shall consist of either general mechanical ventilation systems or local exhaust systems. (b) General mechanical ventilation shall be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to produce the number of air changes necessary to maintain welding fumes and smoke within safe limits, as defined in 454 CMR 10.10, 10.12, 10.24. (c) Local exhaust ventilation shall consist of freely movable hoods intended to be placed by the welder or burner as close as practicable to the work. This system shall be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to remove fumes and smoke at the source and keep the concentration of them in breathing zone within safe limits as defined in 454 CMR 10.10, 10.12, 10.24. (d) Contaminated air exhausted from a working space shall be discharged into the open air or otherwise clear of the source of intake air. (e) All air replacing that withdrawn shall be clean and respirable. (f) Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation purposes, comfort cooling, blowing dust from clothing, or for cleaning the work area. (2) Welding, Cutting, and Heating in Confined Spaces. Except as provided in 454 CMR 10.81(2)(a), and 454 CMR 10.81(4)(a) either general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.81(1) shall be provided whenever welding, cutting, or heating is performed in a confined space. When sufficient ventilation cannot be obtained without blocking the means of access, employees in the confined space shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.24 and an employee on the outside of such a confined space shall be assigned to maintain communication with those working within it and to aid them in an emergency.

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10.81: continued (3) When welding or cutting is being performed in any confined space the gas cylinders and welding machines shall be positioned on the outside. Heavy portable equipment mounted on wheels shall be securely blocked to prevent accidental movement. Hoses, cables and ventilating units shall not be positioned in a manner that would impede egress. (4) Welding, Cutting, or Heating of Metals of Toxic Significance. (a) Welding, cutting, or heating in any enclosed spaces involving the metals specified in 454 CMR 10.81(4)(a) shall be performed with either general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.81(1). 1. Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials; 2. Lead base metals; 3. Cadmium-bearing filler materials; 4. Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium- bearing materials. (b) Welding, cutting, or heating in any enclosed spaces involving the metals specified in 454 CMR 10.81(4)(b) shallbe performed with local exhaust ventilation in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.81(1) or employees shallbe protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.27. 1. Metals containing lead, other than as an impurity, or metals coated with lead-bearing materials; 2. Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals; 3. Metals coated with mercury-bearing metals; 4. Beryllium-containing base or filler metals. Because of its high toxicity, work involving beryllium shall be done with both local exhaust ventilation and air line respirators. (c) Employees performing such operations in the open air shall be protected by filter-type respirators in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.27 except that employees performing such operations on beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be protected by air line respirators in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.27. (d) Other employees exposed to the same atmosphere as the welders or burners shall be protected in the same manner as the welder or burner. (5) Inert-Gas Metal-Arc Welding. Since the inert-gas metal-arc welding process involves the production of ultra- violet radiation of intensities of five to 30 times that produced during shielded metal-arc welding, the decomposition of chlorinated solvents by ultraviolet rays, and the liberation of toxic fumes and gases, employees shall not be permitted to engage in, or be exposed to the process until the following special precautions have been taken: (a) The use of chlorinated solvents shall be kept at least 200', unless shielded, from the exposed arc, and surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry before welding is permitted on such surfaces. (b) Employees in the area not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by filter lenses meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.27. When two or more welders are exposed to each other's arc, filter lens goggles of a suitable type, meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.27 shallbe worn under welding helmets. Hand shields to protect the welder against flashes and radiant energy shall be used when either the helmet is lifted or the shield is removed. (c) Welders and other employees who are exposed to radiation shall be suitably protected so that the skin is covered completely to prevent burns and other damage by ultraviolet rays. Welding helmets and hand shields shall be free of leaks and openings, and free of highly reflective surfaces. (d) When inert-gas metal-arc welding is being performed on stainless steel, the requirements of 454 CMR 10.81(4)(b) shall be met to protect against dangerous concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. (6) General Welding, Cutting, and Heating. Welding, cutting, and heating, not involving conditions or materials described in 454 CMR 10.81(2), (4) or (5) may normally be done without mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment, but where, because of unusual physical or atmospheric conditions, an unsafe accumulation of contaminants exists, suitable mechanicalventilation or respiratory protective equipment shall be provided.

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10.81: continued Employees performing any type of welding, cutting, or heating shall be protected by suitable eye protective equipment in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.23. 10.82: Welding, Cutting, and Heating in Way of Preservative Coatings (1) Before welding, cutting, or heating is commenced on any surface covered by a preservative coating whose flammability is not known, a test shall be made by a competent person to determine its flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered to be highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity. (2) Precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings. When coatings are determined to be highly flammable, theyshall be stripped from the area to be heated to prevent ignition. (3) Protection against toxic preservative coatings. (a) In enclosed spaces, all surfaces covered with toxic preservatives shallbe stripped of all toxic coatings for a distance of at least four inches from the area of heat application, or the employees shall be protected by air line respirators, meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.24. (b) In the open air, employees shall be protected by a respirator, in accordance withrequirements of 454 CMR 10.24. (4) The preservative coatings shall be removed a sufficient distance from the area to be heated to ensure that the temperature of the unstripped metal will not be appreciably raised. Artificial cooling of the metalsurrounding the heating area may be used to limit the size of the area required to be cleaned. PART 9: ELECTRICAL 10.90: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.91 through 10.95 Bonding Jumper. A conductor to assure the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected. Branch Circuits. That portion of a wiring system extending beyond the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit. (A device not approved for branch circuit protection, such as thermalcutout or motor overload protective device, is not considered as the overcurrent device protecting the circuit.) Circuit Breaker. A device designed to open and close a circuit by manual means, and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overload of current, without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating. Exposed (as applied to live parts). A live part can be inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person. This term applies to parts not suitably guarded, isolated, or insulated. Ground. A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and earth, or to some conducting body which serves in place of the earth. Grounded. Connected to earth or to some conducting body which serves in place of the earth. Hazard. Is considered to include casualty, fire, and shock when applicable.

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10.90: continued Isolated. Not readily accessible to person unless special means of access are used. Raceway. Any channel for loosely holding wires or cables in interior work which is designed expressly and used solely for this purpose. Raceways may be of metal, wood, or insulating material, and the term includes wood and metal moldings consisting of a backingand capping, and also metal ducts into which wires are to be pulled. Shock Hazard. Considered to exist at an accessible part in a circuit between the part and ground, or other accessible parts if the potential is more than 42.4 volts peak and the current througha 1,500-ohm load is more than five milliamperes. Weatherproof. So constructed or protected that exposure to the weather shall not interfere with successful operation. 10.91 General Requirements (1) All electrical work, installation, and wire capacities shall be in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the Mass Electrical Code, National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1987; ANSI (Rev. of C2-1984), unless otherwise provided by 454 CMR 10.00: Part 9. (2) Applicability. 454 CMR 10.00 apply only to electrical installations used on the jobsite, both temporary and permanent. For power distribution and transmission lines, see 454 CMR 10.225 through 10.235. (3) Protection of Employees. (a) No employer shall permit an employee to work in such proximity to any part of an electric power circuit that he may contact the same in the course of his work unless the employee is protected against electric shock by deenergizing the circuit and grounding it or by guarding it by effective insulation or other means. In work areas where the exact location of underground electric power lines is unknown, workmen using jack-hammers, bars, or other hand tools which may contact a line shall be provided with insulated protective gloves. (b) Before work is begun the employer shall ascertain by inquiry or direct observation, or by instruments, whether any part of an electric power circuit, exposed or concealed, is so located that the performance of the work may bring any person, tool, or machine into physical or electrical contact therewith. The employer shall post and maintain proper warning signs where such a circuit exists. He shall advise his employees of the location of such lines, the hazards involved and the protective measures to be taken. (c) Electrical distribution rooms, transformer rooms, control rooms and battery rooms shall be kept locked at all times. (d) Only authorized personnel shall have access to these rooms. (4) Passageways and Open Spaces. Suitable barriers or other means shall be provided to ensure that workspace for electrical equipment will not be used as a passageway during periods when energized parts of electrical equipment are exposed. (5) Workspace Around Equipment. Sufficient space shall be provided and maintained in the area of electrical equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. When electrically live parts are exposed, the minimumclearance for the workspace shall be not less than six feet high, nor less than a radius of three feet wide, and there shall be clearance sufficient to permit at least a 90 opening of all doors or hinged panels. All working clearances shall be maintained in accordance with Article 110-16, National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1987; ANSI C2-1984 (Rev. of C1-1968). (6) Load Ratings. In existing installations no changes in circuit protection shall be made to increase the load in excess of the load rating of the circuit wiring, as specified in National Electric wiring, as specified in National Electric Code, NFPA 70-1987; ANSI C2-1984 (Rev. of C1-1968), Article 310.

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10.91: continued (7) Lockout and Tagging of Circuits. (a) Equipment or circuits that are deenergized shall be rendered inoperative, locked out, and have tags attached at all points where such equipment or circuits can be energized. (b) Controls that are to be deactivated during the course of work on energized or deenergized equipment or circuits shall be tagged and locked out. (c) Tags shall be placed to identify plainly the equipment or circuits being worked on. (8) Ground-Fault Protection - General. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the requirement in section 210-7 of the 1971 NationalElectricalCode (NFPA 70-1987; ANSI C2-1984) that all15-and 20-ampere receptacle outlets on single-phase circuits for construction sites have approved ground-fault circuit protection for personnel does not apply. In lieu thereof, the employer shall use either ground-fault circuit interrupters as specified in 454 CMR 10.91(8)(b) or an assured equipment grounding conductor program as specified in 454 CMR 10.91(8)(c), to protect employees on construction sites. These requirements are in addition to any other requirements for equipment grounding conductors. (b) Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters. All 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacle outlets on construction sites, which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in use by employees, shallhave approved ground-fault circuit interrupters for personnel protection. Receptacles on a two-wire, single-phase portable or vehicle- mounted generator rated not more than 5kW, where the circuit conductors of the generator are insulated from the generator frame and all other grounded surfaces, need not be protected with ground-fault circuit interrupters. (c) Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program. The employer shall establish and implement an assured equipment grounding conductor program on construction sites covering all cord sets, receptacles which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure, and equipment connected by cord and plug which are available for use or used by employees. This program shall comply with the following minimum requirements: 1. A written description of the program, including the specific procedures adopted by the employer, shall be available at the jobsite for inspection and copying by the Commissioner of his authorized representative. 2. The employer shall designate one or more competent persons (as defined in 454 CMR 10.01) to implement the program. 3. Each cord set, attachment cap, plug and receptacle of cord sets, and any equipment connected by cord and plug except cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage, shall be visually inspected before each day's use for external defects, such as deformed or missing pins or insulation damage, and for indication of possible internal damage. Equipment found damaged or defective may not be used until repaired. 4. The following tests shall be performed on all cord sets, receptacles which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure, and cord- and plug-connected equipment required to be grounded: a. All equipment grounding conductors shall be tested for continuity and shall be electrically continuous. b. Each receptacle and attachment cap or plug shall be tested for correct attachment of the equipment grounding conductor. The equipment grounding conductor shall be connected to its proper terminal. 5. All required tests shall be performed: a. Before first use; b. Before equipment is returned to service following any repairs; c. Before equipment is used after anyincident which can be reasonably suspected to have caused damage (for example, when a cord set is run over); and d. At intervals not to exceed three months, except that cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage shall be tested at intervals not exceeding six months. 6. The employer may not make available or permit the use by employees of any equipment which has not met the requirements of 454 CMR 10.92.

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10.91: continued 7. Tests performed as required in 454 CMR 10.91 shall be recorded. This test record shall identify each receptacle, cord set, and cord- and plug-connected equipment that passed the test, and shall indicate the last date it was tested or the interval for which it was tested. This record shall be kept by means of logs, color coding, or other effective means, and shall be maintained until replaced by a more current record. The record shall be made available on the jobsite for inspection by the Commissioner and any affected employee. 10.92: Grounding and Bonding (1) Portable and/or Cord and Plug-Connected Equipment. The noncurrent- carrying metal parts of portable and/or plug-connected equipment shall be grounded. Portable tools and appliances protected by an approved system of double insulation, or its equivalent, need not be grounded. Where such an approved system is employed, the equipment shall be distinctively marked. (2) Fixed Equipment. Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed electrical equipment, including motors, generators, frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes, electrically driven machinery, etc., shall be grounded. (3) Effective Grounding. The path fromcircuits, equipment, structures, and conduit or enclosures to ground shall be permanent and continuous; have ample carrying capacity to conduct safely the currents liable to be imposed on it; and have impedance sufficiently low to limit the potential above ground and to result in the operation of the overcurrent devices in the circuit. (4) Ground Resistance. Driven rod electrodes shall, where practicable, have a resistance to ground not to exceed 25 ohms. Where the resistance is not as low as 25 ohms, two or more electrodes connected in parallel shall be used. (5) Testing of Grounds. Grounding circuits shall be checked to ensure that the circuit between the ground and the grounded power conductor has a resistance which is low enough to permit sufficient current to flow to cause the fuse or circuit breaker to interrupt the current. (6) Extension Cords. Extension cords used with portable electric tools and appliances shall be of three-wire type and Underwriters Laboratory approved. Extensioncords shallnot be considered secondary circuits and shall be used only to extend a circuit to a specific lamp or portable tool or equipment. (7) Bonding. Conductors used for bonding and grounding stationary and movable equipment shall be of ample size to carry the anticipated current. When attaching bonding and grounding clamps or clips, a secure and positive metal-to- metal contact shall be made. Such attachments shall be made before closures are opened and material movements are started and shall not be brokenuntil after material movements are stopped and closures are made. (8) Temporary Wiring. All temporary wiring shall be effectively grounded in accordance with National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1987; ANSI C2- 1984 (Rev. of C1-1968), Articles 305 and 310. (9) Construction Site. Precautions shallbe taken to make any necessary open wiring inaccessible to unauthorized personnel. (10) Temporary Lighting. Temporary lights shall be equipped with guards to prevent accidental contact with the bulb, except that guards are not required when the construction of the reflector is such that the bulb is deeply recessed. (a) Temporary lights shall be equipped with heavy duty electric cords with connections and insulation maintained in safe condition. Temporary lights shall not be suspended by their electric cords unless cords and lights are designed for this means of suspension. Splices shall have

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insulation equal to that of the cable.

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10.92: continued (b) Working spaces, walkways, and similar locations shall be kept clear of cords so as not to create a hazard to employees. (c) Portable electric lighting used in moist and/or other hazardous locations, as for example, drums, tanks, and vessels shall be operated at a maximum of 12 volts. (d) Sockets for lighting shall be approved for weatherproof service of the screw-type design. (e) Lampholders that have terminals of a type which puncture the insulation to make contact with conductors shall not be used. 10.93: Equipment Installation and Maintenance (1) Flexible Cable and Cords. (a) Receptacles for attachment plugs shall be of approved, concealed contact type with a contact for extending ground continuity and shall be so designed and constructed that the plug may be pulled out without leaving any live parts exposed to accidental contact. (b) Where different voltages, frequencies, or types of current (a.c. or d.c.) are to be supplied by portable cords, receptacles shall be of such design that attachment plugs used on such circuits are not interchangeable. (c) Attachment plugs or other connectors supplying equipment at more than 300 volts shall be of the skirted type or otherwise so designed that arcs will be confined. (d) Attachment plugs for use in work areas shall be so constructed that they will endure rough use and be equipped with a suitable cord grip to prevent strain on the terminal screws. (e) Flexible cord shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice, except suitable molded or vulcanized splices may be used where properly made, and the insulation shall be equal to the cable being spliced and wire connections soldered. (f) Trailing cables shall be protected from damage. (g) Splices in trailing cable shall be mechanically strong components and insulated to retain the mechanical and dielectric strength of the original cable. (h) Cable passing through work areas shall be covered or elevated to protect it from damage which would create a hazard to employees. (i) Handlamps of the portable type shall be of the molded composition or other type approved for the purpose. Brass-shell, paper-lined lampholders shall not be used. Handlamps shall be equipped with a handle and a substantial guard over the bulb and attached to the lampholder or the handle. (j) Worn or frayed electric cables shall not be used. (k) Extension cords shall be protected against accidental damage as may be caused by traffic, sharp corners, or projections and pinching in doors or elsewhere. (l) Extension cords shall not be fastened with staples, hung from nails, or suspended by wire. (2) Overcurrent Protection. (a) Overcurrent protection shall be provided by fuses or circuit breakers for each feeder and branch circuit, and shall be based on the current-carrying capacity of the conductors supplied and the power load being used. (b) No overcurrent device shall be placed in any permanently grounded conductor, except where the overcurrent device simultaneously opens all conductors of the circuit or for motor running protection. (c) When fuses are installed or removed with one or both terminals energized, special tools insulated for the voltage shall be used. (3) Switches, Circuit Breakers, and Disconnecting Means. (a) Each disconnecting means for motors and appliances, and each service feeder or branch circuit at the point where it originates, shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. (b) Disconnecting means shall be located or shielded so that employees will not be injured. (c) Boxes for disconnecting means shall be securely and rigidly fastened to the surface upon which they are mounted and fitted with covers.

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10.93: continued (d) Boxes and disconnecting means installed in damp or wet locations shallbe waterproof to the extent that water does not enter or accumulate. (4) Transformers. (a) Energized transformers and other related electrically energized equipment over 150 volts to ground shall be protected so as to prevent accidental contact with any person. Protection shall be provided by individual integrated housingor by an enclosure, such as an electrical substation fence, which accommodates a group of such equipment. Metallic enclosures shall be grounded. (b) Access to energized equipment covered by 454 CMR 10.93(4)(a) shall be secured by lock or other fasteners requiring the use of tools to open them. (c) Signs indicating danger and prohibiting unauthorized access shallbe conspicuously displayed on the housing or other enclosure around the equipment. (d) Transformers mounted on utility poles at a height of more than 12' from the ground are exempt from the requirements of this paragraph. (5) Welding and Cutting Equipment. Welding and cutting equipment shall meet the requirements specified in 454 CMR 10.34 through 10.39 and 10.78 through 10.82. 10.94: Battery Rooms and Battery Charging (1) General Requirements. (a) Batteries of the nonseal type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated rooms, so arranged as to prevent the escape of fumes, gases, or electrolyte spray into other areas. (b) Ventilation shall be provided to ensure diffusion of the gases from the battery to prevent the accumulation of an explosive mixture. (c) Racks and trays shall be substantial and treated to be resistant to the electrolyte. (d) Floors shall be of acid resistant construction or be protected from acid accumulations. (e) Face shields, aprons, and rubber gloves shall be provided for workmen handling acids or batteries. (f) Facilities for quick drenching of the eyes and body shall be provided within 25' of the work area for emergency use. (g) Facilities shall be provided for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte, for fire protection, for protecting chargingapparatus fromdamage by trucks, and for adequate ventilation for dispersal of fumes from gassing batteries. (2) Charging. Battery charging installations shall be located in areas designated for that purpose. When charging batteries, the vent caps shall be kept in place to avoid electrolyte spray. Care shall be taken to assure that vent caps are functioning. 10.95: Hazardous Locations (1) General: For the purpose of 454 CMR 10.95, hazardous locations are defined as follows: (a) Class I Locations - Class I Locations are those in which flammable gases or vapors are or may be present in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. (b) Class II Locations - Class II Locations are those which are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust. (c) Class III Locations. - Class III Locations are those which are hazardous because of the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings, but in which such fibers or flyings are not likely to be in suspension in air in quantities sufficient to product ignitable mixtures. (d) See the National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1987; ANSI C2-1984 (Rev. of C1-1968) for further definition of divisions one and two for each class.

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10.95: continued (2) All components and utilization equipment used in a hazardous location shallbe chosen from among those listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Engineering Corp., except custom-made components and utilization equipment. (3) Equipment approved for a specific hazardous location shall not be installed or intermixed with equipment approved for another specific hazardous location. (4) Employer shall ensure that all wiring components and utilization equipment are maintained as vapor, dust, or fiber tight as contemplated by their approvals. There shall be no loose or missing screws, gaskets, threaded connections, or other impairments to this tight condition. PART 10: LADDERS AND SCAFFOLDING 10.102: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.103 through 10.105 Cleats. Ladder crosspieces of rectangular cross section placed on edge on which a person may step in ascending or descending. Single Cleat Ladder. One which consists of a pair of side rails, usually parallel, but with flared side rails permissible, connected together with cleats that are joined to the side rails at regular intervals. Double Cleat Ladder. One that is similar to a single cleat ladder, but is wider, with an additional center rail which will allow for two-way traffic for workmen in ascending and descending. Common Trestle Ladder. Aself-supporting ladder non-adjustable in length, consisting of two sections hinged at the top to form angles with the base. Extension Ladder. The termshallmean a non self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length. It consists of two or three sections traveling in guides or brackets so arranged as to permit length adjustment. Extension Trestle. The term shall mean a self-supporting portable ladder, adjustable in length, consisting of a common trestle ladder base and a vertically adjustable center extension section, with a suitable means of locking the ladders together. Bearer. A horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rests and which may be supported by ledgers. Boatswain's Chair. A seat supported by slings attached to a suspended rope, designed to accommodate one workman in a sitting position. Brace. A tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member. Bricklayers' Square Scaffold. A scaffold composed of framed wood squares which support a platform, limited to light and medium duty. Carpenters' Bracket Scaffold. A scaffold consisting of wood or metal brackets supporting a platform. Coupler. A device for locking together the component parts of a tubular metal scaffold. (The material used for the couplers shall be of a structural type, such as a drop- forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum.)

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10.102: continued Crawling Board or Chicken Ladder. A plank with cleats spaced and secured at equal intervals, for use by a worker on roofs, not designed to carry any material. Crawling Board or Chicken Ladder. A plank with cleats spaced and secured at equal intervals, for use by a worker on roofs, not designed to carry any material. Double Pole or Independent Pole Scaffold. A scaffold supported from the base by a double row of uprights, independent of support from the walls and constructed of uprights, ledgers, horizontalplatform bearers, and diagonal bracing. Extension Plank. The term shall mean a scaffold plank made of interlocking wooden slats or aluminum members, adjustable in length. Float or Ship Scaffold. A scaffold hung from overhead supports by means of ropes and consisting of a substantial platform having diagonal bracing underneath, resting upon and securely fastened to two parallel plank bearers at right angles to the span. Guardrail. A rail secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms. Heavy Duty Scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 75 pounds per square foot. Horse Scaffold. A scaffold for light or medium duty, composed of horses supporting a work platform. Interior Hung Scaffold. A scaffold suspended from the ceiling or roof structure. Ladder Jack Scaffold. A light duty scaffold supported by brackets attached to ladders. Lanyard. The term shall mean a flexible line used to secure a wearer of a safety harness to a lifeline or fixed anchorage. Lifeline. The term shallmean a verticalline from a fixed anchorage, independent of the work surface, to which the lanyard and rope-grab device is attached. Ledgers (Stringers). A horizontal scaffold member which extends from post to post and which supports the putlogs or bearers forming a tie between the posts. Life Net. A type of protective equipment for use when unusual work conditions prevail. Light Duty Scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 25 pounds per square foot. Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffold. A portable rolling scaffold supported by casters. Masons Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffold. A scaffold having a continuous platform supported by bearers suspended by wire rope fromoverhead supports, so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to desired working positions. Maximum Rated Load. The total of all loads including the working load, the weight of the scaffold, and such other loads as may be reasonably anticipated. Medium Duty Scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 50 pounds per square foot. Midrail. A rail approximately midway between the guardrail and platform, secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.

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10.102: continued Needle Beam Scaffold. A light duty scaffold consisting of needle beams supporting a platform. OutriggerScaffold. Ascaffold supported by outriggers or thrustouts projecting beyond the wall or face of the building or structure, the inboard ends of which are secured inside of such building or structure. Pumpjack. The term shall mean a steel scaffold bracket that pumps the work platformup and cranks it down and is supported on a wooden pole. Putlog. A scaffold member upon which the platform rests. Roofing or Bearer Bracket. A bracket used in slope roof construction, having provisions for fastening to the roof or supported by ropes fastened over the ridge and secured to some suitable object. Rope-Grab Device. The term shall mean a mechanical device that rides on a lifeline and locks automatically when a downward load is applied. Runner. The lengthwise horizontal bracing or bearing members or both. Safety Harness. A design of simple or compound straps that may be secured about the wearer in such a manner as to distribute the stopping forces over the thighs, buttock, chest, and shoulders, or any combination thereof, and with provision for attaching a lanyard in the back between chest and shoulder level. Scaffold. Any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workmen or materials, or both. Scaffold Planking. The term shall mean all work platform surfaces fixed to scaffold members for the support of workmen and or material. Said planking may consist of wood, fiberglass or aluminum. Single-Point Adjustable Suspension Scaffold. A manually or power-operated unit designed for light duty use, supported by a single wire rope from an overhead support so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of platform to desired working positions. Single-Pole Scaffold. Platforms resting on putlogs or cross beams, the outside ends of which are supported on ledgers secured to a single row of posts or uprights, and the inner ends of which are supported on or in a wall. Stone Setters' Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffold. A swinging type scaffold having a platform supported by hangers suspended at four points so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by the use of hoisting machines. Toeboard. A barrier secured along the sides and ends of a platform to guard against the falling of material. Tube and Coupler Scaffold. An assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, and runners, a base supporting the posts, and special couplers which serve to connect the uprights and to join the various members. Tubular Welded Frame Scaffold. A sectional panel or frame metal scaffold substantially built up of prefabricated welded sections which consists of posts and horizontal bearer with intermediate members. Two-point Suspension Scaffold (Swinging Scaffold). A scaffold, the platform of which is supported by hangers (stirrups) at two points, suspended from overhead supports so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by tackle or hoisting machines.

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10.102: continued Window Jack Scaffold. A scaffold, the platform of which is supported by a bracket or jack which projects through a window opening. Working Load. Load imposed by men, materials, and equipment. 10.103: Ladders (1) General Requirements. (a) Except where either permanent or temporary stairways or suitable ramps or runways are provided, ladders described in this part shall be used to give safe access to all elevations. (b) Ladders shall be provided to give access to all floors, staging or platforms where work is being done more than five feet above solid ground, or above permanent or temporary stairways. (c) The use of ladders with broken or missing rungs or steps, broken or split side rails, or other faulty or defective construction is prohibited. When ladders with such defects are discovered, they shall be immediately withdrawn from service. Inspection of metal ladders shall include checking for corrosion of interior of open end hollow rungs. (d) Manufactured portable wood ladders provided by the employer shallbe in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute, A 14.1-1982, Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders. (e) Portable metal ladders shall be of strength equivalent to that of wood ladders. Manufactured portable metal ladders provided by the employer shall be in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute, A 14.2-1982, Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders. (f) Fixed ladders shall be in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute, A 14.3-1984, Safety Code for Fixed Ladders. (g) Portable ladder feet shall be placed on a substantial base, and the area around the top and bottom of the ladder shall be kept clear. (h) Portable ladders shall be used at such a pitch that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is about one-quarter of the working length of the ladder (the length along the ladder between the foot and the top support). Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds. (i) Ladders shall not be placed in passageways, doorways, driveways, or any location where they may be displayed by activities being conducted on any other work, unless protected by barricades or guards. (j) The side rails shall extend not less than 36" above the landing. When this is not practical, grab rails, which provide a secure grip for an employee moving to or fromthe point of access, shall be installed. (k) Portable ladders in use shall be tied, blocked, or otherwise secured to prevent their being displaced. (l) Portable metal ladders shall not be used for electrical work or where they may contact electrical conductors. (m) Ladders of wood construction shall not be painted for protection purposes. Ladders should be coated with a suitable clear preservative material so that the grain structure is visible at all times. (2) Job-Made Ladders. (a) Job-made ladders shall be constructed for intended use. If a ladder is to provide the only means of access or exit from a working area for 25 or more employees, or simultaneous two-way traffic is expected, a double cleat ladder shall be installed. (b) Double cleat ladders shall not exceed 24' in length. (c) Single cleat ladders shall not exceed 24' in length between supports (base and top landing). If ladders are to connect different landings, or if the length required exceeds this maximumlength, two or more separate ladders shall be used, offset with a platform between each ladder. Guardrails and toe-boards shall be erected on the exposed sides of the platforms. (d) The width of single cleat ladders shall be at least 15", but not more than 20", between rails at the top.

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10.103: continued (e) Side rails shall be parallel or flared top to bottomby not more than one-quarter of an inch for each two feet of length. (f) Wood side rails of ladders having cleats shall be not less than 1 " thick and 3 "deep (two inches by four inches nominal) when made of Group 2 or Group 3 woods (see Table 10.103-1). Wood side rails of Group 4 woods (see Table 10.103-1) may be used in the same cross-section of dimensions for cleat ladders up to 20' in length. TABLE 10.103-1 - AVERAGE DENSITIES OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF WOOD FOR USE IN LADDERS GROUP 1 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Density Species (lbs./ft.3) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q White ash 41 Beech 43 Birch 44 Rock elm 43 Hickory 50 Locust 47 Hard maple 42 Red maple 36 Red oak 43 White oak 46 Pecan 46 Persimmon 50 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q GROUP 2 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Douglas fir (coast region) 34 Western larch 38 Southern yellow pine 37 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q

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10.103: continued GROUP 3 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Red alder 28 Oregon ash 38 Pumpkin ash 37 Alaska cedar 31 Port Orford cedar 30 Cucumber 34 Cypress 32 Soft elm 36 Douglas fir (Rocky Mountain type) 30 Noble fir 27 Gum 34 West Coast hemlock 30 Magnolia 35 Oregon maple 34 Norway pine 31 Poplar 28 Redwood 25 Eastern spruce 28 Sitka spruce 28 Sycamore 35 Tamarack 37 Tupelo 35 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q GROUP 4 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Aspen Basswood Buckeye Butternut Incense cedar Western red cedar Black cottonwood White fir Hackberry Eastern hemlock Holly Soft maple Lodgepole pine Idaho white pine Northern white pine Ponderosa pine Sugar pine 27 25 25 27 25 23 24 26 37 28 39 33 29 28 25 28 26

(g) It is preferable that side rails be continuous. If splicing is necessary to attain the required length, however, the splice must develop the full strength of a continuous side rail of the same length. (h) two x four lumber shallbe used for side rails of single cleat ladders up to 16' long; two inches x six inches lumber shall be used for single cleat ladders from 16 to 24' in length. (i) two x four inches lumber shall be used for side and middle rails of double cleat ladders up to 12' in length; two inches x six inches lumber for double cleat ladders from 12 to 24' in length.

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(j) Part Sizes - The minimumcross-sectionaldimensions for cleat ladders shallbe in accord with the following table:

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.103: continued TABLE 10.103-2 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Length Rail Sections Cleats (Feet) (Inches) (Inches) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Up to and including 16 2 x4 1 x3 Over 16 up to and including 24 2 x6 1 x4 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q (k) Cleats may be made of species of any other group of wood (see Table 10.103-1) provided equal or greater strength is maintained. (l) Cleats shall be inset into the edges of the side rails one-half inch, or filler blocks shallbe used on the rails between the cleats. The cleats shall be secured to each rail with three 10d common wire nails or other fasteners of equivalent strength. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced, 12" top-to-top. (3) Portable Stepladders. Portable stepladders shall be limited to 12' in height, except by special written permission of the Commissioner. (4) Common Trestle and Extension Trestle Ladders. (a) Height. Trestle ladders higher than 16' shall not be used. (b) Span. Lateral span between trestles shall be no more than 12'. (c) Part Sizes. The minimumcross-sectionaldimensions for component parts of common wood trestle ladders shall be in accord with the following table: TABLE 10.103-3 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q LGTH. OF TRESTLE RAIL SECTIONS RUNGS RUNGS (FEET) (INCHES) (ROUND TYPE) (BAR TYPE) DIAMETER (INCHES) (INCHES) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Up to and including 1-5/16 x 2 13/16 f x2 16 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q The minimum cross-sectional dimensions for the component parts of the extension section of the extension trestle ladder shall be in accord with the following table: TABLE 10.103-4 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q LENGTH OF LADDER RAIL SECTIONS RUNG DIAMETER (FEET) (INCHES) (INCHES) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Up to and including 16 1 x2 13/16 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q

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(d) Construction. Trestle ladders and base sections of extension trestle ladders shall be so constructed that when in open position the spread distance at the bottom between front and back sections shall not be less than 5 " for each 12" length of side rail. Metal spreaders and locking devices of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the extension in the elevated position shall be component parts of every trestle ladder or extension trestle ladder. (e) Extension Overlap. Based on the size of the ladder, the extension section when extended shall overlap the base section by the number of feet indicated in the following table:

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.103: continued TABLE 10.103-5 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q BASE SECTION SIZE MINIMUM REQUIRED OVERLAP (FEET) (FEET) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Up to and including 8 3 Over 8 up to and including 12 4 Over 12 up to and including 16 5 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 10.104: Scaffolding (1) Height and Approval. Before any scaffold designed to exceed 100' in height is erected, plans showing the design and the sizes of all structural members of such scaffold shall be submitted to the Commissioner for his approval. Said plans shall be stamped by a certified structural engineer. (2) General Requirements. (a) Scaffolds shall be erected in accordance with requirements of 454 CMR 10.104. (b) The footing or anchorage for scaffolds shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick, or concrete blocks, shall not be used to support scaffolds or planks. (c) No scaffold shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered except under the supervision of competent persons. (d) Guardrails and toeboards shall be installed on all open sides and ends of platforms more than ten feet above the ground or floor, except needle beam scaffolds and floats (see 454 CMR 10.104(17) and (24)). Scaffolds four feet to ten feet in height, having a minimum horizontal dimension in either direction of less than 45", shall have standard guardrails installed on all open sides and ends of the platform. (e) Guardrails shall be 2X4 inches, or the equivalent, 36 to 42" high, with a midrail, when required. Supports shall be at intervals not to exceed eight feet. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. (f) Where persons are required to work or pass under the scaffold, scaffolds shall be provided witha screen between the toeboard and the guardrail, extending alongthe entire opening, consisting of No. 18 gauge U.S. Standard wire inch mesh, or the equivalent. (g) Scaffolds and their components shall be capable of supporting without failure at least four times the maximum intended load. (h) Any scaffold including accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc. damaged or weakened from any cause shall be immediately repaired or replaced. (i) All load-carrying timber members of scaffold framing shall be a minimum of 1,500 fiber (Stress Grade) construction grade lumber. All dimensions are nominal sizes as provided in the American Lumber Standards, except that where rough sizes are noted, only rough or undressed lumber of the size specified will satisfy minimum requirements. (j) Allplanking shall be Scaffold Grades, or equivalent, as recognized by approved grading rules for the species of wood used. The maximum permissible spans for 2x10 inch or wider planks shall be as shown in the following Table: TABLE 10.104-1 - MATERIAL S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Full thickness Nominal undressed Thickness lumber Lumber

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))Q S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Working load (p.s.f.) 25 50 75 25 50 Permissible span (ft.) 10 8 6 8 6 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q

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10.104: continued (k) The maximumpermissible span for 1 X 9 inch or wider plank of full thickness shall be four feet with medium duty loading of 50 p.s.f. (l) All planking of platforms shall be overlapped (minimum 12"), or secured from movement. (m) An access ladder or equivalent safe access shall be provided. (n) Scaffold planks shall extend over their end supports not less than six inches nor more than 12". (o) The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall be plumb, and securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement. (p) Overhead protection shallbe provided for men on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards. (q) Slippery conditions on scaffolds shall be eliminated as soon as possible after they occur. (r) No welding, burning, riveting, or open flame work shall be performed on any staging suspended by means of fiber or synthetic rope. Only treated or protected fiber or synthetic ropes shall be used for or near any work involving the use of corrosive substances or chemicals. Specific requirements for boatswain's chairs and float or ship scaffolds are contained in 454 CMR 10.104(13) and (24). (s) Wire, synthetic, or fiber rope used for scaffold suspension shall be capable of supporting at least six times the rated load. (t) The use of shore or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited. (u) Lumber sizes, when used in this part, refer to nominal sizes except where otherwise stated. (v) The minimum width of any planked platform shall be 18". (w) Liquid combustible fuel powered equipment shall not be used on suspended scaffolds. (3) Wood Pole Scaffolds. (a) Scaffold poles shall bear on a foundation of sufficient size and strength to spread the load from the pole over a sufficient area to prevent settlement. All poles shall be set plumb. (b) Where wood poles are spliced, the ends shall be squared and the upper section shall rest squarely on the lower section. Wood splice plates shall be provided on at least two adjacent sides and shall be not less than four feet in length, overlapping the abutted ends equally, and have the same width and not less than the cross-sectional area of the pole. Splice plates or other materials of equivalent strength may be used. (c) Independent pole scaffolds shall be set as near to the wall of the building as practicable. (d) All pole scaffolds shall be securely guyed or tied to the building or structure. Where the height or length exceeds 25', the scaffold shall be secured at intervals not greater than 25' vertically and horizontally. (e) Putlogs or bearers shall be set with their greater dimension vertical, long enough to project over the ledgers of the inner and outer rows of poles at least three inches for proper support. Bearers shall be set with their greater dimension vertical and, when resting on a building wall bearing surface, shall have a minimum bearing of four inches of firm and level surface. (f) Every wooden putlog on single pole scaffolds shall be reinforced with a 3/16 X 2 inch steel strip, or equivalent, secured to its lower edge throughout its entire length. (g) Ledgers shall be long enough to extend over two pole spaces. Ledger shall not be spliced between the poles. Ledgers shall be reinforced by bearing blocks securely nailed to the side of the pole to form a support for the ledger. (h) Diagonal bracing shall be provided to prevent the poles from moving ina direction parallel with the wall of the building, or from buckling. (i) Cross bracing shall be provided between the inner and outer sets of poles in independent pole scaffolds. The free ends of pole scaffolds shall be cross braced. (j) Full diagonal face bracing shall be erected across the entire face of pole scaffolds in both directions. The braces shall be spliced at the poles. The inner row of poles on medium and heavy duty scaffolds shall be braced in a similar manner.

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10.104: continued (k) Platform planks shall be laid with their edges close together so the platform will be tight with no spaces through which tools or fragments of material can fall. (l) Where planking is lapped, each plank shall lap its end supports at least 12". Where the ends of planks abut each other to form a flush floor, the butt joint shall be at the centerline of a pole. The abutted ends shall rest on separate bearers. Intermediate beams shall be provided where necessary to prevent dislodgment of planks due to deflection, and the ends shall be secured to prevent their dislodgment. (m) When a scaffold materially changes its direction, the platform planks shall be laid to prevent tipping. The planks that meet the corner putlog at an angle shall be laid first, extending over the diagonally placed putlog far enough to have a good safe bearing, but not far enough to involve any danger fromtipping. The planking running in the opposite direction at an angle shall be laid so as to extend over and rest on the first layer of planking. (n) When moving platforms to the next level, the old platform shall be left undisturbed until the new putlogs or bearers have been set in place, ready to receive the platform planks. (o) Guardrails, made of lumber not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection), 36 to 42" high, with a midrail of 1X6 inches lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f) when required. (p) All wood pole scaffolds 60' or less in height shall be constructed and erected in accordance with Tables 10.104-2 to 7. If they are over 60' in height, they shall be designed by a qualified engineer competent in this field, and it shall be constructed and erected in accordance with such design. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q TABLE 10.104-2 MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE SCAFFOLDS - LIGHT DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Maximum height of scaffold S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))Q 20 ft. 60 ft. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 25 p.s.f Poles or uprights 2X4 in 4X4 in. Poles spacing (longitudinal) 6 ft. 0 in 10 ft. 0 in. Maximum width of scaffold 5 ft. 0 in 5 ft. 0 in. Bearers or putlogs to 3 ft 0 in. width 2X4 in 2X4 in. Bearers or putlogs to 5 ft. 0 in. width 2X6 or 3X4 in 2X6 in. or 3X4 in. (rough) Ledgers 1X4 in 1 X 9 in. Planking 1 X9 in. (rough) 2X10 in. Vertical spacing of horizontal members 7 ft. 0 in 9 ft. 0 in. Bracing, horizontal and diagonal 1X4 in 1X4 in. Tie-ins 1X4 in 1X4 in. Toeboards 4 in. high (minimum) 4 in. high (minimum) Guardrail 2X4 in 2X4 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q

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All members except planking are used on edge.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued TABLE 10.104-3 MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE SCAFFOLDS - MEDIUM DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 50 p.s.f. Maximum height of scaffold 60 ft. Poles or uprights 4X4 in. Pole spacing (longitudinal) 8 ft. 0 in. Maximum width of scaffold 5 ft. 0 in. Bearers or putlogs 2X10 in. or 3X4 in. Spacing of bearers or putlogs 8 ft. 0 in. Ledgers 2X10 in. Vertical spacing of horizontal members 7 ft. 0 in. Bracing, horizontal 1X6 in. or 1-1/4 X 4 in. Bracing, diagonal 1X4 in. Tie-ins 1X4 in. Planking 2X10 in. Toeboards 4 in. high (minimum) Guardrail 2X4 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q All members except planking are used on edge. TABLE 10.104-4 MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF SINGLE POLE SCAFFOLDS - HEAVY DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 75 p.s.f. Maximum height of scaffold 60 ft. Poles or uprights 4X6 in. Pole spacing (longitudinal) 6 ft. 0 in. Maximum width of scaffold 5 ft. 0 in. Bearers or putlogs 2X10 in. or 3X5 in. Spacing of bearers or putlogs 6 ft. 0 in. Ledgers 2X10 in. Vertical spacing of horizontal members 6 ft. 6 in. Bracing, horizontal and diagonal 2X4 in. Tie-ins 1X4 in. Planking 2X10 in. Toeboards 4 in. high (minimum) Guardrail 2X4 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q All members except planking are used on edge.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued TABLE 10.104-5 MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDEPENDENT POLE SCAFFOLD - LIGHT DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Maximum height of scaffold S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 20 ft. 60 ft. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 25 p.s.f Poles or uprights 2X4 in 4X4 in. Pole spacing (longitudinal) 6 ft. 0 in 10 ft. 0 in. Pole spacing (transverse) 6 ft. 0 in 10 ft. 0 in. Ledgers 1 X4 in 1-1/4 X9 in. Bearers to 3 ft. 0 in. span 2X4 in 2X4 in. Bearers to 10 ft. 0 in. span 2X6 in. or 3X4 in 2X10 (rough) or 3X8 in. Planking 1 X9 in 2X10 in. Vertical spacing of horizontal members 7 ft. 0 in 7 ft. 0 in. Bracing, horizontal and diagonal. 1X4 in 1X4 in. Tie-ins 1X4 in 1X4 in. Toeboards 4 in. high 4 in. high (minimum) Guardrail 2X4 in 2X4 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q All members except planking are used on edge. TABLE 10.104-6 MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDEPENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS - MEDIUM DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 50 p.s.f. Maximum height of scaffold 60 ft. Poles or uprights 4X4 in. Pole spacing (longitudinal) 8 ft. 0 in. Pole spacing (transverse) 8 ft. 0 in. Ledgers 2X10 in. Vertical spacing of horizontal members 6 ft. 0 in. Spacing of bearers 8 ft. 0 in. Bearers 2X10 in. Bracing, horizontal 1X6 in. or 1 X 4 in. Bracing, diagonal 1X4 in. Tie-ins 1X4 in. Planking 2X10 in. Toeboards 4 in. high (minimum) Guardrail 2X4 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q All members except planking are used on edge.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued TABLE 10.104-7 MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF INDEPENDENT POLE SCAFFOLDS - HEAVY DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 75 p.s.f. Maximum height of scaffold 60 ft. Poles or uprights 4X4 in. Pole spacing (longitudinal) 6 ft. 0 in. Pole spacing (transverse) 8 ft. 0 in. Ledgers 2X10 in. Vertical spacing of horizontal members 6 ft. 0 in. Bearers 2X10 in. (rough) Bracing, horizontal and diagonal 2X4 in. Tie-ins 1X4 in. Planking 2X10 in. Toeboards 4 in. high (minimum) Guardrail 2X4 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q All members except planking are used on edge. (4) Tube and Coupler Scaffolds. (a) A light duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, bearers, runners, and bracing of nominal two-inch O.D. steel tubing. The posts shall be spaced no more than six feet apart by ten feet along the length of the scaffold. Other structuralmetals when used must be designed to carry an equivalent load. No dissimilar metals shall be used together. (b) A medium duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, runners, and bracing of nominal two-inch O.D. steel tubing. Posts spaced not more than six feet apart by eight feet along the length of the scaffold shallhave bearers of nominal two and inch O.D. steel tubing. Posts spaced not more than five feet apart by eight feet along the length of the scaffold shall have bearers of nominal two-inch O.D. steel tubing. Other structural metals, when used, must be designed to carry an equivalent load. No dissimilar metals shall be used together. (c) A heavy duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, runners, and bracing of nominal two inch O.D. steel tubing, with the posts spaced not more than six feet by six feet six inches. Other structural metals, when used, must be designed to carry an equivalent load. No dissimilar metals shall be used together. (d) Tube and coupler scaffolds shall be limited in heights and working levels to those permitted in Tables 10.104-8, 9 and 10. Drawings and specifications of all tube and coupler scaffolds above the limitations in Tables 10.104-8, 9 and 10 shall be designed by a qualified engineer competent in this field. (e) All tube and coupler scaffolds shall be constructed and erected to support four times the maximum intended loads, as set forth in Tables 10.104-8, 9 and 10 or as set forth in the specifications by a licensed professional engineer competent in this field. TABLE 10.104-8 TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS - LIGHT DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 25 p.s.f. Post spacing (longitudinal) 10 ft. 0 in. Post spacing (transverse) 6 ft. 0 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Additional

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

Working planked Maximum height levels levels S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 1 8 125 ft. 2 4 125 ft. 3 0 91 ft. 0 in.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued TABLE 10.104-9 TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS - MEDIUM DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 50 p.s.f. Post spacing (longitudinal) 8 ft. 0 in. Post spacing (transverse) 6 ft. 0 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Additional Working planked Maximum height levels levels S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 1 6 125 ft. 2 0 78 ft. 0 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q TABLE 10.104-10 - TUBE AND COUPLER SCAFFOLDS - HEAVY DUTY S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uniformly distributed load Not to exceed 75 p.s.f. Post spacing (longitudinal) 6 ft. 6 in. Post spacing (transverse) 6 ft. 0 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Additional Working planked Maximum height levels levels S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 1 6 125 ft. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q (f) Posts shall be accurately spaced, erected on suitable bases, and maintained plumb. (g) Runners shall be erected along the length of the scaffold, located on both the inside and the outside posts at even height. Runners shall be interlocked to the inside and the outside posts at even heights. Runners shall be interlocked to form continuous lengths and coupled to each post. The bottomrunners shallbe located as close to the base as possible. Runners shallbe placed not more than six feet six inches on centers. (h) Bearers shall be installed transversely between posts and shall be securely coupled to the posts bearing on the runner coupler. When coupled directly to the runners, the coupler must be kept as close to the posts as possible. (i) Bearers shall be at least four inches but not more than 12" longer than the post spacing or runner spacing. (j) Cross bracing shall be installed across the width of the scaffold at least every third set of posts horizontally and every fourth runner vertically. Such bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner and outer runners upward to the next outer and inner runners. (k) Longitudinal diagonal bracing on the inner and outer rows of poles shall be installed at approximately a 45 angle fromnear the base of the first outer post upward to the extreme top of

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

the scaffold. Where the longitudinal length of the scaffold permits, such bracing shall be duplicated beginning at every fifth post. In a similar manner, longitudinal diagonalbracingshall also be installed from the last post extending back and upward toward the first post. Where conditions preclude the attachment of this bracing to the posts, it may be attached to the runners. (l) The entire scaffold shall be tied to and securely braced against the building at intervals not to exceed 30' horizontally and 26' vertically.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (m) Guardrails, made of lumber not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection) 36 to 42", with a midrail of 1X6 inches lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboard shall be installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (5) Tubular Welded Frame Scaffolds. (a) Metal tubular frame scaffolds, including accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc., shall be designed, constructed, and erected to safely support four times the maximum rated load. (b) Spacing of panels or frames shall be consistent with the loads imposed. (c) Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross bracing or diagonalbraces, or both, for securing vertical members together laterally, and the cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and aline vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, square, and rigid. All brace connections shall be made secure. (d) Scaffold legs shall be set on adjustable bases or plain bases placed on mud sills or other foundations adequate to support the maximum rated load. (e) The frames shall be placed one on top of the other with coupling or stacking pins to provide proper vertical alignment of the legs. (f) Where uplift may occur, panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent suitable means. (g) To prevent movement, the scaffold shall be secured to the building or structure at intervals not to exceed 30' horizontally and 26' vertically. (h) Maximum permissible spans or planking shall be in conformity with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(j). (i) Drawings and specifications for all frame scaffolds over 100' in height above the base plates shall be designed by a registered professional engineer. (j) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection), and 36 to 42" high, with a midrail of 1X6 inches lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shall be installed at allopen sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (k) Starter frames used in the erection of tubular welded-type-frame scaffold shall have footings in accordance with the following: 1. Metal-base plates of not less than 16 square inches by c inch in thickness shall be used on the ends of starter frames in bearing contact with footings or supporting surfaces. 2. Where mud sills are used the base plates shall be securely fastened thereto. 3. When ground or supporting surface is not level, screw jacks or adjustment jacks shall be used to obtain required level for these frames. 4. Adjustment jacks shall not extend so that more than 12" of the threaded section is exposed between the frame and the footing. (6) Manually Propelled Mobile Scaffolds. (a) When free-standing mobile scaffold towers are used, the height shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension. (b) Casters shall be properly designed for strength and dimensions to support four times the maximum intended load. All casters shall be provided with a positive locking device to hold the scaffold in position. (c) Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross bracing and horizontal bracing conforming with 454 CMR 10.104(5)(c). (d) Platforms shall be tightly planked for the full width of the scaffold except for necessary entrance opening. Platforms shall be secured in place. (e) A ladder or stairway shallbe provided for proper access and exit and shall be affixed or built into the scaffold and so located that when in use it will not have a tendency to tip the scaffold. A landing platform must be provided at intervals not to exceed 35'.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (f) The force necessary to move the mobile scaffold shall be applied near or as close to the base as practicable and provisions shall be made to stabilize the tower during movement from one location to another. Scaffolds shall only be moved on level floors, free of obstructions and openings. (g) No person, tools or equipment shall remain on the platform while the tower is being moved, raised or lowered. (h) Scaffolds in use by any persons shall rest upon a suitable footing and shall stand plumb. The casters or wheels shall be locked to prevent any movement. (i) Mobile scaffolds constructed of metal members shall also conform to applicable provisions of 454 CMR 10.104(3), (4) or (5) depending on the material of which they are constructed. (j) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection) 36 to 42" high, with a midrail, of 1X6 hours lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shallbe installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (k) Free standing stationary towers shall be secured to proper anchorage by not less than four guys of wire rope of adequate strength at intervals of not more than 25' in height. (7) Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms. Applicable requirements of American NationalStandards Institute A92.2-1979, Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms, shallbe complied with for such equipment as required by the provisions of 454 CMR 10.125. (8) Outrigger Scaffolds. (a) Outrigger beams shall extend not more than six feet beyond the face of the building. The inboard end of outrigger beams, measured fromthe fulcrum point to anchorage point, shall be not less than 1- times the outboard end in length. The beams shall rest on edge, the sides shall be plumb, and the edges shall be horizontal. The fulcrum point of the beam shall rest on a secure bearing at least six inches in each horizontal dimension. The beam shall be secured in place against movement and shall be securely braced at the fulcrum point against tipping. (b) The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be securely anchored either by means of struts bearing against sills in contact with the overhead beams or ceiling, or by means of tension members secured to the floor joists underfoot, or by both if necessary. The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be secured against tipping and the entire supporting structure shall be securely braced in both directions to prevent any horizontal movement. (c) Unless outrigger scaffolds are designed by a registered professional engineer competent in this field, they shall be constructed and erected in accordance with Table 10.104-11 . Outrigger scaffolds, designed by a registered professional engineer, shall be constructed and erected in accordance with such design. TABLE 10.104-11 MINIMUM NOMINAL SIZE AND MAXIMUM SPACING OF MEMBERS OF OUTRIGGER SCAFFOLDS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Light duty Medium duty Maximum scaffold load 25 p.s.f. 50 p.s.f. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Outrigger size 2X10 in 3X10 in. Maximum outrigger spacing 10 ft. 0 in 6 ft. 0 in. Planking 2X10 in 2 x 10 in. Guardrail 2X4 in 2X4 in. Guardrail uprights 2X4 in 2X4 in. Toeboards 4 in. (minimum) 4 in. (minimum). S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (d) Planking shall be laid tight and shall extend to within three inches of the building wall. Planking shall be secured to the beams. (e) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection), 36 to 42" high with a midrail of 1X6 inches lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shall be installed at allopen sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (9) Masons' Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffolds. (a) The scaffold shall be capable of sustaining a working load of 50 pounds per square foot and shall not be loaded in excess of that figure. (b) The scaffold shall be provided with hoisting machines that meet the requirements of Underwriters' Laboratories or Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation. (c) The platform shall be supported by wire ropes, capable of supporting at least six times the intended load, suspended from overhead outrigger beams. (d) The scaffold outrigger beams shall consist of structural metal securely fastened or anchored to the frame or floor system of the building or structure. (e) Each outrigger beam shall be equivalent in strength to at least a standard seven inch, 15.3 pound steel I-beam, at least 15' long, and shall not project more than six feet six inches beyond the bearing point. (f) Where the overhang exceeds six feet six inches, outrigger beams shall be composed of stronger beams or multiple beams and be installed under the supervision of a competent person. (g) All outrigger beams shall be set and maintained with their webs in a vertical position. (h) A stop bolt shall be placed at each end of every outrigger beam. (i) The outrigger beam shall rest on suitable wood bearing blocks. (j) The free end of the suspension wire ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles and secured by splicing or other equivalent means. The running ends shall be securely attached to the hoisting drum and at least four turns of wire rope shall at all times remain on the drum. The use of fiber rope is prohibited. (k) Where a single outrigger beam is used, the steel shackles or clevises with which the wire ropes are attached to the outrigger beams shall be placed directly over the hoisting drums. (l) The scaffold platform shall be equivalent in strength to at least two inch planking. (For maximum planking spans, see 454 CMR 10.104(2)(j). (m) When employees are at work on the scaffold and an overhead hazard exists, overhead protection shall be provided on the scaffold, not more than nine feet above the platform, consisting of two inch planking, or material of equivalent strength, laid tight, and extending not less than the width of the scaffold. (n) Each scaffold shall be installed or relocated under the supervision of a competent person. (o) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection), 36 to 42" high, with a midrail, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (10) Swinging Scaffolds, Two-Point Suspension. Two-point suspension scaffold platforms shall be not less than 20" nor more than 36" wide overall. The platform shall be securely fastened to the hangers by U-bolts or by other equivalent means. (a) The hangers of two-point suspension scaffolds shall be made of mild steel, or other equivalent materials, having a cross-sectional area capable of sustaining four times the maximum rated load, and shall be designed with a support for guardrail, intermediate rail, and toeboard. (b) When hoisting machines are used on two-point suspension scaffolds, such machines shall be of a design tested and approved by Underwriters' Laboratories or Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (c) The roof irons or hooks shall be of mild steel, or other equivalent material, of proper size and design, securely installed and anchored. Tie-backs of inch manila rope, or the equivalent, shall serve as a secondary means of anchorage, installed at right angles to the face of the building, whenever possible, and secured to a structurally sound portion of the building. Tie-backs shall also be used when cables are used to support a scaffold. (d) Two-point suspension scaffolds shall be suspended by wire, synthetic, or fiber ropes capable of supporting at least six times the rated load. All other components shall be capable of supporting at least four times the rated load. (e) The sheaves of all blocks, consisting of at least one double and one single block, shall fit the size and type of rope used. (f) All wire ropes, fiber and synthetic ropes, slings, hangers, platforms, and other supporting parts shall be inspected before every installation. Periodic inspections shall be made while the scaffold is in use. (g) Not more than two employees shall be permitted to work on any two point suspension scaffold at the same time. (h) Two-point suspension scaffolds shall be securely lashed to the building or structure to prevent them from swaying. Window cleaners' anchors shall not be used for this purpose. (i) Scaffolds suspended on sheer wall construction shall be secured against sway by wire ropes passing through screw eyes secured to the outer edge of the platform. Such ropes shall extend from the outrigger level to the base of the construction and be maintained with sufficient tension to eliminate the danger of excessive sway. (j) The platform of every two-point suspension scaffold shall be one of the following types: Ladder-Type Platforms. The side stringer shall be of clear straight-grained spruce or materials of equivalent strength and durability. The rungs shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or hickory, at least 1c inch in diameter, with f inch tenons mortised into the side stringers at least f inch. The stringers shall be tied together with tie rods not less than inch in diameter, passing through the stringers and riveted up tight against washers on both ends. The flooring strips shall be spaced not more than e inch apart except at the side rails where the space may be one inch. Ladder-type platforms shall be constructed in accordance with Table 10.104-12. TABLE 10.104-12 - SCHEDULE FOR LADDER-TYPE PLATFORMS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Length of platform (feet) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 12 14 & 16 18 & 20 22 & 24 28 & 30 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Side Stringers, min. cross section (finish sizes): At ends (") 1x2 1x2 1x3 1x3 1x3 At middle (") 1x3 1x3 1x4 1x4 1x5 Reinforcing strip min. 1* 1 1 1 1 Rungs 2* 2 2 2 2 Tie rods:No.(min.) 3 4 4 5 6 Dia. (min.) " " " " " Flooring, min. finish sizes (") x2 x2 x2 x2 x2 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q ** A c x f in. steel reinforcing strip or its equivalent shall be attached to the side or underside, full length. ** Rungs shall be 1 c in. min. dia. with at least f in. dia. tenons, & the max. spacing shall be 12 in. center to center.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued 2. Plank-Type Platforms. Plank-type platforms shall be composed of not less than nominal 2X10 inch unspliced planks, properly cleated together on the underside, starting six inches from each end; intervals in between shall not exceed four feet. The plank-type platform shall not extend beyond the hangers more than 12 inches. A bar or other effective means shall be securely fastened to the platform at each end to prevent its slipping off the hanger. The span between hangers for plank-type platforms shall not exceed eight feet. 3. Beam-Type Platforms. Beam platforms shall have side stringers of lumber not less than 2X6 inches set on edge. The span between hangers shall not exceed 12 feet when beam platforms are used. The flooring shall be supported on 2X6 inch cross beams, laid flat and set into the upper edge of the stringers with a snug fit, at intervals of not more than four feet, securely nailed in place. The flooring shall be of 1X6 inch material properly nailed. Floor boards shall not be spaced more than inch apart. 4. Light Metal-Type Platforms, when used, shall be tested and listed according to Underwriters' Laboratories or Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation. (k) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection), 36 to 42 inches high, with a midrail, and toeboards, shallbe installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (l) Two or more suspension scaffolds shall not, at any time, be combined by bridging the distance between them with planks or similar connecting links. (m) Two point cable suspended scaffolds of the trailer or double level type may be used for specialized situations when the following condition is coupled with: The scaffold design and construction specifications must be approved by the commissioner. (11) Stone Setters' Adjustable Multiple-Point Suspension Scaffolds. The scaffold shall be capable of sustaining a working load of 25 pounds per square foot and shall not be overloaded. Scaffolds shall not be used for storage of stone or other heavy materials. (a) When used, the hoisting machine and its supports shall be of a type tested and listed by Underwriters' Laboratories or Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation. (b) The platformshallbe securely fastened to the hangers by U-bolts or other equivalent means. (For materials and spans, see 454 CMR 10.104(10)(j)2. Plank-Type Platforms, and Table 10.104-12 of 454 CMR 10.104.) (c) The scaffold unit shall be suspended from metal outriggers, iron brackets, wire rope slings, or iron hooks. (d) Outriggers, when used, shall be set with their webs in a vertical position, securely anchored to the building or structure and provided with stop bolts at each end. (e) The scaffold shall be supported by wire rope capable of supporting at least six times the rated load. All other components shall be capable of supporting at least four times the rated load. (f) The free ends of the suspension wire ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles, secured by splicing or other equivalent means. The running ends shall be securely attached to the hoisting drum and at least four turns of wire rope shall remain at the drum at all times. (g) When two or more scaffolds are used on a building or structure, they shall not be bridged one to the other, but shall be maintained at even height with platforms abutting closely. (h) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection, 36 to 42 inches high, with a midrail, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (12) Single-Point Adjustable Suspension Scaffolds. The scaffolding, including power units or manually operated winches, shall be of a type tested and listed by Underwriters' Laboratories or Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (a) The power units may be either electrically or air motor driven. (b) All power-operated gears and brakes shall be enclosed. (c) In addition to the normal operating brake, all power-driven units shall have an emergency brake which engages automatically when the normal speed of descent is exceeded. (d) The hoisting machines, cables, and equipment shall be regularly serviced and inspected. (e) The units may be combined to form a two-point suspension scaffold. Such scaffold shall then comply with 454 CMR 10.104(10). (f) The supporting cable shall be vertical for its entire length, and the basket shall not be swayed nor the cable fixed to any intermediate points to change the original path of travel. (g) Suspension methods shall conform to applicable provisions of 454 CMR 10.104(9) and (10). (h) Guards, midrails, and toeboards shall completely enclose the cage or basket. Guardrails shall be no less than 2X4 inches or the equivalent, 36 to 42 inches above the platform. Midrails shall be 1X6 inches or the equivalent, installed equidistant between the guardrail and the platform. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. (i) For additional details not covered in 454 CMR 10.104(12), applicable technical portions of American National Standards Institute, A120.1-1970, Power-Operated Devices for Exterior Building Maintenance Powered Platforms, shall be used. (j) The employee shall be protected by a safety harness and lifeline in accordance with 454 CMR 10.25. The attachment point of the lifeline to the structure shall be appropriately changed as the work progresses. (13) Boatswain's Chairs. The chair seat shall not be less than 12X24 inches, and one inch thickness. The seat shall be reinforced on the underside by cleats securely fastened to prevent the board from splitting. (a) The two fiber rope seat slings shall be of e inch diameter, reeved through the four seat holes so as to cross each other on the underside of the seat. (b) Seat slings shall be of at least d inch wire rope when an employee is conducting a heat-producing process, such as gas or arc welding. (c) The employee shall be protected by a safety harness and lifeline in accordance with 454 CMR 10.25. The attachment point of the lifeline to the structure shall be appropriately changed as the work progresses. (d) The tackle shall consist of correct size ballbearing or bushed blocks and properly spliced e inch diameter first- grade manila rope, or equivalent. (e) The roof irons, hooks, or the object to which the tackle is anchored, shall be securely installed. Tiebacks, when used, shall be installed at right angles to the face of the building and securely fastened. (f) A person shall be stationed beneath to operate the tackle unless the fall line has an automatic locking device. (14) Carpenters' Bracket Scaffolds. The brackets shall consist of a triangular wood frame not less than 2X3 inches in cross section, or of metal of equivalent strength. Each member shall be properly fitted and securely joined. (a) Each bracket shall be attached to the structure by means of one of the following: 1. A bolt not less than e inches in diameter which shall extend through the building walland through a cross brace bearing on two studs, and secured with a lever handle nut with stress-bearing on the studding. 2. A metal stud attachment device; 3. Welding to steel tanks; 4. Hooking over a well-secured and adequately strong supporting member. (b) The brackets shall be spaced no more than eight feet apart. (c) No more than two employees shall occupy any given eight feet of a bracket scaffold at any one time. Tools and materials shall not exceed 75 pounds in addition to the occupancy.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (d) The platform shall consist of not less than 2 2X10 inch nominal size planks extending not more than 12 inches or less than six inches beyond each end support. (e) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection), 36 to 42 inches high, with a midrail, of 1X6 inch lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shall be installed at allopen sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (f) Bracket scaffolds shall not be used at a height exceeding 20 feet. (15) Bricklayers' Square Scaffolds. The squares shall not exceed five feet in width and five feet in height. (a) Members shall be not less than those specified in Table 10.104-13. TABLE 10.104-13 - MINIMUM DIMENSIONS FOR BRICKLAYERS' SQUARE SCAFFOLD MEMBERS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Members Dimensions S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Bearers or horizontal members 2 X 6 in. Legs 2 X 6 in. Braces at corners 1 X 6 in. Braces diagonally from center frame 1 X 8 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q (b) The squares shall be reinforced on both sides of each corner with 1X6 inch gusset pieces. They shall also have diagonal braces 1X8 inches on both sides running from center to center of each member, or other means to secure equivalent strength and rigidity. (c) The squares shall be set not more than five feet apart for medium duty scaffolds, and not more than eight feet apart for light duty scaffolds. Bracing, 1X8 inches, extending from the bottom of each square to the top of the next square, shall be provided on both front and rear sides of the scaffold. (d) Platform planks shall be at least 2X10 inch nominal size. The ends of the planks shall overlap the bearers of the squares and each plank shall be supported by not less than three squares. (e) Bricklayers' square scaffolds shallnot exceed three tiers in height and shall be so constructed and arranged that one square shall rest directly above the other. The upper tiers shall stand on a continuous row of planks laid across the next lower tier and be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement. (f) Scaffolds shall be level and set upon a firm foundation. (16) Horse Scaffolds. Horse scaffolds shall not be constructed or arranged more than two tiers or ten feet in height. (a) The members of the horses shall be not less than those specified in Table 10.104-14. TABLE 10.104-14 - MINIMUM DIMENSIONS FOR HORSE SCAFFOLD MEMBERS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Members Dimensions S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Horizontal members or bearers 3 x 4 in. Legs 1 x 4 in. Longitudinal brace between legs 1 x 6 in. Gusset brace at top of legs 1 x 8 in.

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Half diagonal braces 1 x 4 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q (b) Horses shall be spaced not more than five feet for medium duty and not more than eight feet for light duty.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (c) When arranged in tiers, each horse shall be placed directly over the horse in the tier below. (d) On all scaffolds arranged in tiers, the legs shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to the planks to prevent displacement or thrust and each tier shall be substantially cross braced. (e) Horses or parts which have become weak or defective shall not be used. (f) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection, 36 to 42 inches high, with a midrail, of 1X6 inch lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shallbe installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (17) Needle BeamScaffold. Wood needle beams shall be not less than 4X6 inches in size, with the greater dimension placed in a vertical direction. Metal beams or the equivalent, conforming to 454 CMR 10.104(2)(g) and (j) may be used and shall not be altered or moved horizontally while they are in use. (a) Ropes or hangers shall be provided for supports. The span between supports on the needle beam shall not exceed ten feet for 2X6 inch timbers. Rope supports shall be equivalent in strength to one inch diameter first-grade manila rope. (b) The ropes shall be attached to the needle beams by a scaffold hitch or a properly made eye splice. The loose end of the rope shall be tied by a bowline knot or by a round turn and a half hitch. (c) The scaffold hitch shall be arranged so as to prevent the needle beam from rolling or becoming otherwise displaced. (d) The platform span between the needle beams shallnot exceed eight feet when using two inch scaffold plank. For spans greater than eight feet, platforms shall be designed based on design requirements or the special span. The overhang of each end of the platform planks shall be not less than six inches and not more than 12 inches. (e) When needle beam scaffolds are used, the planks shall be secured against slipping. (f) All unattached tools, bolts, and nuts used on needle beam scaffolds shall be kept in suitable containers, properly secured. (g) One end of a needle beam scaffold may be supported by a permanent structural member conforming to 454 CMR 10.104(2)(g) and (j). (h) Each employee working on a needle beam scaffold shall be protected by a safety harness and lifeline in accordance with 454 CMR 10.25. (i) Needle beams shall not be spliced. (j) Stop bolts or cleats shall be attached to the needle beams to prevent the rope from slipping off the end of the beam. (18) Plasterers', Decorators', and Large Area Scaffolds. Plasterers', lathers', and ceiling workers' inside scaffolds shall be constructed in accordance with the general requirements set forth for independent wood pole scaffolds. (See 454 CMR 10.104(3) and Tables 10.104-5, 6 and 7.) (a) All platform planks shall be laid with the edges close together. (b) When independent pole scaffold platforms are erected in sections, such sections shall be provided with connecting runways equipped with substantial guardrails. (c) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 2X4 inches (or other materials providing equivalent protection, 36 to 42 inches high, with a midrail of 1X6 inch lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shallbe installed on all open sides and ends of all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (19) Interior Hung Scaffolds. An interior hung scaffold shall be hung or suspended from the roof structure or ceiling beams. (a) The suspending wire or fiber rope shall be capable of supporting at least six times the rated load. The rope shallbe wrapped at least twice around the supporting members and twice around the bearers of the scaffold, with each end of the wire rope secured by at least three standard wire-rope clips properly installed.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (b) For hanging wood scaffolds, the following minimum nominal size material shall be used: 1. Supporting bearers 2X10 inches on edge; 2. Planking 2X10 inches, with maximumspan seven feet for heavy duty and ten feet for light duty or medium duty. (c) Steel tube and coupler members may be used for hanging scaffolds with both types of scaffold designed to sustain a uniform distributed working load up to heavy duty scaffold loads with a safety factor of four. (d) Guardrails made of lumber, not less than 4X4 inches (or other material providing equivalent protection), 36 to 42 inches high, with a midrail of 1X6 inch lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection), and toeboards, shallbe installed at all open sides and ends on all scaffolds more than ten feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of four inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.104(2)(f). (20) Ladder Jack Scaffolds. All ladder jack scaffolds shall be limited to light duty and shall not exceed a height of 20 feet above the floor or ground. (a) All ladders used in connection with ladder jack scaffolds shall be heavy-duty ladders and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with American National Standards Institute A 14.1-1982, Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders, and A 14.2-1982, Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders. Cleated ladders shall not be used for this purpose. (b) The ladder jack shall be so designed and constructed that it will bear on the side rails in addition to the ladder rungs, or if bearing on rungs only, the bearing area shall be at least ten inches on each rung. (c) Ladders used in conjunction with ladder jacks shall be so placed, fastened, held, or equipped with devices so as to prevent slipping. (d) The wood platform planks shall be not less than two inches nominal in thickness. Both metal and wood platform planks shall overlap the bearing surface not less than 12 inches. The span between supports for wood shall not exceed eight feet. Platform width shall be not less than 18 inches. (e) Not more than two employees shall occupy any given eight feet of any ladder jack scaffold at any one time. (f) Telescope extension planks are prohibited. (21) Window Jack Scaffolds. Window jack scaffolds shall be used only for the purpose of working at the window opening through which the jack is placed. (a) Window jacks shall not be used to support planks placed between one window jack and another or for other elements of scaffolding. (b) Window jack scaffolds shall be provided with guardrails unless safety harness with lifelines are attached and provided for employee. (c) Not more than one employee shall occupy a window jack scaffold at any one time. (22) Roofing Brackets. Roofing brackets shall be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof. (a) Brackets shall be secured in place by nailing in addition to the pointed metal projections. When it is impractical to nail brackets, rope supports shall be used. When rope supports are used, they shall consist of first-grade manila of at least inch diameter, or equivalent. (b) A catch platform shall be installed below the working area of roofs more than 16 feet from the ground to eaves with a slope greater than four inches in 12 inches without a parapet. In width, the platform shall extend two feet beyond the protection of the eaves and shall be provided with a guardrail, midrail, and toeboard. This provision shall not apply where employees engaged in work upon such roofs are protected by a safety harness attached to a lifeline. (23) Crawling Boards or Chicken Ladders. Crawling boards shall be not less than ten inches wide and one inch thick, having cleats 1X1 inches. The cleats shall be equal in length to the width of the board and spaced at equal intervals not to exceed 24 inches. Nails shall be driven through and clinched on the underside. The crawling board shall extend from the ridge pole to the eaves when used in connection with roof construction, repair, or maintenance.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (a) A firmly fastened lifeline of at least inch diameter rope, or equivalent, shall be strung beside each crawling board for a handhold. (b) Crawling boards shall be secured to the roof by means of adequate ridge hooks or other effective means. (24) Float or Ship Scaffolds. Float or ship scaffolds shall not be used to support more than three men and a few light tools, such as those needed for riveting, bolting, and welding. They shall be constructed as designed in 454 CMR 10.104(24)(a) through (e) unless substitute designs and materials provide equivalent strength, stability, and safety. (a) The platform shall be not less than three feet wide and six feet long, made of inch plywood, equivalent to American Plywood Association Grade B-B, Group I, Exterior, or other similar material. (b) Under the platform, there shall be two supporting bearers made from 2X4 inch, or 1X10 inch, rough, "selected lumber," or better. They shall be free of knots or other flaws and project six inches beyond the platform on both sides. The ends of the platform shall extend six inches beyond the outer edges of the bearers. Each bearer shall be securely fastened to the platform. (c) An edging of wood not less than X1 inches or equivalent shall be placed around all sides of the platform to prevent tools from rolling off. (d) Supporting ropes shall be one inch diameter manila rope or equivalent, free from deterioration, chemicaldamage, flaws, or other imperfections. Rope connections shall be such that the platform cannot shift or slip. If two ropes are used with each float, they shall be arranged so as to provide four ends which are to be securely fastened to an overhead support. Each of the two supporting ropes shall be hitched around one end of bearer and pass under the platforms to the other end of the bearer where it is hitched again, leaving sufficient rope at each end for the supporting ties. (e) Each employee shall be protected by an approved safety harness and lifeline, in accordance with 454 CMR 10.24. (25) Form Scaffolds. Form scaffolds shall be constructed of wood or other suitable materials, such as steel or aluminum members of known strength characteristics. All scaffolds shall be designed and erected with a minimum safety factor of four, computed on the basis of the maximum rated load. (a) All scaffold planking shall be a minimum of 2X10 inch nominal Scaffold Grade, as recognized by approved grading rules for the species of lumber used, or equivalent material. Maximum permissible spans shallnot exceed eight feet on centers for 2X10 inch nominal planking. Scaffold planks shall be either nailed or bolted to the ledgers or of such length that they overlap the ledgers at least six inches. Unsupported projecting ends of scaffolding planks shall be limited to a maximum overhang of 12 inches. (b) Scaffolds shall not be loaded in excess of the working load for which they were designed. (c) Figure-Four Form Scaffolds: Figure-four scaffolds are intended for light duty and shall not be used to support loads exceeding 25 pounds per square foot unless specifically designed for heavier loading. For minimum design criteria, see Table 10.104-15. TABLE 10.104-15 - MINIMUM DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FIGURE-FOUR FORM SCAFFOLDS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Members Dimensions S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uprights 2 X 4 in. or 2 X 6 in. Outriggers ledgers (two) 1 X 6 in. Braces 1 X 6 in. Guardrails 2 X 4 in. Guardrail height 36 to 42 in. Intermediate guardrails 1 X 6 in. Toeboards 4 in. (minimum) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued 1. Figure-four form scaffold frames shall be spaced not more than eight feet on centers and constructed from sound lumber, as follows: The outrigger ledger shall consist of two pieces of 1X6 inch or heavier material nailed on opposite sides of the vertical form support. Ledgers shallproject not more than three feet six inches from the outside of the formsupport and shall be substantially braced and secured to prevent tipping or turning. The knee or angle brace shall intersect the ledger at least three feet from the form at an angle of approximately 45, and the lower end shall be nailed to a vertical support. The platform shall consist of two or more 2X10 inch planks, which shall be of such length that they extend at least six inches beyond ledgers at each end unless secured to the ledgers. When planks are secured to the ledgers (nailed or bolted), a wood filler strip shall be used between the ledgers. Unsupported projecting ends of planks shall be limited to an overhang of 12 inches. (d) Metal Bracket Form Scaffolds: Metal brackets or scaffold jacks which are an integral part of the form shall be securely bolted or welded to the form. Folding type brackets shall be either bolted or secured with a locking-type pin when extended for use. 1. "Clip-on" or "hook-over" brackets may be used, provided the form walers are bolted to the form or secured by snap ties or shea- bolt extending through the form and securely anchored. 2. Metal brackets shall be spaced not more than eight feet on centers. 3. Scaffold planks shall be either bolted to the metal brackets or of such length that they overlap the brackets at each end by at least six inches. Unsupported projecting ends of scaffold planks shall be limited to a maximum overhang of 12 inches. 4. Metal bracket form scaffolds shall be equipped with wood guardrails, intermediate rails, toeboards, and scaffold planks meeting the minimum dimensions shown in Table 10.107-16. (Metal may be substituted for wood, providing it affords equivalent or greater design strength.) TABLE 10.104-16 MINIMUM DESIGN CRITERIA FOR METAL BRACKET FORM SCAFFOLDS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Members Dimensions S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uprights 2 X 4 in. Guardrails 2 X 4 in. Guardrail height 36 to 42 in. Intermediate guardrails 1 X 6 in. Toeboards 4 in. (minimum) Planking 2 X 9 in. S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q (e) Wooden bracket form scaffolds shall be an integral part of the form panel. The minimum design criteria set forth herein and in Table 10.104-17 cover scaffolding intended for light duty and shall not be used to support loads exceeding 25 pounds per square foot, unless specifically designed for heavier loading. 1. Scaffold planks shall be either nailed or bolted to the ledgers or of such length that they overlap the ledgers at each end by at least six inches. Unsupported projecting ends of scaffold planks shall be limited to a maximum overhang of 12 inches.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued TABLE 10.104-17 MINIMUM DESIGN CRITERIA FOR WOODEN BRACKET FORM SCAFFOLDS S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Members Dimensions S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Uprights 2 X 4 in. or 2 X 6 in. Support ledgers 2 X 6 in. Maximum scaffold width 3 ft. 6 in. Braces 1 X 6 in. Guardrails 2 X 4 in. Guardrail height 36 to 42 in. Intermediate guardrails 1 X 6 in. Toeboards 4 in. (minimum) Upright spacing 8 ft. 0 in. (on centers) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 2. Guardrails and toeboards shall be installed on all open sides and ends of platforms and scaffolding over ten feet above floor or ground. Guardrails shall be made of lumber 2X4 inch nominal dimension (or other material providing equivalent protection), 36 to 42 inches high, supported at intervals not to exceed eight feet. Guardrails shall be equipped with midrails constructed of 1X6 inch nominal lumber (or other material providing equivalent protection). Toeboards shall extend not less than four inches above the scaffold plank. (26) Pump Jack Scaffolds. (a) Pump jack scaffolds shall: 1. Not carry a working load exceeding 500 pounds; and 2. Be capable of supporting without failure at least four times the maximum intended load. 3. The manufactured components shall not be loaded in excess of the manufacturer's recommended limits. (b) Pump jack brackets, braces, and accessories shall be fabricated from metal plates and angles. Each pump jack bracket shall have two positive gripping mechanisms to prevent any failure or slippage. (c) The platform bracket shall be fully decked and the planking secured. Planking, or equivalent, shall conform with 454 CMR 10.104(2). (d) When wood scaffold planks are used as platforms, poles used for pump jacks shall not be spaced more than ten feet center to center. When fabricated platforms are used that fully comply with allother provisions of 454 CMR 10.104(26) pole spacing may not exceed 24 feet center to center. 1. Poles shall not exceed 30 feet in height. 2. Poles shall be secured to the work wall by rigid triangular bracing, or equivalent, at the bottom, top, and other points as necessary, to provide a maximum vertical spacing of not more than ten feet between braces. Each brace shall be capable of supporting a minimum of 225 pounds tension or compression. 3. For the pump jack bracket to pass bracing already installed, an extra brace shall be used approximately four feet above the one to be passed until the original brace is reinstalled. (e) All poles shall bear on mud sills or other adequate firm foundations and shall be set plumb. (f) Pole lumber shall be 2 2X4's, of Douglas fir, or equivalent, straight-grained, clear, free of cross-grain, shakes, large loose or dead knots, and other defects which might impair strength. (g) When poles are constructed of two continuous lengths, they shall be two by fours, spiked together with the seam parallel to the bracket, and with 10d common nails, no more than 12 inches center to center, staggered uniformly from opposite outside edges. (h) If two by fours are spliced to make up the pole, the splices shall be so constructed as to develop the full strength of the member.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.104: continued (i) A ladder, in accordance with 454 CMR 10.103 shall be provided for access to the platform during use. (j) Not more than two persons shall be permitted at one time upon a pump jack scaffold between any two supports. (k) Pump jack scaffolds shall be provided with standard guardrails as defined in 454 CMR 10.104(2)(d), (e) and shall be securely fastened to the bracket assembly to achieve horizontal bracing. (l) When a work bench is used at an approximate height of 42 inches, the top guardrail may be eliminated, if the work bench is fully decked, the planking secured, and is capable of withstanding 200 pounds pressure in any direction. (m) Employees shall not be permitted to use a work bench as a scaffold platform. (n) Pump jack scaffolds using aluminum poles shall be erected in compliance with 454 CMR 10.104(26); except they may be used to a maximum height of 40 feet. (27) Roller beam scaffold. (a) Erected scaffolds shall be regularly inspected to be sure that they are maintained in safe conditions. (b) Avoid abusing scaffolds by hitting with hammers or heavy objects when erected scaffolds are to be moved. (c) Damaged, bent, or deteriorated scaffold units shall not be used. (d) Scaffolding shall be erected where it will not interfere with overhead utility lines. (e) All scaffold units must be securely locked to overhead structural beams when erecting. (f) All recommended safe loading capacities per scaffold unit must be followed; and working decks must be erected plum and level. (g) Safety rail brackets, guard rails, and toeboards shall be installed when scaffold is erected. (h) Bearing brakes shall be used to eliminate roller bearing movement on beams. (i) There shall be a minimum over-hang of 18"-24" of scaffold board extending through hangers before locking or fastening. (j) Workmen shall not be on scaffold when it is being moved or relocated, during operation. 10.105: Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (1) General Requirements. (a) Aerial lifts may be "field modified" for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer, provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformity with all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.2-1979 and 454 CMR 10.105, and to be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification. (b) The requirements of 454 CMR 10.105 does not apply to firefighting equipment. (c) When operating aerial lifts proximate to, under, over, by or near electric power lines, the requirements of 454 CMR 10.105(1)(c) shall apply. 1. The following clearances shall be maintained: a. For lines rated at 50kV or less, the minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the aerial lift shall be at least ten feet; b. When the lines are related in excess of 50kV, the minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the aerial lift shall be at least ten feet plus 0.4 inch for each kilovolt in excess of 50KV, or twice the length of the liner insulator, but never less than ten feet; c. The requirements set forth in 454 CMR 10.105(1)(c)1. do not apply (1) where the work is performed from an aerial device insulated for the work, and the work is performed by either telecommunications, employees, line-clearance tree-trimming employees, or electric utility employees; or (2) where the electric power transmission or distribution lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at the point of work, or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the aerial lift, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.105: continued 2. Proximity warning devices may be used, but not in lieu of meeting the requirements contained in 454 CMR 10.105(1)(c)1.. 3. The owner of the lines or his authorized representative shall be notified and provided with all pertinent information before the commencement of operations near electrical lines. 4. Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line until the owner of the line or his authorized representative states that it is deenergized. (2) Specific Requirements. (a) Ladder trucks and tower trucks. Before the truck is moved for highway travel, aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device above the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder, or by other equally effective means (e.g., cradles which prevent rotation of the ladder in combination with positive acting linear actuators). (b) Extensible and articulating boom platforms. 1. Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. 2. Only trained persons shall operate an aerial lift. 3. Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted. 4. Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. 5. A body belt shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift. 6. Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded. 7. The brakes shall be set and outriggers, when used, shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline. 8. An aerial lift truck may not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except for equipment whichis specifically designed for this type of operation in accordance with the provisions of 454 CMR 10.105(1)(a). 9. Articulating boom and extensible boomplatforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shallbe in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the upper controls. Controls shallbe plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency. 10. Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial lift. 11. The insulated portion of an aeriallift shallnot be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value. 12. Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position, except as provided in 454 CMR 10.105(2)(b)8. 13. The vehicle shall be equipped with an audible warning which will sound automatically when operating in reverse gear. (c) Electricaltests. Electricaltests shallbe made in conformance with the requirements of ANSI A92.2-1979, Section 5. However, equivalent DC voltage tests may be used in lieu of the AC voltage test specified in A92.2-1979. DC voltage tests which are approved by the equipment manufacturer or equivalent entity shall be considered an equivalent test for the purpose of 454 CMR 10.105. (d) Bursting safety factor. Allcriticalhydraulic and pneumatic components shall comply with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute standard, ANSI A92.2-1979. Section4.9 Bursting Safety Factor. Critical components are those in which a failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom. All noncritical components shall have a bursting safety factor of at least two to one. (e) Definitions applicable to 454 CMR 10.105. Aerial device. Any vehicle-mounted device, telescoping or articulating, or both, which is used to position personnel.

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10.105: continued Aerial ladder. An aerial device consisting of a single-or multiple-section extensible ladder. Articulating boom platform. An aerial device with two or more hinged boom sections. Extensible boom platform. An aerial device (except ladders) with a telescopic or extensible boom. Telescopic derricks with personnel platform attachments shall be considered to be extensible boom platforms when used with a personnel platform. Insulated aerial device. An aerial device designed for work on energized lines and apparatus. Mobile unit. A combination of an aerial device, its vehicle, and related equipment. Platform. Any personnel-carrying device (basket or bucket) which is a component of an aerial device. Vehicle. Any carrier that is not manually propelled. Vertical tower. An aerial device designed to elevate a platform in a substantially vertical axis. 10.110: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.111 and 10.112 Floor hole. An opening measuring less than 12 inches but more than one inch in its least dimension in any floor, roof, or platform through which materials but not persons may fall, such as a belt hold, pipe opening, or slot opening. Floor opening. An opening measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension in any floor, roof, or platform through which persons may fall. Handrail. A bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition, as on a stairway or ramp, to furnish persons with a handhold in case of tripping. Nose, nosing. That portion of a tread projecting beyond the face of the riser immediately below. Platform. A working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground, such as a balcony or platform for the operation of machinery and equipment. Runway. A passageway for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level, such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings. Rise. The vertical distance from the top of a tread to the top of the next higher tread. Stair platform. An extended step or landing breaking a continuous run of stairs. Stair railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed sides of a stairway to prevent falls of persons. Stair stairways. A series of steps leading from one level or floor to another, or leading to platforms, pits, boiler rooms, crossovers, or around machinery, tanks, and other equipment that are used more or less continuously or routinely by employees or only occasionally by specific individuals. For the purpose of 454 CMR 10.111 through 10.112, a series of steps and landings having three or more risers constitutes stairs or stairway. Standard railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent falls of persons.

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10.110: continued Standard strength and construction. Any construction of railings, covers, or other guards that meets the requirements of this part. Toeboard. A vertical barrier at floor level erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, runway, or ramp to prevent falls of materials. Tread width. The horizontal distance from front to back of tread, including nosing, when used. Wallopening. An opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall, such as a yard-arm doorway or chute opening. 10.111: Guardrails, Handrails, and Covers (1) General Provision. 454 CMR 10.111 and 10.112 shall apply to conditions where there is danger of employees or materials falling through floor, roof, or wall openings, or from stairways or runways. (2) Guarding of Floor Openings and Floor Holes. Floor openings shall be guarded by a standard railing and toeboards or cover, as specified in 454 CMR 10.111(7). In general, the railing shall be provided on all exposed sides, except at entrances to stairways. (a) Ladderway floor openings or platforms shall be guarded by standard railings with standard toeboards on all exposed sides, except at entrance to opening, with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the opening. (b) Hatchways and chute floor openings shall be guarded by one of the following: 1. Hinged covers of standard strength and construction and a standard railing with only one exposed side. When the opening is not in use, the cover shall be closed or the exposed side shall be guarded at both top and intermediate positions by removable standard railings; 2. A removable standard railing with toe board on not more than two sides of the opening and fixed standard railings with toeboards on allother exposed sides. The removable railing shall be kept in place when the opening is not in use and should preferable be hinged or otherwise mounted so as to be conveniently replaceable. (c) Pits and trap-door floor openings shall be guarded by floor opening covers of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the pit or trap openings shall be protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings. (d) Manhole floor openings shall be guarded by standard covers which need not be hinged in place. While the cover is not in place, the manhole opening shall be protected by standard railings. (e) Temporary floor openings shall have standard railings. (f) Floor holes, into which persons can accidentally walk, shall be guarded by either a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides, or a floor hole cover of standard strength and construction that is secured against accidental displacement. While the cover is not in place, the floor hole shall be protected by a standard railing. (g) Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, a platform shall be provided, and the swing of the door shall not reduce the effective width of the platform to less than 20 inches. (3) Guarding of Wall Openings. (a) Wall openings, from which there is a drop of more than four feet, and the bottom of the opening is less than three feet above the working surface, shall be guarded as follows: 1. When the height and placement of the opening in relation to the working surface is such that either a standard rail or intermediate rail willeffectively reduce the danger of falling, one or both shall be provided; 2. The bottom of a wall opening, which is less than four inches above the working surface, regardless of width, shall be protected by a standard toeboard or an enclosing screen either of solid construction or as specified in 454 CMR 10.111(7)(g)2.

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10.111: continued (b) An extension platform outside a wall opening onto which materials can be hoisted for handling shall have side rails or equivalent guards of standard specifications. One side of an extension platform may have removable railings in order to facilitate handling materials. (c) When a chute is attached to an opening, the provisions of 454 CMR 10.111(3)(a) shall apply, except that a toeboard is not required. (4) Guarding of Open-Sided Floors, Platforms, and Runways. Every open-sided floor or platform six feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing, or the equivalent, as specified in 454 CMR 10.111(7)(a), on all open sides, except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The railing shall be provided with a standard toeboard wherever, beneath the open sides, persons can pass, or there is moving machinery, or there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard. (a) Runways shall be guarded by a standard railing, or the equivalent, as specified in 454 CMR 10.111(7)(a), on all open sides, four feet or more above floor or ground level. Wherever tools, machine parts, or materials are likely to be used on the runway, a toeboard shall also be provided on each exposed side. (b) Runways used exclusively for special purposes may have the railing on one side omitted where operating conditions necessitate such omission, providing the falling hazard is minimized by using a runway not less than 18 inches wide. (c) Where employees entering upon runways become thereby exposed to machinery, electrical equipment, or other danger not a falling hazard, additional guarding shall be provided. (d) Regardless of height, open-side floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, and similar hazards shall be guarded with a standard railing and toeboard. (5) Runways and Ramps. (a) Runways and ramps for the use of motor trucks or heavier vehicles shall have a width of not less than 12 feet. (b) Such runways and ramps shall be provided with timber curbs not less than eight inches by eight inches placed parallel to, and secured to, the sides of the runway or ramp. (c) The flooring for such runways shall be not less than three inch planking, full size undressed. (d) Runways and ramps used for wheelbarrows, handcarts or hand trucks shall be not less than 36 inches in width and those used for foot travel or workmen shall be not less than 20 inches in width. 1. Such structures shall be constructed of not less than two inch fullsize undressed planking, substantially supported and braced to prevent excessive spring or deflection. 2. Planking shall be laid close and shall be butt-jointed and securely nailed. (6) Stairway Railings and Guards. (a) Every flight of stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with standard stair railings or standard handrails as specified below, the width of the stair to be measured clear of all obstructions except handrails: 1. On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both sides enclosed, at least one handrail, preferably on the right side descending; 2. On stairways less than 44 inches wide having one side open, at least one stair railing on the open side; 3. On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both sides open, one stair railing on each side; 4. On stairways more than 44 inches wide but less than 88 inches wide, one handrail on each enclosed side and one stair railing on each open side; 5. On stairways 88 or more inches wide, one handrail on each enclosed side, one stair railing on each open side, and one intermediate stair railing located approximately midway of the width. (b) Winding stairs shall be equipped with a handrail offset to prevent walking on all portions of the treads having width less than six inches.

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10.111: continued (7) Standard Specifications. (a) A standard railing shall consist of top rail, intermediate rail, toeboard, and posts, and shall have a vertical height of 36 to 42 inches from upper surface of top rail to floor, platform, runway, or ramp level. The top rail shall be smooth-surfaced throughout the length of the railing. The intermediate rail shall be halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The ends of the rails shall not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard. Minimum requirements for standard railings under various types of construction are specified in the following: 1. For wood railings, the posts shallbe of at least 2X4 inch by four inch stock spaced not to exceed eight feet; the toprail shall be of at least 2X4 inch stock; the intermediate rail shall be of at least one inch by six inch stock. 2. For pipe railings, posts and top and intermediate railings shall be at least 1 inches nominal diameter with posts spaced not more than eight feet on centers. 3. For structural steel railings, posts and top and intermediate rails shall be of 2 inch by two inch by d inch angles or other metal shapes of equivalent bending strength, with posts spaced not more than eight feet on centers. 4. The anchoring of posts and framing of members for railings of all types shall be of such construction that the completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail, with a minimum of deflection. 5. Railings receiving heavy stresses from employees trucking or handling materials shall be provided additional strength by the use of heavier stock, closer spacing of posts, bracing, or by other means. 6. Other types, sizes, and arrangements of railing construction are acceptable, provided they meet the following conditions: a. A smooth-surfaced top railat a height above floor, platform, runway, or ramp level of approximately 42 inches; b. A strength to withstand at least the minimum requirement of 200 pounds top rail pressure with a minimum of deflection; c. Protection between top rail and floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair treads, equivalent at least to that afforded by a standard intermediate rail; d. Elimination of overhang of rail ends unless such overhang does not constitute a hazard. (b) A stair railing shall be of construction similar to a standard railing, but the vertical height shall be not more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches from upper surface of top rail of surface of tread in line with face of riser at forward edge of tread. (c) A standard toeboard shall be four inches minimum in vertical height from its top edge to the level of the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. It shall be securely fastened in place and have not more than inch clearance above floor level. It may be made of any substantial material, either solid, or with openings not over one inch in greatest dimension. Where material is piled to such height that a standard toeboard does not provide protection, paneling or screening from floor to intermediate rail or to top rail shall be provided. (d) A standard handrail shall be of construction similar to a standard railing except that it is mounted on a wall or partition, and does not include an intermediate rail. It shall have a smooth surface along the top and both sides of the handrail. The handrail shall have an adequate handhold for any one grasping it to avoid falling. Ends of the handrail shall be constructed so as not to constitute a projection hazard. 1. The height of handrails shall be not more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches from upper surface of handrail to surface of tread, in line with face of riser or to surface of ramp. 2. All handrails and railings shallbe provided with a clearance of approximately three inches between the handrail or railing and any other object. (e) Floor opening covers shall be of any material that meets the following strength requirements: 1. Conduits, trenches, and manhole covers and their supports, when located in roadways, and vehicular aisles, shall be designed to carry a truck rear-axle load of at least two times the maximum intended load;

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.111: continued 2. The floor opening cover shall be capable of supporting the maximum intended load and so installed as to prevent accidental displacement. (f) Skylight openings that create a falling hazard shall be guarded with a standard railing, or covered in accordance with 454 CMR 10.111(7)(e)2. (g) Wall opening protection shall meet the following requirements: 1. Barriers shall be of such construction and mounting that, when in place at the opening, the barrier is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction (except upward), with a minimumof deflection at any point on the top rail or corresponding member. (8) Guarding of Low-Pitched Roof Perimeters During the Performance of Built-Up Roofing Work. (a) General Provisions. During the performance of built-up roofing work on low-pitched roofs with a ground to eave height greater than 16 feet, employees engaged in such work shall be protected from falling from all unprotected sides and edges of the roof as follows: 1. By the use of a motion-stopping-safety system (MSS system); or 2. By the use of a warning line system erected and maintained as provided in 454 CMR 10.111(8)(c) and supplemented for employees working between the warning line and the roof edge by the use of either an MSS system or, where mechanical equipment is not being used or stored, by the use of a safety monitoring system; or 3. By the use of a safety monitoring system on roofs 50 feet or less in width, where mechanical equipment is not being used or stored. (b) Exception. The provisions of 454 CMR 10.111(8)(a) do not apply at points of access such as stairways, ladders, and ramps, or when employees are on the roof only to inspect, investigate, or estimate roof level conditions. Roof edge materials handling areas and materials storage areas shall be guarded as provided in 454 CMR 10.111(8)(e). (c) Warning Lines. 1. Warning lines shall be erected around all sides of the work area. a. When mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than six feet from the roof edge. b. When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than six feet fromthe roof edge which is parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less than ten feet from the roof edge which is perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation. 2. The warning line shall consist of a rope, wire, or chain, and supporting stanchions erected as follows: a. The rope, wire, or chain shall be flagged at not more than six foot intervals with high-visibility material; b. The rope, wire, or chain shall be rigged and supported in such a way that its lowest point (including sag) is no less than 34 inches from the roof surface and its highest point is no more than 39 inches from the roof surface; c. After being erected, with the rope, wire, or chain attached, stanchions shall be capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30 inches above the roof surface, perpendicular to the warning line, and in the direction of the roof edge; d. The rope, wire, or chain shall have a minimum tensile strength of 500 pounds, and after being attached to the stanchions, shall be capable of supporting, without breaking, the loads applied to the stanchions as prescribed in 454 CMR 10.111(8)(c)2.c.; and e. The line shall be attached at each stanchion in such a way that pulling on one section of the line between stanchions will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections before the stanchion tips over. 3. Access paths shall be erected as follows: a. Points of access, materials handling areas and storage areas shall be connected to the work area by a clear access path formed by two warning lines. b. When the path to a point of access is not in use, a rope, wire, or chain, equal in strength and height to the warning line, shall be placed across the path at the point where the path intersects the warning line erected around the work area.

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10.111: continued (d) Mechanical Equipment. Mechanical equipment may be used or stored only in areas where employees are being protected by either a warning line or an MSS system. Mechanical equipment may not be used or stored between the warning line and the roof edge unless the employees are being protected by an MSS system. Mechanical equipment may not be used or stored where the only protection provided is by a safety monitoring system. (e) Roof Edge Materials Handling Areas and Materials Storage. Employees working in a roof edge materials handling or materials storage area located on a low-pitched roof with a ground to eave height greater than 16 feet shall be protected from falling by the use of an MSS systemalong all unprotected roof sides and edges of the area. 1. When guardrails are used at hoisting areas, a minimum of four feet of guardrail shall be erected on each side of the access point through which materials are hoisted. 2. A chain or gate shall be placed across the opening between the guardrail sections when hoisting operations are not taking place. 3. When guardrails are used at bitumen pipe outlets, a minimumof four feet of guardrail shall be erected on each side of the pipe. 4. When safety harness systems are used, they shall not be attached to the hoist. 5. When safety harness systems are used they shall be rigged to allow the movement of employees only as far as the roof edge. 6. Materials may not be stored within six feet of the roof edge unless guardrails are erected at the roof edge. 7. Materials which are piled, grouped, or stacked shall be stable and self-supporting. (f) Training. 1. The employer shall provide a training program for all employees engaged in built-up roofing work so that they are able to recognize and deal with the hazards of falling associated with working near a roof perimeter. The employees shall also be trained in the safety procedures to be followed in order to prevent such falls. 2. The employer shall assure that employees engaged in built-up roofing work have been trained and instructed in the following areas: a. The nature of fall hazards in the work area near a roof edge; b. The function, use, and operation of the MSS system, warning line, and safety monitoring systems to be used; c. The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the systems to be used; d. The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this system is used; e. The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment; and f. The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and materials. 3. Training shall be provided for each newly hired employee, and for all other employees as necessary, to assure that employees maintain proficiency in the areas listed in 454 CMR 10.111(8)(f)2. (g) Work on Steep Roofs. 1. Required Rigging. A wood pole or sectional metal scaffold as well as roofing brackets and crawling boards, shallbe erected to the eaves for sheathing and surfacing operations on roofs under the following conditions: a. The pitch of the roof is greater than four in 12. b. Such roof does not have a parapet. c. The height of the eave of such roof is greater than 20 feet above grade. 2. Roof Brackets. Roof brackets shallbe secured in place by one of the following methods: a. Brackets shall be fastened by nailing through the roofing into the rafters. b. Brackets with pointed metal projection on the underside securely driven into the rafters. c. Holding in position by first grade inch Manila rope passed over the ridge pole and tied to a suitable anchor. 3. Crawling Boards. Crawling boards shall not be less than ten inches wide and one inch thick and shall have cleats at least one inch by 1 inches wide securely nailed at regular intervals the full width across the boards.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.111: continued a. Cleat nails shall be driven through and clinched. b. Crawl boards shall extend from the ridge-pole to the eaves and shall be secured to the roof by ridge hooks or equally effective means. c. Beside each crawling board a inch Manila rope life line, which is firmly fastened to a suitable anchor, shall be provided. (h) For the purposes of 454 CMR 10.111(8), the following definitions shall apply: Built-up-roofing. A weather-proofing cover, applied over roof decks, consisting of either a liquid-applied system, a single- ply system, or a multiple-ply system. Liquid-applied systems generally consist of silicone rubber, plastics, or similar material applied by spray or roller equipment. Single-ply systems generally consist of a single layer of synthetic rubber, plastic, or similar material, and a layer of adhesive. Multiple-ply systems generally consist of layers of felt and bitumen, and may be covered with a layer of mineral aggregate. Built-up roofing work. The hoisting, storage, application, and removal of built-up roofing materials and equipment, including related insulation, sheet metal, and vapor barrier work, but not including the construction of the roof deck. Low-pitched roof. A roof having a slope less than or equal to four in 12. Mechanical equipment. All motor or human propelled wheeled equipment except for wheelbarrows and mopcarts. MSS Systems (motion-stopping-safety systems). Fall protection using the following equipment singly or in combination: standard railings (guardrails) as described in 454 CMR 10.110(7), scaffolds or platforms with guardrails as described in 454 CMR 10.103, safety nets as described in 454 CMR 10.25 and safety harness systems as described in 454 CMR 10.24. Roof. The exterior surface on the top of a building. This does not include floors which, because a building has not been completely built, temporarily become the top surface of a building. Safety-monitoring system. A Safety system in which a competent person monitors the safety of all employees in a roofing crew, and warns themwhen it appears to the monitor that they are unaware of the hazard or are acting in an unsafe manner. The competent person must be on the same roof as and within visual sighting distance of the employees, and must be close enough to verbally communicate with the employees. Unprotected side or edge. Any side or edge of a roof perimeter where there is no wall three feet or more in height. Work area. That portion of a roof where built-up roofing work is being performed. 10.112: Stairways (1) On all structures, two or more floors (20 feet or over) in height, stairways, ladders or ramps shall be provided for employees during the construction period. (2) Stairway railings and guardrails shall meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.111(6) and (7). (3) All parts of stairways shall be free of hazardous projections, such as protruding nails. (4) Debris, and other loose materials, shall not be allowed on or under stairways. (5) Slippery conditions on stairways shall be eliminated as soon as possible after they occur.

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10.112: continued (6) Permanent steel or other metal stairways, and landings with hollow pan-type treads that are to be filled with concrete or other materials, when used during construction, shall be filled to the level of the nosing with solid material. The requirement shall not apply during the period of actual construction of the stairways themselves. (7) Wooden treads for temporary service shall be full width. (8) All stairways shall be of sufficient strength to support safely a load of at least (100) pounds per square foot on tread and platform surfaces. (9) Metal landings shall be secured in place before filling. (10) Temporary stairs shall have a landing not less than 30 inches in the direction of travel at every 12 feet of vertical rise. (11) Temporary stairways shall be not less than three feet in width and shall have treads of not less than two inch by ten inch plank. (12) Stairways more than five feet in width shall be provided with an intermediate stringer. (13) No door shall open directly on a flight of stairs. A landing the length of which is at least the width of the door shall be provided between the door and the stairs. (14) Stairs shall be installed at angles to the horizontal of between 30 and 50. (15) Rise height and tread width shall be uniform throughout any flight of stairs including any foundation structure used as one or more treads of the stairs. (16) All stairs shall be lighted in accordance with 454 CMR 10.11. (17) Spiral stairways shall not be permitted except for special limited usage and secondary access situations where it is not practical to provide a conventional stairway. 10.119: Cranes and Derricks. (1) General Requirements. The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used withcranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer. (a) All licenses required by law shall be carried by the operators for inspection by the Commissioner. (b) Licensed Operator. No person shall operate, and no owner, lessee, employer or his agent shall cause or permit to be operated, any elevator except bya person duly licensed for such service by the Commissioner of Public Safety, except: 1. An operator's license shall not be required for an elevator contractor or of a qualified mechanic engaged in the construction, maintenance or repair or elevators or elevator shaftways, or of any inspector having authority to inspect elevators. 2. Display of Licenses. A licensed operator shallat alltimes, when operating an elevator, be prepared to display his license on demand of any authorized inspector. (c) Riding Prohibited. No person shall ride on or be permitted to ride on the load, bucket, sling, ball or hook which is a part of any hoisting, materialhandling, demolition or excavating machinery except under the following conditions: 1. On projects like dams, bridges, stacks and similar constructions where it is known to be the safest method to reach places that are difficult and dangerous of access by other means.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.119: continued 2. Only designated persons may be conveyed by high line method to such placed provided they are secured by safety harness or equivalent protection and further provided the hoist mechanism is under positive control of the operator at all times. 3. Required Permission. Transporting of persons shall be permitted only on equipment designed for passenger service and which is approved by the Commissioner. (d) Hand signals to crane and derrick operators shall be those prescribed by the applicable ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. An illustration of the signals shall be posted at the job site. (e) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use. (f) A thorough inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made annually. After any structural damage, modification or accident involving said machine, a thorough inspection shall be made by a competent person before the machine is returned to service. (g) Operators of material moving handling or hoisting equipment shall remain at the controls while the load is suspended. 1. The operator of the machine shall not leave the machine while the master clutch is engaged. (h) Wire rope shall be taken out of service when any of the following conditions exist: 1. In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay; 2. Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure; 3. Evidence of any heat damage from any cause; 4. Reductions from nominal diameter of more than one-sixty-fourth inch for diameters up to and including five-sixteenths inch, one-thirty-second inch for diameters d inch to and including inch, three-sixty-fourths inch for diameters nine-sixteenths inch to and including inch, one-sixteenth inch for diameters f inch to 1 c inches inclusive, three-thirty-seconds inch for diameters 1 to 1 inches inclusive; 5. In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection; 6. Wire rope safety factors shall be in accordance with American National Standards Institute B 30.5-1985 or SAE J959-1966. (i) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or other moving parts of equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees, or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements of the American National Standards Institute B 15.1-1958 Rev., Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus. (j) Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the rotating superstructure of the crane, either permanently or temporarily mounted, shall be barricaded in such a manner as to prevent an employee from being struck or crushed by the crane. (k) All exhaust pipes shall be guarded or insulated in areas where contact by employees is possible in the performance of normal duties. (l) Whenever internal combustion engine powered equipment exhausts in enclosed spaces, tests shall be made and recorded to see that employees are not exposed to unsafe concentrations of toxic gases or oxygen deficient atmospheres. (m) All windows in cabs shall be of safety glass, or equivalent, that introduces no visible distortion that will interfere with the safe operation of the machine. (n) Where necessary for rigging or service requirements, a ladder, or steps, shall be provided to give access to a cab roof. 1. Guardrails, handholds, and steps shall be provided on cranes for easy access to the car and cab, conforming to American National Standards Institute B30.5-1985. 2. Platforms and walkways shall have anti-skid surfaces. (o) Fueltank filler pipe shallbe located in such a position, or protected in such manner, as to not allow spill or overflow to run onto the engine, exhaust, or electrical equipment of any machine being fueled.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.119: continued 1. An accessible fire extinguisher of ABC rating, or higher, shall be available at all operator stations or cabs of equipment. 2. All fuels shall be transported, stored, and handled to meet 454 CMR 10.00: Part 4. When fuel is transported by vehicles on public highways, Department of Transportation rules contained in 49 CFR Parts 177 and 393 concerning such vehicular transportation are considered applicable. 3. Refueling operations shall be done only after the engine is shut down. (p) Except where electricaldistribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work or where insulating barriers, not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery, have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, equipment or machines shall be operated proximate to power lines only in accordance with the following: 1. For lines rated 50 kV. or below, minimumclearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be ten feet; 2. For lines rated over 50 kV., minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shallbe ten feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV. over 50 kV., or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than ten feet; 3. In transit with no load and boom lowered, the equipment clearance shall be a minimumof four feet for voltages less than 50 kV., and ten feet for voltages over 50 kV., up to and including 345 kV., and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV.; 4. A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired clearance by visual means; 5. Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but the use of such devices shall not alter the requirements of any other regulation of this part even if such device is required by law or regulation; 6. Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and untilthe person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line and it has been visible grounded; 7. Prior to work near transmitter towers where an electrical charge can be induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter shall be de-energized or tests shall be made to determine if electrical charge is induced on the crane. The following precautions shall be taken when necessary to dissipate induced voltages; a. The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground directly to the upper rotating structure supporting the boom; and b. Ground jumper cables shall be attached to materials beinghandled by boom equipment when electrical charge is induced while working near energized transmitters. Crews shall be provided with nonconductive poles havinglarge alligator clips or other similar protection to attach the ground cable to the load. c. Combustible and flammable materials shall be removed fromthe immediate area prior to operations. (q) No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made by the employer without the manufacturer's written approval. If such modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals, shall be changed accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced. In the case where the manufacturer is no longer in business, the current equipment owner shall be responsible for commissioning a professional engineer who will provide the drawings properly stamped by said professional engineer and be available for inspection by the Commissioner. (r) Whenever rubber tired hoisting equipment is making a lift and circumstances call for outriggers, all outriggers shall be fully extended and in place. (s) Sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors shall meet the requirements of SAE J743a-1964. (2) Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes. All jibs shall have positive stops to prevent their movement of more than five degrees above the straight line of the jib and boom on conventional type crane booms. The use of cable type belly slings does not constitute compliance with 454 CMR 10.00.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.119: continued All crawler, truck, or locomotive cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, inspection, construction, testing, maintenance and operation as prescribed in the ANSI B30.5-1985, Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes. (3) Hammerhead Tower Cranes. Adequate clearance shall be maintained between moving and rotating structures of the crane and fixed objects to allow the passage of employees without harm. (a) Employees required to perform duties on the horizontal boom of hammerhead tower cranes shall be protected against falling by guardrails or bysafety harness and lanyards attached to lifelines in conformance with 454 CMR 10.25. (b) Buffers shall be provided at both ends of travel of the trolley. (c) Cranes mounted on rail tracks shall be equipped with limit switches limiting the travel of the crane on the track and stops or buffers at each end of the tracks. (d) All hammerhead tower cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer. (e) Limit switches shall be properly installed so as to prevent any overloading or working beyond capacity. (4) Overhead and Gantry Cranes. The rated load of the crane shall be plainly marked on each side ofthe crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or its load block, and this marking shall be clearly legible from the ground or floor. (a) Bridge trucks shall be equipped with sweeps which extend below the top of the rail and project in front of the truck wheels. (b) Except for floor-operated cranes, a gong or other effective audible warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism. (c) All overhead and gantry cranes in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, inspection, and operation as prescribed inthe ANSI B30.2.0-1983, Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes. (d) Limit switches shall be properly installed so as to prevent any overloading or working beyond capacity. (5) Derricks. All derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed in American National Standards Institute B30.6-1984, Safety Code for Derricks. (a) Construction. Derricks shall be constructed of metal or select structural Douglas Fir, with proper steel braces and fittings. Cast iron shall not be used for members or parts subject to tension or torsion. (b) Guying. The top of a guy derrick mast more than 25 feet in height shall be secured by not less than six wire rope guys so spaced as to make the angles between adjacent guys approximately equal. 1. Wire rope guys shall be secured by either weldless steel sockets, thimble and splice connections, thimbles with proper size and number of clips or steel guy plates having grooved bearing surfaces of the same shape and size as the wire rope thimbles. 2. Guys shall be secured to strong permanent construction or to substantial anchors in the ground. 3. Safety bolts or equivalent shall be placed on guy turnbuckles to prevent unwinding when guys are under tension. (c) Required Inspection. Guys, cable clamps and other rigging shall be checked at the beginning of each work day and before making any lifts that are near the capacity of the rig. 1. Frequent checking by a designated person of lead cables and mast foot blocks shall be performed to insure that cables are not crossed or fouled. 2. Lead line blocks shall be checked frequently to insure that they are properly secured. Leads shall be so arranged as to minimize tripping hazards.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.119: continued (6) Floating Cranes and Derricks. (a) Mobile Cranes Mounted on Barges. 1. When a mobile crane is mounted on a barge, the rated load of the crane shall not exceed the original capacity specified by the manufacturer. 2. A load rating chart, with clearly legible letters and figures, shall be provided with each crane, and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator. 3. When load ratings are reduced to stay within the limits for list of the barge with a crane mounted on it, a new load rating chart shall be provided. 4. Mobile cranes on barges shall be positively secured. (b) Permanently Mounted Floating Cranes and Derricks. 1. When cranes and derricks are permanently installed on a barge, the capacity and limitations of use shall be based on competent design criteria. 2. A load rating chart with clearly legible letters and figures shall be provided and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator. 3. Floating cranes and floating derricks in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, maintenance, and operation as prescribed by the manufacturer. (c) Protection of Employees Working on Barges. The employer shall comply with the applicable requirements for protection of employees working on-board marine vessels specified in 454 CMR 10.138. 10.120: Helicopters (1) Helicopter Regulations. Helicopter cranes shall be expected to comply with any applicable regulations of the Federal Aviation Administration. (2) Briefing. Prior to each day's operation a briefing shall be conducted. This briefing shall set forth the plan of operation for the pilot and ground personnel. (3) Slings and Tag Lines. Load shall be properly slung. Tag lines shall be of a length that will not permit their being drawn up into rotors. Pressed sleeve, swedged eyes, or equivalent means shall be used for all freely suspended loads to prevent hand splices from spinning open or cable clamps from loosening. (4) Cargo Hooks. All electrically operated cargo hooks shall have the electricalactivating device so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent operation. In addition, these cargo hooks shall be equipped with an emergency mechanical control for releasing the load. The hooks shall be tested prior to each day's operation to determine that the release functions properly, both electrically and mechanically. (5) Personal Protective Equipment. (a) Personalprotective equipment for employees receiving the load shall consist of complete eye protection and hard hats secured by chinstraps. (b) Loose-fitting clothing likely to flap in the downwash, and thus be snagged on hoist line, shall not be worn. (6) Loose Gear and Objects. Every practical precaution shall be taken to provide for the protection of the employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash. All loose gear within 100 feet of the place of lifting the load, depositing the load, and all other areas susceptible to rotor downwash shall be secured or removed. (7) Housekeeping. Good housekeeping shall be maintained in all helicopter loading and unloading areas. (8) Operator Responsibility. The helicopter operator shall be responsible for size, weight, and manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter. If, for any reason, the helicopter operator believes the lift cannot be made safely, the lift shall not be made.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.120: continued (9) Hooking and Unhooking Loads. When employees are required to perform work under hovering craft, a safe means of access shall be provided for employees to reach the hoist line hook and engage or disengage cargo slings. Employees shall not perform work under hovering craft except when necessary to hook or unhook loads. (10) Static Charge. Static charge on the suspended load shallbe dissipated with a grounding device before ground personnel touch the suspended load, or protective rubber gloves shall be worn by all ground personnel touching the suspended load. (11) Weight Limitation. The weight of an external load shall not exceed the manufacturer's rating. (12) Ground Lines. Hoist wires or other gear, except for pulling lines or conductors that are allowed to "pay out" from a container or roll off a reel, shall not be attached to any fixed ground structure, or allowed to foul on any fixed structure. (13) Visibility. When visibility is reduced by dust or other conditions, ground personnel shall exercise special caution to keep clear of main and stabilizing rotors. Precautions shall also be taken by the employer to eliminate as far as practical reduced visibility. (14) Signal Systems. Signal systems between aircrew and ground personnel shall be understood and checked in advance of hoisting the load. This applies to either radio or hand signal systems. Hand signals shall be as shown in Figure 10.120-1.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.120: continued FIGURE 10.120-1 HELICOPTER HAND SIGNALS

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.120: continued (15) Approach Distance. No unauthorized person shall be allowed to approach within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning. (16) Approaching Helicopter. Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain in full view of the pilot and keep in a crouched position. Employees shall avoid the area from the cockpit or cabin rearward unless authorized by the helicopter operator to work there. (17) Personnel. Sufficient ground personnel shall be provided when required for safe helicopter loading and unloading operations. (18) Communications. There shall be constant reliable communication between the pilot, and a designated employee of the ground crew who acts as a signalman during the period of loading and unloading. This signalman shall be distinctly recognizable from other ground personnel. (19) Fires. Open fires shall not be permitted in an area that could result in such fires being spread by the rotor downwash. 10.121: Material Hoists, Personnel Hoists, and Elevators (1) General Requirements. (a) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of all hoists and elevators. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a professional engineer competent in the field. (b) Written Approval. No material platform or bucket hoist shall be put in use on any construction or demolition operation until written approval has been received from the Department of Public Safety or the Inspector having jurisdiction. The approval, in certificate form, shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the enclosure housing the hoisting mechanism. (c) Construction of Hoist Towers. Hoist towers shall be erected and dismantled in a safe and workman-like manner under the direct supervision of designated persons and erected or dismantled in accordance with the manufacturers specifications and instructions. (d) Footing. Hoist towers and hoisting engines shall be supported by a level pad of necessary strength and dimensions to adequately distribute the maximum loads so as not to exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil upon which they bear. (e) Rated load capacities, recommended operating speeds, and special hazard warnings or instructions shall be posted on cars and platforms. Data plates shall be attached to the car crosshead and shall indicate the following: 1. The manufacturer's name. 2. Plates shall be of metal and have letters and figures stamped or etched in or cast on the surface of the plate in the manner to be readily legible. 3. The height of letters and figures shall be one inch for capacity plates and inch for data plates. (f) Wire rope shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions exists: 1. In hoisting ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay; 2. Abrasion, scrubbing, flattening, or peening, causing loss of more than a of the original diameter of the outside wires; 3. Evidence of any heat damage resulting from a torch or any damage caused by contact with electrical wires; 4. Reduction from nominal diameter of more than three sixty-fourths inch for diameters up to and including inch; one sixteenth inch for diameters f to 1 c inches; and three thirty-seconds inch for diameters 1 to 1 inches. (g) Hoisting ropes shall be installed in accordance with the wire rope manufacturers' recommendations. (h) The installation of live booms on hoists is prohibited.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.121: continued (i) The use of endless belt-type man-lifts on construction shall be prohibited. (2) Material Hoists. (a) Operating rules shall be established and posted at the operator's station of the hoist. Such rules shall include signal system and allowable line speed for various loads. Rules and notices shall be posted on the car frame or crosshead in a conspicuous location, including the statement "No Riders Allowed." 1. No person shall be allowed to ride on material hoists except for the purposes of inspection and maintenance. (b) All entrances of the hoistways shall be protected by substantial gates or bars which shall guard the full width of the landing entrance. All hoistway entrance bars and gates shall be painted with diagonal contrasting colors, as black and yellow stripes. 1. Bars shall be not less than 2X4 inch wooden bars or the equivalent, located 2 feet from the hoistway line. Bars shall be located not less than 36 inches nor more than 42 inches above the floor. 2. Gates or bars protecting the entrances to hoistways shall be equipped with a latching device. 3. No person shall use a hoistway or hoist platform as a passageway or thoroughfare. (c) Overhead protective covering of two inch planking, inch plywood, or other solid material of equivalent strength, shall be provided on the top of every material hoist cage or platform. (d) The operator's station of a hoisting machine shall be provided with overhead protection equivalent to tight planking not less than two inches thick and sloped 33 to 45 to provide maximum protection. The support for the overhead protection shall be of equal strength. (e) Runway Guards. Guardrails and toeboards shall be installed on the open sides of all runways connecting the tower to the building or structure. The space between the guardrail and toeboards shall be filled with inch mesh, No. 18 gauge wire screen or other equivalent material. (f) Hoist towers may be used with or without an enclosure on all sides. However, whichever alternative is chosen, the following applicable conditions shall be met: 1. When a hoist tower is enclosed, it shall be enclosed on all sides for its entire height with a screen enclosure of inch mesh, No. 18 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent, except for landing access. 2. When a hoist tower is not enclosed, the hoist platform or car shall be totally enclosed (caged) on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering with inch mesh of No. 14 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent. The hoist platform enclosure shall include the required gates for loading and unloading. A six foot high enclosure shall be provided on the unused sides of the hoist tower at ground level. (g) All cars must be equipped with a positive locking device which shall stop and hold the car with no more than five feet of travel, should hoist line or other component fail. (h) All material hoist towers shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer. (i) All material hoists shall conform to the requirements of ANSI A10-5-1981, Safety Requirements for Material Hoists. (3) Personnel Hoists. (a) Hoist towers outside the structure shall be enclosed for the full height on the side or sides used for entrance and exit to the structure. At the lowest landing, the enclosure on the sides not used for exit or entrance to the structure shall be enclosed to a height of at least ten feet. Other sides of the tower adjacent to floors or scaffold platforms shall be enclosed to a height of ten feet above the level of such floors or scaffolds. (b) Written Approval. No workmen's elevator shall be put in use on any construction or demolition operation until writtenapprovalhas been received from the Department of Public Safety or the inspector having jurisdiction. The approval, in certificate form, shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the enclosure housing the hoisting mechanism. (c) Permits. All required permits shall be posted, in certificate form, in a conspicuous location inside the elevator car.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.121: continued In addition, a notice bearing the information that the elevator has not been finally approved by the enforcing authority shall, when appropriate, be conspicuously posted on, near or visible from each entrance to such elevators. (d) Towers inside of structures shall be enclosed on all four sides throughout the full height. (e) Towers shall be anchored to the structure at intervals not exceeding 25 feet. In addition to tie-ins, a series of guys shall be installed. Where tie-ins are not practical the tower shall be anchored by means of guys made of wire rope at least inch in diameter, securely fastened to anchorage to ensure stability. (f) Hoistway doors or gates shall be not less than six feet six inches high and shall be provided with mechanical locks which cannot be operated from the landing side, and shall be accessible only to persons on the car. (g) Cars shall be permanently enclosed on all sides and the top, except sides used for entrance and exit which have car gates or doors. (h) A door or gate shall be provided at each entrance to the car which shall protect the fullwidth and height of the car entrance opening. (i) Overhead protective covering of two inch planking, inch plywood or other solid material of equivalent strength shall be provided on the top of every personnel hoist. (j) Doors or gates shall be provided with electric contacts which do not allow movement of the hoist when door or gate is open. (k) Safeties shall be capable of stopping and holding the car and rated load when traveling at governor tripping speed. (l) Cars shall be provided with a capacity and data plate secured in a conspicuous place on the car or crosshead. (m) Internal combustion engines shall not be permitted for direct drive. (n) Normal and final terminal stopping devices shall be provided. (o) An emergency stop switch shall be provided in the car and marked "Stop." (p) Ropes: 1. The minimum number of hoisting ropes used shall be three for traction hoists and two for drum-type hoists. 2. The minimum diameter of hoisting and counterweight wire ropes shall be inch. 3. Safety factors: TABLE 10.121-1 MINIMUM FACTORS OF SAFETY FOR SUSPENSION WIRE ROPES S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Minimum Rope speed in feet per minute factor of safety S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 50 7. 6 0 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 7.75 7.95 8.10 8.25 8.40 8.60 8.75 8.90 9.20 9.50 9.75 10.00 10.25 10.45

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

600 10.70 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.121: continued (q) Following assembly and erection of hoists, and before being put in service, an inspection and test of all functions and safety devices shall be made under the supervision of a competent person. A similar inspection and test is required following major alteration of an existing installation. All hoists shall be inspected and tested at not more than three month intervals. Records shall be maintained and kept on file for the duration of the job. (r) All personnel hoists used by employees shall be constructed of materials and components which meet the specifications for materials, construction, safety devices, assembly, and structural integrity as stated in the American National Standard A10.4-1981, Safety Requirements for Workmen's Hoists. The requirements of this 454 CMR 10.121(3)(r) do not apply to cantilever type personnel hoists. (s) 1. Personnel hoists used in bridge tower construction shall be approved by a registered professionalengineer and erected under the supervision of a qualified engineer competent in this field. 2. When a hoist tower is not enclosed, the hoist platformor car shall be totally enclosed (caged) on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering with inch mesh of No. 14 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent. The hoist platform enclosure shall include the required gates for loading and unloading. 3. These hoists shall be inspected and maintained on a weekly basis. Whenever the hoisting equipment is exposed to winds exceeding 35 miles per hour it shall be inspected and put in operable condition before reuse. 4. Wire rope shall be taken out of service when any of the following conditions exist: a. In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay; b. Wear of a the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure; c. Evidence of any heat damage from any cause; d. Reductions from nominal diameter of more than three-sixty-fourths inch for diameters to and including inch, one-sixteenth inch for diameters seven-eights inch to 1 c inches inclusive, three-thirty-seconds inch for diameters 1 to 1 inches inclusive; e. In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. (4) Permanent elevators under the care and custody of the employer and used by employees for work covered by 454 C.M.R. 10.00 shall comply with the requirements of American National Standards Institute A17.1-1984 withaddenda A17.1a-1967, A17.1b-1968, A17.1c-1969, A17.1d- 1970, and inspected in accordance with A17.2-1985 with addenda A17.2a-1965, A17.2b-1967. (5) Separation. Hoist towers of the independent type shallbe separated from any other tower by a minimum distance of 18 inches. Horizontal bracing between such towers is permitted. 10.122: Base-Mounted Drum Hoists (1) General Requirements. (a) Exposed moving parts such as gears, projecting screws, setscrews, chain, cables, chain sprockets, and reciprocating or rotating parts, which constitute a hazard, shall be guarded. (b) All controls used during the normal operation cycle shall be located within easy reach of the operator's station. (c) Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided with: 1. A device to disconnect all motors from the line upon power failure and not permit any motor to be restarted until the controller handle is brought to the "off" position; 2. When applicable, an overspeed preventive device; 3. A means whereby remotely operated hoists stop when any control is ineffective.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.122: continued 4. A lockout device to prevent anyone from turning on power during down time. (d) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, installation, testing, inspection, maintenance, and operations, as prescribed by the manufacturer. 10.123: Overhead Hoists (1) General Requirements. (a) The safe working load of the overhead hoists, as determined by the manufacturer, shall be indicated on the hoist, and this safe working load shall not be exceeded. (b) The supporting structure to which the hoist is attached shall have a safe working load equal to that of the hoist. (c) The support shall be arranged so as to provide for free movement of the hoist and shall not restrict the hoist from lining itself up with the load. (d) The hoist shall be installed only in locations that will permit the operator to stand clear of the load at all times. (e) Air hoists shall be connected to an air supply of sufficient capacity and pressure to safely operate the hoist. All air hoses supplying air shall be positively connected to prevent their becoming disconnected during use. (f) All overhead hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements for construction, design, installation, testing, inspection, maintenance, and operation, as prescribed by the manufacturer. 10.124: Conveyors (1) General Requirements. (a) Means for stopping the motor or engine shall be provided at the operator's station. Conveyor systems shall be equipped with an audible warning signal to be sounded immediatelybefore starting up the conveyor. (b) If the operator's station is at a remote point, similar provisions for stopping the motor or engine shall be provided at the motor or engine location. (c) Emergency stop switches shallbe arranged so that the conveyor cannot be started again until the actuating stop switch has been reset to running or "on" position. (d) Screw conveyors shall be guarded to prevent employee contact with turning flights. (e) Where a conveyor passes over work areas, aisles, or thoroughfares, suitable guards shallbe provided to protect employees required to work below the conveyors. (f) All crossovers, aisles, and passageways shall be conspicuously marked by suitable signs, as required by 454 CMR 10.00: Part 5. (g) Conveyors shall be locked out or otherwise rendered inoperable, and tagged with a "Do Not Operate"tag during repairs and when operation is hazardous to employees performingmaintenance work. (h) All conveyors in use shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, as prescribed in the ANSI B20.1-1984, Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment. (i) Walkways. Walkways along conveyor belts shall be kept free of debris or material. Where the walkway is three feet or more above the ground or floor a guardrail shall be installed. (j) Riding Prohibited. No person shall ride any belt, bucket or load being moved by any cableway or conveyor.

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10.125: Aerial Lifts (1) General Requirements. (a) Unless otherwise provided in 454 CMR 10.125, aerial lifts acquired for use on or after the effective date of 454 CMR 10.125 shall be designed and constructed in conformance with the applicable requirements of the American National Standards for "Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms," ANSI A92.2-1979, including appendix. Aerial lifts acquired before the effective date of this section, which do not meet the requirements of ANSI A92.2-1979, may not be used after January 1, 1976, unless they shallhave been modified so as to conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A92.2-1979. Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel to job-sites above ground: 1. Extensive boom platforms. 2. Aerial ladders. 3. Articulating boom platforms. 4. Vertical towers. 5. A combination of any of the above. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or other material; may be powered or manually operated; and are deemed to be aerial lifts whether or not they are capable of rotating about a substantially vertical axis. (b) Aerial lifts may be "field modified" for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformity with all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.2-1979 and 454 CMR 10.125 and to be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification. (c) Aerial lifts shall not hoist any material or equipment which cannot be placed in the bottom of the basket or work platform and shall not exceed the rated capacity or dimensions of the bucket. (2) Specific Requirements. (a) Ladder Trucks and Tower Trucks. Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device on top of the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder before the truck is moved for highway travel. (b) Extensible and Articulating Boom Platforms. 1. Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition. 2. Only authorized persons shall operate an aerial lift. 3. Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted. 4. Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. 5. A body harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift. 6. Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded. 7. The brakes shall be set and when outriggers are used, they shallbe positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline, provided they can be safely installed. 8. An aerial lift truck shall not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except for equipment which is specifically designed for this type of operation in accordance with the provisions of 454 CMR 10.125(1)(a) and (b). 9. Articulating boom and extensible boom platforms, primarilydesigned as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shall be in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the uppercontrols. Controls shall be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency. 10. Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial lift. 11. The insulated portion of an aeriallift shallnot be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value.

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10.125: continued 12. Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position except as provided in 454 CMR 10.125(2)(b)8. (c) Electrical Tests. All electrical tests shall conform to the requirements of ANSI A92.2-1979 section 5. However equivalent d.c. voltage tests may be used in lieu of the a.c. voltage specified inA92.2-1979;d.c. voltage tests which are approved by the equipment manufacturer or equivalent entity shall be considered an equivalent test for the purpose of this paragraph. (d) Bursting Safety Factor. The provisions of the American National Standards Institute standard ANSI A92.2-1979, section 4.9 Bursting Safety Factor shall apply to all critical hydraulic and pneumatic components. Criticalcomponents are those in which a failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom. All noncritical components shall have a bursting safety factor of at least 2 to 1. (e) Welding Standards. All welding shall conform to the following standards as applicable: 1. Standard Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0-41. 2. Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS D8.4-61. 3. Standard Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders for Piping and Tubing, AWS D10.9-69. 4. Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, AWS D2.0-69. PART 13: MOTOR VEHICLES, MECHANIZED EQUIPMENT, AND MARINE OPERATIONS 10.132: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.133 through 10.138 Apron. The area along the waterfront edge of the pier or wharf. Bulwark. The side of a ship above the upper deck. Coaming. The raised frame, as around a hatchway in the deck, to keep out water. Jacob's ladder. A marine ladder of rope or chain with wooden or metal rungs. Rail. For the purpose of 454 CMR 10.138 means a light structure serving as a guard at the outer edge of a ship's deck. 10.133: Equipment (1) General Requirements. All equipment left unattended at night, adjacent to a highway in normal use, or adjacent to construction areas where work is in progress, shall have appropriate lights or reflectors, or barricades equipped with appropriate lights or reflectors, to identify the location of the equipment. (a) Guard Replacement. No guard, safety appliance or device shall be removed from machinery or equipment, or made ineffective except for the purpose of making immediate repairs, lubrications or adjustments and then only after the power has been shut off. All guards and devices shall be replaced immediately after completion of repairs and adjustments. (b) A safety tire rack, cage, or equivalent protection shall be provided and used when inflating, mounting, or dismounting tires installed on split rims, or rims equipped with locking rings or similar devices. (c) Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts thereof, which are suspended or held aloft by use of slings, hoists, or jacks shall be substantially blocked or cribbed to prevent falling or shifting before employees are permitted to work under or between them. Bulldozer and scraper blades, end-loader buckets, dump bodies, and similar equipment, shall be either fully lowered or blocked when being repaired or when not in use. All controls shall be in a neutral position, with the motors stopped and brakes set, unless work being performed requires otherwise.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.133: continued Whenever the equipment is parked, the parking brake shall be set. Equipment parked on inclines shall have the wheels chocked and the parking brake set. (d) The use, care and charging of all batteries shall conform to the requirements of 454 CMR 10.94. (e) All cab glass shall be safety glass, or equivalent, that introduces no visible distortion affecting the safe operation of any machine covered by 454 CMR 10.133 through 10.138. (f) Equipment Location. No equipment or material shall be located so that by operations or manipulation such equipment or material can come within ten feet of an overhead electric line of 750 volts or more. (2) Air Receivers. (a) General Requirements - Application. 454 CMR 10.133 (2) applies to compressed air receivers, and other equipment used in providing and utilizing compressed air for performing operations such as cleaning, drilling, hoisting, and chipping. On the other hand, however, 454 CMR 10.133(2) does not deal with the special problems created by using compressed air to convey materials nor the problems created when men work in compressed air as in tunnels and caissons. 454 CMR 10.133(2) is not intended to apply to compressed air machinery and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. New and Existing Equipment. All new air receivers installed after the effective date of these regulations shall be constructed in accordance with the 1968 edition of the A.S.M.E. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII. All safety valves used shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with the A.S.M.E. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII Edition 1968. (b) Installation and Equipment Requirements - Installation. Air receivers shall be so installed that all drains, handholes, and manholes thereinare easilyaccessible. Air receivers should be supported with sufficient clearance to permit a complete external inspection and to avoid corrosion of external surfaces. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or located in an inaccessible place. The receiver should be located as close to the compressor or aftercooler as is possible in order to keep the discharge pipe short. Gages and Valves. Every air receiver shall be equipped with an indicating pressure gage (so located as to be readily visible) and with one or more spring-loaded safety valves. The total relieving capacity of such safety valves shall be such as to prevent pressure in the receiver from exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure of the receiver by more than ten percent. 1. No valve of any type shall be placed between the air receiver and its safety valve or valves. 2. Safety appliances, such as safety valves, indicating devices and controlling devices, shall be constructed, located, and installed so that they cannot be readily rendered inoperative by any means, including the elements. 3. All safety valves shall be tested frequently and at regular intervals to determine whether they are in good operating condition. (c) Drains and Traps. A drain pipe and valve shall be installed at the lowest point of every air receiver to provide for the removal of accumulated oil and water. Adequate automatic traps may be installed in addition to drain valves. The drain valve on the air receiver shall be opened and the receiver completely drained frequently and at such intervals as to prevent the accumulation of excessive amounts of liquid in the receiver. 10.134: Motor Vehicles (1) Coverage. Motor vehicles as covered by454 CMR 10.134 are those vehicles that operate within an off-highway jobsite, not open to public traffic. The requirements of 454 CMR 10.134 do not apply to equipment for which rules are prescribed in 454 CMR 10.135.

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10.134: continued (2) General Requirements. All vehicles shall have a service brake system, an emergency brake system, and a parking brake system. These systems may use common components, and shall be maintained in operable condition. (a) Whenever visibility conditions warrant additional light, allvehicles, or combinations of vehicles, in use shall be equipped with at least two headlights and two taillights in operable condition. All vehicles, or combination of vehicles, shall have brake lights in operable condition regardless of light conditions. (b) All vehicles shall be equipped with an adequate audible warning device at the operator's station and in an operable condition. (c) No employer shall use any motor vehicle equipment having an obstructed view to the rear unless: 1. The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level or: 2. The vehicle is backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so. (d) All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers. Cracked and broken glass shall be replaced. Vehicles operating in areas or under conditions that cause fogging or frosting of the windshields shall be equipped with operable defogging or defrosting devices. (e) All haulage vehicles, whose pay load is loaded by means of cranes, power shovels, loaders, or similar equipment, shall have a cab shield and/or canopy adequate to protect the operator from shifting or falling materials. (f) Tools and material shall be secured to prevent movement when transported in the same compartment with employees. (g) Vehicles used to transport employees shall have seats firmly secured and adequate for the number of employees to be carried. (h) Seat belts and anchorages meeting the requirements of 49 CFR Part 571 (Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards) shall be installed in all motor vehicles. (i) Trucks with dump bodies shall be equipped with positive means of support, permanently attached, and capable of being locked in position to prevent accidental lowering of the body while maintenance or inspection work is being done. (j) Operating levers controlling hoisting or dumping devices on haulage bodies shallbe equipped with a latch or other device which will prevent accidental starting or tripping of the mechanism. (k) Trip handles for tailgates of dump trucks shall be so arranged that, in dumping, the operator will be in the clear. (l) All rubber-tired motor vehicle equipment manufactured on or after May 1, 1972, shall be equipped withfenders. Allrubber-tire motor vehicle equipment manufactured before May 1, 1972 shall be equipped with fenders not later than May 1, 1973. Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not designed for fenders. (m) All vehicles in use shall be checked at the beginning of each shift to assure that the following parts, equipment, and accessories are in safe operating condition and free of apparent damage that could cause failure while in use: service brakes, including trailer brake connections; parking system (hand brake); emergency stopping system (brakes); tires; horn; steering mechanism; coupling devices; seat belts; operating controls; and safety devices. All defects shall be corrected before the vehicle is placed in service. These requirements also apply to equipment such as lights, reflectors, windshield wipers, defrosters, fire extinguishers, etc., where such equipment is necessary. 10.135: Material Handling Equipment (1) Earthmoving Equipment; - General. 454 CMR 10.135 applies to the following types of earthmoving equipment: scrapers, loaders, crawler or wheeltractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and similar equipment. The promulgation of specific rules for compactors and rubber-tired "skid-steer"equipment is reserved pending consideration of standards currently being developed.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.135: continued (a) Seat Belts. Seat belts shall be provided on all equipment covered by this section and shall meet the requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers, J386-1969, Seat Belts for Construction Equipment. Seat belts for agricultural and light industrialtractors shall meet the seat belt requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers J333a-1970, Operator Protection for Agricultural and Light Industrial Tractors. 1. Seat belts need not be provided for equipment which is designed only for standup operation. 2. Seat belts need not be provided for equipment which does not have roll-over protective structure (ROPS) or adequate canopy protection. (b) Access Roadways and Grades. No employer shall move or cause to be moved construction equipment or vehicles upon any access roadway or grade unless the access roadway or grade is constructed and maintained to accommodate safely the movement of the equipment and vehicles involved. Every emergency access ramp and berm used by an employer shall be constructed to restrain and control runaway vehicles. (c) Brakes. All earthmoving equipment mentioned in this 454 CMR 10.134 (1) shall have a service braking system capable of stopping and holding the equipment fully loaded, as specified in Society of Automotive Engineers SAE-J237, Loader Dozer-1971, J236, Graders-1971, and J319b, Scrapers-1971. Brake systems for self-propelled rubber-tired off-highway equipment manufactured after January 1, 1972 shall meet the applicable minimum performance criteria set forth in the following Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices: Self-Propelled Scrapers........... SAE J319b-1971. Self-Propelled Graders............ SAE J236-1971. Trucks and Wagons................. SAE J166-1971. Front End Loaders and Dozers...... SAE J237-1971. (d) Fenders. Pneumatic-tired earth-moving haulage equipment (trucks, scrapers, tractors, and trailing units) whose maximum speed exceeds 15 miles per hour, shall be equipped with fenders on all wheels to meet the requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J321a-1970, Fenders for Pneumatic-Tired Earthmoving Haulage Equipment. (e) Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment shall apply to the following types of material handling equipment, all rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers, front end loader dozers, wheel type agricultural and industrial tractors, crawler tractors, crawler type loaders and motor graders that are used in construction work. This standard shall meet the minimum performance criteria set forth in the following Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices: SAE J320a 1971 SAE J394 1971 SAE J395 1971 SAE J396 1971 (f) Rollover Protective Structures for Off-Highway Trucks. The promulgation of standards for rollover protective structures for off-highway trucks is reserved pending further study and development. (g) Audible Alarms. Allbi-directionalmachines, such as rollers, compactors, front-end loaders, bulldozers, and similar equipment, shall be equipped with a horn, distinguishable from the surrounding noise level, which shall be operated as needed when the machine is moving in either direction. The horn shall be maintained in an operative condition. No employer shall permit earthmovingor compacting equipment which has an obstructed view to the rear to be used in reverse gear unless the equipment has in operation a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from the surrounding noise level or an employee signals that it is safe to do so. (h) Scissor Points. Scissor points on all front-end loaders, which constitute a hazard to the operator during normal operation, shall be guarded. (2) Excavating and Other Equipment. (a) Tractors covered in 454 CMR 10.135(1) shall have seat belts as required for the operators when seated in the normal seating arrangement for tractor operation, even though back-hoes, breakers, or other similar attachments are used on these machines for excavating or other work.

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10.135: continued (b) For the purposes of 454 CMR 10.135(2)(b) and 454 CMR 10.00: Part 12 the nomenclatures and descriptions for measurementofdimensions of machinery and attachments shall be as described in Society of Automotive Engineers 1970 Handbook, pages 1088 through 1103. (c) The safety requirements, ratios, or limitations applicable to machines or attachment usage covered in Power Crane and Shovel Associations Standards No. 1 and No. 2 of 1968, and No. 3 of 1969, shall be complied with, and shall apply to cranes, machines, and attachments under 454 CMR 10.135. (3) Liftingand Hauling Equipment (Other Than Equipment Covered Under 454 CMR 10.119 through 10.125. Industrial trucks shall meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.133 and the following: (a) Lift trucks, stackers, etc., shall have the rated capacity clearly posted on the vehicle so as to be clearly visible to the operator. When auxiliary removable counterweights are provided by the manufacturer, corresponding alternate rated capacities also shall be clearly shown on the vehicle. These ratings shall not be exceeded. (b) Assigned Operator. Only a designated person shall operate a lift or fork truck. (c) Operating Surfaces. No lift or fork truck shall be operated on any surface that is so uneven as to make upsetting likely especially in the area adjacent to staging or platform. (d) No modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment shall be made without the manufacturer's written approval. If such modifications or changes are made, the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced. (e) If a load is lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the proportion of the total load carried by any one truck shall not exceed its capacity. (f) Steering or spinner knobs shall not be attached to the steering wheel unless the steering mechanism is of a type that prevents road reactions from causing the steering handwheel to spin. The steering knob shall be mounted within the periphery of the wheel. (g) All high lift rider industrial trucks shall be equipped with overhead guards which meet the configuration and structural requirements as defined in paragraph 421 of American National Standards Institute B56.1-1983, Safety Standards for Powered Industrial Trucks. (h) All industrial trucks in use shall meet the applicable requirements of design, construction, stability, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, as defined in American National Standards Institute B56.1-1983, Safety Standards for Powered Industrial Trucks. 10.136: Pile Driving Equipment (1) General Requirements. Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Power Boilers (section I). (a) Inspection. All pile driving equipment shall be inspected daily before the start of work by a designated person and all unsafe conditions and defective parts shall be corrected before beginning operations. (b) Footing. Before placing or advancing a pile driver, the ground shallbe inspected and, where necessary to provide firm and level footing, cribbing or timber mats shall be placed. (c) All pressure vessels which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels (section VIII). (d) Overhead protection, which will not obscure the vision of the operator and which meets the requirements of 454 CMR 10.120 through 10.126 shall be provided. Protection shall be the equivalent of two-inch planking or other solid material of equivalent strength. (e) Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being raised against the head block.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.136: continued (f) A blocking device, capable of safely supporting the weight of the hammer, shall be provided for placement in the leads under the hammer at all times while employees are working under the hammer. (g) Guards shall be provided across the top of the head block to prevent the cable fromjumping out of the sheaves. (h) When the leads must be inclined in the driving of batter piles, provisions shall be made to stabilize the leads. (i) Fixed leads shall be provided with ladder, and adequate rings, or similar attachment points, so that the loft worker may engage his safety belt lanyard to the leads. If the leads are provided with loft platform(s), such platform(s) shall be protected by standard guardrails. (j) Steam hose leading to a steam hammer or jet pipe shall be securely attached to the hammer with an adequate length of at least inch diameter chain or cable to prevent whipping in the event the joint at the hammer is broken. Air hammer hoses shall be provided with the same protection as required for steam lines. (k) Safety chains, or equivalent means, shall be provided for each hose connection to prevent the line from thrashing around in case the coupling becomes disconnected. (l) Steam line controls shall consist of two shutoff valves, one of which shall be a quick-acting lever type within easy reach of the hammer operator. (m) Guys, outriggers, thrustouts, or counterbalances shall be provided as necessary to maintain stability of pile driver rigs. (2) Pile Driving From Barges and Floats. Barges or floats supporting pile driving operations shall meet the applicable requirements of 454 CMR 10.138. (3) Pile Driving Equipment. (a) Supervision. Each member of the pile driving crew shall be properly instructed in his work and the operation shall be in charge of a designated person who shall direct the work and give the operating signals. (b) All employees shall be kept clear when piling is being hoisted into the leads. (c) When piles are being driven in an excavated pit, the walls of the pit shall be sloped to the angle of repose or sheet-piled and braced. (d) When steel tube piles are being "blown out", employees shall be kept well beyond the range of falling materials. (e) When it is necessary to cut off the tops of driven piles, pile driving operations shall be suspended except where the cutting operations are located at least twice the length of the longest pile from the driver. (f) When driving jacked piles, all access pits shall be provided with ladders and bulkheaded curbs to prevent material from falling into the pit. (g) Driver Not in Use. When the pile driver is not in use the hammer shall be chocked or blocked in the leads or lowered to the ground. (h) Temporary Interruption. The operator of every pile driver shall remain at his post when the driving is interrupted until the hammer has been chocked or blocked in the leads, or has been lowered and is resting on a driven pile or on the ground. (i) Sheet Piles. Stirrups shall be provided for use on sheet piles for workman required to go aloft to guide sheet alignment. (j) Handling of Piles. The preparation of the piles shall be done at a safe distance from the driving operation. 10.137: Site Clearing (1) General Requirements. Employees engaged in site clearing shall be protected from hazards of irritant and toxic plants and suitably instructed in the first aid treatment available. All equipment used in site clearing operations shall be equipped with rollover guards meeting the requirements ofthis subpart. In addition, rider-operated equipment shall be equipped withanoverhead and rear canopy guard meeting the following requirements: (a) The overhead covering on this canopy structure shall be of not less than c inch steel plate or inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than one inch, or equivalent.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.137: continued (b) The opening in the rear of the canopy structure shall be covered with not less than inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than one inch. 10.138: Marine Operations and Equipment (1) Access to Barges. Ramps for access of vehicles to or between barges shall be of adequate strength, provided with side boards, well maintained, and properly secured. (a) Unless employees can step safely to or from the wharf, float, barge, or river towboat, either a ramp, meeting the requirements of 454 CMR 10.138(2), or a safe walkway, shallbe provided. (b) Jacob's ladders shall be of the double rung or flat tread type. They shall be well maintained and properly secured. (c) A Jacob's ladder shall either hang without slack from its lashings or be pulled up entirely. (d) When the upper end of the means of access rests on or is flush with the top of the bulwark, substantial steps properly secured and equipped with at least one substantial hand rail approximately 33 inches in height, shall be provided between the top of the bulwark and the deck. (e) Obstructions shall not be laid on or across the gangway. (f) The means of access shall be adequately illuminated for its full length. (g) Unless the structure makes it impossible, the means of access shall be so located that the load will not pass over employees. (2) Working Surfaces of Barges. Employees shall not be permitted to walk along the sides of covered lighters or barges with coamings more than five feet high, unless there is a three foot clear walkway, or a grab rail, or a taut handline is provided. PART 14: EXCAVATIONS, TRENCHING AND SHORING 10.145: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.146 through 10.147 Accepted Engineering Requirements (or Practices). Those requirements or practices which are compatible with standards required by a registered architect, a registered professional engineer, or other duly licensed or recognized authority. Angle of Repose. The greatest angle above the horizontal plane at which a material will lie without sliding. Bank. A mass of soil rising above a digging level. Belled Excavation. A part of a shaft or footing excavation, usually near the bottom and bell-shaped; i.e., an enlargement of the cross section above. Braces (Trench). The horizontal members of the shoring system whose ends bear against the uprights or stringers. Excavation. Any manmade cavity or depression in the earth's surface, including its sides, walls, or faces, formed by earth removal and producing unsupported earth conditions by reasons of the excavation. If installed forms or similar structures reduce the depth-to-width relationship, an excavation may become a trench. Hard Compact Soil. All earth materials not classified as running or unstable. Kickouts. Accidental release or failure of a shore or brace. Sheet Pile. A pile, or sheeting, that may form one of a continuous interlocking line, or a row of timber, concrete, or steel piles, driven in close contact to provide a tight wall to resist the lateral pressure of water, adjacent earth, or other materials.

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10.145: continued Sides, Walls, or Faces. The vertical or inclined earth surfaces formed as a result of excavation work. Slope. The angle with the horizontal at which a particular earth material will stand indefinitely without movement. Stringers (wales). The horizontal members of a shoring system whose sides bear against the uprights or earth. Trench. A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width of a trench is not greater than 15 feet. Trench Jack. Screw or hydraulic type jacks used as cross bracing in a trench shoring system. Trench Shield. A shoring system, composed of steel plates and bracing, welded or bolted together, which support the walls of a trench from the ground level to the trench bottom and which can be moved along as work progresses. Unstable Soil. Earth material, other than running, that because of its nature or the influence of related conditions, cannot be depended upon to remain in place without extra support, such as would be furnished by a system of shoring. Uprights. The vertical members of a shoring system. Wales. See stringers of 454 CMR 10.145. Walls. See sides of 454 CMR 10.145. 10.146: General Protection Requirements (1) Walkways, runways, and sidewalks shall be kept clear of excavated materialor other obstructions and no sidewalks shall be undermined unless shored to carry a minimum live load of 125 pounds per square foot. (2) If planks are used for raised walkways, runways, or sidewalks, they shall be laid parallel to the length of the walk and fastened together against displacement. (3) Planks shall be uniform in thickness and all exposed ends shall be provided with beveled cleats to prevent tripping. (4) Raised walkways, runways, and sidewalks shall be provided with plank steps on strong stringers. Ramps, used in lieu of steps, shall be provided with cleats to insure a safe walking surface. (5) All employees shall be protected with personal protective equipment for the protection of the head, eyes, respiratory organs, hands, feet, and other parts of the body as set forth in 454 CMR 10.19 through 10.27. (6) Where workers are employed adjacent to or near an excavation on work other than that directly connected with the excavation adequate barriers, and warning lights when required, shallbe provided and properly maintained. (7) Employees exposed to vehicular traffic shall be provided with and shall be instructed to wear warning vests marked with or made of reflectorized or high visibility material. (8) Employees subjected to hazardous dusts, gases, fumes, mists, or atmospheres deficient in oxygen, shall be protected with approved respiratory protection as set forth in 454 CMR 10.24.

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10.146: continued (9) Gas Tests. When working about sewer or gas mains in trenching operations tests for gas shall be made at the start of work each day. (a) Such tests shall be made with instrument-type detecting devices designed for the use intended. (b) Such tests shall be made by a designated person trained in the use of such detecting devices. (c) A record of such tests shall be kept on the job site for review by the Commissioner. (d) Gas, when found in concentrations above established threshold limit values, shall be cleared from the work area before workmen are permitted to enter. (10) No person shall be permitted under loads handled by power shovels, derricks, or hoists. To avoid any spillage employees shall be required to stand away from any vehicle being loaded. Daily inspections of excavations shall be made by a competent person. If evidence of possible cave-ins or slides is apparent, all work in the excavation shall cease until the necessary precautions have been taken to safeguard the employees. 10.147: Specific Excavation Requirements (1) Prior to opening an excavation, effort shall be made to determine whether underground installations; i.e., sewer, telephone, water, fuel, electric lines, etc., will be encountered, and if so, where such underground installations are located. When the excavation approaches the estimated location of such an installation, the exact location shall be determined and when it is uncovered, proper supports shall be provided for the existing installation. Utility companies shall be contacted and advised of proposed work prior to the start of actual excavation. (2) Trees, boulders, and other surface encumbrances, located so as to create a hazard to employees involved in excavation work or in the vicinity thereof at any time during operations, shall be removed or made safe before excavating is begun. (3) The walls and faces of all excavations in which employees are exposed to danger from moving ground shall be guarded by a shoring system, sloping of the ground, or some other equivalent means. Undercutting of the sides of excavations is prohibited unless properly shored. (4) Excavations shall be inspected by a competent person after every rainstorm or other hazard-increasing occurrence, and the protection against slides and cave-ins shall be increased if necessary. (5) The determination of the angle of repose and design of the supporting system shall be based on carefulevaluation of pertinent factors such as: Depth of cut; possible variation in water content of the material while the excavation is open; anticipated changes in materials from exposure to air, sun, water, or freezing; loading imposed by structures, equipment, overlying material, or stored material; and vibration from equipment, blasting, traffic, or other sources. (6) Supporting systems; i.e., piling, cribbing, shoring, etc., shall be designed by a qualified person and meet accepted engineering requirements. When tie rods are used to restrain the top of sheeting or other retaining systems, the rods shall be securely anchored well back of the angle of repose. When tight sheeting or sheet piling is used, full loading due to ground water table shall be assumed, unless prevented by weep holes or drains or other means. Additional stringers, ties, and bracing shall be provided to allow for any necessary temporary removal of individual supports. (7) All slopes shall be excavated to at least the angle of repose except for areas where solid rock allows for line drilling or presplitting. (8) The angle of repose shall be flattened when an excavation has water conditions, silty materials, loose boulders, and areas where erosion, deep frost action, and slide planes appear.

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10.147: continued (9) Spoil Storage - Excavated material shall be placed at least three feet back from the edge of any excavation and shall be piled or retained so as to prevent such material from falling back into the excavation. As an alternative to the clearance prescribed in 454 CMR 10.147(9), the employer may use effective barriers or other effective retaining devices in lieu thereof in order to prevent excavated or other materials from falling into the excavation. (10) Sides, slopes, and faces of all excavations shall meet accepted engineering requirements by scaling, benching, barricading, rock bolting, wire meshing, or other equally effective means. Special attention shall be given to slopes which may be adversely affected by weather or moisture content. (11) Support systems shall be planned and designed by a qualified person when excavation is in excess of 20 feet in depth, adjacent to structures or improvements, or subject to vibration or ground water. (12) Where excavation depth requires two lengths ofsheeting, one above the other, the lower sheeting shall be set inside the bottom stringers of the upper sheeting and shall be driven down and braced as the excavation continues. (13) Materials used for sheeting, sheet piling, cribbing, bracing, shoring, and underpinning shall be in good serviceable condition, and timbers shall be sound, free fromlarge or loose knots, and of proper dimensions. Steel screw jack shores properly secured in place may be used in lieu of timber cross braces when equivalent in strength. (14) Special precautions shall be taken in sloping or shoring the sides of excavations adjacent to a previously backfilled excavation, particularly when the separation is less than the depth of the excavation. Particular attention also shall be paid to joints and seams of material comprising a face and the slope of such seams and joints. (15) Except in hard rock, excavations below the level of the base of footing of any foundation or retaining wall shall not be permitted, unless the wall is underpinned and all other precautions taken to insure the stability of the adjacent walls for the protection of employees involved in excavation work or in the vicinity thereof. (16) If the stability of adjoining buildings or walls is endangered by excavations, shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be provided as necessary to insure their safety. Such shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be inspected daily or more often, as conditions warrant, by a competent person and the protection effectively maintained. (17) Inclined Bracing. Where inclined bracing is used instead of horizontal bracing it shall comply with the following: (a) The incline with the horizontal shall not exceed 30. (b) The footings or anchorage for every brace shall be sound, rigid and capable of sustaining the maximumretained forces without settling or deformation and shall be secure against movement in any direction. (c) Bracing systems erected with material other than wood shall be equivalent in strength to that specified for lumber fabrication. (18) Diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means shall be used to prevent surface water from enteringanexcavation and to provide adequate drainage of the area adjacent to the excavation. Water shall not be allowed to accumulate in an excavation. (19) If it is necessary to place or operate power shovels, derricks, trucks, materials, or other heavy objects ona level above and near an excavation, the side of the excavation shall be sheet-piled, shored, and braced as necessary to resist the extra pressure due to such superimposed loads.

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10.147: continued (20) Blasting and the use of explosives shall be performed in accordance with 454 CMR 10.00: Part 19. (21) When mobile equipment is utilized or allowed adjacent to excavations, substantial stop logs or barricades shall be installed. If possible, the grade should be away from the excavation. (22) Adequate barrier physical protection shall be provided at all remotely located excavations. All wells, pits, shafts, etc., shall be barricaded or covered. Upon completion of exploration and similar operations, temporary wells, pits, shafts, etc., shall be backfilled. (23) If possible, dust conditions shall be kept to a minimum by the use of water, salt, calcium chloride, or other means. (24) In locations where oxygen deficiency or gaseous conditions are possible, air in the excavation shall be tested. Controls, as set forth in 454 CMR 10.00: Parts 2 and 3 shall be established to assure acceptable atmospheric conditions. When flammable gases are present, adequate ventilation shall be provided or sources of ignition shall be eliminated. Attended emergency rescue equipment, such as breathing apparatus, a safety harness and line, basket stretcher, etc., shall be readily available where adverse atmospheric conditions may exist or develop in an excavation. (25) Where employees or equipment are required or permitted to cross over excavations, walkways or bridges with standard guardrails shall be provided. (26) Where ramps are used for employees or equipment, they shall be designed and constructed by qualified persons in accordance with accepted engineering requirements. (27) All ladders used on excavation operations shall be constructed and used in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.00: Part 10. 10.148: Specific Trenching Requirements (1) Banks more than five feet high shall be shored, laid back to a stable slope, or some other equivalent means of protection shall be provided where employees may be exposed to moving ground or cave-ins. Refer to Table 10.148-1 as a guide in sloping of banks. Trenches less than five feet in depth shall also be effectively protected when examination of the ground indicates hazardous ground movement may be expected. (2) Sides of trenches in unstable or soft material, five feet or more in depth, shall be shored, sheeted, braced, sloped, or otherwise supported by means of sufficient strength to protect the employees working within them. See Tables 10.148-1 and 10.148-2. (3) Sides of trenches in hard or compact soil, including embankments, shall be shored or otherwise supported when the trench is more than five feet in depth and eight feet or more in length. In lieu of shoring, the sides of the trench above the five foot level may be sloped to preclude collapse, but shall not be steeper than a one foot rise to each foot horizontal. When the outside diameter of a pipe is greater than six feet, a bench of four foot minimum shall be provided at the toe of the sloped portion. (4) Materials used for sheeting and sheet piling, bracing, shoring, and underpinning, shall be in good serviceable condition, and timbers used shall be sound and free from large or loose knots, and shall be designed and installed so as to be effective to the bottom of the excavation. (5) Additionalprecautions by way of shoring and bracing shall be taken to prevent slides or cave-ins when excavations or trenches are made in locations adjacent to backfilled excavations, or where excavations are subjected to vibrations from railroad or highway traffic, the operation of machinery, or any other source.

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10.148: continued (6) Employees entering bell- bottom pier holes shall be protected by the installation of a removable-type casing of sufficient strength to resist shifting of the surrounding earth. Such temporary protection shall be provided for the fulldepth of that part of each pier hole which is above the bell. A life-line, suitable for instant rescue and securely fastened to a shoulder harness, shall be worn by each employee entering the shafts. This life-line shall be individually manned and separate from any line used to remove materials excavated from the bell footing. (7) Minimum requirements for trench timbering shall be in accordance with Table 10.148-2. Braces and diagonal shores in a wood shoring system shall not be subjected to compressive stress in excess of values given by the following formula: S=1300 - 20L/D Maximum ratio L/D=50 Where: L=Length, unsupported, in inches. D=Least side of the timber in inches. S=Allowable stress in pounds per square inch of cross-section. (8) Inclined Bracing. Where inclined bracing is used instead of horizontal bracing in Table P-2 it shall comply with the following: (a) The incline with the horizontal shall not exceed 30. (b) The footings or anchorage for every brace shallbe sound, rigid and capable of sustaining the maximum retained forces without settling or deformation and shall be secure against movement in any direction. (c) Inclined braces longer than eight feet shall be designed as columns. (d) Bracing systems erected with materialother than wood shall be equivalent in strength to that specified for lumber fabrication. (9) Special Bracing Systems. Bracing systems for trenches more than eight feet in width as well as bracing systems for other excavations more than 15 feet in depth shall be designed by a structural engineer. The design and specifications for such systems shall be available at the site for review by the Commissioner.

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10.148: continued TABLE 10.148-1 APPROXIMATE ANGLE OF REPOSE FOR SLOPING OF SIDES OF EXCAVATIONS

TABLE 148-2
Size and spacing of members Depth of trench Feet 5 to 10 Hard, compact Likely to crack Soft, Sandy, or filled Hydrostatic pressure 10 to 15 Hard Likely to crack Soft, sandy, or filled Hydrostatic pressure 15 to 20 over 20
1

Kind or condition of earth

Uprights

Stringers

Cross braces Width of trench 3 to 6 feet inches 4x4 4x4 4x6 4x6 4x6 4x6 6x6 6x6 6x8 8x8

M aximum spacing

M inimum M aximum M inimum M aximum Up to dimension spacing dimension spacing 3 feet inches 3x4 or 2x6 3x4 or 2x6 3x4 or 2x6 3x4 or 2x6 3x4 or 2x6 3x4 or 2x6 3x4 or 2x6 3x6 3x6 3x6 feet 6 3 Close Sheeting Close sheeting 4 2 Close sheeting Close sheeting close sheeting Close sheeting 4x6 4x6 6x8 4,6 4x6 4x6 8x10 4x12 6x8 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 inches feet inches 2x6 2x6 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x6 4x6 1x12 4x12

6 to 9 9 to 12 12 to Vertical Horizontal feet feet 15 feet inches 4x6 4x6 6x6 6x6 6x6 6x6 6x8 6x8 8x8 8x10 inches 6x6 6x8 6x8 6x8 6x8 6x8 8x8 8x8 8x10 10x10 inches 6x8 6x8 8x8 8x8 8x8 8x8 8x10 8x10 10x10 10x12 feet 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 feet 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

All kinds of conditions All kinds of conditions

Trench jacks may be used in lieu of, or in combination with, cross braces. Shoring is not required in solid rock, hard shale, or hard slag.

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Where desirable, steel sheet piling and bracing of equal strength may be substituted for wood.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.148: continued (10) When employees are required to be in trenches four feet deep or more, an adequate means of exit, such as a ladder or steps, shallbe provided and located so as to require no more than 25 feet of lateral travel. (11) Bracing or shoring of trenches shall be carried along with the excavation. (12) Cross braces or trench jacks shall be placed in true horizontal position, be spaced vertically, and be secured to prevent sliding, falling, or kickouts. Cleats shall be spiked or bolted to join timber cross braces to stringers so as to prevent displacement. (13) Portable trench boxes or sliding trench shields may be used for the protection of personnel in lieu of a shoring system or sloping. Where such trench boxes or shields are used, they shall be designed, constructed, and maintained in a manner which will provide protection equal to or greater than the sheeting or shoring required for the trench. No person shall be in the trench or trench shield during moving operations of the shield, unless an approved closed type shield is used. (14) Backfilling and removal of trench supports shall progress together from the bottom of the trench. Jacks or braces shall be released slowly and, in unstable soil, ropes shall be used to pullout the jacks or braces from above after employees have cleared the trench. PART 15: CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, AND SHORING 10.155: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.156 through 10.157 Bull Float. A tool used to spread out and smooth the concrete. Formwork or Falsework. The total system of support for freshly placed concrete, including the mold or sheathing which contacts the concrete as wellas allsupporting members, hardware, and necessary bracing. Guy. A line that steadies a high piece or structure by pulling against an off-center load. Reshoring. A system used during the construction operation in which the originalshores are removed and replaced in a sequence planned to avoid any damage to partially cured concrete, and to aid in the support of additional construction. Shore. A supporting member that resists a compressive force imposed by a load. Shore Heads. Flat or formed metal pieces which are placed and centered on vertical shoring member. Vertical Slip Forms. Forms which are jacked vertically and continuously during placing of the concrete. 10.156 General Provisions (1) General. All equipment and materials used in concrete construction and masonry work shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, inspection, testing, maintenance and operations as prescribed in ANSI A10.9-1970, Safety Requirements for Concrete Construction and Masonry Work. (2) Reinforcing Steel. Employees working more than six feet above any adjacent working surfaces, placing and tying reinforcing steel in walls, piers, columns, etc., shall be provided with a safety harness, or equivalent device, in accordance with 454 CMR 10.25. (a) Employees shall not be permitted to work above vertically protruding reinforcing steelunless it has been protected to eliminate the hazard of impalement.

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10.156: continued (b) Guying: Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and similar vertical structures shall be guyed and supported to prevent collapse. (c) Wire mesh rolls: Wire mesh rolls shall be secured at each end to prevent dangerous recoiling action. (3) Bulk Concrete Handling. Bulk storage bins, containers, or silos shall have conical or tapered bottoms with mechanical or pneumatic means of starting the flow of material. (4) Concrete Placement - Concrete Mixers. Concrete mixers equipped with one yard or larger loading skips shall be equipped with a mechanical device to clear the skip of material. (a) Guardrails. Mixers of one yard capacity or greater shall be equipped with protective guardrails installed on each side of the skip. (b) Bull Floats. Handles on bull floats, used where they may contact energized electrical conductors, shall be constructed of nonconductive material, or insulated with a nonconductive sheath whose electrical and mechanical characteristics provide the equivalentprotectionofa handle constructed of non-conductive material. (c) Powered Concrete Trowels. Powered and rotating-type concrete troweling machines that are manually guided shall be equipped with a control switch that will automatically shut off the power whenever the operator removes his hands from the equipment handles. (d) Concrete Buggies. Handles of buggies shall not extent beyond the wheels on either side of the buggy. Installation of knuckle guards on buggy handles is recommended. (5) Special Requirements for Power Buggies. (a) Operator. Only a designated person shall operate a power buggy. (b) Stability. Every power buggy shall be so designed and constructed as to withstand without tilting. 1. A 45 turn at full rated load and maximum designed forward speed. 2. A collision stop against wheel blockage on a level grade at full rated load and maximum designed forward or full reverse speed. 3. Lateral transversal of ten percent slopes at full rated load and maximum designed speed. (c) Braking Power. Every power buggy shall be equipped with brakes and tire surfaces capable of bringing it to a stop within 25 feet on a level dry plank surface or fractional equivalent at full rated load and maximum designed speed. Brakes shall be capable of being fixed in engagement to hold the fullload stationary on a 25% grade. (d) Accidental Starting. The controls of every power buggy shall be so arranged or shielded that they cannot be accidentally engaged. (e) Warning Devices. Every power buggy shall be equipped with an easily operable horn or other audible warning signal. (f) Seats and Visibility. Every power buggy of the riding type shall be provided with an operator's seat or standing platform designed and secured to prevent slipping off and so located that the operator may have a maximum practicable driving visibility. (g) Speed. Every power buggy of the riding type shall be so designed or equipped that it cannot travel faster than 12 M.P.H. on a level surface. (h) Parking on Grades. No power buggy shall be left unattended on any grade sufficiently steep to cause it to coast free of engine and brake resistance. (i) Prohibited Operation. No power buggy shall be operated: 1. At a speed greater than 12 M.P.H.; 2. When carrying more than its full rated load; 3. On insecure or skiddy surfaces or surfaces so inclined or uneven as to endanger stability; 4. On grades steeper than 25%; 5. On ramps, runways or other surfaces not in compliance with 454 CMR 10.156. (j) Special Requirements for Runways, Etc. - Runways, ramps, platforms and other surfaces upon which power buggies are operated shall conform to the following requirements: 1. They shall be substantially constructed and securely supported, braced and fastened to prevent movement.

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10.156: continued 2. They shall be constructed to sustain without failure at least four times the maximum load for which they are intended. 3. The minimum width inside of curbs for any ramp, runway or platform shall be two feet wider than the outside width of any power buggy operated thereon without passing, and two feet wider than twice such buggy width in the places where passing occurs. 4. Ramps shall be limited to maximum grades of 25%. 5. All runways shall be substantially level transversely. (k) Required Curbs. The use of curbs along the edges of surfaces upon which power buggies are operated shall be governed by the following provisions: 1. Curbs shall be furnished along all edges which are nearer than ten feet horizontally to the edge of any unenclosed floor area, shaft or other open space into or through which a fall from such surface of more than 24 inches is possible, except as set forth in 454 CMR 10.156(5)(k)3.. 2. Where curbs are not required because the buggy is operated on a surface not over 24 inches above an under-surface, such under-surface shall be strong enoughto sustainthe loaded vehicle in the event of a fall thereon. 3. Curbs may be omitted at actual dumping points more than 24 inches above such under-surfaces if edge over which dumping occurs is provided with bumpers or other means which will effectively stop the buggy from running over the edge while dumping. 4. Curbs must be at least seven inches high, securely fastened and at least equal to a two inch by eight inch plank set on edge against uprights securely fastened and braced at not less than four foot intervals. (l) Refueling. All engines shall be stopped while refueling. (6) Pumpcrete Systems. Pumpcrete or similar systems using discharge pipes shall be provided with pipe supports designed for 100% overload. Compressed air hose in such systems shall be provided with positive fail-safe joint connectors to prevent separation of sections when pressurized. (7) Concrete Buckets. Concrete buckets equipped with hydraulic or pneumatically operated gates shall have positive safety latches or similar safety devices installed to prevent aggregate and loose material from accumulating on the top and sides of the bucket. (a) Riding of concrete buckets for any purpose shall be prohibited, and vibrator crews shall be kept out from under concrete buckets suspended from cranes or cableways. (b) Warning Device. When workmen, involved with the placement of concrete, are located in areas that prevent visual knowledge of the bucket's approach a suitable warning device shall be utilized for alert purpose. Such warning device shall be of the audible type under control of a designated signal man. (c) Bucket Security. When the crane and bucket method is employed on concrete pouring operations the bucket shall be attached by shackle or other positive means to prevent accidental disengagement. (d) Restricted Area. During crane and bucket pouring operations work shall not be performed, by other than those involved with the pour, within the exposure area of the boom radius. (8) When discharging on a slope, the wheels of ready-mix trucks shall be blocked and the brakes set to prevent movement. (9) Nozzlemen applying a cement, sand, and water mixture through a pneumatic hose shallbe required to wear protective head and face equipment. (10) All pours shall be under the direct supervision of a designated person. Such person shall be qualified to govern a safe rate of pour and the height of the drop of the concrete to control dangerous stresses on the forms.

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10.156: continued (11) Vertical Shoring. (a) General Requirements. 1. When temporary storage of reinforcing rods, material, or equipment on top of formwork becomes necessary, these areas shall be strengthened to meet the intended loads. 2. The sills for shoring shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load. 3. All shoring equipment shall be inspected prior to erection to determine that it is as specified in the shoring layout. Any equipment found to be damaged shall not be used for shoring. 4. Erected shoring equipment shall be inspected immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the placement of concrete. Any shoring equipment that is found to be damaged or weakened shall be immediately reinforced or reshored. 5. Reshoring shall be provided when necessary to safely support slabs and beams after stripping, or where such members are subjected to superimposed loads due to construction work done. (b) Such reshoring shall be left in place until the structure can safely sustain the loads applied. (12) Tubular Welded Frame Shoring. Metal tubular frames used for shoring shall not be loaded beyond the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer. (a) Alllocking devices on frames and braces shall be in good working order; coupling pins shall align the frame or panel legs; pivoted cross braces shall have their center pivot in place; and all components shall be in a condition similar to that of original manufacture. (b) When checking the erected shoring frames with the shoring layout, the spacing between towers and cross brace spacing shall not exceed that shown on the layout, and all locking devices shall be in the closed position. (c) Devices for attaching the external lateral stability bracing shall be securely fastened to the legs of the shoring frames. (d) Allbaseplates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form. 10.157: Forms and Shoring (1) General Provisions. (a) Formwork and shoring shall be designed, erected, supported, braced, and maintained so that it will safely support all vertical and lateral loads that may be imposed upon it during placement of concrete. (b) Employee Protection. Workmen constructing forms or placing reinforcing steel, where there is a falling hazard, shall be provided with scaffolding sufficient to insure a safe operation. Where conditions prevent the use of scaffolding, a safety harness or life nets shall be used. (c) Material and Construction. All form lumber and shoring specifications and designs for concrete pour operations, shall be based on careful consideration of a required loading safety factor of 2.5; including spans, rate of pour, working loads and setting temperatures. 1. Forms and shores shall be structurally safe and shall be properly braced or tied together so as to maintain position and shape. 2. Shores shallbe plumb and properly seated top and bottom, and shall be secured in place. (d) Drawings or plans showing the jack layout, formwork, shoring, working decks, and scaffolding, shall be available at the jobsite. (e) Stripped forms and shoring shall be removed and stockpiled promptly after stripping, in all areas in which persons are required to work or pass. Protruding nails, wire ties, and other form accessories not necessary to subsequent work shall be pulled, cut, or other means taken to eliminate the hazard. (f) Imposition of any construction loads on the partially completed structure shall not be permitted unless such loading has been considered in the design and approved by the engineer-architect.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.157: continued (2) Vertical Slip Forms. (a) The steel rods or pipe on which the jacks climb or by which the forms are lifted shall be specifically designed for the purpose. Such rods shall be adequately braced where not encased in concrete. (b) Jacks and vertical supports shall be positioned in such a manner that the vertical loads are distributed equally and do not exceed the capacity of the jacks. (c) The jacks or other lifting devices shall be provided with mechanical dogs or other automatic holding devices to provide protection in case of failure of the power supplyor the lifting mechanism. (d) Lifting shall proceed steadily and uniformly and shall not exceed the predetermined safe rate of lift. (e) Lateral and diagonal bracing of the forms shallbe provided to prevent excessive distortion of the structure during the jacking operation. (f) During jacking operations, the form structure shall be maintained in line and plumb. (g) All vertical lift forms shall be provided with scaffolding or work platforms completely encircling the area of placement. (3) Tube and Coupler Shoring. (a) Couplers (clamps) shall not be used if they are deformed, broken, or have defective or missing threads on bolts, or other defects. (b) The materialused for the couplers (clamps) shall be of a structural type such as drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. Gray cast iron shall be not used. (c) When checking the erected shoring towers with the shoring layout, the spacing between posts shall not exceed that shown on the layout, and allinterlocking of tubular members and tightness of couples shall be checked. (d) All baseplates, shore heads, extension devices, or adjustment screws shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form material and shall be snug against the posts. (4) Single Post Shores. (a) For stability, single post shores shall be horizontally braced in both the longitudinal and transverse directions, and diagonal bracing shall also be installed. Such bracing shall be installed as the shores are being erected. (b) Allbaseplates or shore heads of single post shores shall be in firm contact with the footing sill and the form materials. (c) Whenever single post shores are used in more than one tier, the layout shall be designed and inspected by a structural engineer. (d) When formwork is at an angle, or sloping, or when the surface shored is sloping, the shoring shall be designed for such loading. (e) Adjustment of single post shores to raise formwork shall not be made after concrete is in place. (f) Fabricated single post shores shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, rewelded, or having broken weldments or other defects. If they contain timber, they shall not be used if timber is split, cut, has sections removed, is rotted, or otherwise structurally damaged. (g) All timber and adjusting devices to be used for adjustable timber single post shores shall be inspected before erection. (h) Timber shall not be used if it is split, cut, has sections removed, is rotted, or is otherwise structurally damaged. (i) Adjusting devices shall not be used if heavily rusted, bent, dented, rewelded, or having broken weldments or other defects. (j) All nails used to secure bracing or adjustable timber single post shores shall be driven home and the point of the nail bent over if possible. (5) Special Requirements for Removal of Forms. (a) Curing Tests. Forms and shores shall not be removed until the concrete has attained sufficient strength to insure structural stability and to carry both the dead load and any other loads placed on it.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.157: continued 1. Forms and shores may be removed from concrete, cured to develop the compressive strengths listed in the following Table 10.157-1, when such values are determined by certified laboratory tests of samples of the placed concrete that has been cured under job conditions: TABLE 10.157-1 Minimum Strength Required Pounds Per Sq. In.

Structural Classifications 1. Concrete not subject to appreciable bending or direct stress, nor reliant on forms for vertical support, nor liable to injury from form removal or other construction activities

500

Examples: Vertical or approximately vertical surfaces of thick sections. Outside of barrels, etc. Sidewalls of tunnel lining against rock. Tops of sloping surfaces. 2. Concrete subject to appreciable bending and/or direct stress and partially reliant on forms for vertical support: Subject to dead load only

750

Examples: Insides of barrels, etc. Arch of tunnel lining against solid rock. Undersides of sloping surfaces (1.1 or steeper). Vertical or approximately vertical surfaces of thin sections. Subject to dead and live loads Examples: Inside of galleries and other openings in dams. Sidewalls and arch of tunnel lining against unstable material. Columns. 3. Concrete subject to high bending stress and wholly or almost wholly reliant on forms for vertical support 1500

2000

Examples: Roof or floor slabs and beams Undersides of sloping surfaces (flatter than 1.1). Walkways and platforms. Bridge decks and girders.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.157: continued (b) Required Curing Time Periods. When laboratory strength tests are not made of the concrete, removal of forms and shores shall not be performed until the concrete has been cured in accordance with the following time periods to develop the strength values set forth in Table 10.157-1. Curing period in hours of concrete at 40F temperature, or higher Compressive strength in pounds per sq. in.

36 500

48 750

84 1500

120 2000

(c) Special Concrete Curing. The compressive strength of High Early Strength Concrete is developed in less time than ordinary concrete and the above time requirements for form removal may be reduced by 75% for such special concrete. (d) Restricted Area. Only persons actually engaged in formremovalshallbe allowed in the area during these operations. 1. Hard hats, gloves and heavy-soled shoes shall be worn. 2. Safety harness protection in accordance with 454 CMR 10.24 shall be utilized wherever workmen are exposed to falling hazards. (e) Special Precaution. The removal procedure of heavy long- section forms, such as beam bottoms, shall be accomplished with temporary shore support to prevent a sudden, uncontrolled drop of such forms. (f) Special Protection. Workmen required to cut steel strapping or other types of binding under tension shall wear safety goggles for eye protection against back lash. PART 16: STEEL ERECTION 10.164: Flooring Requirements (1) Permanent Flooring. Skeleton Steel Construction in Tiered Buildings. (a) The permanent floors shall be installed as the erection of structural members progresses, and there shall be not more than eight stories between the erection floor and the uppermost permanent floor, except where the structural integrity is maintained as a result of the design. (b) At no times shall there be more than four floors or 48 feet or unfinished bolting or welding above the foundation or uppermost permanently secured floor. (2) Temporary Flooring. Skeleton Steel Construction in Tiered Buildings. (a) The derrick or erection floor shall be solidly planked or decked over its entire surface except for access openings. Planking or decking of equivalent strength, shall be of proper thickness to carry the working load. Planking shall be not less than two inches thick full size undressed, and shall be laid tight and secured to prevent movement. Planks shall be place tightly together and shall not extend less than six inches nor more than one foot beyond supports unless securely fastened. Planks shall overlap the bearing on each end a minimum of 12 inches. Where overlap is not possible, planks shall have full bearing. 1. On buildings or structures not adaptable to temporary floors, and where scaffolds are not used, safety nets shall be installed and maintained whenever the potential fall distance exceeds two stories or 25 feet. The nets shall be hung with sufficient clearance to prevent contacts with the surface of structures below. 2. Floor Periphery-Safety Railing. A safety railing of inch wire rope shall be installed, 36 to 42 inches high, around the periphery of alltemporary-planked or temporary metal-decked floors of tier buildings and other multifloored structures during structural steel assembly. "Fiber or synthetic rope is prohibited". (b) Where skeleton steel erection is being done, a tightly planked and substantial floor shall be maintained within two stories or 30 feet, whichever is less, below and directly under that portion of each tier of beams on which any work is being performed, except when gathering and stacking temporary floor planks on a lower floor, in preparation for transferring such planks for use on an upper floor. Where such a floor is not practicable, 454 CMR 10.164(2)(a)1. applies.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.164: continued 1. When gathering and stacking temporary floor planks, the planks shall be removed successively, working toward the last panel of the temporary floor so that the work is always done from the planked floor. 2. When gathering and stacking temporary floor planks from the last panel, the employees assigned to such work shall be protected by safety harness with safety lines attached to a catenary line or other substantial anchorage. (3) Flooring - Other Construction. In the erection of a building having double wood floor construction, the rough flooring shall be completed as the building progresses, including the tier below the one on which floor joists are being installed. For single wood floor or other flooring systems, the floor immediately below the story where the floor joists are being installed shall be kept planked or decked over. 10.165: Structural Steel Assembly (1) During the final placing of solid web structural members, the load shall not be released from the hoisting line until the members are secured with not less than two bolts, or the equivalent at each connection and drawn up wrench tight. (2) Open web steeljoists shall not be placed on any structural steel framework unless such framework is safely bolted or welded. (3) In steel framing, where bar joists are utilized, and columns are not framed in at least two directions with structural steel members, a bar joist shall be field-bolted at columns to provide lateral stability during construction. (a) Where longspan joists or trusses, 30 feet or longer, are used, a center row of bolted bridging shall be installed to provide lateral stability during construction prior to slacking of hoisting line. (b) No load shall be placed on open web steel joists until all joists have been securely fastened in place either by bolting and or welding, according to job specifications. (4) Other structural members shall not be subjected to overloading by storage of materials or other conditions. (5) Tag lines shall be used for controlling loads. 10.166: Bolting, Riveting, Fitting-Up, and Plumbing-Up (1) General Requirements. Containers shall be provided for storing or carrying rivets, bolts, and drift pins, and secured against accidental displacement when aloft. (a) Pneumatic hand tools shall be disconnected from the power source, and pressure in hose lines shall be released, before any adjustments or repairs are made. (b) Air line hose sections shall be tied together except when quick disconnect couplers are used to join sections. (c) Eye protection shall be provided in accordance with 454 CMR 10.23. (2) Holing and Cutting Restrictions. Holing and cutting of structural members for piping or duct work shall be performed only in accordance with the advice and consent of the structural engineer. (3) Bolting. When bolts or drift pins are being knocked out, means shall be provided to keep them from falling. Impact wrenches shall be provided with a locking device for retaining the socket. (4) Riveting. Riveting shall not be done in the vicinity of combustible material unless precautions are taken to prevent fire. (a) When rivet heads are knocked off, or backed out, means shall be provided to keep them from falling.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.166: continued (b) A safety wire shall be properly installed on the snap and on the handle of the pneumatic riveting hammer and shall be used at all times. The wire size shall be not less than No. 9 (BS gauge), leaving the handle and annealed No. 14 on the snap, or equivalent. (5) Plumbing-Up. Connections of the equipment used in plumbing-up shall be properly secured. (a) The turnbuckles shall be secured to prevent unwinding while under stress. (b) Plumbing-up guys related equipment shall be placed so that employees can get at the connection points. (c) Plumbing-up guys shall be removed only under the supervision of a competent person. (6) Wood planking shall be of proper thickness to carry the working load, but shall be not less than two inches thick full size undressed, exterior grade plywood, at least 3/4 inch thick, or equivalent material. (7) Metal decking of sufficient strength shall be laid tight and secured to prevent movement. (8) Planks shall overlap the bearing on each end by a minimum of 12 inches. (9) Wire mesh, exterior plywood, or equivalent, shall be used around columns where planks do not fit tightly. (10) Provisions shall be made to secure temporary flooring against displacement. (11) All unused openings in floors, temporary or permanent, shall be completely planked over or guarded in accordance with 454 CMR 10.00: Part 11. (12) Employees shall be provided with safety harnesses when they are working on float scaffolds. PART 17: TUNNELS AND SHAFTS, CASSIONS, COFFERDAMS AND COMPRESSED AIR 10.173: Definitions Applicable to Free Air The following definitions shall apply in the application of 454 CMR 10.00. The singular includes the plural and the plural includes the singular. Acceptable. Accepted or authorized by the Department. Approved. Approved by the Commissioner. Caisson. A box, open at the top and bottom, sunk through water-bearing material to rock or hardpan. Car Passer. A device by which a muck car can be moved to one side of the regular tunnel track to permit passage of the train on said track. Cherry Picker. Is a lifting device used to pick up muck cars or other equipment from the track so as to set it to one side or raise it high enough for passage on the track of trains or equipment. Commissioner. The Commissioner of the Department of Labor and Industries of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Crown Bars. Timber or steel beams that extend ahead of last set of timbers or rib steel supports for temporary tunnel support near the face.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.173: continued Department. Department of Labor and Industries. Foreman or Shifter. A person in charge of a subdivision of the work or of the entire work at any one time and under the direction of the superintendent. Flammable Liquids. Any liquid having a flash point below 140F and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100F. Guarded-Encased-Enclosed. The object is so covered, fenced or surrounded that contact which may result in injury at the point of danger is remote. High Voltage. The supply of electricity where the difference of potential between any two points of the circuit may at any time exceed 650 volts. Jumbo. A mobile platform or series of platforms usually on wheels that provides elevated work areas for mean and the machines, tools or materials being used. Low Voltage. The supply of electricity where the difference of potential between any two points of the circuit cannot exceed 300 volts. Medium Voltage. The supply of electricity where the difference of potential between any two points of the circuit may at any time exceed 300 volts, but shall not exceed 650 volts. Muck. Excavated rock, earth or other materials. Nuisance. Any horseplay or any offensive or obnoxious practice that endangers the life, limb or health of the persons employed. Open Air or Free Air. Well ventilated under normal atmospheric pressure. Person. A firm or body corporate as well as natural persons. Potential of a Circuit. Potential normally existing between the conductors of such circuit or the terminals of such machines or apparatus. Potential and Voltage. These are synonymous and shall mean electrical pressure. Powder. Any explosive other than the detonating agent. Rail. A bar of timber or metal extending from one post or support to another as a guard or barrier. Railing. A barrier consisting of a rail or rails and supports. Roof Bolts and Bolting. Supporting, stabilizing and consolidating rock strata by the use of threaded anchor bolts and tie plates. Safety Goggles or Glasses. Those which are made with case hardened lenses. Safety Shoes or Boots. Shoes or boots that have steel caps built inside the shoe or boot to cover and protect the toes or that have been approved by the Department. Shaft. An excavation made from the surface of the ground for whatever purpose, the longer axis of which is steeper than 45 with the horizontal. Shall and Should. Shall means mandatory and should means recommended. Slope. Any inclined way or opening used for the same purpose as a shaft.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.173: continued Superintendent. The person resident on the work having general supervision and responsibility. Timbering. All structural supports of the walls or roof of an excavation whether they are of wood, steel, or any other material. Tunnel. An underground passageway excavated by men and equipment working below the earth's surface that provides a subterranean route along which men, equipment or substance can move. Tunnel Heading. That section of a tunnel where excavation work for driving the tunnel and work for lining of same is being carried on. Underground. Below or beyond the entrance to the shaft, portal or adit. Works. Any or all parts of a tunnel excavated or being excavated as well as shafts and approaches, including alterations or repair, power houses, lumber yards, storage yards and structures of all kinds, which are in the immediate disposal of excavated materials or in connection with the construction of the tunnel lining. 10.174: Definitions Applicable to Compressed Air Bulkhead. An airtight structure separating the working chamber from free air or from another chamber under a lesser pressure than the working pressure. Caisson. A wood, steel, concrete or reinforced concrete, air- and water- tight chamber in which it is possible for men to work under air pressure greater than atmospheric pressure to excavate material below water level. Decanting. A method used for decompressing under emergency circumstances. In this procedure, the employees are brought to atmospheric pressure with a very high gas tension in the tissues and then immediately recompressed in a second and separate chamber or lock. Emergency Locks. A lock designed to hold and permit the quick passage of an entire shift of employees. High Air. Air pressure used to supply power to pneumatic tools and devices. Low Air. Air supplied to pressurize working chambers and locks. Man Lock. A chamber through which men pass from one air pressure environment into another. Materials Lock. A chamber through which materials and equipment pass from one air pressure environment into another. Medical Lock. A specialchamber in which employees are treated for decompression illness. It may also be used in preemployment physicalexaminations to determine the adaptability of the prospective employee to changes in pressure. Normal Condition. One during which exposure to compressed air is limited to a single continuous working period followed by a single decompression in any given 24-hour period; the total time of exposure to compressed air during the single continuous working period is not interrupted by exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, and a second exposure to compressed air does not occur until at least 12 consecutive hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure has elapsed since the employee has been under pressure.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.174: continued Pressure. A force acting on a unit area. Usually shown as pounds per square inch (p.s.i.). Absolute Pressure (p.s.i.a.). The sum of the atmospheric pressure and gauge pressure (p.s.i.g.). Atmospheric Pressure. The pressure of air at sea level, usually 14.7 p.s.i.a. (1 atmosphere), or 0 p.s.i.g. Gauge Pressure (p.s.i.g.). Pressure measured by a gauge and indicating the pressure exceeding atmospheric. Safety Screen. An air and water-tight diaphragm placed across the upper part of a compressed air tunnel between the face and bulkhead, in order to prevent flooding the crown of the tunnel between the safety screen and the bulkhead, thus providing a safe means of refuge and exit from a flooding or flooded tunnel. Special Decompression Chamber. A chamber to provide greater comfort ofemployees when the total decompression time exceeds 75 minutes. Working Chamber. The space or compartment under air pressure in which the work is being done. 10.175: Tunnels and Shafts (1) General. (a) The specific requirements of 454 CMR 10.175 through 10.179, Tunnels, Shafts, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air, shall be complied with as well as the applicable provisions of all other parts of 454 CMR 10.00. (b) Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places. (c) When ladders and stairways are provided in shafts and steep inclines, they shall meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.00: Parts 10 and 11. (d) Access to unattended underground openings shall be restricted by gates or doors. Unused chutes, manways, or other openings shall be tightly covered, bulkheaded, or fenced off, and posted. Conduits, trenches, and manholes shall meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.111 through 10.112 and 10.147 through 10.148. (e) Subsidence areas that present hazards shall be fenced and posted. (f) Each operation shall have a check-in and check-out system that will provide positive identification of every employee underground. An accurate record and location of the employees shall be kept on the surface. (g) Every employer shall inaugurate and maintain an accident prevention program for the duration of the job. He shall indicate his interest and emphasize cooperation that is needed, review accident experience, check responsibility for accident control, guide and advise job personnel. (h) Safety organizations shall be assigned to be responsible for the carrying out of an actual program. On operations where there is a job safety engineer, he shall keep accident records, investigate accidents, hold safety meetings and carry on all phases of the safety program. Otherwise, there shall be appointed a safety committee comprising employee and employer's representatives which is organized for the same purpose of carrying on similar duties to that of a safety engineer. Such a group can assist a safety engineer appointed to that position. (i) No man, unless he is in communication, either directly or by telephone, with another employee at least once every two hours, shall be employed in a tunnel at such a distance from another man that his cries cannot be heard. However, solitary employment in shaft sinking, shaft timbering or shaft retimbering is prohibited. (j) All machinery, equipment, appliances, materials, structures and work places shall at all times be maintained in a safe condition and in good repair and shall be periodically inspected by the employer or a person or persons designated by him for defects. Every employee observing any defects shall immediately advise his employer or a person designated by him to inspect such equipment.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (k) All spikes or nails with points projecting from lumber lying in working areas or passageways shall be bent down or removed. (l) Unnecessary accumulations of muck, timber, rails, and similar materials shall be avoided underground. Particular attention shall be given to the maintaining of clear areas at shaft stations and between the track and the sides of tunnels. (m) The established safety program shall be directly carried on by all workmen under their jurisdiction and they shallbe responsible for its application and appliance. Foremen shall train all men in job safety methods and investigate causes of accidents. (n) Education shall consist of providing safe training instructions for all workmen, showing safety films, reviewing and maintaining accident records, running of safety contests, distributing literature, posting safety bulletins, holding safety meetings and publication of job safety rules. (o) Control Accident Hazards By: 1. Evaluating accident exposures which may arise from every portion of the work prior to the start of the operation. 2. Establishing safety methods and good practices to be carried out by the men. 3. Safeguarding equipment, machines and also frequentlyinspect and maintain safe conditions. 4. Providing adequate control of occupational disease exposures such as gases, fumes, dusts and chemicals which may be injurious to the employees or the public. 5. Providing personal protective equipment where accident exposure is greatest. Such items as hard hats, steel toe boots, respirators, gas masks, etc., shall be provided by contractors and use required by workmen. (p) On the Job Medical Program shall be established by management dependent upon: 1. Average number of men employed. 2. Duration of job. 3. Type of work and hazards. 4. Probable medical experience based on types of injuries in tunnel construction. 5. Isolation of job from outside medical facilities. (q) In addition to advance safety planning, complete and frequent inspection shall be carried out by the safety organization such as foremen, superintendents, safety engineers and inspectors to detect and correct unsafe working conditions and practices, unsafe methods and unsafe exposures. Safety suggestions from employees should be encouraged. (r) Investigation of Accidents by job officials to determine the basic cause, and control or elimination of the accident cause, in order to maintain Accident Prevention controls at the Supervision level. (s) Change Houses. 1. The operator of every tunnel shall provide a dressing room or a change house, suitable for the use of workers in changing and drying clothing, at a place convenient to the tunnel opening. No structure made of combustible materialshall be within 100 feet of such opening except as allowed. Such dressing room or change house shall be provided with adequate means of heating and lighting, washing facilities, and be equipped with shower baths having hot and cold water, at least one shower being provided for each 15 workers on a shift working in the tunnel. Projects employing less than 15 workers shall have at least one shower. These facilities shall be available to the workers at all times when they are going on or coming off shift and shall be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. 2. Working clothes shall be elevated by suitable means such as chains, to the upper air of the change house or separate rooms be used for working and street clothes. (t) No person shall be permitted to carry into or use intoxicating liquors in a tunnel or premises appurtenant thereto. Any person known to be under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs shall not be permitted to enter such premises. (u) Adequate precautions shall be taken in shaft openings, tunnels or tunnel portals where a sudden rush of water may be expected to occur. (2) Emergency Provisions. (a) Evacuation plans and procedures shall be developed and made known to the employees.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (b) At least one man shall be on duty outside of all tunnels extending 300 feet or more underground whenever a crew is working underground on operations normal to tunnel driving. His duties shall not be such that he would be unable to secure aid for those underground in case of emergency. (c) Emergency hoisting facilities shall be readily available at shafts more than 50 feet in depth, unless hoisting facilities are provided that are independent of electrical power failures. A boatswain's chair shall meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.104. (d) Bureau of Mines approved self-rescuers shall be available near the advancing face to equip each face employee. Such equipment shall be on the haulage equipment and in other areas where employees might be trapped by smoke or gas, and shall be maintained in good condition. (e) Telephone or other signal communication shall be provided between the work face and the tunnel portal, and shall be at 300 feet intervals as tunnel progresses, and such systems shall be independent of the tunnel power supply. (f) First Aid. 1. At every tunnel the contractor shall provide and maintain a supply of first aid material and equipment. Such material and equipment shall be kept in a first aid room, in a dry, dust-tight container. It shallbe available at alltimes while there are employees at work and shall include the following items: a. Such written orders shall be kept in the first aid room in a physician's order book. b. Provisions shall be made prior to commencement of the project for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury. 2. The contractor shall provide and maintain on the premises at a place or places always readily accessible, a wire basket stretcher suitable for carrying injured persons, a woolen blanket, and a waterproof blanket in good condition. Where 100 or more persons are employed, two or more wire basket stretchers and blankets shall be provided and maintained. 3. At all shafts and tunnels, a sufficient number of foremen and workmen shall be trained in first aid in order for them to be able to give proper emergency treatment. Such instruction shall be given by a physician, a registered nurse, or a person holding a certificate from the American Red Cross or the United States Bureau of Mines authorizing such person to administer first aid. 4. There shall be available within a six-mile radius of each entrance to the underground a motor vehicle properly equipped to carry at least two persons on stretchers and two attendants. (g) Equipment: On the advice of a physician, the following equipment is recommended: Resuscitation equipment to include: Bag, Valve, Mask Ventilation unit. Adult size oral pharyngeal airway with mouthgard. Portable D sizes oxygen unitwitha 2000 liter capacity equipped with a regular, adapter, tubing and adult size mask. Forceps Flashlight Arm and Leg Air Splints Non-Allergic Adhesive Tape Scissors Gauze Roller Bandage Spirits of Ammonia Absorbent Cotton Betadine Tongue Blades Petroleum Jelly Safety Pins Tourniquet Basin Paper Cups Antiseptic with Dispenser Triangular Bandage Paper Towels Gauze Pads Stretcher Bandages Disposable/Waterproof Pillow Covers Eye Wash Solution Pillow Eye Cup Washable Blankets Eye Dropper Sheets Eye Dressing Instant Hot/Cold Packs Blood Pressure Apparatus Disposable Gloves Stethoscope Cervical Collar

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (h) Hot and cold running water shall be available at all times. (i) Eye wash stations, showers, bathing and sanitary facilities shall be made available according to a physician's orders in all cases where an employee is exposed to corrosive materials and/or working with compressed air. (3) Air Quality and Ventilation - Air Quality and Quantity. (a) Instruments shall be provided to test the atmosphere quantitatively for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, flammable, or toxic gases, dusts, mists, and fumes that occur in the tunnel or shaft. Tests shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to assure that the required quality and quantity of air is maintained. A record of all tests shall be maintained and be kept available. 1. Field-type oxygen analyzers, or other suitable devices, shall be used to test for oxygen deficiency. 2. Respirators shall not be substituted for environmental control measures. However, where environmental controls have not yet been developed, or when necessary by the nature of the work involved (for example, welding, sand blasting, lead burning), an employee may work for short periods of time in concentrations of airborne contaminants which exceed the limit of permissible excursions referred to in 454 CMR 10.175(3)(a)3. and 4. if such employee wears a respiratory protective device approved by the Bureau of Mines as protection against the particular hazards involved. 3. The exposure to airborne contaminants of an employee working in a tunnel or shaft shall not exceed the threshold limit values adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, as set forth and explained in the 1970 edition of "Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants." 4. Employees shall be withdrawn from areas in which there is a concentration of an airborne contaminant which exceeds the threshold limit value listed for that contaminant. 5. Atmospheres in all active areas shall contain at least 20% oxygen. (b) Ventilation. 1. Tunnels shall be provided with mechanically induced primary ventilation in all work areas. The direction of airflow shall be reversible. 2. A minimum of 1200 cubic feet per minute of fresh air per drill shall be supplied to the heading. The ventilating duct shall terminate a distance not greater than 75 feet from the heading. For hand-operated drills, a ventilation rate of 500 cubic feet per minute shall be maintained. 3. Ventilation doors, not operated mechanically, shall be designed and installed so that they are self-closing and will remain closed regardless of the direction of the air movement. 4. When there has been a failure of ventilation, and ventilation has been restored in a reasonable time, all places where flammable gas may have accumulated shall be examined by a competent person and determined to be free of flammable gas before power is restored and work resumed. 5. When the main fan or fans have been shut down with all employees out of the adit, tunnel or shaft, no employee, other than those qualified to examine the adit, tunnel, or shaft, or other authorized employee, shall go underground until the fans have been started, the work areas examined for gas and other hazards, and declared safe. 6. The supply of fresh air shall not be less than 200 cubic feet per minute for each employee underground. The linear velocity of the air flow in the tunnel bore shall not be less than 30 feet per minute in those tunnels where blasting or rock drilling is conducted or where there are other conditions that are likely to produce dusts, fumes, vapors, or gases in harmful quantities. 7. If 1.5% or higher concentration of flammable gas is detected in air returning from an underground working place or places, the employees shall be withdrawn and the power cut off to the portion of the area endangered by such flammable gas until the concentration of such gas is reduced to one percent or less.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued 8. Internal combustion engines other than mobile diesel shall not be used underground. Mobile diesel-powered equipmentused underground shall be certified by the Bureau ofMines, U.S. Department of the Interior or according to the Bureau of Mines publication "Mechanical Equipment for Mines tests for permissibility and suitability, Part 32, Mobile Diesel Power Equipment for Non-Coal Mines, Schedule 24" of March 23, 1965. (4) Illumination. (a) Sufficient lighting shallbe provided, in accordance with the requirements of Table 10.11-1 of 454 CMR 10.00: Part 2, to permit safe operations at the face as well as in the general tunnel or shaft area and at the employees' workplace. (b) Lighting. 1. All tunnels, stairways, shafts, and areas on the surface where work is being conducted-shall be adequately lighted. 2. The exterior of the sockets of all fixed incandescent lamps shall be entirely nonmetallic and shall be so constructed to exclude moisture. 3. All lamp cord used for temporary lighting shall have heavy insulation Type S or equal including lamp guards and heavy-duty rubber connections. 4. There shall be emergency electric lighting in a separate circuit ready for use in all underground areas where a failure of electric light is likely to cause danger. 5. All general lighting in tunnels and underground areas shall be installed on suitable insulators properly spaced and protected from mechanical injury. These conductors shall be Type T.W. #8 Gauge Wire MINIMUM. (5) Fire Prevention and Control - General. (a) The requirements for fire prevention and protection specified in 454 CMR 10.35 through 10.39 shall be complied with in all tunnel and shaft operations. 1. Signs warning against smoking and open flames shall be posted so that they can be readily seen in areas or placed where fire or explosion hazards exist. 2. The carrying of matches, lighters, or other flame- producing smoking materials shall be prohibited in all underground operations where fire or explosion hazards exist. 3. Not more than a one day's supply of diesel fuel shall be stored underground. 4. Gasoline or liquefied petroleum gases shall not be taken, stored, or used underground. 5. Oil, grease, or fuel stored underground shall be kept in tightly sealed containers in fire-resistant areas, at safe distances from explosives magazines, electrical installations, and shaft stations. 6. Air that has passed through underground oil or fuel- storage areas shall not be used to ventilate working areas. 7. Approved fire-resistant hydraulic fluids shall be used in hydraulically actuated underground machinery and equipment. 8. Fires shall not be built underground. 9. Noncombustible barriers shall be installed below welding or burning operations in or over a shaft or raise. 10. Fire extinguishers or equivalent protection shall be provided at the head and tail pulleys of underground belt conveyors and at 300-foot intervals along the belt line. 11. At tunnel operations, employing 25 or more employees at one time underground at least two rescue crews (ten employees divided between shifts) shall be trained annually in rescue procedures, in the use, care, and limitations of oxygen breathing apparatus, and the use and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Not less thanone crew (five employees) shall be trained at smaller operations. (b) No combustible structure shall be erected over a shaft or tunnel opening. (c) Flammable frame sheds, storage buildings or change houses shall not be located within 100 feet of any tunnelopening, shaft house, hoisting engine house or ventilating fan house. Temporary stockpiles of timber, or buildings that are as fire resistive as a change house with concrete floor, wood frame and corrugated iron sheathing may be located within the hundred-foot limit if they are as far as practicable from the tunnel opening.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (d) Oils and other dangerous flammable material shall be stored not less than 100 feet from any shaft or tunnel opening or building over tunnel opening and at least 100 feet from any powder magazine. Where oils are stored in buildings, such buildings shall not be used for any other purposes. Emergency water and fire lines shall be provided within 100 feet of shaft or tunnel opening. Tanks and drums containing flammable liquids shall be so located that the escaping liquid cannot run over the surface from such tank to any powder magazine or to any building within 100 feet of any tunnel opening. Under no circumstances shall oxygen or any flammable gas be stored in proximity of oil. (6) Personal Protective Equipment. Protective clothing or equipment shall be worn as specified in Parts 454 CMR 10.06 through 10.27. Safety shoes shall be worn by every employee underground not using safety boots. Such shoes shall be furnished by the contractor to employees at cost. (7) Noise. Permissible noise exposures shall conform to those specified in 454 CMR 10.07. (8) Ground Support. (a) Tunnel Portal Area. Portals shall be protected and supported where loose soil or rock or fractured material is encountered. (b) TunnelArea. The employer shall examine and test the roof, face, and walls of the work area at the start of each shift, and frequently thereafter. 1. Loose ground shall be taken down or supported. Ground conditions along haulage ways and travelways shall be examined periodically and scaled or supported as necessary. 2. Torque meters and torque wrenches shall be available at tunnels where rock bolts are used for ground support. Frequent tests shall be made to determine if bolts meetthe required torque. The test frequency shall be determined by rock conditions and distance from vibration sources. 3. Damaged or dislodged tunnel supports, whether steel sets or timber, shall be repaired or replaced. New supports shall be installed whenever possible before removing the damaged supports. 4. All sets, including horseshoe-shaped or arched rib steel sets, shallbe designed and installed so that the bottoms will have required anchorage to prevent pressures from pushing them inward into the excavation. Lateral bracing shall be provided between sets to further stabilize the support. (c) Shafts. Small diameter shafts, which employees are required to enter, shallbe provided with a steel casing, concrete pipe, timber, or other material of required strength to support the surrounding earth. 1. The casing and bracing shall be provided the full depth of the shaft, or at least five feet into solid rock if possible, and shall extend at least one foot above ground level. 2. All welds or shafts over five feet in depth shallbe retained with lagging, spiling, or casing. 3. In shafts, the employer shall inspect the walls, ladders, timbers, blocking, and wedges of the last set to determine if they have loosened following blasting operations. Where found unsafe, corrections shall be made before shift operations are started. 4. Safety harness shall be worn on skips and platforms used in shafts by crews when the skip or cage does not occlude the opening to within one foot of the sides of the shaft, unless guardrails or cages are provided. 5. The maximum number of riders on any cage, bucket, or other conveyance shall be determined by the employer and number of men allowed shall be posted at top and bottom of shaft. No person shall board or attempt to board any such conveyance if the maximum number specified is already on. 6. If any person drops any tools or materials into the shaft, he shall immediately report to his supervisor and an inspection of the shaft shall be made before hoisting operations are resumed.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued 7. No men shall be allowed to ride on loaded buckets, and all men shall be required to ride in the bucket, and not on the rim or bail. 8. Whenever a shaft is used, such shafts shall be provided, where space permits, with a safe, proper and suitable staircase for its entire length, with landing platforms not more than 20 feet apart. Where this is impractical suitable ladders shall be installed, subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Labor and Industries or his representative. 9. All man shafts shall be properly lighted, as required by the Commissioner of Labor and Industries or his representative. (9) Drilling. Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be inspected each shift by a competent person. Equipment defects affecting safety shall be corrected before the equipment is used. (a) The drilling area shall be inspected for hazards before starting the drilling operation. (b) Employees shall not be allowed on a drill mast while the drill bit is in operation. (c) When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to another, drill steel, tools, and other equipment shall be secured, and the mast placed in a safe position. (d) Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel stored on jumbos. (e) Before drilling cycle is started, warning shall be given to men working below jumbo decks. (f) Drills on columns shall be anchored firmly before drilling is started and shall be retightened frequently thereafter. (g) The employer shall provide mechanical means for lifting drills, roof bolts, mine straps, and other unwieldy heavy material to the top decks of jumbos over ten feet in height. (h) The employer shall provide stair access to jumbo decks wide enough to accommodate two persons if the deck is over ten feet in height. (i) On jumbo decks over ten feet in height, guardrails which are removable (pipe in sockets with chain handrail), or equal, shall be provided on all sides and back platforms. (j) Scaling bars shall be in good condition at all times, and blunted and severely worn bars shall not be used. (k) When jumbos are being removed, riders will not be allowed on the jumbo unless they are assisting the driver. (l) Before commencing the drill cycle, the face and lifters shall be examined for misfires (residual explosives) and, if found, they shall be removed before drilling commences at the face. Lifters shall not be drilled through blasted rock (muck) or water. (m) Air lines that are buried in the invert shall be identified by signs posted nearby, warning all personnel. (n) Toeboards at least four inches high shall be provided around platforms of jumbos to prevent tools or other equipment from falling off. (o) Suitable access ladders or stairways shall be provided on all jumbos with platforms six feet of more above floor of tunnel. Jumbo platforms 14 feet high or higher shall have suitable access stairways with 30 inch high railings. Stair treads shall be at least four inches in width. (p) Falling Rock. Overhead protection against falling rock and other objects shall be provided at all jumbo working areas by means of crown bars, solid platforms or other equivalent protection. (q) Electricity. All electrical circuits to the jumbo shall be disconnected and the live ends removed to a minimum distance of 100 feet fromthe jumbo before explosives are brought up to heading or bench. (r) Handling Steel. When drill steel is hoisted by power method, double slings and tag line shall be used. (s) Air Hose. When air hose two inches or more in diameter is used, a device such as chain, rope, etc., shall be attached to the hose to prevent hose from whipping if coupling breaks or is accidentally disengaged. (10) Blasting. All blasting and explosives-handling operations shall be conducted in compliance with 454 CMR 10.203 through 10.216.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (11) Haulage. Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be inspected by a competent person each shift. Equipment defects affecting safety shall be corrected before the equipment is used. (a) Powered mobile equipment shall be provided with adequate brakes. (b) Powered mobile haulage equipment shall be provided with audible warning devices. Lights shall be provided at both ends. (c) Cab windows shall be of safety glass, or equivalent, in good condition, and shall be kept clean. (d) Adequate backstops or brakes shall be installed on inclined conveyor drive units to prevent conveyors from running in reverse and creating a hazard to employees. (e) No employee shall be permitted to ride a power-driven chain, belt, or bucket conveyor, unless the conveyor is specifically designed for the transportation of employees. (f) The employer shall not permit employees to ride in dippers, shovel buckets, forks, clamshells, or in the beds of dump trucks, or on haulage equipment not specifically designed or adapted for the transportation of employees. (g) Electrically powered mobile equipment shall not be left unattended unless the master switch is in the off position, all operating controls are in the neutral position, and the brakes are set, or other equivalent precautions are taken against rolling. (h) When dumping cars by hand, the car dumps shall be provided with tie-down chains or bumper blocks to prevent cars from overturning. (i) Rocker-bottom or bottom-dump cars shall be equipped with positive locking devices. (j) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be so loaded and protected as to prevent sliding or spillage. (k) Parked railcars shall be blocked securely. (l) Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar means shall be provided to prevent overtravel and overturning at dumping locations. (m) Where necessary, bumper blocks, or the equivalent, shall be provided at all track dead ends. (n) Supplies, materials, and tools, other than small handtools, shall not be transported with employees in man-trip cars. (o) Fuel Burning Internal Combustion Engines. 1. Diesel engines shall be of a type approved by the Commissioner. 2. The use of fuel burning or internal combustion engines or locomotives is prohibited, except for diesel engines and these shall be equipped with approved type "scrubbers" or filters. 3. Where explosive gases or dusts may be encountered, the intake and the exhaust openings of the engine shall be protected by flame arrestors, and all flames passages or possible arc-producing parts shall be enclosed in explosion-proof housings. 4. All surfaces shall be maintained at temperatures below 400F and other adequate precautions shall be observed to eliminate fire hazards. 5. Adequate regular maintenance shall be provided for haulage equipment in service. 6. Diesel fuel for underground use shall have a flash point of not less than 150F and contain not over 0.5% sulphur by weight. 7. The exhaust for the diesel engine shall be passed through a scrubber to reduce the health hazard and discomfort to the workers. Scrubbers shall be serviced at least once every eight hours of operation. 8. The undiluted exhaust gases from the diesel shall not contain over 2500 ppm of carbon monoxide. 9. The working atmosphere shall not containover100 ppm carbon monoxide, 2 ppm nitrogen dioxide, or sufficient aldehyde to cause undue irritation. (p) Locomotives. 1. Electric locomotives shall be equipped with some type of "dead man" control that shuts off the power automatically when the operator leaves his post. 2. No person shallbe allowed to operate a locomotive in a tunnel without having had at least one year's experience in underground operations. 3. Tops of locomotives shall have raised edges or equivalent at their sides to prevent tools, steel, etc., from rolling or falling off or protruding over the sides. 4. Where practicable, locomotives shall be equipped with steps or footboards and with suitable rails or equivalent for handholds.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (q) Transportation of Workmen. 1. The regular transportation of tunnelcrews shall be in man trains made up for that purpose and they shall be operated at a safe speed. Where switching facilities are available, the man cars shall be pulled, not pushed, by the locomotive. 2. No car containing explosives or detonators shall be included in the regular worker transportation train. 3. Workmen shall not ride in or on cars loaded with items such as explosives, timbers, rib steel, rail, pipe, muck or other material in such quantity or of a type that would create a hazard. 4. Muck cars used to transport workmen shall be flat-bottomed with sides empty of muck. No part of workmen's bodies shall project beyond the area enclosed by the sides and ends of the car. 5. Workmen using train for transportation shall not be permitted to get on or off cars while train is in motion. 6. Workmen, except regular train crews, shall not ride on front end of locomotives or trains. (r) Trains. 1. Muck cars shall be equipped with automatic coupling devices. 2. Couplings shall not be shifted or lined up on moving cars or locomotives. If couplings are not in line, car or locomotive shall be stopped before they are shifted. 3. The powder car shall be pulled, not pushed, and shall be transported alone withlocomotive and only motorman, brakeman, and powderman (if necessary) as passengers. 4. Where switching of cars is being performed, a man, in addition to the motorman, shall be provided to assist in the switching. 5. When cars are left standing on a track, adequate means, such as brakes, blocks, or chains shall be provided and used to prevent accidental movement. 6. The maximum speed of mechanicalhaulage shallbe determined by the superintendent but may be subject to revision by the Department. 7. Brakeman shall be equipped with whistles or hand lights for signaling the movement of trains. If whistles are used, one whistle to stop; two whistles, move toward brakeman; three whistles, move away from brakeman. (s) Limited Visibility Precautions. While a mucker, jumbo, or other equipment which seriously interferes with a motorman's vision is pushed into the tunnel, a man with a whistle or other signaling device shall be stationed in a safe position on or near the equipment to warn workers in danger of being struck, or of other hazards. (t) Tracks. Surface and tunnel tracks shall be kept in good condition, reasonably level and free of dips and bumps and obstructions commensurate with the safe passage of trains at reasonable operating speeds. (u) Block Signals. If there are curves in a tunnel where more than one train or locomotive operates, block signals for each curve shallbe installed and used. These signals may be manually operated from each approach to the curve or turn if arranged so as to give effective notice that a train is on the curve. Any other means that will positively prevent stains meeting on blind curves and turns will be acceptable in lieu of block signals. (v) Portable Switch. California type portable switches shall be planked between rails to prevent workers from falling or tripping in openings. (w) Car Passers and Cherry Pickers. Where car passers of any type are used, a colored light operated by a worker at the car passer shall be used to signal the motormen when regular track is blocked or clear. Other equally effective signaling methods may be substituted for lights if warranted by conditions in the tunnel. (x) Surface Dump Trucks. A securely anchored bumper equivalent to a 4X6 inch timber, shall be placed at the end of surface waste dump tracks to prevent cars from going over the embankment. (y) Switches. Frogs, guard rails and lead rails of switches shall be so filled as to eliminate the danger of a foot being caught therein. A colored light shall be placed at each switch.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (z) Places of Refuge. 1. In every tunnel providing less than two feet of clearance in which mechanical haulage is employed, there shall be at intervals of not more than 200 feet, places of refuge affording a clearance of at least two feet between the widest portion of the car or train running on the track and the side of the tunnel. 2. Every such place of refuge shall be kept constantly clear. No debris shall be placed therein, and nothing shall be done to prevent access thereto. 3. Every such place of refuge shall be made readily visible by contrasting color, light, or other effective means. (12) ElectricalEquipment. Electrical equipment shall conform to the requirements of 454 CMR 10.91 through 10.95. (a) Powerlines shall be well separated or insulated from water lines, telephone lines, and air lines. The primary power system shall be located on the opposite side of the tunnel away from other lines. (b) Oil-filled transformers shall not be used underground unless they are located in a fire-resistant enclosure and surrounded by a dike to contain the contents of the transformers in event of a rupture. (c) Power Distribution. 1. The maximum primary voltage underground shall in no case exceed 4,500 volts. 2. All circuits shall be protected by automatic current interrupting devices which shall be sufficiently sensitive to operate on short circuits without causing damage to the circuits or conductors. 3. All primary cables from substation to underground tunnels shall be: a. Designed for the voltages transmitted. b. All cables to be properly supported and protected in shafts and tunnels. c. All primary cables used underground shall be provided with disconnecting devices at transformers. d. Transformers used underground shall be installed in suitable areas and protected from mechanical injury. e. Transformers used underground shall be of the air cooled type. (13) Hoisting. Hoisting machines, either powered or hand operated, shall be worm-geared or powered both ways. The design must be such that when the power is stopped, the load cannot move. (a) Hoist machines with cast metal parts shall not be used. (b) Every hoist shallbe tested with twice the maximum load before being put into operation, and annually thereafter. (c) Power Hoists. 1. Every machine used to hoist men and every machine used in a shaft, over 50 feet in depth in which men could be hoisted, shall be equipped with a "Dead Man" type control operated by hand or foot. The brakes shall be automatically applied and the power from the machine cut off whenever the control level is in the "stop"position. There shallbe no friction gearing or clutch mechanism by which the motor or other power source can be disconnected from the hoisting drum. 2. The machine shall be equipped with two brakes, either of which is capable of stopping and holding a fully loaded cage or bucket. One shall be an automatic brake that will be applied whenever the power fails, is shut off, or when the power control level is in the "off" position. The other brake shall be a hand or foot brake that operates on the hoist drum. 3. Equipment that will eliminate the hazards of overwinding shall be installed. (d) Conveyance for Hoisting and Lowering Men. 1. Broken Rope Safety. a. Cages or skips used for hoisting or lowering men in shafts deeper than 50 feet shall be equipped with a broken-rope type safety device or equivalent that will stop and hold the rated capacity load in the guides in the event the cable parts. This safety device shall be tested in a manner satisfactory to the Department on every installation.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued b. No method of roping shall be used which might interfere with the proper operation of the safety device. 2. Cage Design. a. In all shafts where men are hoisted or lowered an iron bonneted cage shall be used for the conveyance of men, but this provision shall not apply to shafts in the process of sinking or during the dismantling of the shaft after work in the tunnel is substantially completed. b. Cages shall be provided with a bonnet consisting of steel plate not less than 3/16 of an inch in thickness so arranged as to afford egress to persons therein, and such bonnet shall cover the top of the cage in such a manner as to protect persons in the cage from falling objects. c. Cages shall be entirely enclosed on two sides with solid partition or wire mesh not less than No. 8 U.S. gauge, no opening in which shall exceed two inches. d. The open sides of the cage shall be provided with at least 1 inch closure chain. e. When persons ride on the cage, the chain guard shall be closed at all times while the cage is in motion. f. Men shall not be permitted to ride on top of cage except for inspection and maintenance of the shaft. 3. Riding with Explosives. Men shall not be permitted to ride on any trip in which the cage, skip or bucket is loaded with explosives. (e) Wire Rope and Sheaves. 1. All rope to be used for regular hoisting shall be wire rope providing a factor of safety not less than five when new, which shall be calculated by dividing the breaking strength of the wire rope as given in the manufacturer's published tables by the total load to be hoisted including the totalweight of the wire rope in the shaft when fully let out, plus a proper allowance for impact and acceleration. 2. The acceleration allowance shall be in accord with manufacturer's recommendations but in all cases the factor of safety of five or more must be maintained when the load used in determining it is greater than the actual weight by a percentage that is numerically three times the acceleration or deceleration whichever is greater. For example, a deceleration or acceleration two feet per second that increases the load would require use of an effect load 6% greater than the actual weight in the calculation of a factor of safety. 3. Wire rope used for hoisting buckets shall be of a non-spin type. (f) Wire Rope Fastenings. Every wire rope used for hoisting shall be securely fastened at both ends and when is use shallnot be fully unwound; at least two full turns shall remain on the drum so as to protect the end fastening at drum from overload. The wire rope end at the cage, skip or bucket shall be securely fastened by a properly made tapered socket joint, by an eye in the wire rope made with an oval thimble and splice or wire rope clips, or by other methods acceptable to the Department. If the wire rope clip method is used, the spacing and number used for six strand 19 wire plow steel ropes shall be as follows: TABLE 10.175-1 Diameter of Rope in Inches Less Than Number of Clips Space Between Clips in Inches 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 17

4 4 f 4 1 5 1c 5 1 5 1d 6 1 6 1e 6 1 6 1f 6 2 7 For all wire ropes less than inches in diameter, at least four clips shall be used.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.175: continued (g) Unsafe Wire Rope. 1. Wire ropes or cables shall be removed from hoisting or load carrying service when any one of the following conditions exist: a. When three broken wires are found in one lay of 6X7 wire rope; b. When six broken wires are found in one lay of 6X19 wire rope; c. When nine broken wires are found in one lay of 6X37 wire rope; d. When eight broken wires are found in one lay of 8X19 wire rope; e. When marked corrosion appears; f. Wire rope which has been idle for three months or more and subjected to water, moisture, dampness, etc., shall be cut off and inspected for internal corrosion, and if marked corrosion is found it shall be removed from hoisting or load carrying service; g. When wire rope is used and not mentioned herein, it shall be inspected as above provided, when in use, and shall be removed from load carrying service when four percent of the total number of wires composing such rope are found to be broken. (h) Wire Rope Inspection. 1. All wire rope used for hoisting and lowering men shall be visually inspected once each week by a qualified person designated by the superintendent and any defects shall be reported immediately and remedied before further hoisting operations are done. 2. All wire rope used for hoisting and lowering men shall be checked once every three months by cutting from the lower end of such rope a section not less than five feet in length and having such section examined carefully, both externally and internally, for indications of wear, corrosion, fatigue and breaks. (i) Splicing. Spliced wire rope shall not be used except that the end may be attached to the load by the thimble and splice method. (j) Sheave and Drum Diameters. Each head sheave and hoist drum shall have a minimum diameter according to the type of wire rope used, as follows: 1. six strand seven -- wire rope -- 42 times rope diameter b. six strand 19 -- wire rope -- 30 times rope diameter c. 6 strand 37 -- wire rope -- 18 times rope diameter d. 8 strand 19 -- wire rope -- 21 times rope diameter (k) Safety Hooks and Shackles. A safety hook, shackle or similar positive means shall form the attachment between rope and a cage, skip or bucket. Open hooks shall not be used. (l) Drum Flanges. The drum of hoists used for hoisting men shall have flanges which extend at least two inches radially beyond the last layer of rope when all the rope is coiled on the drum. (m) Hoisting While Sinking Shaft. Any conveyance being lowered into a shaft in which men are working shall be stopped at least 15 feet above such men and shall remain there until the signal to lower further is received from the bottom of the shaft. (n) Hoisting After Repairs or Shutdowns. After a hoist has been repaired or after it has been out of service for a period of 24 hours or longer, it shall be operated by the hoisting engineer through one complete cycle of operation before any person is permitted to ride thereon. No hoisting shall be done in any shaft in which repairs are being made except as is necessary to such repairs. (o) Hoisting Signals. 1. Every shaft shall be provided with an efficient means of interchanging distinct and definite signals between any station where hoisting is done and the hoisting engineer. 2. Special care shall be taken to keep this signal apparatus in good working order. 3. Where it is necessary to use bells or similar equipment for hoisting or lowering signals, the following system or code shall be used:

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10.175: continued a. one Bell -- Stop if in motion, or hoist if stopped. b. two Bells-- Lower. c. thre-one Bells -- Hoist men. d. three-two Bells -- Lower men. e. one Bell-extra long -- Hoist slowly. f. two Bells-extra long -- Lower slowly. 4. In emergency, a series of short successive bells shall be used. 5. Legible copies of the signals shall be posted in a convenient location at the collar of the shaft, at each station, and in the hoisting engineer's station. Signals to the hoisting engineer shall be given only by persons authorized to do so. (p) Hoisting Engineers. 1. No hoisting engineer employed in the hoisting or lowering of employees in a shaft shall be permitted to work until after he has been given a physical examination, and shall be re-examined at least once a year, by a medical physician of his choice authorized to practice in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The examining physician shall certify as to the applicant's physical condition. 2. At every shaft where men are hoisted or lowered, there shall be a qualified licensed hoisting engineer under the provisions of M.G.L. c. 146. He shall be able to speak and read English readily and must have had practical experience in operating shaft hoists. 3. No man shall act as a hoisting engineer to hoist and lower men until he has successfully passed the prescribed physical examination for a hoisting engineer. 4. At all shafts or inclines where men are hoisted and lowered, hoisting engineers shall be not less than 21 years of age. Only those familiar with the workings of a shaft hoist shall be assigned to this work and, except in case of emergency, no one but the duly appointed hoisting engineers shall run such hoist. (q) Hoisting Operations. 1. Inexperienced or untrained employees shall not be permitted to operate the hoist. 2. Hoisting ropes shall be clearly and accurately marked or equivalent steps taken to indicate when the load has reached important positions including top and bottom landings. 3. Unauthorized persons shall not be allowed in the hoist room. 4. There shall be no conversation with the hoisting engineer while the hoist is in motion, or while he is attending to signals, except to receive orders or instructions. 5. All hoisting machinery and safety appliances connected therewith shall be inspected daily and necessary adjustments made. 6. Whenever men are working in a place to which they have been lowered or hoisted by mechanical power, arrangements shall be made so that a hoisting engineer or a substitute will be within hearing of the telephone and signal device as long as the men remain in this area. 7. The hoist shall not be operated and the cage, skip or bucket moved while oiling operations are under way unless clearance is obtained from the oiler. The hoisting engineer shall be notified when oiling operations are to commence and when they are finished. 8. When men are working in a shaft without a bulkhead over their heads and the cage, skip or bucket is stopped to avoid a hazard to them, it shall not be moved unless it can be done with safety. Moving shall not be attempted without permission from those who issued the hold order. (r) Shaft Inspection. A weekly inspection of the shaft shall be made by a competent person designated by the person in charge, and a report made and kept on file. Prompt corrective action shall be taken on all unsafe conditions found. 10.176: Caissons (1) Wherever, in caisson work in which compressed air is used, and the working chamber is less than 11 feet in length, and when such caissons are at any time suspended or hung while work is in progress so that the bottom of the excavation is more than nine feet below the deck of the working chamber, a shield shall be erected therein for the protection of the employees.

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10.176: continued (2) Shafts shall be subjected to a hydrostatic or air-pressure test, at which pressure they shall be tight. The shaft shall be stamped on the outside shell about 12 inches fromeach flange to show the pressure to which they have been subjected. (3) Whenever a shaft is used, it shall be provided, where space permits, with a safe, proper, and suitable staircase for its entire length, including landing platforms, not more than 20 feet apart. Where this is impracticable, suitable ladders shall be installed with landing platforms located about 20 feet apart to break the climb. (4) Allcaissons having a diameter or side greater than ten feet shall be provided with a man lock and shaft for the exclusive use of employees. (5) In addition to the gauge in the locks, an accurate gauge shall be maintained on the outer and inner side of each bulkhead. These gauges shall be accessible at all times and kept in accurate working order. (6) In caisson operations where employees are exposed to compressed air working environments, the requirements contained in 454 CMR 10.175 shall be complied with. 10.177: Cofferdams (1) If overtopping of the cofferdam by high waters is possible, means shall be provided for controlled flooding of the work area. (2) Warning signals for evacuation of employees in case of emergency shall be developed and posted. (3) Cofferdam walkways, bridges, or ramps with at least two means of rapid exit shall be provided with guardrails as specified in 454 CMR 10.00: Part 11. (4) Cofferdams located close to navigable shipping channels shall be protected from vessels in transit, where possible. 10.178: Compressed Air (1) General Provisions. (a) There shall be present, at all times, at least one competent person designated by and representing the employer, who shall be familiar with this subpart in all respects, and responsible for full compliance with these and other applicable subparts. (b) Every employee shall be instructed in the rules and regulations which concern his safety or the safety of others. (c) No work in which compressed air is to be used shall be started until seven days after the firm, corporation, commission or person undertaking such work has notified in writing the Department of Labor and Industries of such contemplated work. (d) Whenever the construction work is in progress there shall be present at alltimes at least one competent person representing the employer, who shall, in all respects, be responsible for full compliance of 454 CMR 10.00, and who shall have authority to require all employees to comply with 454 CMR 10.00. (e) In every tunnel or section thereof, or other work requiring the use of compressed air as covered by these regulations, there shall be a competent person designated by person in charge to make a regular inspection once every working day of all tunneling appliances, boilers, engines, compressors, magazines, shaft houses, explosives, locks, lighting circuits and gauges, and it shall be his duty to report in writing to the person designating him, on forms approved by the Department of Labor and Industries the result of these inspections, which shall remain on file and shallbe subject to the inspection of the Department of Labor and Industries or its representatives.

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10.178: continued (2) Medical Attendance, Examination, and Regulations. (a) There shall be retained one or more licensed physicians familiar with and experienced in the physical requirements and the medical aspects of compressed air work and the treatment of decompression illness. He shall be available at all times while work is in progress in order to provide medical supervision of employees employed in compressed air work. He shall himself by physically qualified and be willing to enter a pressurized environment. (b) No employee shall be permitted to enter a compressed air environment until he has been examined by the physician and reported by him to be physically qualified to engage in such work. (c) In the event an employee is absent from work for ten days, or is absent due to sickness or injury, he shall not resume work untilhe is reexamined by the physician, and his physical condition reported, as provided in 454 CMR 10.178(2)(c), to be such as to permit him to work in compressed air. (d) A fully equipped first aid station shall be provided at each tunnel project regardless of the number of persons employed. An ambulance or transportation suitable for a litter case shall be at each project. (e) Where tunnels are being excavated from portals more than five road miles apart, a first aid station and transportation facilities shall be provided at each portal. (f) A medical lock shall be established and maintained in immediate working order whenever air pressure in the working chamber is increased above the normal atmosphere. (g) The medical lock shall: 1. Have at least six feet of clear headroom at the center, and be subdivided into not less than two compartments; 2. Be readily accessible to employees working under compressed air; 3. Be kept ready for immediate use for at least five hours subsequent to the emergence of any employee from the working chamber; 4. Be properly heated, lighted and ventilated; 5. Be maintained in a sanitary condition; 6. Have a nonshatterable port through which the occupant(s) may be kept under constant observation; 7. Be designed for a working pressure of 75 p.s.i.g. 8. Be equipped with internal controls which may be overridden by external controls; 9. Be provided with air pressure gauges to show the air pressure within each compartment to observers inside and outside the medical lock; 10. Be equipped with a manual type sprinkler system that can be activated inside the lock or by the outside lock tender; 11. Be provided with oxygen lines and fittings leading into external tanks. The lines shall be fitted with check valves to prevent reverse flow. The oxygen system inside the chamber shall be of a closed circuit design and be so designed as to automatically shut off the oxygen supply whenever the fire system is activated; 12. Be in constant charge of an attendant under the direct control of the retained physician. The attendant shall be trained in the use of the lock and suitably instructed regarding steps to be taken in the treatment of employee exhibiting symptoms compatible with a diagnosis of decompression illness; 13. Be adjacent to an adequate emergency medical facility; 14. The medical facility shall be equipped with demand-type oxygen inhalation equipment approved by the U.S. Bureau of Mines; 15. Be capable of being maintained at a temperature, in use, not to exceed 90F nor be less than 70F; and 16. Be provided with sources of air, free of oil and carbon monoxide, for normal and emergency use, which are capable of raising the air pressure in the lock from 0 to 75 p.s.i.g. in five minutes. (h) Identification badges shall be furnished to all employees, indicating that the wearer is a compressed air worker. A permanent record shall be kept of all identification badges issued. The badge shall give the employee's name, address of the medical lock, the telephone number of the licensed physician for the compressed air project, and contain instructions that in case of emergency of unknown or doubtful cause or illness, the wearer shall be rushed to the medical lock. The badge shall be worn at all times -- off the job, as well as on the job.

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10.178: continued (i) After a person has been employed continuously in compressed air for a period of two months he shall be re-examined by the medical officer, and he shall not be allowed, permitted or compelled to work until such examination has been made, and he has been reported, as heretofore provided, as physically qualified to engage in compressed air work. (j) Such medical officer shall at all times keep a complete and full record of examinations made by him, which record shall contain dates on which examinations are made and a clear and full description of the person examined, his age and physical condition at the time of examination (including heightand weight), also the statement as to the time such person has been engaged in like employment. This medical officer shall also keep an accurate record of any caisson or other disease incapacitating any person for work that shalloccur in the operation of a tunnel, caisson or other compartment in which compressed air is used; also a record of all loss of life that shalloccur in the operation of a tunnel, caisson or other compartment in which compressed air is used. These records shall be open to the inspection of the Department of Labor and Industries or its representatives, and a copy thereof shall be forwarded to said Department within the 48 hours followingthe occurrence of the accident, death, injury or caisson disease, stating as fullyas possible the cause of said death or caisson or other disease and the place where the injured or sick person has been taken, and such further information relative thereto as may be required by said Department. (k) Whenever compressed air work is carried on during the period from October 1 to April 1, a covered passageway shall be provided from the opening into the caisson or tunnel to the lockers or dressing rooms of the employees. (3) Pressure Shifts and Intervals. The working time in any 24 hours shall be divided into two shifts under compressed air with an interval in open air. The minimum rest interval in open air shall not begin until the employee has reached the open air. Persons who have not previously worked in compressed air shall work therein, but one shift during the first 24 hours. No person shall be subjected to pressure exceeding 50 pounds per square inch except in emergency. The maximum number of hours, to each shift and minimum open air interval between the shifts during any 24 hours for any pressure, as given in columns one and two of the following table, shall be that set opposite such pressure in columns three, four, five and six. TABLE 10.178 - 1 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Pressure Shifts and Intervals of Work for Each 24 Hour Period S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q GAUGE PRESSURE HOURS per square inch S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6 Minimum Maximum Maximum Maximum Minimum Maximum number of number of total 1st shift in rest interval 2nd shift in pounds pounds compressed in open air compressed air air S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Normal 18 6 3 3 18 26 6 3 1 3 26 33 4 2 2 2 33 38 3 1 3 1 38 43 2 1 4 1 43 48 1 5 48 50 1 6 S)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY )))))))Q (4) Telephone and Signal Communication. (a) Effective and reliable means of communication, such as bells, whistles, or telephones, shall be maintained, at all times between all the following locations: 1. The working chamber face;

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10.178: continued 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The working chamber side of the man lock near the door; The interior of the man lock; Lock attendant's station; The compressor plant; The first-aid station; The emergency lock (if one is required); and The special decompression chamber (if one is required).

(5) Signs and Records. (a) The time of decompression shall be posted in each man lock as follows: S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q TIME OF DECOMPRESSION FOR THIS LOCK pounds to pounds to pounds in pounds in minutes. minutes.

(Signed by) (Superintendent). S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q This form shall be posted in the Man Lock at all times. (b) Any code of signals used shallbe conspicuously posted near workplace entrances and such other locations as may be necessary to bring them to the attention of all employees concerned. (c) For each eight hour shift, a record of employees employed under air pressure shall be kept by an employee who shall remain outside the lock near the entrance. This record shall show the period each employee spends in the air chamber and the time taken from decompression. A copy shall be submitted to the appointed physician after each shift. (6) Compression. (a) Every employee going under air pressure for the first time shall be instructed on how to avoid excessive discomfort. Persons who have not previously worked in compressed air shall work therein but one shift during the first 24 hours. (b) During the compression of employees, the pressure shall not be increased to more than three p.s.i.g. within the first minute. The pressure shallbe held at three p.s.i.g. and again at seven p.s.i.g. sufficiently long to determine if any employees are experiencing discomfort. (c) After the first minute the pressure shall be raised uniformly and at a rate not to exceed ten p.s.i. per minute. (d) If any employee complains of discomfort, the pressure shall be held to determine if the symptoms are relieved. If, after five minutes, the discomfort does not disappear, the lock attendant shall gradually reduce the pressure until the employee signals that the discomfort has ceased. If he does not indicate that the discomfort had disappeared, the lock attendant shall reduce the pressure to atmospheric and the employee shall be released from the lock. (e) No employee shall be subjected to pressure exceeding 50 pounds per square inch except in emergency. (7) Decompression. (a) Decompression to normal condition shall be in accordance with the Decompression Table 10.179-1. (b) In the event it is necessary for an employee to be in compressed air more than once in a 24 hour period, the appointed physician shall be responsible for the establishment of methods and procedures of decompression applicable to repetitive exposures. (c) If decanting is necessary, the appointed physician shall establish procedures before any employee is permitted to be decompressed by decanting methods. The period of time that the

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employees spend at atmospheric pressure between the decompression following the shift and recompression shall not exceed five minutes.

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10.178: continued (8) Man Locks and Special Decompression Chambers. (a) Man Locks. Except in emergency, no employees employed in compressed air shall be permitted to pass from the working chamber to atmospheric pressure until after decompression, in accordance with the procedures in this subpart. 1. The lock attendant in charge of a man lock shall be under the direct supervision of the appointed physician. He shall be stationed at the lock controls on the free air side during the period of compression and decompression and shall remain at the lock control station whenever there are men in the work chamber or in the man lock. 2. Except where air pressure in the working chamber is below 12 p.s.i.g., each man lock shall be equipped with automatic controls which, through taped programs, cams, or similar apparatus, shall automatically regulate decompressions. It shall also be equipped with manual controls to permit the lock attendant to override the automatic mechanism in the event of an emergency, as provided in 454 CMR 10.178(8)(a)7. 3. A manualcontrol, which can be used in the event of an emergency, shall be placed inside the man lock. 4. A clock, thermometer, and continuous recording pressure gauge with a four hour graph shall be installed outside of each man lock and shall be changed prior to each shift's decompression. The chart shall be of sufficient size to register a legible record of variations in pressure within the man lock and shallbe visible to the lock attendant. A copy of each graph shall be submitted to the appointed physician after each shift. In addition, a pressure gauge, clock, and thermometer shall also be installed in each man lock. Additional fittings shall be provided so that tests gauges may be attached whenever necessary. 5. Except when air pressure is below 12 p.s.i.g. and there is no danger of rapid flooding, all caissons having a working area greater than 150 square feet, and each bulkhead in tunnels of 14 feet or more in diameter, or equivalent area, shall have at least two locks in perfect working condition, one of which shall be used exclusively as a man lock, the other, as a materials lock. 6. Where only a combination man-and-materials lock is required, this single lock shall be of sufficient capacity to hold the employees constituting two successive shifts. 7. Emergency locks shall be large enough to hold an entire heading shift and a limit maintained of 12 p.s.i.g. There shall be a chamber available for oxygen decompression therapy to 28 p.s.i.g. 8. The man lock shall be large enough so that those using it are not compelled to be in a cramped position, and shall not have less than five feet clear head room at the center and a minimum of 30 cubic feet of air space per occupant. 9. Locks on caissons shall be so located that the bottom door shall be not less than three feet above the water level surrounding the caisson on the outside. (The water level, where it is affected by tides, is construed to mean high tide.) 10. In addition to the pressure gauge in the locks, an accurate pressure gage shall be maintained on the outer and inner side of each bulkhead. These gauges shall be accessible at all times and shall be kept in accurate working order. 11. Man locks shall have an observation port at least four inches in diameter located in such a position that all occupants of the man lock may be observed fromthe working chamber and from the free air side of the lock. 12. Adequate ventilation in the lock shall be provided. 13. Man locks shall be maintained at a minimum temperature of 70F. 14. When locks are not in use and employees are in the working chamber, lock doors shall be kept open to the working chamber, where practicable. 15. Provision shall be made to allow for rescue parties to enter the tunnel if the working force is disabled. 16. A special decompression chamber of sufficient size to accommodate the entire force of employees being decompressed at the end of a shift shall be provided whenever the regularly established working period requires a total time of decompression exceeding 75 minutes. 17. Valves must be so arranged that the locks can be operated from within and without.

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10.178: continued (b) Special Decompression Chamber. 1. The headroom in the special decompression chamber shall be not less than a minimum seven feet and the cubical content shall provide at least 50 cubic feet of airspace for each employee. For each occupant, there shall be provided four square feet of free walking area, and three square feet of seating space, exclusive of area required for lavatory and toilet facilities. The rated capacity shall be based on the stated minimum space per employee and shall be posted at the chamber entrance. The posted capacity shall not be exceeded, except in cases of emergency. 2. Each special decompression chamber shall be equipped with the following: a. A clock or clocks suitably placed so that the attendant and the chamber occupants can readily ascertain the time; b. Pressure gauges which will indicate to the attendants and to the chamber occupants the pressure in the chamber; c. Valves to enable the attendant to control the supply and discharge of compressed air into and from the chamber; d. Valves and pipes, in connection with the air supply and exhaust, arranged so that the chamber pressure can be controlled from within and without; e. Effective means of oral intercommunication between the attendant, occupants of the chamber, and the air compressor plant; and f. An observation port at the entrance to permit observation of the chamber occupants. 3. Seating facilities in special decompression chambers shall be so arranged as to permit a normal sitting posture without cramping. Seating space, not less than 18 inches by 24 inches wide, shall be provided per occupant. 4. Adequate toilet and washing facilities, in a screened or enclosed recess, shall be provided. Toilet bowls shall have a built-in protector on the rim so that an air space is created when the seat lid is closed. 5. Fresh and pure drinking water shall be available. This may be accomplished by either piping water into the special decompression chamber and providing drinking fountains, or by providing individual canteens, or by some other sanitary means. Community drinking vessels are prohibited. 6. No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be permitted to accumulate, and the chamber shall be kept clean. 7. Unless the special decompression chamber is serving as the man lock to atmospheric pressure, the special decompression chamber shall be situated, where practicable, adjacent to the man lock on the atmospheric pressure side of the bulkhead. A passageway shall be provided, connecting the special chamber with the man lock, to permit employees in the process of decompression to move from the man lock to the special chamber without a reduction in the ambient pressure from that designated for the next stage of decompression. The passageway shallbe so arranged as to not interfere with the normal operation of the man lock, nor with the release of the occupants of the special chamber to atmospheric pressure upon the completion of the decompression procedure. (9) Compressor Plant and Air Supply. (a) At all times there shall be a thoroughly experienced, competent, and reliable person on duty at the air control valves as a gauge tender who shall regulate the pressure in the working areas. During tunneling operations, one gauge tender may regulate the pressure in not more than two headings: Provided, that the gauge and controls are all in one location. In caisson work, there shall be a gauge tender for each caisson. (b) The low air compressor plant shall be of sufficient capacity to not only permit the work to be done safely, but shall also provide a margin to meet emergencies and repairs. (c) Low air compressor units shall have at least two independent and separate sources of power supply and each shall be capable of operating the entire low air plant and its accessory systems. (d) The capacity, arrangement, and number of compressors shall be sufficient to maintain the necessary pressure without overloading the equipment and to assure maintenance of such pressure in the working chamber during periods of breakdown, repair, or emergency.

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10.178: continued (e) Switching from one independent source of power supply to the other shall be done periodically to ensure the workability of the apparatus in an emergency. (f) Duplicate low-pressure air feedlines and regulating valves shall be provided between the source of air supply and a point beyond the locks with one of the lines extending to within 100 feet of the working face. (g) All high- and low-pressure air supply lines shall be equipped with check valves. (h) Low-pressure air shall be regulated automatically. In addition, manually operated valves shall be provided for emergency conditions. (i) The air intakes for all air compressors shall be located at a place where fumes, exhaust, gases, and other air contaminants will be at a minimum. (j) Gauges indicating the pressure in the working chamber shall be installed in the compressor building, the lock attendant's station, and at the employer's field office. (10) Ventilation and Air Quality. (a) Exhaust valves and exhaust pipes shall be provided and operated so that the working chamber shall be well ventilated, and there shall be no pockets of dead air. Outlets may be required at intermediate points along the main low-pressure air supply line to the heading to eliminate such pockets of dead air. Ventilating air shall be not less than 30 cubic feet per minute. (b) The air in the workplace shall be analyzed by the employer not less than once each shift, and records of such tests shall be kept on file at the place where the work is in progress. The test results shallbe within the threshold limit values specified in 454 CMR 10.10 for hazardous gases, and within ten percent of the lower explosive limit of flammable gases. If these limits are not met, immediate action to correct the situation shall be taken by the employer. (c) The temperature of all working chambers which are subjected to air pressure shall, by means of after-coolers or other suitable devices, be maintained at a temperature not to exceed 85F. (d) Forced ventilation shall be provided during decompression. During the entire decompression period, forced ventilation through chemical or mechanical air purifying devices that will ensure a source of fresh air shall be provided. (e) Whenever heat-producing machines (moles, shields) are used in compressed air tunnel operations, a positive means of removing the heat build-up at the heading shall be provided. (11) Electricity. (a) Alllighting in compressed-air chambers shall be by electricity exclusively, and two independent electric lighting systems with independent sources of supply shall be used. The emergency source shall be arranged to become automatically operative in the event of failure of the regularly used source. (b) The minimum intensity of light on any walkway, ladder, stairway, or working level shall be not less than ten foot- candles, and in all workplaces the lighting shall at all times be such as to enable employees to see clearly. (c) All electricalequipment, and wiring for light and power circuits, shall comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code, ANSI C2-1984 (Rev. of 1968) for use in damp, hazardous, high temperature, and compressed air environments. (d) External parts of lighting fixtures and all other electrical equipment, when within eight feet of the floor, shall be constructed of noncombustible, nonabsorptive, insulating materials, except that metal may be used if it is effectively grounded. (e) Portable lamps shall be equipped with noncombustible, nonabsorptive, insulating sockets, approved handles, basket guards, and approved cords. (f) The use of worn or defective portable and pendant conductors is prohibited. (12) Sanitation. (a) Sanitary, heated, lighted, and ventilated dressing rooms and drying rooms shall be provided for all employees engaged in compressed air work. Such rooms shall contain suitable benches and lockers. Bathing accommodations (showers at the ratio of one to ten employees per shift), equipped with running hot and cold water, and suitable and adequate toilet accommodations, shall be provided. One toilet for each 15 employees, or fractional part thereof, shall be provided.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.178: continued (b) When the toilet bowl is shut by a cover, there should be an air space so that the bowl or bucket does not implode when pressure is increased. (c) All parts of caissons and other working compartments shall be kept in a sanitary condition. (13) Fire Prevention and Protection. (a) Firefighting equipment shall be available at all times and shall be maintained in working condition. (b) While welding or flame-cutting is being done in compressed air, a firewatch with a fire hose or approved extinguisher shall stand by until such operation is completed. (c) Shafts and caissons containing flammable material of any kind, either above or below ground, shall be provided with a waterline and a fire hose connected thereto, so arranged that allpoints of the shaft or caisson are within reach of the hose stream. (d) Fire hose shallbe at least 1 inches in nominal diameter; the water pressure shall at alltimes be adequate for efficient operation of the type of nozzle used; and the water supply shall be such as to ensure an uninterrupted flow. Fire hose, when not in use, shall be located or guarded to prevent injury thereto. (e) The power house, compressor house, and all buildings housing ventilating equipment, shall be provided with at least one hose connection in the water line, with a fire hose connection thereto. A fire hose shall be maintained within reach of structures of wood over or near shafts. (f) Tunnels shall be provided with a two inch minimum diameter water line extending into the working chamber and to within 100 feet of the working face. Such line shall have hose outlets with 100 feet of fire hose attached and maintained as follows: One at the working face; one immediately inside of the bulkhead of the working chamber; and one immediately outside such bulkhead. In addition, hose outlets shall be provided at 200 foot intervals throughout the length of the tunnel, and 100 feetoffire hose shall be attached to the outlet nearest to any location where flammable material is being kept or stored or where any flame is being used. (g) In addition to fire hose protection required by this subpart, on every floor of every building not under compressed air, but used in connection with the compressed air work, there shall be provided at least one approved fire extinguisher of the proper type for the hazard involved. At least two approved fire extinguishers shall be provided in the working chamber as follows: One at the working face and one immediately inside the bulkhead (pressure side). Extinguishers in the working chamber shall use water as the primary extinguishing agent and shall not use any extinguishing agent which could be harmful to the employees in the working chamber. The fire extinguisher shall be protected from damage. (h) Highly combustible materials shall not be used or stored in the working chamber. Wood, paper, and similar combustible material shall not be used in the working chamber inquantities which could cause a fire hazard. The compressor building shall be constructed of non-combustible material. (i) Man locks shall be equipped with a manualtype fire extinguisher system that can be activated inside the man lock and also by the outside lock attendant. In addition, a fire hose and portable fire extinguisher shall be provided inside and outside the man lock. The portable fire extinguisher shall be the dry chemical type. (j) Equipment, fixtures, and furniture in man locks and special decompression chambers shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Bedding, etc., shall be chemically treated so as to be fire resistant. (k) Head frames shall be constructed of structural steel or open framework fireproofed timber. Head houses and other temporary surface buildings or structures within 100 feet of the shaft, caisson, or tunnel opening shall be built of fire-resistant materials. (l) No oil, gasoline, or other combustible material shall be stored within 100 feet of any shaft, caisson, or tunnel opening, except that oils may be stored in suitable tanks in isolated fireproof buildings, provided such buildings are not less than 50 feet from any shaft, caisson, or tunnel opening, or any building directly connected thereto. (m) Positive means shall be taken to prevent leaking flammable liquids from flowing into the areas specifically mentioned in the 454 CMR 10.178(13)(l). (n) All explosives used in connection with compressed air work shall be selected, stored, transported, and used as specified in 454 CMR 10.203 through 10.216.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.178: continued (14) Bulkheads and Safety Screens. (a) Intermediate bulkheads with locks, or intermediate safety screens or both, are required where there is the danger of rapid flooding. (b) In tunnels 16 feet or more in diameter, hanging walkways shallbe provided from the face to the man lock as high in the tunnel as practicable, with at least six feet of head room. Walkways shall be constructed or noncombustible material. Standard railings shall be securely installed throughout the length of all walkways on open sides in accordance with 454 CMR 10.00: Part 11. Where walkways are ramped under safety screens, the walkway surface shall be skidproofed by cleats or by equivalent means. (c) Bulkheads used to contain compressed air shall be tested, where practicable, to prove their ability to resist the highest air pressure which may be expected to be used. 10.179: Decompression Tables (1) Explanation. The decompression tables are computed for working chamber pressures from zero to 14 pounds, and from 14 to 50 pounds per square inch gauge inclusive by two-pound increments and for exposure times for each pressure extending from to over eight hours inclusive. Decompressions will be conducted by two or more stages with a maximum of four stages, the latter for a working chamber pressure of 40 pounds per square inch gauge or over. (a) Stage 1 consists of a reduction in ambient pressure ranging from ten to a maximum of 16 pounds per square inch, but in no instance will the pressure be reduced below four pounds at the end of stage 1. This reduction in pressure in stage 1 will always take place at a rate not greater than five pounds per minute. (b) Further reduction in pressure will take place during stage 2 and subsequent stages as required at a slower rate, but in event at a rate greater than one pound per minute. (c) Decompression Table 10.179-1 indicates in the body of the table the totaldecompressiontime of working chamber pressure and exposure time. (d) Decompression Table 10.179- 2 indicates for the same various combinations of working chamber pressure and exposure time the following: 1. The number of stages required; 2. The reduction in pressure and the terminal pressure for each required stage; 3. The time in minutes through which the reduction in pressure is accomplished for each required stage; 4. The pressure reduction rate in minutes per pound for each required state; Important Note: The Pressure Reduction in Each Stage is Accomplished at a Uniform Rate. Do Not Interpolate Between Values Shown on the Tables. Use the Next Higher Value of Working Chamber Pressure or Exposure Time Should the Actual Working Chamber Pressure or the Actual Exposure Time, Respectively, Fall Between Those for Which Calculated Values are Shown in the Body of the Tables.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued TABLE 10.179-1 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Examples Minutes Example No. 1: four hours working period at 20 pounds gauge. Decompression Table No. 1: 20 pounds for 4 hours, total decompression time Decompression Table No. 2: Stage 1: Reduce pressure from 20 pounds to 4 pounds at the uniform rate of five pounds per minute. Elapsed time stage 1: 16/5 Stage 2 (final stage): Reduce pressure at a uniform rate from four pounds to 0-pound gage over a period of 40 minutes. Rate - 0.10 pound per minute or ten minutes per pound. Stages 2 (final) elapsed time Total time Example No. 2: five hours working period at 24 pounds gauge. Decompression Table No. 1: 24 pounds for five hours, total decompression time Decompression Table No. 2: Stage 1: Reduce pressure from 24 pounds to eight pounds at the uniform rate of five pounds per minute. Elapsed time stage 1: 16/5 Stage 2: Reduce pressure at a uniform rate from eight pounds to four pounds over a period of 4 minutes. Rate, one pound per minute elapsed time, stage 2 Transfer men to special decompression chamber maintaining the four pound pressure during the transfer operation. Stage 3 (final stage): In the special decompression chamber, reduce the pressure at a uniform rate from four pounds to 0-pound gage over a period of 110 minutes. Rate, 0.037 pound per minute or 27.5 minutes per pound. Stage 3 (final) elapsed time Total time

43

40 43

117

110 117

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 1 - TOTAL DECOMPRESSION TIME


W orking period hours W ork pressure p.s.i.g 9 to 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 3 6 7 7 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 24 28 31 37 43 44 51 58 1 3 6 7 7 7 9 12 14 23 28 35 39 44 49 49 56 64 74 89 94 1 3 6 7 7 8 16 23 29 31 38 43 58 63 73 84 102 118 139 144 164 2 3 6 7 8 15 24 27 34 41 62 85 96 113 128 143 144 154 171 189 206 3 3 6 7 11 15 38 52 69 96 105 126 151 170 178 183 189 199 214 229 249 4 3 6 7 17 43 68 92 104 127 143 163 179 198 203 213 215 234 244 269 279 5 3 6 17 48 83 93 117 126 143 165 178 195 223 223 233 245 254 269 299 309 6 3 6 33 63 73 103 122 141 153 166 193 218 233 238 248 260 265 174 309 329 7 3 16 46 63 83 113 124 142 153 189 203 223 243 253 258 263 269 289 319 8 3 16 48 73 103 128 137 142 165 188 213 233 253 263 278 288 289 299 319 Over 8 3 33 62 87 113 133 151 163 183 204 226 248 273 279 286 293 293 318

DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed)
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From To Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

14

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Over 8

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 16 4 16 4 16 4 16 4 16 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 14 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 18

4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4

2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 14 2 14 2 30 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 30 3 45 3 45 3 60 3 4 3 4 3 4 3

0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 3.50 0.20 3.50 0.20 7.50 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 3.50 0.20 7.50 0.20 11.25 0.20 11.25 0.20 15.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 16 16 32 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 17 33 48 48 63 7 7 7

16

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Over 8

18

1 1 2

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) (Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed)
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Over 8 20 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Over 8 22 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Over 8 24 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 18 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 20 4 22 6 22 6 22 6 22 6 22 6 22 6 22 6 22 4 22 6 22 6 22 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 To 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 6 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes 8 11 17 48 63 63 73 87 7 7 8 15 15 43 63 73 83 103 113 9 9 16 24 38 68 93 103 113 126

5 3 8 3 14 3 45 3 60 3 60 3 70 3 84 3 4 3 4 3 5 3 12 3 12 3 40 3 60 3 70 3 80 3 100 3 110 3 6 3 6 3 13 3 21 3 35 3 65 3 90 3 100 3 110 3 125 3 130 3 4 4 3 4 5

1.25 0.20 2.00 0.20 3.50 0.20 11.25 0.20 15.00 0.20 15.00 0.20 17.50 0.20 21.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.25 0.20 3.00 0.20 3.00 0.20 10.00 0.20 15.00 0.20 17.50 0.20 20.00 0.20 25.00 0.20 27.50 0.20 1.00 0.20 1.00 0.20 2.20 0.20 3.50 0.20 5.85 0.20 10.83 0.20 15.00 0.20 16.87 0.20 18.35 0.20 20.80 0.20 21.70 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.20 1.00 1.25

11

12

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 26 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 28 1 2 3 1 1 2 24 8 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 24 8 4 26 140 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 26 10 4 28 12 4 28 12 To 8 4 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 8 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 10 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes

3 4 16 3 4 20 3 4 45 3 4 85 3 4 110 3 4 115 3 4 120 3 4 130 3 8 140 3 6 4 3 6 5 3 6 20 3 6 25 3 6 60 3 6 95 3 8 115 3 8 130 3 9 130 3 9 130 3 30 30 3 8 4 3 8

0.20 1.00 4.00 0.20 1.00 5.00 0.20 1.00 11.25 0.20 1.00 21.25 0.20 1.00 27.20 0.20 1.00 28.80 0.20 1.00 30.00 0.20 1.00 32.50 0.20 2.00 35.00 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.20 1.00 1.25 0.20 1.00 5.00 0.20 1.00 6.25 0.20 1.00 15.00 0.20 1.00 23.75 0.20 1.33 28.80 0.20 1.33 32.50 2.20 0.50 32.50 0.20 1.50 32.50 0.20 5.00 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.20 1.00 15 183 142 142 141 126 104 69 34 29 14 13 151 137 127 122 117 92 52 27 23

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 30 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 32 1 2 3 1 1 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 28 12 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 30 14 4 32 18 4 32 To 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 12 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 14 4 0 16 4 0 16 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes 23

12 3 8 20 3 8 30 3 10 85 3 14 110 3 20 120 3 20 130 3 20 120 3 32 130 3 50 130 3 10 4 3 10 15 3 10 25 3 14 45 3 17 85 3 30 110 3 35 130 3 35 130 3 45 130 3 55 130 3 71 130 3 12 4 3

3.00 0.20 1.00 5.00 0.20 1.00 7.50 0.20 1.25 21.20 0.20 1.75 27.50 0.20 2.50 30.00 0.20 2.50 32.50 0.20 2.50 32.50 0.20 4.00 32.50 0.20 6.25 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.20 1.00 3.75 0.20 1.00 6.25 0.20 1.40 11.25 0.20 1.70 21.20 0.20 3.00 27.50 0.20 3.50 32.50 0.20 3.50 32.50 0.20 4.50 32.50 0.20 5.50 32.50 0.20 7.10 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.20

31

41

96

127

143

153

153

165

183

17

28

36

62

105

143

165

168

178

188

204

19

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 34 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 36 1 2 3 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 32 16 4 34 16 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 34 18 4 36 20 4 To 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 16 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 18 4 0 1 4 0 20 4 0 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes

12 20 3 15 25 3 22 60 3 26 95 3 40 120 3 45 130 3 60 130 3 70 130 3 80 130 3 93 130 3 14 4 3 14 22 3 25 30 3 35 60 3 43 105 3 55 120 3 62 130 3 74 130 3 90 130 3 100 130 3 115 130 3 16 5

1.00 5.00 0.20 1.25 6.25 0.20 1.83 15.00 0.20 2.33 23.75 0.20 3.33 30.00 0.20 3.75 32.50 0.20 5.00 32.50 0.20 5.83 32.50 0.20 6.67 32.50 0.20 7.75 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.20 1.00 5.50 0.20 1.60 7.50 0.20 2.50 15.00 0.20 3.10 26.25 0.20 3.93 30.00 0.20 4.43 32.50 0.20 6.07 32.50 0.20 6.43 32.50 0.20 7.15 32.50 0.20 8.23 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.25 24 248 233 223 218 195 178 151 96 56 39 21 226 213 203 193 178 163 126 85 43 35

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 38 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 1 2 3 Over 8 1 2 3 40 1 2 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 20 4 36 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 38 22 6 40 24 To 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 20 4 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 22 6 0 24 8 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes

3 16 25 3 30 30 3 40 70 3 52 115 3 65 130 3 90 130 3 100 130 3 110 130 3 120 130 3 140 130 3 16 8 3 16 30 3 20 50 3 30 95 3 35 140 3 50 150 3 55 165 3 70 165 3 85 165 3 95 165 3 110 165 3 16

0.20 1.00 3.25 0.20 1.88 7.50 0.20 2.50 17.50 0.20 3.25 28.75 0.20 4..06 32.50 0.20 5.63 32.50 0.20 6.25 32.50 0.20 6.88 32.50 0.20 7.50 32.50 0.20 8.75 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.50 0.20 1.00 5.00 0.20 1.25 8.35 0.20 1.88 15.83 0.20 2.19 23.35 0.20 3.12 25.00 6.20 3.44 217.50 8.20 4.38 27.50 0.20 5.32 27.50 0.20 5.93 27.50 0.20 6.88 27.50 0.20 1.00 278 263 253 238 223 203 178 128 73 49 28 273 253 243 233 223 196 170 113 63 44

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 6 1 2 3 4 7 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 Over 8 1 2 3 4 42 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 40 24 8 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 To 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 24 8 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes

4 8 3 16 5 25 3 16 20 45 3 25 20 95 3 30 30 120 3 45 35 130 3 47 53 130 3 55 60 130 3 65 60 130 3 75 60 130 3 95 60 130 3 16 6 12 3 16 12 25 3 16 23 60 3 16 30 95 3 16 50 120 3 17 65

1.00 2.00 0.20 1.00 1.25 .25 0.20 1.00 5.00 11.25 0.20 1.56 5.00 23.75 0.20 1.88 7.50 30.00 0.20 2.81 8.75 32.50 0.20 2.94 13.25 32.50 0.20 3.44 15.00 32.50 0.20 4.06 15.00 32.50 0.20 4.70 15.00 32.50 0.20 5.93 15.00 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 3.00 0.20 1.00 2.00 6.25 0.20 1.00 3.83 15.00 0.20 1.00 5.00 23.75 0.20 1.00 8.35 30.00 0.20 1.06 10.83 189 144 102 56 37 288 268 258 246 233 213 183 143 84 49 31

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 4 5 1 2 3 4 6 1 2 3 4 7 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 Over 8 1 2 3 4 44 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 6 1 2 3 4 7 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 Over 8 1 2 3 4 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 42 26 10 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 44 28 12 4 To 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 26 10 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 28 12 4 0 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes 215

130 3 27 85 130 3 27 100 130 3 30 100 130 3 35 100 130 3 60 100 130 3 16 8 16 3 16 20 25 3 16 27 72 3 16 40 95 3 16 60 120 3 16 85 130 3 16 105 130 3 18 115 130 3 16 120 130 3 16 120 130 3 40 120 130

32.50 0.20 1.59 14.15 32.50 0.20 1.69 16.57 32.50 0.20 1.88 16.67 32.50 0.20 2.19 16.67 32.50 0.20 3.75 16.67 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 4.00 0.20 1.00 2.50 6.25 0.20 1.00 3.38 16.00 0.20 1.00 5.00 23.75 0.20 1.00 7.50 30.00 0.20 1.00 10.62 32.50 0.20 1.00 13.13 32.50 0.20 1.00 14.38 32.50 0.20 1.00 15.00 32.50 0.20 1.00 15.00 32.50 0.20 2.50 15.00 32.50

245

260

263

268

293

43

64

118

154

199

234

254

264

269

269

293

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 6 1 2 3 4 7 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 Over 8 1 2 3 4 48 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 46 34 10 4 46 30 14 4 46 30 14 4 48 32 16 4 48 32 16 4 18 32 16 4 48 32 16 4 48 32 16 4 48 To 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 30 14 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes

46

3 16 10 15 3 16 25 30 3 16 35 85 3 16 47 105 3 16 65 130 3 16 95 130 3 16 120 130 3 16 125 130 3 16 140 130 3 16 150 130 3 25 160 130 3 16 12 20 3 16 35 35 3 16 45 80 3 16 60 110 3 16 90 120 3

0.20 1.00 1.00 3.75 0.20 1.00 2.50 7.50 0.20 1.00 3.50 21.20 0.20 1.00 4.70 26.25 0.20 1.00 6.50 32.50 0.20 1.00 9.50 32.50 0.20 1.00 12.00 32.50 0.20 1.00 12.50 32.50 0.20 1.00 14.00 32.50 0.20 1.00 15.00 32.50 0.20 1.56 16.00 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.20 1.00 2.92 8.75 0.20 1.00 3.75 20.00 0.20 1.00 5.00 27.50 0.20 1.00 7.50 30.00 0.20 229 189 144 89 51 318 299 289 274 269 244 214 171 139 74 44

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.179: continued DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2 (continued) [Do not interpolate, use next higher value for conditions not computed]
Decompression data W orking chamber pressure p.s.i.g. W orking period hours Stage No. From 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 6 1 2 3 4 7 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 50 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 6 1 2 3 4 32 16 4 48 32 16 4 48 32 16 4 48 32 16 4 48 32 16 4 50 34 18 4 50 34 18 4 50 34 18 4 50 34 18 4 50 34 18 4 50 34 18 4 1 34 18 4 50 34 18 4 To 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 32 16 4 0 34 18 4 0 34 18 4 0 34 18 4 0 34 18 4 0 34 18 4 0 34 18 4 0 50 18 4 0 34 18 4 0 Pressure reduc. p.s.i.g. T ime in stage minutes 16 120 130 3 16 140 130 3 18 160 130 3 16 170 130 3 16 170 130 3 16 14 25 3 16 40 35 3 16 55 90 3 16 70 120 3 16 100 130 3 16 130 130 34 16 160 130 3 16 180 130 pressure reduc. rate min/pound T otal time decompress minutes

1.00 10.00 32.50 0.20 1.00 11.67 32.50 0.20 1.00 13.33 32.50 0.20 1.00 14.17 32.50 0.20 1.00 14.17 32.50 0.20 1.00 1.00 6.25 0.20 1.00 2.66 8.75 0.20 1.00 3.93 22.50 0.20 1.00 5.00 30.00 0.20 1.00 7.14 32.50 0.20 1.00 8.58 32.50 3 1.00 1.42 32.50 0.20 1.00 12.85 32.50 329 309 279 0.20 249 209 164 94 58 309 209 269

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

PART 18: DEMOLITION 10.185: Preparatory Operations (1) Prior to permitting employees to start demolition operations, an engineering survey shall be made, bya competent person, of the structure to determine the condition of the framing, floors, and walls, and possibility of unplanned collapse of any portion of the structure. Any adjacent structure where employees may be exposed shall also be similarly checked. The employer shall have in writing evidence that such a survey has been performed. (2) When employees are required to work within a structure to be demolished which has been damaged by fire, flood, explosion, or other cause, the walls or floor shall be shored or braced. (3) All electric, gas, water, steam, sewer, and other service lines shall be shut off, capped, or otherwise controlled, outside the building line before demolition work is started. In each case, any utility company which is involved shall be notified in advance as required by M.G.L. c. 82. (4) If it is necessary to maintain any power, water or other utilities during demolition, such lines shall be temporarily relocated, as necessary, and protected. (5) It shall also be determined if any type of hazardous chemicals, gases, explosives, flammable materials, or similarly dangerous substances have been used in any pipes, tanks, or other equipment on the property. When the presence of any such substances is apparent or suspected, testing and purging shall be performed and the hazard eliminated before demolition is started. (6) Where a hazard exists from fragmentation of glass, such hazards shall be removed. (7) Where a hazard exists to employees falling through wall openings, the opening shall be protected to a height of approximately 42 inches. (8) When debris is dropped through holes in the floor without the use of chutes, the area onto which the material is dropped shall be completely enclosed with barricades not less than 42 inches high and not less than six feet back from the projected edge of the opening above. Signs, warning of the hazard of falling materials, shall be posted at each level. Removal shall not be permitted in this lower area until debris handling ceases above. (9) All floor openings, not used as material drops, shall be covered over with material substantial enough to support the weight of any load which may be imposed. Such material shall be properly secured to prevent its accidental movement. (10) Except for the cutting of holes in floors for chutes, holes through which to drop materials, preparation of storage space, and similar necessary preparatory work the demolition of exterior walls and floor construction shall begin at the top of the structure and proceed downward. Each story of exterior wall and floor construction shall proceed downward. Each story of exterior wall and floor construction shall be removed and dropped into the storage space before commencing the removal of exterior walls and floors in the story next below. (11) Employee entrances to multi-story structures being demolished shall be completely protected by sidewalk sheds or canopies, or both, providing protection from the face of the building for a minimum of eight feet. Allsuch canopies shallbe at least two feet wider than the building entrances or openings (one foot wider on each side thereof), and shall be capable of sustaining a load of 150 pounds per square foot. (12) During demolition operations chutes, floors, stairways and other places affected shall be treated frequently to keep down the dust.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.185: continued (13) All construction and demolition work areas where employees are engaged shall have sufficient illumination either by natural or artificial means to insure safe conditions. 10.186: Stairs, Passageways, and Ladders (1) Only those stairways, passageways, and ladders, designated as means of access to the structure of a building, shall be used. Other access ways shall be entirely closed at all times. (2) All stairs, passageways, ladders and incidental equipment thereto, which are covered by 454 CMR 10.186, shall be periodically inspected and maintained in a clean safe condition. (3) In a multistory building, when a stairwell is being used, it shall be properly illuminated by either natural or artificial means, and completely and substantially covered over at a point not less than two floors below the floor on which work is being performed, and access to the floor where the work is in progress shall be through a properly lighted, protected, and separate passageway. 10.187: Chutes (1) No material shall be dropped to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the structure unless the area is effectively protected. (2) All materials chutes, or sections thereof, at an angle of more than 45 from the horizontal, shall be entirely enclosed, except for openings equipped with closures at or about floor level for the insertion of materials. The openings shall not exceed 48 inches in height measured along the wall of the chute, At all stores below the top floor, such openings shall be kept closed when not in use. (3) A substantial gate shall be installed in each chute at or near the discharge end. A competent employee shall be assigned to control the operation of the gate, and the backing and loading of trucks. (4) When operations are not in progress, the area surrounding the discharge end of a chute shall be securely closed off. (5) Any chute opening, into whichworkmen dump debris, shall be protected by a substantial guardrail 36 to 42 inches above the floor or other surface on which the men stand to dump the material. Any space between the chute and the edge of openings in the floors through which it passes shall be solidly covered over. (6) Where the material is dumped from mechanical equipment or wheelbarrows, a securely attached toeboard or bumper, not less than four inches thick and six inches high, shall be provided at each chute opening. (7) Chutes shall be designed and constructed of such strength as to eliminate failure due to impact of materials or debris loaded therein. (8) Splash boards or baffles shall be erected when required to prevent materials from rebounding. (9) Danger signs shall be placed in a conspicuous position at the discharge end of every chute to warn the workmen and public. 10.188: Removal of Materials Through Floor Openings (1) Any openings cut in a floor for the disposal of materials shall be no larger in size then 25% of the aggregate of the total floor area, unless the lateral supports of the removed flooring remain in place. Floors weakened or otherwise made unsafe by demolition operations shall be shored to carry safely the intended imposed load from demolition operations.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.189: Removal of Walls, Masonry Sections, and Chimneys (1) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry, shall not be permitted to fall upon the floors of the building in such masses as to exceed the safe carrying capacities of the floors. (2) No wallsection, which is more than one story in height, shall be permitted to stand alone without lateral bracing, unless such wall was originally designed and constructed to stand without such lateral support, and is in a condition safe enough to be self-supporting. All walls shall be left in a stable condition at the end of each shift. (3) Employees shall not be permitted to work on the top of a wall when weather conditions constitute a hazard. (4) Safe Footing Required. No employer shall require or permit any employee to work on top of a wall that is less than 12 inches wide. (a) In the demolition by hand of exterior walls, safe footings for the workmen shall be provided in the form of sound flooring or scaffolding where the wall is less than 12 inches wide. (b) No employer shall require or permit an employee working above the first floor level to use accumulated debris or piled material as a footing for the performance of his work. Employees shall be required to work only on safe footings in the form of sound planking or flooring. (5) Structural or load-supporting members on any floor shall not be cut or removed until all stores above such a floor have been demolished and removed. This provision shall not prohibit the cutting of floor beams for the disposal of materials or for the installation of equipment, provided that the requirements of 454 CMR 10.188 and 10.190 are met. (6) Floor openings within ten feet of any wall being demolished shall be planked solid, except when employees are kept out of the area below. (7) In buildings of "skeleton- steel" construction, the steel framing may be left in place during the demolition of masonry. Where this is done, allsteelbeams, girders, and similar structural supports shall be cleared of all loose material as the masonry demolition progresses downward. (8) Walkways or ladders shall be provided to enable employees to safely reach or leave any scaffold or wall. (9) Walls, which serve as retaining walls to support earth or adjoining structures, shall not be demolished until such earth has been properly braced or adjoining structures have been properly underpinned. (10) Walls, which are to serve as retaining walls against which debris will be piled, shall not be so used unless capable of safely supporting the imposed load. 10.190: Manual Removal of Floors (1) Openings cut in a floor shall extend the full span of the arch between supports. (2) Before demolishing any floor arch, debris and other material shall be removed from such area and other adjacent floor area. Planks not less than two inches by ten inches in cross section, full size undressed, shall be provided for, and shall be used by employees to stand on while breaking down floor arches between beams. Such planks shall be so located as to provide a safe support for the workmen should the arch between the beams collapse. The open space between planks shall not exceed six inches. (3) Safe walkways, not less than 18 inches wide, formed of planks not less than two inches thick if wood, or of equivalent strength if metal, shall be provided and used by workmen when necessary to enable them to reach any point without walking upon exposed beams.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.190: continued (4) Stringers of ample strength shall be installed to support the flooring planks, and the ends of such stringers shall be supported by floor beams or girders, and not by floor arches alone. (5) Planks shall be laid together over solid bearings with the ends overlapping at least one foot. (6) When floor arches are being removed, employees shall not be allowed in the area directly underneath, and such an area shall be barricaded to prevent access to it. (7) Demolition of floor arches shall not be started until they, and the surrounding floor area for a distance of 20 feet, have been cleared of debris and any other unnecessary materials. 10.191: Removal of Walls, Floors, and Material With Equipment (1) Mechanical equipment shall not be used on floors or working surfaces unless such floors or surfaces are of sufficient strength to support the imposed load. (2) Floor openings shall have curbs or stop-logs to prevent equipment from running over the edge. (3) Bumper curbs of timber or steel at least ten inches in height securely fastened and braced at not less than four foot intervals shall be installed around all sides of the opening not less than three feet from the edge. Such curbs may be omitted at actual dumping points if a clearly defined stop line is maintained at a point not less than five feet from the edge. (4) Mechanical equipment shallmeetthe requirements specified in 454 CMR 10.119 through 10.138. 10.192: Storage (1) The storage of waste material and debris on any floor shall not exceed the allowable floor loads. (2) In buildings having wooden floor construction, the flooring boards may be removed from not more than one floor above grade to provide storage space for debris, provided falling material is not permitted to endanger the stability of the structure. (3) When wood floor beams serve to brace interior walls, or free-standing exterior walls, such beams shall be left in place until other equivalent support can be installed to replace them. (4) Floor arches, to an elevation of not more than 25 feet above grade, may be removed to provide storage areas for debris: Provided, that such removaldoes not endanger the stability of the structure. (5) Storage space into which material is dumped shall be blocked off, except for openings necessary for the removalof material. Such openings shall be kept closed at all times when material is not being removed. 10.193: Removal of Steel Construction (1) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with 454 CMR 10.190(2) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (2) Cranes, derricks, and other hoisting equipment used shall meet the requirements specified in 454 CMR 10.119 through 10.125. (3) Steel construction shall be dismantled column length by column length, and tier by tier (columns may be in two-story lengths).

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.193: continued (4) Any structural member being dismembered shall not be overstressed. 10.194: Mechanical Demolition (1) No workers shall be permitted in any area, which can be adversely affected by demolition operations, when balling or clamming is being performed. Only those workers necessary for the performance of the operations shall be permitted in this area at any other time. (2) The weight of the demolition ball shall not exceed 50% of the crane's rated load, based on the length of the boom and the maximum angle of operation at which the demolition ball will be used, or it shall not exceed 25% of the nominal breaking strength of the line by which it is suspended, whichever results in a lesser value. (3) The crane boom and loadline shall be as short as possible. (4) The ball shall be attached to the loadline with a swivel-type connection to prevent twisting of the loadline, and shall be attached by positive means in such manner that the weight cannot become accidentally disconnected. (5) When pulling over walls or portions thereof, all steel members affected shall have been previously cut free. (6) All roof cornices or other such ornamental stonework shall be removed prior to pulling walls over. (7) During demolition, continuing inspections by a competent person shall be made as the work progresses to detect hazards resulting from weakened or deteriorated floors, or walls, or loosened material. No employee shall be permitted to work where such hazards exist until they are corrected by shoring, bracing, or other effective means. (8) Where a swinging weight such as a ball, clamshell bucket or other mechanical contrivance is used to demolish a structure the unoccupied zone of demolition at grade shall be equal to at least a the height of the structure. (9) Where a swinging weight is used the supporting cables shall be of such length or shall be so restrained that it is not possible for the weight to swing against any structure other then the structure being demolished. 10.195: Selective Demolition by Explosives Selective demolition by explosives shall be conducted in accordance with the applicable sections of 454 CMR 10.202 through 10.216. PART 19: BLASTING AND THE USE OF EXPLOSIVES 10.202: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.203 through 10.216 American Table of Distances (also known as Quality Distance Tables). American Table of Distances for Storage of Explosives as revised and approved by the Institute of the Makers of Explosives, June 5, 1964. Approved Storage Facility. A facility for the storage of explosive materials conforming to the requirements of this part and covered by a license or permit issued under authority of the Internal Revenue Service. (See 26 CFR Part 181.) Blast Area. The area in which explosives loading and blasting operations are being conducted.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.202: continued Blaster. The person or persons authorized to use explosives for blasting purposes and meeting the qualifications contained in 454 CMR 10.203. Blasting Agent. A blasting agent is any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and oxidizer used for blasting, but not classified at explosive and in which none of the ingredients is classified as an explosive provided the furnished (mixed) product cannot be detonated with a No. 8 test blasting cap when confined. A common blasting agent presently in use is a mixture of ammonium nitrate (NH4N03) and carbonaceous combustibles, such as fuel oil or coal, and may either be procured, premixed and packaged from explosives companies or mixed in the field. Blasting Cap. A metallic tube closed at one end, containing a charge of one or more detonating compounds, and designed for and capable of detonation from the sparks or flake from a safety fuse inserted and crimped into the open end. Block Holing. The breaking of boulders by firing a charge of explosives that has been loaded in a drill hole. Conveyance. Any unit for transporting explosives or blasting agents, including but not limited to trucks, trailers, rail cars, barges, and vessels. Detonating Cord. A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosives which when detonated, will have sufficient strength to detonate other cap-sensitive explosives with which it is in contact. Detonator. Blasting caps, electric blasting caps, delay electric blasting caps, and nonelectric delay blasting caps. Electric Blasting Cap. A blasting cap designed for and capable of detonation by means of an electric current. Electric Blasting Circuitry: (a) Bus Wire. An expendable wire, used in parallel or series, in parallel circuits, to which are connected the leg wires of electric blasting caps. (b) Connecting Wire. An insulated expendable wire used between electric blasting caps and the leading wires or between the bus wire and the leading wires. (c) Leading Wire. An insulated wire used between the electric power source and the electric blasting cap circuit. (d) Permanent Blasting Wire. A permanently mounted insulated wire used between the electric power source and the electric blasting cap circuit. Electric Delay Blasting Caps. Caps designed to detonate at a predetermined period of time after energy is applied to the ignition system. Explosives: (a) Any chemical compound, mixture, or device, the preliminary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion; that is, with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat, unless such compound, mixture or device is otherwise specifically classified by the U.S. Department of Transportation. (b) All material which is classified as Class A, Class 8, and Class C Explosives by the U.S. Department of Transportation. (c) Classification of explosives by the U.S. Department of Transportation is as follows: 1. Class A Explosives. Possessing detonating hazard, such as dynamite, nitroglycerin, picric acid, lead azide, fulminate of mercury, black powder, blasting caps, and detonating primers. 2. Class B Explosives. Possessing flammable hazard, such as propellant explosives, including some smokeless propellants. 3. Class C Explosives. Include certain types of manufactured articles which contain Class A or Class B explosives, or both, as components, but in restricted quantities. Fuse Lighters. Special devices for the purpose of igniting safety fuse.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.202: continued Magazine. Any building or structure, other than an explosives manufacturing building, used for the storage of explosives. Misfire. An explosive charge which failed to detonate. Missed Hole. Means a drill hole containing an explosive charge that failed to explode. Mud-capping (sometimes known as bulldozing, adobe blasting, or dobying). The blasting of boulders by placing a quantity of explosives against a rock, boulder, or other object without confining the explosives in a drill hole. Nonelectric Delay Blasting Cap. A blasting cap with an integral delay element in conjunction with and capable of being detonated by a detonation impulse or signal from miniaturized detonating cord. Primary Blasting. The blasting operation by which the original rock formation is dislodged from its natural location. Primer. A cartridge or container of explosives into which a detonator or detonating cord is inserted or attached. Safety Fuse. A flexible cord containing an internal burning medium by which fire is conveyed at a continuous and uniform rate for the purpose of firing blasting caps. Secondary Blasting. The reduction of oversize material by the use of explosives to the dimension required for handling, including mudcapping and blockholing. Stemming. A suitable inert incombustible material or device used to confine or separate explosives in a drill hole, or to cover explosives in mud-capping. Springing. The creation of a pocket in the bottom of a drill hole by the use of a moderate quantity of explosives in order that larger quantities or explosives may be inserted therein. Water Gels, or Slurry Explosives. A wide variety of materials used for blasting. They all contain substantial proportions of water and high proportions of water and high proportions of ammonium nitrate, some of which is in solution in the water. Two broad classes of water gels are: (1) Those which are sensitized by a material classed as an explosive, such as TNT or smokeless powder, and (2) those which contain no ingredient classified as an explosive; these are sensitized with metals such as aluminum or with other fuels. Water gels may be premixed at an explosives plant or mixed at the site immediately before delivery into the bore hole. 10.203: General Provisions (1) The employer shall permit only authorized and qualified persons to handle and use explosives. (2) Smoking, firearms, matches, open flame lamps, and other fires, flame or heat producing devices and sparks shall be prohibited in or near explosive magazines or while explosives are being handled, transported or used. (3) No person shall be allowed to handle or use explosives while under the influence of intoxicating liquors, narcotics, or other dangerous drugs. (4) All explosives shall be accounted for at all times. Explosives not being used shall be kept in a locked magazine, unavailable to persons not authorized to handle them. The employer shall maintain an inventory and use record of all explosives. Appropriate authorities shall be notified ofanyloss, theft, or unauthorized entry into a magazine.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.203: continued (5) No explosives or blasting agents shall be abandoned. (6) No fire shall be fought where the fire is in imminent danger of contact with explosives. All employees shall be removed to a safe area and the fire area guarded against intruders. (7) Original containers, or Class II magazines, shall be used for takingdetonators and other explosives from storage magazines to the blasting area. (8) When blasting is done in congested areas or in proximity to a structure, railway, or highway, or any other installation that may be damaged, the blaster shall take special precautions in the loading, delaying, initiation, and confinement ofeach blast with mats or other methods so as to control the throw of fragments, and thus prevent bodily injury to employees. (9) Employees authorized to prepare explosive charges or conduct blasting operations shall use every reasonable precaution including, but not limited to, visual and audible warning flags, or barricades, to ensure employee safety. (10) Insofar as possible, blasting operations above ground shall be conducted between sunup and sundown. (11) In the preparation of a blasting charge, care shall be taken to insure the detonation of the entire charge. (12) Cartridges for use in blasting shall be primed only as required for immediate use. (13) Frozen or partly frozen explosives shall not be placed or used in drill holes. (14) Cases containing explosives shall not be opened in a magazine. (15) In the opening of boxes containing explosives, a wooden mallet and wooden wedge shall be used. (16) Due precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental discharge of electric blasting caps from current induced by radar, radio transmitters, lightning, adjacent powerlines, dust storms, or other sources of extraneous electricity. These precautions shall include: (a) Detonators shall be short-circuited in holes which have been primed and shunted until wired into the blasting circuit; (b) The suspension of all blasting operations and removal of persons from the blasting area during the approach and progress of an electric storm; (c) The prominent display of adequate signs, warning against the use of mobile radio transmitters, on all roads within 1,000 feet of blasting operations. Whenever adherence to the 1,000-foot distance would create an operational handicap, a competent person shall be consulted to evaluate the particular situation, and alternative provisions may be made which are adequately designed to prevent any premature firing of electric blasting caps. A description of any such alternatives shall be reduced to writing and shall be certified as meeting the purposes of 454 CMR 10.203(16) by the competent person consulted. The description shall be maintained at the construction site during the duration of the work, and shall be available for inspection by representatives of the Commissioner. Specimens of signs which would meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.203(16)(c) are the following:

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.203: continued FIGURE 10.203-1

BLASTING ZONE 1000 FT

TURN OFF 2-WAY RADIO

About 48" x 4"

About 42" x 36"

(d) Ensuring that mobile radio transmitters which are less than 100 feet away from electric blasting caps, in other than original containers, shall be deenergized and effectively locked; (e) Compliance with the recommendations of The Institute of the Makers of Explosives with regard to blasting in the vicinity of radio transmitters as stipulated in Radio Frequency Energy-A Potential Hazard in the Use of Electric Blasting Caps, IME Publication No. 20, March 1971. (17) Empty boxes and paper and fiber packing materials, which have previously contained high explosives, shall not be used again for any purpose, but shallbe destroyed by burning at an approved location. (18) Explosives, blastingagents, and blasting supplies that are obviously deteriorated or damaged shall not be used. (19) Delivery and issue of explosives shall only be made by and to authorized persons and into authorized magazines or approved temporary storage or handling areas. (20) Blastingoperations in the proximity of overhead power lines, communication lines, utility services, or other services and structures shall not be carried on until the operators and/or owners have been notified and measures for safe control have been taken. (21) The use of black powder shall be prohibited. (22) All loading and firing shall be directed and supervised by competent persons thoroughly experienced in this field. (23) All blasts shall be fired electrically with an electric blasting machine or properly designed electric power source, except as provided in 454 CMR 10.209(1) and (19). 10.204: Blaster Qualifications (1) A blaster shall be able to understand and give written and oral orders. (2) A blaster shall be in good physical condition and not be addicted to narcotics, intoxicants, or similar types of drugs. (3) A blaster shall be qualified, by reason of training, knowledge, or experience, in the field of transporting, storing, handling, and use of explosives, and have a working knowledge of State and local laws and regulations which pertain to explosives. (4) Only persons duly authorized by the Superintendent and who have been issued a "Certificate of Competency" under the provisions of M.G.L. c. 148 (527 CMR 13.00) shall in any way handle or use explosives. All foremen and gang bosses engaged in operations requiring the use of explosives shall be experienced blasters, and all handling and use of explosives shall be under the supervision of experienced blasters. (5) Blasters shall be required to furnish satisfactory evidence of competency in handling explosives and performing in a safe manner the type of blasting that will be required.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.204: continued (6) The blaster shall be knowledgeable and competent in the use of each type of blasting method used. 10.205: Surface Transportation of Explosives (1) Transportation of explosives shallmeetthe provisions of Department of Transportation regulations contained in 14 CFR Part 103, Air Transportation; 46 CFR Parts 146-149, Water Carriers; 49 CFR Parts 171-179, Highways and Railways; 49 CFR Part 180, Pipelines; and 49 CFR Parts 390-397, Motor Carriers, M.G.L. c. 148. (2) Motor vehicles or conveyances transporting explosives shall only be driven by, and be in the charge of, a licensed driver who is physically fit. He shall be familiar with the local, State, and Federal regulation governing the transportation of explosives. (3) No person shall smoke, or carry matches or any other flame-producing device, nor shall firearms or loaded cartridges be carried while in or near a motor vehicle or conveyance transporting explosives. (4) Explosives, blasting agents, and blasting supplies shall not be transported with other materials or cargoes. Blasting caps (including electric) shall not be transported in the same vehicle with other explosives. (5) Vehicles used for transporting explosives shallbe strongenoughto carry the load without difficulty, and shall be in good mechanical condition. (6) When explosives are transported by a vehicle with an open body, a Class II magazine or original manufacturer's container shall be securely mounted on the bed to contain the cargo. (7) All vehicles used for the transportation of explosives shall have tight floors and any exposed spark-producing metal on the inside of the body shall be covered with wood, or other nonsparking material, to prevent contact with containers of explosives. (8) Every motor vehicle or conveyance used for transporting explosives shall be marked or placarded on both sides, the front, and the rear with the word "Explosives" in red letters, not less than four inches in height, on white background. In addition to such marking or placarding, the motor vehicle or conveyance may display, in such a manner that it will be readily visible from all directions, a red flag 18 inches by 30 inches, with the word "Explosives" painted, stamped, or sewed thereon, in white letters, at least six inches in height. (9) Each vehicle used for transportation of explosives shall be equipped with a fully charged fire extinguisher, in good condition. An Underwriters Laboratory-approved extinguisher of not less than 10-ABC rating will meet the minimum requirement. The driver shall be trained in the use of the extinguisher on his vehicle. (10) Motor vehicles or conveyances carrying explosives, blasting agents, or blasting supplies, shall not be taken inside a garage or shop for repairs or servicing. (11) No motor vehicle transporting explosives shall be left unattended. (12) No person except the vehicle operator, helpers, and powderman shall ride on vehicles transporting explosives. 10.206: Underground Transportation of Explosives (1) All explosives or blasting agents in transit underground shall be taken to the place of use or storage without delay. (2) The quantity of explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

exceed the amount estimated to be necessary for the blast.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.205: continued (3) The powder car shall be transported in and out of the tunnel for each round. (4) Explosives in transit shall not be left unattended. (5) The hoist operator shall be notified before explosives or blasting agents are transported in a shaft conveyance. (6) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system checked weekly to detect any failures which may constitute an electrical hazard. A written record of such inspections shall be kept on file. (7) The installation of auxiliary lights on truck beds, which are powered by the truck's electrical system, shall be prohibited. (8) Explosives and blasting agents shall be hoisted, lowered, or conveyed in a powder car. No other materials, supplies, or equipment shall be transported in the same conveyance at the sane time. (9) No one, except the operator, his helper, and the powderman, shall be permitted to ride on a conveyance transporting explosives and blasting agents. (10) No person shall ride in any shaft conveyance transporting explosives and blasting agents. (11) No explosives or blasting agents shall be transported on any locomotive. At least two car lengths shall separate the locomotive from the powder car. (12) No explosives or blasting agents shall be transported on a man haul trip. (13) The car or conveyance containing explosives or blasting agents shall be pulled, not pushed, whenever possible. (14) The powder car or conveyance especially built for the purpose of transporting explosives or blasting agents shall bear a reflectorized sign on each side with the word "Explosives" in letters, not less than four inches in height; upon a background of sharply contrasting color. (15) Compartments for transporting detonators and explosives in the same car or conveyance shall be physically separated by a distance of 24 inches or by a solid partition at least six inches thick. (16) Detonators and other explosives shall not be transported at the same time in any shaft conveyance. (17) Explosives, blasting agents, or blasting supplies shall not be transported with other materials. (18) Explosives or blasting agents, not in original containers, shall be placed in a suitable container when transported manually. (19) Detonators, primers, and other explosives shall be carried in separate containers when transported manually. (20) The explosives shallbe placed in the powder car in boxes that have been opened so that it will not be necessary to break open the boxes at the face of the tunnel. 10.207: Storage of Explosives and Blasting Agents (1) Magazines in which explosives may lawfully be kept and stored shall be of four classes, as follows:

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.207: continued (a) Permanent Magazine. Used for storage of Class A and Class B explosives, shall be constructed of brick, concrete, cement blocks with openings filled with sand, iron; wood covered with 24 gauge galvanized iron or sheet steel, or iron lined with four of brick and shall have no openings except for ventilation and entrance. Such magazine shall be bullet, fire and weather resistant. The foundation for such a magazine shall be constructed with brick, concrete, concrete blocks or stone. The entrance to such a magazine shall have a door consisting of not less than three thickness of f" matched hardwood boards covered on the outside with a d" steel plate and shall be provided with a suitable lock to prevent unauthorized admittance. Such a magazine shall be lined with a planed matched wood sheathing; shall have a wood floor and all inside woodwork blind-nailed and shall be vented through the roof, with all vent openings protected by a 30-mesh noncorrosive metal. The use of such permanent magazine shall be subject to the licensing requirements of M.G.L. c. 148, 13, and the provisions of 527 CMR 13.06. (b) Temporary Magazine. Such as used on construction projects, shall be restricted to a maximum of 6,000 pounds storage of Class A or Class B explosives on any job at any one time and shall meet the design requirements specified for a permanent magazine, excepting that the foundation may be of other than concrete or masonry provided the magazine is securely fastened to the ground. Any person intending to use such magazine shall first obtain a permit for such use from the Marshal. (c) Vehicular Magazine. All Class A and Class B explosives transported by vehicle shall be carried in a compartment thereon used solely for that purpose, and such compartment shall be securely fastened to the body of the vehicle and be constructed of tongued and grooved wood planking not less than 1 " in thickness, or a minimum of 5-ply marine plywood " thick, and blind-nailed or put together with screws so that no metal whatever shall be visible on the inside thereof. The said compartment shall be completely covered on the outside with No. 24 gauge galvanized sheet iron or steel securely fastened to the planking, shall have a suitable hasp and lock, and shall be kept locked at all times when such explosives are carried therein; provided, that in the transportation of explosives, such vehicle shall be used for that purpose only. Such vehicle magazines shall not be mounted in so-called dump trucks. All vehicles carrying approved vehicular magazines must be equipped with two 10-ABC fire extinguishers suitable for the extinguishment of ABC fires. Such extinguishers shall be mounted so as to be readily accessible on the outside of vehicle when transporting explosives. (d) Portable Magazine. Such as used on construction jobs, shall meet the same requirements set forth for vehicular magazines for internalconstructionand shall be bullet, fire, and weather resistant, but are restricted to a maximum storage of 1000 pounds and shall be securely locked to prevent unauthorized admittance. Such magazine shall be barricaded when containing over 100 pounds of explosives. All explosives stored in portable magazines must be returned to a permanent or temporary magazine before sunset on each day of usage. (e) Heat, Light. No magazine shall be provided with artificial heat or light. The only exception to this rule may be made by the Fire Marshal in writing. (f) Warning Signs. Signs with the words "DANGER -- KEEP AWAY" painted conspicuously thereon shall be so located near a magazine as to prevent bullets fired at the words on the signs from passing on into the magazine or in the direction thereof. These signs shall be painted with red letters on white background at least six inches in height, and shallbe so placed that all approaches are adequately marked. (2) No detonators shall be stored or transported in the same magazine with any other Class A or Class B explosives. (3) Each magazine shallat alltimes be under the controlof a competent person. This shall mean that any penetration of the magazine or magazine area shall be protected by a continuous surveillance of an individual or by an electronic sensing device which shall upon such penetration notify either the head of the police or fire department as the head of the fire department may direct.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.207: continued (4) All magazines shall be kept in good repair, clean and free from rubbish and empty packages, shall be kept closed and securely locked at all times, and shall be used exclusively for the storage of explosives. Oldest stock shall be used first. (5) The space within 50' on all sides of a magazine shall be kept free fromalldry vegetation or other flammable materials. (6) Before any repairs or alterations are made to any part of the inside of a magazine, all explosives shall be removed therefrom, and the magazine shall be thoroughly cleaned. (7) All tools or other implements used in or within ten feet of a magazine shall be of wood, copper, brass or other similar material, or other nonsparking material. (8) Dynamite leaking to the extent that it is unsafe for use shall not be used, or continued in storage, and such dynamite shall be removed and destroyed. Any nitroglycerin on the floors or walls of a magazine resulting from leaky dynamite shall be so treated as to make the nitroglycerin nonexplosive. (9) No person under the age of 18 years shall be employed in or have access to any magazine. (10) Oils and other dangerous flammable material shall be stored not less than 100' from any shaft or tunnel opening or building over tunnel opening and atleast 100' from any powder magazine. Where oils are stored in buildings, such buildings shall not be used for any other purposes. Emergency water and fire lines shall be provided within 100' of shaft or tunnel opening. Tanks and drums containing flammable liquids shall be so located that the escaping liquid cannot run over the surface from such tank to any powder magazine or to any building within 100' of any tunnel opening. Under no circumstances shall oxygen or any flammable gas be stored in proximity of oil. 10.208: Loading of Explosives or Blasting Agents (1) Procedures that permit safe and efficient loading shall be established before loading is started. (2) Alldrillholes shallbe sufficiently large to admit freely the insertion of the cartridges of explosives. (3) Tamping shall be done only with wood rods or plastic tamping poles without exposed metal parts, but nonsparking metal connectors may be used for jointed poles. Violent tamping shall be avoided. The primer shall never be tamped. (4) No holes shall be loaded except those to be fired in the next round of blasting. After loading, all remaining explosives and detonators shall be immediately returned to an authorized magazine. (5) Drilling shall not be started until all remaining butts of old holes are examined for unexploded charges, and if any are found, they shall be refired before work proceeds. (6) No person shall be allowed to deepen drill holes which have contained explosives or blasting agents. (7) No explosives or blasting agents shall be left unattended at the blast site. (8) Machines and alltools not used for loading explosives into bore holes shall be removed from the immediate location of holes before explosives are delivered. Equipment shall not be operated within 100' of loaded holes. (9) No activity of any nature other than that which is required for loading holes with explosives shall be permitted in a blast area.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.208: continued (10) All light and power circuits, except the circuit used for firing the charge, shall be disconnected at, or removed to, a point not less than 100' from the face. (11) Holes shall be checked prior to loading to determine depth and conditions. Where a hole has been loaded with explosives but the explosives have failed to detonate, there shallbe no drilling within 50 feet of the hole. (12) When loading a long line of holes with more than one loading crew, the crews shall be separated by practical distance consistent with efficient operation and supervision of crews. (13) No explosive shall be loaded or used underground in the presence of combustible gases or combustible dusts. (14) No explosives other than those in Fume Class 1, as set forth by the Institute of Makers of Explosives, shallbe used; however, explosives complying with the requirements of Fume Class 2 and Fume Class 3 may be used if adequate ventilation has been provided. (15) All blast holes in open work shall be stemmed to the collar or to a point which will confine the charge. (16) Warning signs, indicating a blast area, shall be maintained at all approaches to the blast area. The warning sign lettering shall not be less than four inches in height on a contrasting background. (17) A bore hole shall never be sprung when it is adjacent to or near a hole that is loaded. Flashlight batteries shall not be used for springing holes. (18) Drill holes which have been sprung or chambered, and which are not water-filled, shall be allowed to cool before explosives are loaded. (19) No loaded holes shall be left unattended or unprotected. (20) The blaster shall keep an accurate, up-to-date record of explosives, blasting agents, and blasting supplies used in a blast and shall keep an accurate running inventory of all explosives and blasting agents stored on the operation. (21) Whenever blasting operations are carried on at points where a breakthrough to an adjacent or nearby excavation may reasonably be anticipated, the foreman or person in charge of such operation shall, before holes are loaded, give warning of danger to all persons who may be working where the blast may break through, and he shall not allow any holes to be charged until such warning is acknowledged and all persons are removed to a place of safety. (22) Primers shall be made up near the face, at special benches provided for the purpose. They must be kept in insulated carriers or containers, separate from other explosives at all times until placed in bore holes. Primers shall be made up immediately prior to their use in the blast, and the number of such primers shall not be more than is necessary for such blast. 10.209: Initiation of Explosive Charges - Electric Blasting (1) Electric blasting caps shall not be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blastingcaps dangerous. Blasting cap leg wires shall be kept short-circuited (shunted) until they are connected into the circuit for firing. (2) Before adopting any system of electrical firing, the blaster shall conduct a thorough survey for extraneous currents, and all dangerous currents shall be eliminated before any holes are loaded. (3) In any single blast using electric blasting caps, all caps shall be of the same style or function, and of the same manufacture.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.209: continued (4) Electric blasting shall be carried out by using blasting circuits or power circuits in accordance with the electric blasting cap manufacturer's recommendations, or an approved contractor or his designated representative. (5) When firing a circuit of electric blasting caps, care must be exercised to ensure that an adequate quantity of delivered current is available, in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. (6) Connecting wires and lead wires shallbe insulated single solid wires of sufficient current-carrying capacity. (7) Bus wires shall be solid single wires of sufficient current-carrying capacity. (8) When firing electrically, the insulation on all firing lines shall be adequate and in good condition. (9) A power circuit used for firing electric blasting caps shall not be grounded. (10) In underground operations when firing from a power circuit, a safety switch shall be placed in the permanent firing line at intervals. This switch shall be made so it can be locked only in the "Off" position and shall be provided with a short-circuiting arrangement of the firing lines to the cap circuit. (11) In underground operations there shall be a "lightning" gap of at least five feet in the firing system ahead of the main firing switch; that is, between this switch and the source of power. This gap shall be bridged by a flexible jumper cord just before firing the blast. (12) When firing from a power circuit, the firing switch shall be locked in the open or "Off" position at all times, except when firing. It shall be so designed that the firing lines to the cap circuit are automatically short-circuited when the switch is in the "Off" position. Keys to this switch shall be entrusted only to the blaster. (13) Blasting machines shall be in good condition and the efficiency of the machine shall be tested periodically to make certain that it can deliver power at its rated capacity. (14) All charges shall be fired by means of a blasting machine or by means of an electric power circuit of not more than 440 volts. Such means of firing shall at all times be maintained in good operating condition. (15) When firing with blasting machines, the connections shall be made as recommended by the manufacturer of the electric blasting caps used. (16) The number of electric blasting caps connected to a blasting machine shall not be in excess of its rated capacity. Furthermore, in primary blasting, a series circuit shall contain no more caps than the limits recommended by the manufacturer of the electric blasting caps in use. (17) The blaster shall be in charge of the blasting machines, and no other person shall connect the leading wires to the machine. (18) Blasters, when testing circuits to charged holes, shalluse only blasting galvanometers equipped with a silver chloride cell especially designed for this purpose. (19) Whenever the possibility exists that a leading line or blasting wire might be thrown over a live powerline by the force of an explosion, care shall be taken to see that the total length of wires are kept too short to hit the lines, or that the wires are securely anchored to the ground. If neither of these requirements can be satisfied, a nonelectric system shall be used.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.209: continued (20) In electrical firing, only the man making leading wire connections shall fire the shot. All connections shall be made from the bore hole back to the source of firing current, and the leading wires shall remain shorted and not be connected to the blasting machine or other source of current until the charge is to be fired. (21) After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the leading wires shall be immediately disconnected from the machine and short-circuited. 10.210: Use of Safety Fuse (1) Safety fuse shall only be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting caps dangerous. The use of a fuse that has been hammered or injured in any way shall be forbidden. (2) The hanging of a fuse on nails or other projections which will cause a sharp bend to be formed in the fuse is prohibited. (3) Before capping safety fuse, a short length shall be cut from the end of the supply reel so as to assure a fresh cut end in each blasting cap. (4) Only a cap crimper of approved design shall be used for attaching blasting caps to safety fuse. Crimpers shall be kept in good repair and accessible for use. (5) No unused cap or short capped fuse shall be placed in any hole to be blasted; such unused detonators shall be removed from the working place and destroyed. (6) No fuse shall be capped, or primers made up, in any magazine or near any possible source of ignition. (7) No one shall be permitted to carry detonators or primers of any kind on his person. (8) The minimum length of safety fuse to be used in blasting shall be as required by State law, but shall not be less than 36 inches. (9) At least two men shall be present when multiple cap and fuse blasting is done by hand lighting methods. (10) Direct hand lighting of fuses is prohibited, ignition cord shall be used to ignite such fuses. (11) The so-called "drop fuse" method of dropping or pushing a primer or any explosive with a lighted fuse attached is forbidden. (12) Cap and fuse shall not be used for firing mudcap charges unless charges are separated sufficiently to prevent one charge from dislodging other shots in the blast. (13) When blasting with safety fuses, consideration shall be given to the length and burning rate of the fuse. Sufficient time, with a margin of safety, shall always be provided for the blaster to reach a place of safety. A 36" piece of fuse should be cut and lit to determine the burn rate/foot. This should be in the range of 40 sec./foot. 10.211: Use of Detonating Cord (1) Care shall be taken to select a detonating cord consistent with the type and physical condition of the bore hole and stemming and the type of explosives used. (2) Detonating cord shall be handled and used with the same respect and care given other explosives.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.211: continued (3) The line of detonating cord extending out of a bore hole or from a charge shall be cut from the supply spool before loading the remainder of the bore hole or placing additional charges. (4) Detonating cord shall be handled and used with care to avoid damaging or severing the cord during and after loading and hooking-up. (5) Detonating cord connections shall be competent and positive in accordance with approved and recommended methods. Knot-type or other cord-to-cord connections shall be made only with detonating cord in which the explosive core is dry. (6) All detonating cord trunklines and branchlines shall be free of loops, sharp kinks, or angles that direct the cord back toward the oncoming line of detonation. (7) All detonating cord connections shall be inspected before firing the blast. (8) When detonating cord millisecond-delay connectors or short-interval-delay electric blasting caps are used with detonating cord, the practice shall conform strictly to the manufacturer's recommendations. (9) When connecting a blasting cap or an electric blasting cap to detonating cord, the cap shall be taped or otherwise attached securely along the side or the end of the detonating cord, with the end of the cap containing the explosive charge pointed in the direction in which the detonation is to proceed. (10) Detonators for firing the trunk-line shall not be brought to the loading area nor attached to the detonating cord until everything else is in readiness for the blast. 10.212: Firing the Blast (1) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table 10.212-1, shall be posted on one or more conspicuous places at the operation, and all employees shall be required to familiarize themselves with the code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (2) Before a blast is fired, a loud warning signal shall be given by the blaster in charge, who has made certain that all surplus explosives are in a safe place and allemployees, vehicles, and equipment are at a safe distance, or under sufficient cover. (3) Flagmen shall be safely stationed on highways which pass through the danger zone so as to stop traffic during blasting operations. (4) It shall be the duty of the blaster to fix the time of blasting. (5) When a power circuit is used to fire a blast at the face, it shall be controlled by a firing switch so located as to be protected fromblast effects. If protection is by distance only, the distance shall be at least 1,500 feet. Such switch shall be fixed in position and wholly enclosed in a tight box which shall be kept locked at all times except while firing, and no person other than one duly authorized by the superintendent shall have access to the switch. (6) Before firing an underground blast, warning shall be given, and all possible entires into the blasting area, and any entrances to any working place where a drift, raise, or other opening is about to hole through, shallbe carefully guarded. The blaster shall make sure that all employees are out of the blast area before firing a blast.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.212: continued TABLE 10.212-1 WARNING SIGNAL - A l-minute series of long blasts five minutes prior to blast signal. BLAST SIGNAL - A series of short blasts one minute prior to the shot. ALL CLEAR SIGNAL - A prolonged blast following the inspection of blast area.

10.213: Inspection After Blasting (1) Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall be disconnected from the blasting machine, or where power switches are used, they shall be locked open or in the off position. (2) After blasting at the face of tunnel driving operations, the smoke and fumes from the blast must be exhausted through the vent lines to the outside before fans are reversed to blowing again. (a) Except when the fans are effectively exhausting through the vent lines all the time. This may be a desirable method where vent pipe length is such that reversal creates danger of collapsing vent pipes. (b) Except where flammable gas is encountered at points along the tunnel and it is not considered advisable to change directions of the air flow and risk a dangerous concentration of gas by having a localized volume of tunnel air pass a gas source several times. (c) Except short tunnels up to 1,000 feet in length. (d) Sufficient time shall be allowed for the concentration of blasting gases to be reduced below the following levels: Carbon monoxide - 100 ppm. Nitrogen dioxide - 5 ppm. before permitting return of workers to the heading, unless protected by approved respiratory devices. (3) Sufficient time shall be allowed, not less than 15 minutes in tunnels, for the smoke and fumes to leave the blasted area before returning to the shot. An inspection of the area and the surrounding rubble shall be made by the blaster to determine if all charges have been exploded before employees are allowed to return to the operation, and in tunnels, after the muck pile has been wetted down. (4) After each blast the tunnel support near the face shall be checked and rewedged where necessary before work can be resumed in the heading. 10.214: Misfires (1) If a misfire is found, the blaster shall provide proper safeguards for excluding allemployees from the danger zone. (2) No other work shall be done except that necessary to remove the hazard of the misfire and only those employees necessary to do the work shall remain in the danger zone. (3) No attempt shallbe made to extract explosives from any charged or misfired hole; a new primer shall be put in and the hole reblasted. If refiring of the misfired hole presents a hazard, the explosives may be removed by washing out with water or, where the misfire is under water, blown out with air.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.214: continued (4) If there are any misfires while using cap and fuse, all employees shall remain away from the charge for at least one hour. Misfires shall be handled under the direction of the person in charge of the blasting. All wires shall be carefully traced and a search made for unexploded charges. (5) No drilling, digging, or picking shall be permitted until all missed holes have been detonated or the authorized representative has approved that work can proceed. (6) Before the drilling operations are resumed, the blaster shall carefully examine the face to locate every hole containing a misfire and shall insert into the mouth of each hole a red danger signal. The location of every hole containing an unfired charge left by a shift shall be reported by the person in charge on such shift to the person in charge on the succeeding shift. (7) All Misfires shall be reported at once to the superintendent or assistant superintendent who shall determine the safe and proper method of disposal. Each misfire presents an individual problem which shall be placed under the supervision of a person thoroughly competent to handle such matters. The unexploded charge shall be detonated if such can be accomplished without risk of injury to personnel. (8) A record shall be made each day of all misfires, of the name of the person who placed such misfired charges, and of the name of the person who refired or otherwise disposed of, such misfired charges. Such record shall be kept at the constructor's local office. (9) In case a charge fires but does not bring down the burden, it is permissible to reload the bore hole, but only after the temperature of the hole has been reduced by water or otherwise to not more than 100F. 10.215: Underwater Blasting (1) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without his approval. (2) Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be used because of possible electric transient currents from galvanic action of the metals and water. (3) Only water-resistant blasting caps and detonating cords shall be used for all marine blasting. Loading shall be done through a nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (4) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way is closer than 1,500 feet to the blasting area. Those on board vessels or craft moored or anchored within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (5) No blast shall be fired while any swimming or diving operations are in progress in the vicinity of the blasting area. If such operations are in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be fired while any person is in the water. (6) Blasting flags shall be displayed. (7) The storage and handling of explosives aboard vessels used inunderwaterblastingoperations shall be according to provisions outlined herein on handling and storing explosives. (8) When more than one charge is placed under water, a float device shall be attached to an element of each charge in such manner that it will be released by the firing. Misfires shall be handled in accordance with the requirements of 454 CMR 10.214.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.216: Blasting in Excavation Work Under Compressed Air (1) Detonators and explosives shall not be stored or kept in tunnels, shafts or caissons. Detonators and explosives for each round shall be taken directly from the magazines to the blasting zone and immediately loaded. Detonators and explosives left over after loading a round shall be removed from the working chamber before the connecting wires are connected up. (2) When detonators or explosives are brought into an air lock, no employee except the powderman, blaster, lock tender and the employees necessary for carrying, shall be permitted to enter the air lock. No other material, supplies, or equipment shall be locked through with the explosives. (3) Detonators and explosives shall be taken separately into pressure working chambers. (4) The blaster or powderman shall be responsible for the receipt, unloading, storage, and on-site transportation of explosives and detonators. (5) All metal pipes, rails, air locks, and steel tunnel lining shall be electrically bonded together and grounded at or near the portalor shaft, and such pipes and rails shall be cross-bonded together at not less than 1,000-foot intervals throughout the length of the tunnel. In addition, each low air supply pipe shall be grounded at its delivery end. (6) The explosives suitable for use in wet holes shall be water-resistant and shall be Fume Class 1. (7) When tunnel excavation in rock face is approaching mixed face, and when tunnel excavation is in mixed face, blasting shall be performed with light charges and with light burden on each hole. Advance drilling shall be performed as tunnel excavation in rock face approaches mixed face, to determine the general nature and extent of rock cover and the remaining distance ahead to soft ground at excavation advances. PART 20: POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION 10.225: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.226 through 10.235 Alive or Live (Energized). Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of the earth in the vicinity. The term "live" is sometimes used in place of the term "current-carrying," where the intent is clear, to avoid repetition of the longer term. Automatic Circuit Recloser. A self-controlled device for automatically interrupting and reclosing an alternating current circuit with a predetermined sequence of opening and reclosing followed by resetting, hold closed, or lockout operation. Barrier. A physical obstruction which is intended to prevent contact with energized lines or equipment. Barricade. A physicalobstruction such as tapes, screens, or cones intended to warn and limit access to a hazardous area. Bond. An electrical connection from one conductive element to another for the purpose of minimizing potential differences or providing suitable conductivity for fault current or for mitigation of leakage current and electrolytic action. Bushing. An insulating structure including a through conductor, or providing a passageway for such a conductor, with provision for mounting on a barrier, conducting or otherwise, for the purpose of insulating the conductor from the barrier and conducting current from one side of the barrier to the other.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.225: continued Cable. A conductor with insulation, or a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable) or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable). Cable Sheath. A protective covering applied to cables. Note: A cable sheath may consist of multiple layers of which one or more is conductive. Circuit. A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow. Communication Lines. The conductors and their supporting or containing structures which are used for public or private signal or communication service, and which operate at potentials not exceeding 400 volts to ground or 750 volts between any two points of the circuit, and the transmitted power of which does not exceed 150 watts. When operating at less than 150 volts no limit is placed on the capacity of the system. Note: Telephone, telegraph, railroad signal, data, clock, fire-, police-alarm, community television antenna, and other systems conforming with the above are included. Lines used for signaling purposes, but not included under the above definition, are considered as supply lines of the same voltage and are to be so run. Conductor. A material, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or bus bar suitable for carrying an electric current. Conductor Shielding. An envelope which encloses the conductor of a cable and provides an equipotential surface in contact with the cable insulation. Current-carrying Part. A conducting part intended to be connected in an electric circuit to a source of voltage. Non-current-carrying parts are those not intended to be so connected. Dead (deenergized). Free from any electrical connection to a source of potentialdifference and from electrical charges: Not having a potential difference from that of earth. Note: The term is used only with reference to current-carrying parts which are sometimes alive (energized). Designated Employee. A qualified person delegated to perform specific duties under the conditions existing. Effectively Grounded. Intentionally connected to earth through a ground connection or connections of sufficiently low impedance and having sufficient current-carrying capacity to prevent the buildup of voltages which may result in undue hazard to connected equipment or to persons. Electric Line Trucks. A truck used to transport men, tools, and material, and to serve as a traveling workshop for electric power line construction and maintenance work. It is sometimes equipped with a boom and auxiliary equipment for setting poles, digging holes, and elevating material or men. Enclosed. Surrounded by a case, cage, or fence, which will protect the contained equipment and prevent accidental contact of a person with live parts. Equipment. This is a general term which includes fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like, used as part of, or in connection with, an electric power transmission and distribution system, or communication systems. Exposed. Not isolated or guarded. Electric Supply Lines. Those conductors used to transmit electric energy and their necessary supporting or containing structures. Signal lines of more than 400 volts to ground are always supply lines within the meaning of the rules, and those of less than 400 volts to ground may be considered as supply lines, if so run and operated throughout.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.225: continued Guarded. Protected by personnel, covered, fenced, or enclosed by means of suitable casings, barrier rails, screens, mats, platforms, or other suitable devices in accordance with standard barricading techniques designed to prevent dangerous approach or contact by persons or objects. Note: Wires, which are insulated but not otherwise protected, are not considered as guarded. Ground (Reference). That conductive body, usually earth, to which an electric potential is referenced. Ground (as a Noun). A conductive connection whether intentional or accidental, by which an electric circuit or equipment is connected to reference ground. Ground (as a Verb). The connecting or establishment of a connection, whether by intention or accident of an electric circuit or equipment to reference ground. Grounding Electrode (Ground Electrode). A conductor embedded in the earth, used for maintaining ground potential on conductors connected to it, and for dissipating into the earth current conducted to it. Grounding Electrode Resistance. The resistance of the grounding electrode to earth. Grounding Electrode Conductor (Grounding Conductor). A conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode. Grounded Conductor. A system or circuit conductor which is intentionally grounded. Grounded System. A system of conductors in which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire, or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded, either solidly or through a current-limiting device (not a current-interrupting device). Hotline Tools and Ropes. Those tools and ropes which are especially designed for work on energized high voltage lines and equipment. Insulated aerialequipmentespecially designed for work on energized high voltage lines and equipment shall be considered hot line. Insulated. Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric substance (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current. Note: When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated in suitable manner for the conditions to which it is subjected. Otherwise, it is within the purpose of this subpart, uninsulated. Insulating covering of conductors is one means of making the conductor insulated. Insulation (as Applied to Cable). That which is relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from ground. Insulation Shielding. An envelope which encloses the insulation of a cable and provides an equipotential surface in contact with cable insulation. Isolated. An object that is not readily accessible to persons unless specialmeans of access are used. Manhole. A subsurface enclosure which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, and maintaining equipment and/or cable. Pulling Tension. The longitudinal force exerted on a cable during installation. Qualified Person. A person who by reason of experience or training is familiar with the operation to be performed and the hazards involved.

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10.225: continued Switch. A device for opening and closing or changing the connection of a circuit. In 454 CMR 10.225, a switch is understood to be manually operable, unless otherwise stated. Tag. A system or method of identifying circuits, systems or equipment for the purpose of alerting persons that the circuit, system or equipment is being worked on. Unstable Material. Earth material, other than running, that because of its nature or the influence of related conditions, cannot be depended upon to remain in place without extra support, such as would be furnished by a system of shoring. Vault. An enclosure above or below ground which personnel may enter and is used for the purpose of installing, operating, and/or maintaining equipment and/or cable. Voltage. The effective (rms) potential difference between any two conductors or betweena conductor and ground. Voltages are expressed in nominal values. The nominal voltage of a system or circuit is the value assigned to a system or circuit of a given voltage class for the purpose of convenient designation. The operating voltage of the system may vary above or below this value. Voltage of an Effectively Grounded Circuit. The voltage between any conductor and ground unless otherwise indicated. Voltage of a Circuit not Effectively Grounded. The voltage between any two conductors. If one circuit is directly connected to and supplied from another circuit of higher voltage (as in the case of an autotransformer), both are considered as of the higher voltage, unless the circuit of lower voltage is effectively grounded, in which case its voltage is not determined by the circuit of higher voltage. Direct connection implies electric connection as distinguished fromconnection merely through electromagnetic or electrostatic induction. 10.226: General Requirements (1) Application. The occupational safety and health standards contained in 454 CMR 10.226 through 10.235 (Part 20) shall apply to the construction of electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment. (a) As used in 454 CMR 10.226 through 10.235 (Part 20) the term "construction" includes the erection of new electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment, and the alteration, conversion, and improvement of existing electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment. (b) Existing electric transmission and distribution lines and electrical equipment need not be modified to conform to the requirements of applicable standards in 454 CMR 10.226 through 10.235 (Part 20) until such work as described in 454 CMR 10.226(1)(a) is to be performed on such lines or equipment. (c) The standards set forth in 454 CMR 10.226 through 10.235 (Part 20) provide minimum requirements for safety and health. Employers may require adherence to additional standards which are not in conflict with the standards contained in 454 CMR 10.226 through 10.235 (Part 20). (2) Initial Inspections, Tests, or Determinations. (a) Existing conditions shall be determined before starting work, by an inspection or a test. Such conditions shall include, but not be limited to, energized lines and equipment, conditions of poles, and the location of circuits and equipment, including power and communication lines, CATV and fire alarm circuits. (b) Electric equipment and lines shall be considered energized until determined to be deenergized by tests or other appropriate methods or means. (c) Operating voltage of equipment and lines shall be determined before working on or near energized parts.

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10.226: continued (3) Clearances. The provisions of 454 CMR 10.226(3)(a) or (b) shall be complied with at all times. (a) No employee shall be permitted to approach or take any conductive object without an approved insulating handle closer to exposed energized parts than shown in Table 10.226-1, unless: 1. The employee is insulated or guarded from the energized part (gloves or gloves with sleeves rated for the voltage involved shall be considered insulation of the employee from the energized part), or 2. The energized part is insulated or guarded from him and any other conductive object at a different potential, or 3. The employee is isolated, insulated, or guarded from any other conductive object(s), as during live-line bare-hand work. (b) The minimum working distance and minimum clear hot stick distances stated in Table 10.226-1 shall not be violated. The minimum clear hot stick distance is that for the use of live- line tools held by linemen when performing live-line work. 1. Conductor support tools, such as line sticks, strain carriers, and insulator cradles, may be used: Provided, that the clear insulation is at least as long as the insulator string or the minimum distance specified in Table 10.226-1 for the operating voltage. TABLE 10.226-1 - ALTERNATING CURRENT MINIMUM DISTANCES S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Minimum working Voltage range (phase to phase) kilovolt and clear hot stick distance S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 2.1 to 15 15.1 to 35 35.1 to 46 46.1 to 72.5 72.6 to 121 138 to 145 161 to 169 230 to 242 345 to 362 500 to 552 700 to 765 2 ft. 0 in. 2 ft. 4 in. 2 ft. 6 in. 3 ft. 0 in. 3 ft. 4 in. 3 ft. 6 in. 3 ft. 8 in. 5 ft. 0 in. 7 ft. 0 in. 11 ft. 0 in. 15 ft. 0 in.

Note: For 345-362 kv., 500-552 kv., and 700-765 kv., the minimum working distance and the minimum clear hot stick distance may be reduced provided that such distances are not less than the shortest distance between the energized part and a grounded surface. (4) Deenergizing Lines and Equipment. (a) When deenergizing lines and equipment operated in excess of 600 volts, and the means of disconnecting from electric energy is not visibly open or visibly locked out, the provisions of 454 CMR 10.226(4)(a)1. through 7. shall be complied with: 1. The particular section of line or equipment to be deenergized shall be clearly identified, and it shall be isolated from all sources of voltage. 2. Notification and assurance from the designated employee shall be obtained that: a. All switches and disconnectors through which electric energy may be supplied to the particular section of line or equipment to be worked have been deenergized; b. All switches and disconnectors are plainly tagged indicating that men are at work; c. And that where design of such switches and disconnectors permits, they have been

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rendered inoperable.

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10.226: continued 3. After all designated switches and disconnectors have been opened, rendered inoperable, and tagged, visual inspection or tests shall be conducted to insure that equipment or lines have been deenergized. 4. Protective grounds shallbe applied on the disconnected lines or equipment to be worked on. 5. Guards or barriers shall be erected as necessary to adjacent energized lines. 6. When more than one independent crew requires the same line or equipment to be deenergized, a prominent tag for each such independent crew shall be placed on the line or equipment by the designated employee in charge. 7. Upon completion of work on deenergized lines or equipment, each designated employee in charge shall determine that all employees in his crew are clear, that protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed, and he shall report to the designated authority that all tags protecting his crew may be removed. (b) When a crew working on a line or equipment can clearly see that the means of disconnecting from electric energy are visibly open or visibly locked-out, the provision of 454 CMR 10.226(4)(b)1. and 2. shall apply: 1. Guards or barriers shall be erected as necessary to adjacent energized lines. 2. Upon completion of work on deenergized lines or equipment, each designated employee in charge shall determine that all employees in his crew are clear, that protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed, and he shall report to the designated authority that all tags protecting his crew may be removed. (5) Emergency Procedures and First Aid. (a) The employer shall provide training or require that his employees are knowledgeable and proficient in: 1. Procedures involving emergency situations, and 2. First-aid fundamentals including resuscitation. (b) In lieu of 454 CMR(5)(a) the employer may comply with the provisions of 454 CMR 10.05(3) regarding first-aid requirements. (6) Night Work. When working at night, spotlights or portable lights for emergency lighting shall be provided as needed to perform the work safely. (7) Work Near and Over Water. When crews are engaged in work over or near water and when danger of drowning exists, suitable protection shall be provided as stated in 454 CMR 10.25, or 10.26, or 10.27. (8) Sanitation Facilities. The requirements of 454 CMR 10.06: Part 2 shall be complied with for sanitation facilities. (9) Hydraulic Fluids. All hydraulic fluids used for the insulated sections of derrick trucks, aerial lifts, and hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines and equipment shall be of the insulating type. The requirements for fire resistant fluids of 454 CMR 10.68(4) do not apply to hydraulic tools covered by this paragraph. 10.227: Tools and Protective Equipment (1) Protective Equipment. (a)1. Rubber protective equipment shall be in accordance with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), ANSI J6 series, as follows:

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10.227: continued TABLE 10.227-1 S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Item Standard S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Rubber insulating gloves J6.6-1971 Rubber matting for use around electric apparatus J6.7-1935 (R1971) Rubber insulating blankets J6.4-1971 Rubber insulating hoods J6.2-1950 (R1971) Rubber insulating line hose J6.1-1950 (R1971) Rubber insulating sleeves J6.5-1971 2. Rubber protective equipment shall be visually inspected prior to use. 3. In addition, an "air" test shall be performed for rubber gloves prior to use. 4. Protective equipment of material other than rubber shallprovide equal or better electrical and mechanical protection. (b) Protective hats shall be in accordance with the provisions of ANSI Z89.2-1971 Industrial Protective Helmets for Electrical Workers, Class B, and shall be worn at the jobsite by employees who are exposed to the hazards of falling objects, electric shock, or burns. (2) Personal Climbing Equipment. (a) Body belts with straps or lanyards shall be worn to protect employees working at elevated locations on poles, towers, or other structures except where such use creates a greater hazard to the safety of the employees, in which case other safeguards shall be employed. (b) Body belts and safety strap shall meet the requirements of 454 CMR 10.235. In addition to being used as an employee safeguarding item, body belts with approved tool loops may be used for the purpose of holding tools. Body belts shall be free from additional metal hooks and tool loops other than those permitted in 454 CMR 10.235. (c) Body belts and straps shall be inspected before use each day to determine that they are in safe working condition. (d)1. Life lines and lanyards shall comply with the provisions of 454 CMR 10.25. 2. Safety lines are not intended to be subjected to shock loading and are used for emergency rescue such as lowering a man to the ground. Such safety lines shall be a minimum of one-half-inch diameter and three or four strand first-grade manila or its equivalent in strength (2,650 lb.) and durability. (e) Defective ropes shall be replaced. (3) Ladders. (a) Portable metal or conductive ladders shall not be used near energized lines or equipment except as may be necessary in specialized work such as in high voltage substations where nonconductive ladders might present a greater hazard than conductive ladders. Conductive or metal ladders shall be prominently marked as conductive and all necessary precautions shall be taken when used in specialized work. (b) Hook or other type ladders used in structures shall be positively secured to prevent the ladder from being accidentally displaced. (4) Live-Line Tools. (a) Only live-line tool poles having a manufacturer's certification to withstand the following minimum tests shall be used: 1. 100,000 volts per foot of length for five minutes when the tool is made of fiberglass; or 2. 75,000 volts per foot of length for three minutes when the tool is made of wood; or 3. Other tests equivalent to 454 CMR 10.227(4)1. or 2. as appropriate. (b) All live-line tools shall be visually inspected before use each day. Tools to be used shall be wiped clean and if any hazardous defects are indicated such tools shall be removed from service.

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10.227: continued (5) Measuring Tapes or Measuring Ropes. Measuring tapes or measuring ropes which are metalor contain conductive strands shall not be used when working on or near energized parts. (6) Handtools. (a) Switches for all powered hand tools shall comply with 454 CMR 10.66(4). (b) All portable electric handtools shall: 1. Be equipped with three-wire cord having the ground wire permanently connected to the tool frame and means for grounding the other end; or 2. Be of the double insulated type and permanently labeled as "Double Insulated"; or 3. Be connected to the power supply be means of an isolating transformer, or other isolated power supply. (c) All hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines or equipment shall use nonconducting hoses having adequate strength for the normal operating pressures. It should be noted that the provisions of 454 CMR 10.68(4)(a) shall also apply. (d) All pneumatic tools which are used on or around energized lines or equipment shall: 1. Have nonconducting hoses having adequate strength for the normal operating pressures, and 2. Have an accumulator on the compressor to collect moisture. 10.228: Mechanical Equipment (1) General. (a) Visual inspections shall be made of the equipment to determine that it is in good condition each day the equipment is to be used. (b) Tests shall be made at the beginning of each shift during which the equipment is to be used to determine that the brakes and operating systems are in proper working condition. (c) No employer shall use any motor vehicle equipment having an obstructed view to the rear unless: 1. The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level or; 2. The vehicle is backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so. (2) Aerial Lifts. (a) The provisions of 454 CMR 10.125 (Part 12) shall apply to the utilization of aerial lifts. (b) When working near energized lines or equipment, aerial lift trucks shall be grounded or barricaded and considered as energized equipment, or the aerial lift truck shall be insulated for the work being performed. (c) Equipment or material shall not be passed between a pole or structure and an aerial lift while an employee working from the basket is within reaching distance of energized conductors or equipment that are not covered with insulating protective equipment. (3) Derrick Trucks, Cranes and Other Lifting Equipment. (a) All derrick trucks, cranes and other lifting equipment shall comply with 454 CMR 10.119 through 10.138 except: 1. As stated in 454 CMR 10.119(1)(p)1. and 2. relating to clearance (for clearances in this subpart see Table 10.226-1) and; 2. Derrick truck (electric line trucks) shall not be required to comply with 454 CMR 10.119(1)(h)6., 10.119(2)(a) and 10.119(5). (b) With the exception of equipment certified for work on the proper voltage, mechanical equipment shall not be operated closer to any energized line or equipment than the clearances set forth in 454 CMR 10.226(3) unless: 1. An insulated barrier is installed between the energized part and the mechanical equipment, or 2. The mechanical equipment is grounded, or 3. The mechanical equipment is insulated, or 4. The mechanical equipment is considered as energized.

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10.229: Material Handling (1) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the load shall be thoroughly examined to ascertain if the load has shifted, binders or stakes have broken or the load is otherwise hazardous to employees. (2) Pole Hauling. (a) During pole hauling operations, all loads shall be secured to prevent displacement and a red flag shall be displayed at the trailing end of the longest pole. (b) Precautions shall be exercised to prevent blocking of roadways or endangering other traffic. (c) When hauling poles during the hours ofdarkness, illuminated warning devices shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole. (3) Storage. (a) No materials or equipment shall be stored under energized bus, energized lines, or near energized equipment, if it is practical to store them elsewhere. (b) When materials or equipment are stored under energized lines or near energized equipment, applicable clearances shall be maintained as stated in Table 10.226-1; and extraordinary caution shall be exercised when moving materials near such energized equipment. (4) Tag Line. Where hazards to employees exist tag lines or other suitable devices shall be used to control loads being handled by hoisting equipment. (5) Oil Filled Equipment. During construction or repair of oil filled equipment the oil may be stored in temporary containers other than those required in 454 CMR 10.37 such as pillow tanks. (6) Framing. During framing operations, employees shall not work under a pole or a structure suspended by a crane, A-frame or similar equipment unless the pole or structure is adequately supported. (7) Attaching the Load. The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load. This provision shall not apply to electric construction crews when setting or removing poles. 10.230: Grounding for Protection of Employees (1) General. All conductors and equipment shall be treated as energized until tested or otherwise determined to be deenergized or until grounded. (2) New Construction. New lines or equipment may be considered deenergized and worked as such where: (a) The lines or equipment are grounded, or (b) The hazard of induced voltages is not present, and adequate clearances or other means are implemented to prevent contact with energized lines or equipment and the new lines or equipment. (3) Communication Conductors. Bare wire communication conductors on power poles or structures shall be treated as energized lines unless protected by insulating materials. (4) Voltage Testing. Deenergized conductors and equipment which are to be grounded shallbe tested for voltage. Results of this voltage test shall determine the subsequent procedures as required in 454 CMR 10.226(4). (5) Attaching Grounds. (a) When attaching grounds, the ground end shall be attached first, and the other end shall be attached and removed by means of insulated tools or other suitable devices. (b) When removing grounds, the grounding device shall first be removed from the line or equipment using insulating tools or other suitable devices.

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10.230: continued (6) Grounds shall be placed between work location and all sources of energy and as close as practicable to the work location, or grounds shall be placed at the work location. If work is to be performed at more than one location in a line section, the line section must be grounded and short circuited at one location in the line section and the conductor to be worked on shall be grounded at each work location. The minimum distance shown in Table 10.226-1 shall be maintained from ungrounded conductors at the work location. Where the making of a ground is impracticable, or the conditions resulting therefrom would be more hazardous than workingonthe lines or equipmentwithout grounding, the grounds may be omitted and the line or equipment worked as energized. (7) Testing Without Grounds. Grounds may be temporarily removed only when necessary for test purposes and extreme caution shall be exercised during the test procedures. (8) Grounding Electrode. When grounding electrodes are utilized, such electrodes shall have a resistance to ground low enough to remove the danger of harm to personnel or permit prompt operation of protective devices. (9) Grounding to Tower. Grounding to tower shall be made with a tower clamp capable of conducting the anticipated fault current. (10) Ground Lead. A ground lead, to be attached to either a tower ground or driven ground, shall be capable of conducting the anticipated fault current and shall have a minimum conductance of No. 2 AWG copper. 10.231 Overhead Lines (1) Overhead Lines. (a) When working on or with overhead lines the provisions of 454 CMR 10.231(1)(b) through (h) shall be complied with in addition to other applicable provisions of 454 CMR 10.231. (b) Prior to climbing poles, ladders, scaffolds, or other elevated structures, an inspection shallbe made to determine that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses to which they will be subjected. (c) Where poles or structures may be unsafe for climbing, they shall not be climbed until made safe by guying, bracing, or other adequate means. (d) Before installing or removing wire or cable, strains to which poles and structures will be subjected shall be considered and necessary action taken to prevent failure of supporting structures. (e) When setting, moving, or removing poles using cranes, derricks, gin poles, A-frames, or other mechanized equipment near energized lines or equipment, precautions shall be taken to avoid contact with energized lines or equipment, except in bare-hand live-line work, or where barriers or protective devices are used. Equipment and machinery operating adjacent to energized lines or equipment shall comply with 454 CMR 10.228(3)(b). (f) Unless using suitable protective equipment for the voltage involved, employees standing on the ground shall avoid contacting equipment or machinery working adjacent to energized lines or equipment. Lifting equipment shall be bonded to aneffective ground or it shall be considered energized and barricaded when utilized near energized equipment or lines. (g) Pole holes shall not be left unattended or unguarded in areas where employees are currently working. (h) Tag lines shall be of a nonconductive type when used near energized lines. (2) Metal Tower Construction. (a) When working in unstable material the excavation for pad- or pile-type footings in excess of five feet deep shall be either sloped to the angle of repose as required in 454 CMR 10.147 or shored if entry is required. Ladders shall be provided for access to pad- or pile-type footing excavations in excess of four feet.

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10.231: continued (b) When working in unstable material provision shall be made for cleaning out auger-type footings without requiring an employee to enter the footing unless shoring is used to protect the employee. (c) A designated employee shall be used in directing mobile equipment adjacent to footing excavations. 1. No one shall be permitted to remain in the footing while equipment is being spotted for placement. 2. Where necessary to assure the stability of mobile equipment the location of use for such equipment shall be graded and leveled. (d) Tower assembly shall be carried out with a minimum exposure of employees to falling objects when working at two or more levels on a tower. 1. Guy lines shall be used as necessary to maintain sections or parts of sections in position and to reduce the possibility of tipping. 2. Members and sections being assembled shall be adequately supported. (e) When assembling and erecting towers and provisions of 454 CMR 10.231(2)(e)1., 2. and 3. shall be complied with: 1. The construction of transmission towers and the erecting of poles, hoisting machinery, site preparation machinery, and other types of construction machinery shall conform to the applicable requirements of 454 CMR 10.231. 2. No one shall be permitted under a tower which is in the process of erection or assembly, except as may be required to guide and secure the section being set. 3. When erecting towers using hoisting equipment adjacent to energized transmission lines, the lines shall be deenergized when practical. If the lines are not deenergized, extraordinary caution shall be exercised to maintain the minimum clearance distances required by 454 CMR 10.226(3), including Table 10.226-1. (f) Erection cranes shall be set on firm level foundations and when the cranes are so equipped outriggers shall be used. 1. Tag lines shall be utilized to maintain control of tower sections being raised and positioned, except where the use of such lines would create a greater hazard. 2. The loadline shall not be detached from a tower section until the section is adequately secured. 3. Except during emergency restoration procedures erectionshall be discontinued in the event of high wind or other adverse weather conditions which would made the work hazardous. 4. Equipment and rigging shall be regularly inspected and maintained in safe operating condition. (g) Adequate traffic control shall be maintained when crossing highways and railways with equipment as required by the provisions of 454 CMR 10.46(7) and 7(a). (h) A designated employee shall be utilized to determine that required clearance is maintained in moving equipment under or near energized lines. (3) Stringing or Removing Deenergized Conductors. (a) When stringing or removing deenergized conductors, the provisions of 454 CMR 10.231(3)(b) through (l) shall be complied with. (b) Prior to stringing operations a briefing shall be held setting forth the plan of operation and specifying the type of equipment to be used, grounding devices and procedures to be followed, crossover methods to be employed, and the clearance authorization required. (c) Where there is a possibility of the conductor accidentally contacting an energized circuit or receiving a dangerous induced voltage buildup, to further protect the employee from the hazards of the conductor, the conductor being installed or removed shall be grounded or provisions made to insulate or isolate the employee. (d) If the existing line is deenergized, proper clearance authorization shallbe secured and the line grounded on both sides of the crossover or, the line being strung or removed shall be considered and worked as energized. When crossing over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts, rope nets or guard structures shall be installed unless provision is made to isolate or insulate the workman or the energized conductor. Where practical the automatic reclosing feature of the circuit interrupting device shall be made inoperative. In addition, the line being strung shall be grounded on either side of the

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crossover or considered and worked as energized.

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.231: continued (e) Conductors being strung in or removed shall be kept under positive control by the use of adequate tension reels, guard structures, tielines, or other means to prevent accidental contact with energized circuits. (f) Guard structure members shall be sound and of adequate dimension and strength, and adequately supported. (g) Catch-off anchors, rigging, and hoists shall be of ample capacity to prevent loss of the lines. 1. The manufacturer's load rating shall not be exceeded for stringing lines, pulling lines, sock connections, and all load-bearing hardware and accessories. 2. Pulling lines and accessories shall be inspected regularly and replaced or repaired when damaged or when dependability is doubtful. The provisions of 454 CMR 10.57(3)(c)2. (concerning splices) shall not apply. (h) Conductor grips shall not be used on wire rope unless designed for this application. (i) While the conductor or pulling line is being pulled (in motion) employees shall not be permitted directly under overhead operations, nor shall any employee be permitted on the crossarm. (j) A transmission clipping crew shall have a minimum of two structures clipped in between the crew and the conductor being sagged. When working on bare conductors, clipping and tying crews shall work between grounds at all times. The grounds shall remain intact until the conductors are clipped in, except on dead end structures. (k) Except during emergency restoration procedures, work from structures shall be discontinued when adverse weather (such as high wind or ice on structures) makes the work hazardous. Stringing and clippingoperations shallbe discontinued during the progress of an electrical storm in the immediate vicinity. (l) Reel handling equipment, including pulling and braking machines, shall have ample capacity, operate smoothly, and be leveled and aligned in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions. 1. Reliable communications between the reel tender and pullingrigoperator shall be provided. 2. Each pull shall be snubbed or dead ended at both ends before subsequent pulls. (4) Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines. (a) Prior to stringing parallel to an existing energized transmission line a competent determination shall be made to ascertain whether dangerous induced voltage buildups will occur, particularly during switching and ground fault conditions. When there is a possibility that such dangerous induced voltage may exist the employer shall comply with the provisions of 454 CMR 10.231(4)(b) through (i) in addition to the provisions of 10.231(3), unless the line is worked as energized. (b) When stringing adjacent to energized lines the tension stringing method or other methods which preclude unintentional contact between the lines being pulled and any employee shall be used. (c) All pulling and tensioning equipment shall be isolated, insulated, or effectively grounded. (d) A ground shall be installed between the tensioning reel setup and the first structure in order to ground each bare conductor, subconductor, and overhead ground conductor during stringing operations. (e) During stringing operations, each bare conductor, subconductor, and overhead ground conductor shall be grounded at the first tower adjacent to both the tensioning and pulling setup and in increments so that no point is more than two miles from a ground. 1. The grounds shall be left in place until conductor installation is completed. 2. Such grounds shall be removed as the last phase of aerial cleanup. 3. Except for moving type grounds, the grounds shall be placed and removed with a hot stick.

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10.231: continued (f) Conductors, subconductors, and overhead conductors shall be grounded at all dead-end or catch-off points. (g) A ground shall be located at each side and within ten feet of working areas where conductors, subconductors, or overhead ground conductors are being spliced at ground level. The two ends to be spliced shall be bonded to each other. It is recommended that splicing be carried out on either an insulated platform or on a conductive metallic grounding mat bonded to both grounds. When a grounding mat is used, it is recommended that the grounding mat be roped off and an insulated walkway provided for access to the mat. (h) Allconductors, subconductors, and overhead ground conductors shall be bonded to the tower at any isolated tower where it may be necessary to complete work on the transmission line. 1. Work on dead-end towers shall require grounding on all deenergized lines. 2. Grounds may be removed as soon as the work is completed: Provided, that the line is not left open circuited at the isolated tower at which work is being completed. (i) When performing work from the structures, clipping crews and all others working on conductors, subconductors, or overhead ground conductors shall be protected by individual grounds installed at every work location. (5) Live-Line Bare-Hand Work. In addition to any other applicable standards contained elsewhere in this subpart all live-line bare- hand work shall be performed in accordance with the following requirements: (a) Employees shall be instructed and trained in the live-line bare-hand technique and the safety requirements pertinent thereto before being permitted to use the technique on energized circuits. (b) Before using the live-line bare-handed technique on energized high-voltage conductors or parts, a check shall be made of: 1. The voltage rating of the circuit on which the work is to be performed; 2. The clearances to ground of lines and other energized parts on which work is to be performed; and 3. The voltage limitations of the aerial-lift equipment intended to be used. (c) Only equipment designed, tested, and intended for live-line bare-hand work shall be used. (d) Allwork shall be personally supervised by a person trained and qualified to performlive-line bare-hand work. (e) The automatic reclosing feature of circuit interrupting devices shall be made inoperative where practical before working on any energized line or equipment. (f) Work shall not be performed during the progress of an electrical storm in the immediate vicinity. (g) A conductive bucket liner or other suitable conductive device shall be provided for bonding the insulated aerial device to the energized line or equipment. 1. The employee shall be connected to the bucket liner by use of conductive shoes, leg clips, or other suitable means. 2. Where necessary, adequate electrostatic shielding for the voltage being worked or conductive clothing shall be provided. (h) Only tools and equipment intended for live-line bare-hand work shall be used, and such tools and equipment shall be kept clean and dry. (i) Before the boom is elevated, the outriggers on the aerial truck shall be extended and adjusted to stabilize the truck and the body of the truck shall be bonded to an effective ground, or barricaded and considered as energized equipment. (j) Before moving the aerial lift into the work position, all controls (ground level and bucket) shall be checked and tested to determine that they are in proper working condition.

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10.231: continued (k) Arm current tests shall be made before starting work each day, each time during the day when higher voltage is going to be worked and when changed conditions indicate a need for additional tests. Aerial buckets used for bare-hand live-line work shall be subjected to an arm current test. This test shall consist of placing the bucket in contact with an energized source equal to the voltage to be worked upon for a minimum time of three minutes. The leakage current shall not exceed one microampere per kilo-volt of nominal line-to-line voltage. Work operations shall be suspended immediately upon any indication of a malfunction in the equipment. (l) All aerial lifts to be used for live-line bare-hand work shall have dual controls (lower and upper) as required by 454 CMR 10.231(5)(l)1. and 2. 1. The upper controls shall be within easy reach of the employee in the basket. If a two basket type lift is used access to the controls shall be within easy reach from either basket. 2. The lower set of controls shallbe located near base of the boom that will permit over-ride operation of equipment at any time. (m) Ground level lift control shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in lift, except in case of emergency. (n) Before the employee contacts the energized part to be worked on, the conductive bucket liner shall be bonded to the energized conductor by means of a positive connection which shall remain attached to the energized conductor until the work on the energized circuit is completed. (o) The minimum clearance distances for live-line bare-hand work shall be as specified in Table 10.231-1. These minimum clearance distances shall be maintained from all grounded objects and from lines and equipment at a different potential than that to which the insulated aerial device is bonded unless such grounded objects or other lines and equipment are covered by insulated guards. These distances shallbe maintained when approaching, leaving, and when bonded to the energized circuit. TABLE 10.231-1 MINIMUM CLEARANCE DISTANCES FOR LIVE-LINE BARE-HAND WORK (ALTERNATING CURRENT) S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Distance in feet and inches for maximum Voltage range (phase-to-phase) voltage kilovolts S)))))))))))))))))))))))))Q Phase to Phase to ground phase S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q 2.1 to 15 2'0" 2'0" 15.1 to 35 2'4" 2'4" 35.1 to 46 2'6" 2'6" 46.1 to 72.5 3'0" 3'0" 72.6 to 121 3'4" 4'6" 138 to 145 3'6" 5'0" 161 to 169 3'8" 5'6" 230 to 242 5'0" 8'4" 345 to 362 7'0" 13'4" 500 to 552 11'0" 20'0" 700 to 765 15'0" 31'0" S))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))Q Note: For 345-362kv., 500-552kv., and 700-765kv., the minimum clearance distance may be reduced provided the distances are not made less than the shortest distance between the energized part and a ground surface.

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(p) When approaching, leaving, or bonding to an energized circuit the minimum distances in Table 10.231-1 shall be maintained between all parts of the insulated boom assembly and any grounded parts (including the lower arm or portions of the truck).

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10.231: continued (q) When positioning the bucket alongside an energized bushing or insulator string, the minimum line-to-ground clearances of Table 10.231-1 must be maintained between all parts of the bucket and the grounded end of the bushing or insulator string. (r) The use of handlines between buckets, booms, and the ground is prohibited. 1. No conductive materials over 36 inches long shall be placed in the bucket, except for appropriate length jumpers, armor rods, and tools. 2. Nonconductive-type handlines may be used from line to ground when not supported from the bucket. (s) The bucket and upper insulated boom shall not be overstressed by attempting to lift or support weights in excess of the manufacturer's rating. (t) A minimum clearance table (as shown in Table 10.231-1) shall be printed on a plate of durable nonconductive material, and mounted in the buckets or its vicinity so as to be visible to the operator of the boom. It is recommended that insulated measuring sticks be used to verify clearance distances. 10.232: Underground Lines (1) Guarding and Ventilating Street Opening Used for Access to Underground Lines or Equipment. (a) Appropriate warning signs shallbe promptly placed when covers of manholes, handholes, or vaults are removed. What is an appropriate warning sign is dependentuponthe nature and location of the hazards involved. (b) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or unvented vault, it shall be promptly protected with a barrier, temporary cover, or other suitable guard. (c) When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: 1. No entry shall be permitted unless forced ventilation is provided or the atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for oxygen deficiency and the presence of explosive gases or fumes; 2. Where unsafe conditions are detected, by testing or other means, the work area shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry; 3. Provisions shall be made for an adequate continuous supply of air. (2) Work in Manholes. (a) While work is being performed in manholes, an employee shall be available in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as may be required. This shall not preclude the employee in the immediate vicinity from occasionally entering a manhole to provide assistance, other than emergency. This requirement does not preclude a qualified employee, workingalone, fromentering for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, for the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work if such work can be performed safely. (b) When open flames must be used or smoking is permitted in manholes, extra precautions shall be taken to provide adequate ventilation. (c) Before using open flames in a manhole or excavation in an area where combustible gases or liquids may be present, such as near a gasoline service station, the atmosphere of the manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the combustible gases or liquids. (3) Trenching and Excavating. (a) During excavation or trenching, in order to prevent the exposure of employees to the hazards created by damage to dangerous underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work conducted in a manner designed to avoid damage. (b) Trenching and excavation operations shall comply with 454 CMR 10.147 and 10.148. (c) When underground facilities are exposed (electric, gas, water, telephone, etc.) they shall be protected as necessary to avoid damage.

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10.232: continued (d) Where multiple cables exist in an excavation, cables other than the one being worked on shall be protected as necessary. (e) When multiple cables exist in an excavation, the cable to be worked on shall be identified by electrical means unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance. (f) Before cutting into a cable or opening a splice, the cable shall be identified and verified to be the proper cable. (g) When working on buried cable or on cable in manholes, metallic sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening or by equivalent means. 10.233: Construction in Energized Substations (1) Work Near Energized Equipment Facilities. (a) When construction work is performed in an energized substation, authorization shall be obtained from the designated, authorized person before work is started. (b) When work is to be done in an energized substation, the following shall be determined: 1. What facilities are energized, and 2. What protective equipment and precautions are necessary for the safety of personnel. (c) Extraordinary caution shall be exercised in the handling of busbars, tower steel, materials, and equipment in the vicinity of energized facilities. The requirements are set forth in 454 CMR 10.226(3) shall be complied with. (2) Deenergized Equipment or Lines. When it is necessary to deenergize equipment or lines for protection of employees, the requirements of 454 CMR 10.226(4) shall be complied with. (3) Barricades and Barriers. (a) Barricades or barriers shall be installed to prevent accidental contact with energized lines or equipment. (b) Where appropriate, signs indicating the hazard shall be posted near the barricade or barrier. These signs shall comply with 454 CMR 10.47. (4) Control Panels. (a) Work onor adjacentto energized control panels shall be performed by designated employees. (b) Precaution shall be taken to prevent accidental operation of relays or other protective devices due to jarring, vibration, or improper wiring. (5) Mechanized Equipment. (a) Use of vehicles, gin poles, cranes, and other equipment in restricted or hazardous areas shall at all times be controlled by designated employees. (b) All mobile cranes and derricks shall be effectively grounded when being moved or operated in close proximity to energized lines or equipment, or the equipment shall be considered energized. (c) Fenders shall not be required for lowboys used for transporting large electrical equipment, transformers, or breakers. (6) Storage. The storage requirements of 454 CMR 10.229(3) shall be complied with. (7) Substation Fences. (a) When a substation fence must be expanded or removed for construction purposes, a temporary fence affording similar protection when the site is unattended, shall be provided. Adequate interconnection with ground shall be maintained between temporary fence and permanent fence. (b) All gates to all unattended substations shall be locked, except when work is in progress.

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10.233: continued (8) Footing Excavation. (a) Excavation for auger, pad and piling type footings for structures and towers shall require the same precautions as for metal tower construction 454 CMR 10.231(2)(a). (b) No employee shall be permitted to enter an unsupported auger-type excavation in unstable material for any purpose. Necessary clean-out in such cases shallbe accomplished without entry. 10.234: External Load Helicopters In all operations performed using a rotorcraft for moving or placing external loads, the provisions of 454 CMR 10.120 shall be complied with. 10.235: Lineman's Body Belts, Safety Straps, and Lanyards (1) General Requirements. The requirements of 454 CMR 10.235(1) and (2) shall be complied with for alllineman's body belts, safety straps and lanyards acquired for use after the effective date of 454 CMR 10.00. (a) Hardware for lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards shall be drop forged or pressed steel and have a corrosive resistive finish tested to American Society for Testing and Materials B117-64 (50-hour test). Surfaces shall be smooth and free of sharp edges. (b) All buckles shall withstand a 2,000-pound tensile testwith a maximum permanent deformation no greater than one sixty-fourth inch. (c) D rings shall withstand a 5,000-pound tensile test without failure. Failure of a D ring shall be considered cracking or breaking. (d) Snaphooks shallwithstand a 5,000-pound tensile test without failure. Failure of a snaphook shall be distortion sufficient to release the keeper. (2) Specific Requirements. (a) Allfabric used for safety straps shall withstand an A.C. dielectric test of not less than 25,000 volts per foot "dry" for three minutes, without visible deterioration. 1. All fabric and leather used shall be tested for leakage current and shall not exceed one milliampere when a potention of 3,000 volts is applied to the electrodes positioned 12 inches apart. 2. Direct current tests may be permitted in lieu of alternating current tests. (b) The cushion part of the body belt shall: 1. Contain no exposed rivets on the inside; 2. Be at least three inches in width; 3. Be at least 5/32 inch thick, if made of leather; and 4. Have pocket tabs that extended at least 1 inches down and three inches back of the inside of circle of each D ring for riveting on plier or tool pockets. On shifting D belts, this measurement for pocket tabs shall be taken when the D ring section is centered. (c) A maximum of four tool loops shall be so situated on the body belt that four inches of the body belt in the center of the back, measuring from D ring to D ring, shall be free of tool loops and any other attachments. (d) Suitable copper, steel, or equivalent liners shall be used around bar of D rings to prevent wear between these members and the leather or fabric enclosing them. (e) All stitching shall be of a minimum 42-pound weight nylon or equivalent thread and shall be lock stitched. Stitching parallelto an edge shall not be less than 3/16 inch from edge of narrowest member caught by the thread. The use of cross stitching on leather is prohibited. (f) The keeper of snaphooks shall have a spring tension that will not allow the keeper to begin to open with a weight of 2 pounds or less, but the keeper of snaphooks shall begin to open with a weight of four pounds, when the weight is supported on the keeper against the end of the nose. (g) Testing of lineman's safety straps, body belts and lanyards shall be in accordance with the following procedure: 1. Attach one end of the safety strap or lanyard to a rigid support, the other end shall be attached to a 250-pound canvas bag of sand;

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

10.235: continued 2. Allow the 250-pound canvas bag of sand to free fall four feet for (safety strap test) and six feet for (lanyard test); in each case stopping the fall of the 250-pound bag; 3. Failure of the strap or lanyard shallbe indicated by any breakage, or slippage sufficient to permit the bag to fall free of the strap of lanyard. The entire "body belt assembly" shall be tested using one D ring. A safety strap or lanyard shall be used that is capable of passing the "impact loading test" and attached as required in454 CMR10.235(2)(g)1. The body belt shall be secured to the 250-pound bag of sand at a point to simulate the waist of a man and allowed to drop as stated in 454 CMR 10.235(2)(g)2. Failure of the body belt shall be indicated by any breakage, or slippage sufficient to permit the bag to fall free of the body belt. INSTALLATION AND ERECTION OF WOOD TRUSSES 10.258: General Requirements (1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the installation and erection of wood trusses. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the bracing design shall be based on the determination of a qualified person, providing the following minimum requirements are met. (2) No more than one truss shall be set in place at a time. (3) Temporary bracing shall remain in place until permanent sheathing is applied. (4) Fullbundles ofplywood shall not be placed on trusses. This construction load shall be limited to eight sheets of plywood on any pair of trusses and be located adjacent to the supports. No excess concentration of any construction materials (such as gravel or shingles) shall be placed on the trusses in any one area; they should be spread out evenly over a large area so as to avoid overloading any one truss. (5) A copy of the erection and bracing requirements supplied by the truss manufacturer shall be posted on the job site during erection of all trusses. 10.259: Bracing for First Truss (1) Vertical bracing shall be securely anchored to the end walls. (See 10.259-1a and 10.259-1b). (2) Ground braces shall be secured to the vertical brace and to a ground stake. Ground stakes shall be securely anchored. (See 10.259-1a and 10.259-1b). (3) Lateral braces shall be securely attached to all ground braces. (See 10.259-1a and 10.259-1b). (4) End diagonal braces shall be securely attached to the ground brace and a ground stake. End diagonal brace shall be attached at the intersection of the ground and lateral braces. (See 10.259-1a and 10.259-1b). (5) Reverse diagonal braces shall be attached at the base of the vertical braces and at the intersection of the lateral and ground braces. (See 10.259-1a and 10.259-1b).

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10.259: continued

NOTE:

Locate ground braces for first truss directly in line with all rows of top chord continuous lateral bracing (either temporary or permanent). FIGURE 10.259-1(a)

End diagonals to ground stakers. Reverse diagonal brace FIGURE 10.259-1(B)

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10.260: continued (6) The first vertical brace shall be installed at the center of the truss, with continuous verticalbracing not to exceed ten foot intervals in either direction. (7) On vertical truss height of 16 feet or less, lateralbracing shall be attached at the mid-point of the ground brace. (a) On truss heights in excess of 16 feet lateral braces shall be spaced at ten foot intervals. 10.260: Bracing Subsequent Trusses (1) Internal and external lateral bracing shall be installed as each truss is set in place. (2) As trusses are set in place, the builder or erection contractor shall apply sufficient temporary bracing to hold the trusses plumb, in alignment and in a safe condition until permanent bracing, decking, and/or sheathing can be installed. Temporary bracing shall be not less than 2 x 4 dimension lumber and should be as long as practical for handling. The use of shore spacer pieces of lumber between adjacent trusses is prohibited unless used temporarily in preparation for immediate installation of longer continuous bracing (B-feet minimum length). Temporary bracing lumber shall be nailed with two double headed 16d nails at every intersection with the braced member. (3) Exact spacing between trusses shall be maintained as bracing is installed to avoid the hazardous practice of removing bracing to adjust spacing as sheathing is applied. (4) Continuous lateralbracing shall be installed within six inches of the ridge line or center line and at approximately eight feet to ten feet intervals between the ridge line of sloped trusses or center line of flat trusses and the eaves.

Figure 10.260-2(a)

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10.260: continued (5) Continuous lateral bracing at no greater than eight feet to ten feet on centers along the truss length is required the full length of the building, nailed to the top of the bottom cord. (See 10.260-2(a) and (b).

FIGURE 10.260-2(b)

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10.261: Erection Using Mechanical Equipment (1) Any and all lifting mobil equipment shall be in safe working condition to include, but not limited to, the following items: (a) Chock blocks. (b) First aid kit. (c) Current boom or crane inspection certificate within the calendar year. (d) Licensed operator. (e) Trained signal person for positioning and setting trusses. (f) Mobil equipment shall be positioned and/or placed on solid dry area for lifting. (g) Outriggers shall be used for all lifting and setting. (h) Earth ground lines shall be in place and used if there is the possibility of boom contact with energized overhead or temporary power lines. (i) Barriers shall be provided for revolving super structures of mobile equipment. (j) A tag line shall be secured at each end of the truss for lifting and placement; such tag lines shall remain attached until truss has been secured in place. (k) No employee, contractor, or other person shall be allowed to ride the load (truss) or be positioned under, above, or between unsecured truss. (l) Boom length or arm length shall not be over extended for truss placement. (m) Load capacity shall be plainly attached and legible on each machine. (2) During the finalplacing of wood trusses the load shall not be released from the hoisting rope until the members are securely fastened in place. (3) Proper lifting techniques: (a) The procedure for lifting trusses is illustrated in 10.261-3(2) if the truss span does not exceed 30 feet.

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FIGURE 10.261-3(a)

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10.261: continued (b) For truss spans between 30 feet and 60 feet lifting procedure as shown in Figure 3b shall be complied with. It should be noted that the lines from the ends of the spreader bar "toe-in." If these lines should "toe-out," they will tend to cause buckling of the truss.

FIGURE 10.261-3(b)

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10.261: continued (c) For lifting trusses with spans in excess of 60 feet, a strong-back shall be used as illustrated in Figures 10.261-3(c) and (d). The strong-back shall be attached to the top chord and web members at intervals of approximately ten feet. Further, the strong-backs should be at or above the mid-height of the truss so as to prevent overturning. The strong-backs can be of any material with sufficient strength to safely carry the weight of the truss and sufficient rigidity to adequately resist bending of the truss.

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PART 22: WORK IN CONFINED SPACES 10.300: Definitions Applicable to 454 CMR 10.301 through 10.303 Confined Space. A space that is sufficiently surrounded by confining surfaces as to permit either the accumulation of hazardous gases, mists, fumes, vapors or dusts, or the possibility of an oxygen deficiency or excess; and that restrains egress to such a degree that a person would have difficulty in escaping from such a space in an emergency. Examples of confined spaces are tanks, tank cars, tank trucks and certain forms of structures or parts of structures such as bins, silos, hoppers, vaults, tunnels, manholes, sewers and certain types of shafts. Hazard. The risk of injury or illness that is encountered because of the presence in the atmosphere of poisonous, irritant, toxic or flammable elements, compounds or substances, or because of a deficiency or excess of oxygen. 10.301: General Requirements (1) Conformance. Work in or about confined spaces shallconformto allapplicable requirements of 454 CMR 10.301 through 10.303. (2) Required Supervision. Work performed in confined spaces shall be done only under the authorization and direction of competentwork supervisors who are thoroughly familiar with the hazards that may be encountered. Such supervisors shall be adequately trained in fire and accident prevention procedures and first aid and rescue measures. (3) Employee Warning. All employees required to work in a confined space shall be advised of the hazards they may encounter. (4) Protective Equipment. All protective equipment required by 454 CMR 10.301 through 10.303 shall be provided by the employer and shall be maintained in proper working condition. (a) Before the start of a job the work supervisor shall make certain: 1. That all necessary protective equipment and tools are of the proper type. 2. That such equipment is clean and in good condition. 3. That the workmen are instructed properly in their use. (b) Before entry is permitted the work supervisor shall make certain that the protective equipment and air supply system is functioning properly to insure the worker will receive clean air in sufficient quantity. (5) Employee Training. Every employee required or directed to enter a confined space, perform stand-by duties, provide emergency service, give first aid or act inrescue operations, shallbe instructed and trained thoroughly in his particular responsibilities. (6) Required Emergency Personnel. While work is being performed in a confined space, at least one designated person shall be immediately available to secure or render assistance in the event of an emergency. Under no condition shall such designated person leave the vicinity of the confined space for any time whatever unless replaced by another designated person. 10.302: Special Requirements (1) Space Preparation. Before any confined space is entered it shall, where appropriate, be prepared as follows: (a) All pipelines, valves, fittings and connections conveying substances to a confined space shall be disconnected or provided with a solid blank before entry shall be permitted. (b) Tests of the atmosphere for possible hazards shall be made, by a trained designated person, with instrument-type testing devices approved for the use intended.

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10.302: continued Records of all tests shall be available at the job site. (c) If the test indicates that the atmospheric conditions are hazardous, the confined space shall be purged. Atmospheric conditions shall be termed hazardous if the test shows any of the following: 1. The presence of oxygen below or above the breathing air range of 19.5% to 21.0% by volume. 2. The presence of any toxic substances in concentrations above the threshold limit values established by the Commissioner. 3. The presence of a flammable vapor. (d) After purging the confined space it shall be retested and, if necessary, repurged. (e) If the atmospheric conditions are still hazardous and the confined space cannot be purged free of contamination, the work shall only be performed utilizing appropriate protective equipment. The use of oxygen to ventilate a confined space is prohibited. (f) If the percentage of combustible vapor in the confined space atmosphere is greater than 10% of the lower explosive limit, no work shall be performed in such confined space. 10.303: Special Precautions (1) Flame and Spark Restrictions. Open flames, welding equipment, general purpose type electrical equipment, light sources, or other spark or flame-producing agents, other than explosive-proof equipment, shall not be used in any confined space until it has been demonstrated by test that a flammable vapor does not exist. (2) InternalEquipment Requirements. Confined spaces fitted with power-driven internal equipment shall have the power source disconnected and locked out before entry is permitted. (3) Equipment Grounding. Portable electrical devices used in confined spaces shall be properly grounded. (4) Life Lines and Safety Lines. Whenever a worker is required to enter a confined space he shall wear an approved safety harness with life line attached and secured outside of the confined space. No life line shall be secured to any vehicle unless said vehicle is rendered inoperable. (5) Life Lines Not Required. The use of a life line is not required in the following cases: (a) Where the concentration of workers within the confined space is such that the use of life lines is likely to result in line entanglement which would impede rescue. (b) Where it has been established by tests that the atmosphere of the confined space is free of contamination and periodic testing is continued to assure an uncontaminated atmosphere. (6) Adequate Fire Protection. Sufficient and proper fire extinguisher equipment to cope with the hazards which may be encountered shall be provided and maintained readily available. PART 23: LIFT SLAB OPERATIONS 10.400: General Requirements The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to all equipment, devices and components of the lifting/jacking system. Employers shall comply with all provisions of this 454 CMR 10.304 through 10.315 part and all other appropriate sections of 454 CMR 10.000. In case of conflict, the provisions of this 454 CMR 10.304 through 10.315 part shall prevail. Nothing in 454 CMR 10.304 through 10.315 part shall relieve the employer from compliance with local, state, and federal ordinances, codes, laws or regulations.

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10.401: Filing of Work Notification The prime contractor shall notify the Commissioner in writing at least 60 days prior to the commencing of any lift-slab operation. Notification shall, at a minimum, include the following: (1) Name, address and telephone number of the prime contractor and any sub-contractors to be engaged in the lift-slab operation, including any sub-contractors to be engaged in prestressed/post-tensioning work. (2) A general description of project parameters, such as building dimensions, number of floors, building elevation ground plan, contiguous public ways, adjacent structures, and proposed end-use of the building. (3) Name, address and telephone number of building or site owner. (4) Address and location of work. (5) Start and completion dates of life-slab operations. These dates shall be based on the initial erection of load bearing lifting columns and the completion of work permanently securing all slabs to the building structure. (6) Amended notifications concerning any change to the informationrequired in454 CMR 10.401.(1) through (6), shall be filed no later than 30 days prior to the commencing of any lift-slab operation. 10.402: Filing of Safety and Lift Plan (1) The prime contractor shall file with the Commissioner at least 60 days prior to the amendment of any lift-slab operation, a safety and lift plan. This plan in its entirety, shall bear the seal of an independent, registered, professional engineer, licensed in the Commonwealth. The certifying registered professional engineer shall not be an employee of any contractor or property or site owner having a direct or indirect interest in any aspect of the construction or building ownership. The certifying registered professional engineer shall, by training and experience, be qualified in the field of lift-slab operations. When applicable, the Safety and Lift Plan shall contain a written concurrence and acknowledgement by all subcontractors, to be engaged in the lift-slab operation and pre-stressed/post tensioning work. The filing of a Safety and Lift Plan shall in no way relieve the prime or subcontractors from responsibility for full compliance with the regulations, and acknowledgement of receipt of the plan by the Commissioner shall not constitute an express or implied approval by the Commonwealth of the contents of the plan. (2) The Safety and Lift Plan shall, at a minimum, include the following: (a) An organizational chart and written statement describing the functional and operating relationship of all contractors on the site during lift-slab operations. This shall include a clear statement of responsibilities and lines of communication concerning technical and safety matters. Of particular importance is a clear and detailed description of the manner and form in which matters of safety and lift-slab operation willbe coordinated within the hierarchy of contractors. A project manual containing this information will be considered adequate. (b) Written documentation giving a clear and detailed description of the accident prevent and safety program as set forth in 454 CMR 10.03(1). (c) Name and permanent residential address of all competent persons engaged in the left-slab and pre-stressed/post tensioning work. (d) The lift plan shall, at a minimum, include a description and/or specification of the following elements of the left- slab operation or lift/jacking system accompanied by detailed instructions, engineering drawings, or sketches as appropriate: 1. Method of achieving lateral stability including provisions for wind-bracing, use of compression and cable-bracing, tension guyingofcolumns to controlout- of-plumb conditions, the use of horizontal plumbing jacks and the temporary bracing of columns.

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10.402: continued 2. Individual column stability. 3. Floor slab integrity including compressive strength. 4. Foundation integrity and capacity. 5. External lateral pressures such as soil. 6. Design and method of affixing and securing jack-bearing plates to the top of the lifting column. 7. Method of column extension for sequential lifting. 8. Slab curing time prior to lifting. 9. Use of separating mediums. 10. Method, criteria, and acceptable thresholds for the examination and testing of critical compounds of the lift/jacking system. In this context, the lift/jacking system includes any members that transmitloads to jacks including thread rod, lifting nuts, lifting angles, shearheads, column footings and the lifting column. This examination and testing shall include X-ray, if necessary. 11. Sequence of lift/jacking operations. 12. Rate of vertical travel and lift cycle. 13. Hydraulic system including a description of final positioning of each slab from a central console or by means of local valving. 14. Post tensioning of slabs and allowable deflection. 15. Use of ladders, scaffolds, hoisting devices and auxiliary equipment. 16. Temporary parking of slabs in multi-storystructures and single story structures with a roof height in excess of 26 feet. 17. Maximum allowable slab declination and method of measurement. 18. Package lifting of slabs. 19. Weldments, including the distinction between field and shop fabrication, method of welding required, applicable standards concerning weld strength and workmanship. Particular attention shall be given to the design and strength of shearheads. 20. Method of collar placement on columns and clearance between lifting collars and columns. 21. A specific sub-plan concerning pre-stressed concrete including strands and bars, casting beds, stressing or tensioning strands, placement of reinforced steel and concrete, use of visible and audible signals and prior to tensioning, installation of protective barriers, restriction of unnecessary personnel, restriction and containment of jacks in the event of tendon failure, and the positioning of personnel during tensioning operations. 22. Method and procedure for temporary and permanent securing of slabs to support columns. 10.403: Emergency Response Plan The Safety and Lift Plan required under 454 CMR 10.400(3) shall include an emergency response plan for all lift slab operations which exceed construction of five or more slab floors inclusive of the ground floor. Such plan shallinclude a list of the appropriate emergency responders including police, fire, medical, heavy equipment sources and a description of the function and responsibility of each in the event of a major catastrophe. Documentation shall include written evidence that the emergency responder agencies or organization understand and are committed to perform their roles as described. 10.404: Work and Design Standards (1) The following standards shall apply to lift-slab operations and supplement or are in addition to other applicable requirements contained in 454 CMR 40.404. (a) All jacks shall be conspicuously labelled as to rated capacity. (b) All components of the lifting/jacking system shall have the capacity to handle 2.5 times the anticipated transmitted load. (c) Lifting rods shall have double nuts at the lower lifting end. (d) Jacks shall be designed so as to allow time to continue to support load should the jack malfunction or lose lifting ability.

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10.404: continued (e) The maximum number of jacks per slab shall be limited to 14. A larger number will be allowed, provided the licensed professional engineer approving the Safety and Lift Plan also certifies that a larger number are required to allow the operator to maintain slab level within specified tolerances. (f) Lifting/jacking operations shall be synchronized to insure uniform lifting at all points of the slab to within " to maintain level position. Automatic levelling stop devices shall be used to maintain a " tolerance or, if manual leveling is controlled from a central location, the operator of thatstation shall be a qualified and competent person. (g) Load transfer from jacks to building columns shall not take place until welds on column shear plates have cooled to ambient air temperature. (h) There shall be no less than one-sixteenth of an inch clearance between the lifting collars and lifting columns. (i) Lifting jacks shall be secured to the top of the lifting column by weld or mechanical means in such a manner as to insure that the union between the jack base and the lifting column will allow the jack to withstand at least 2.5 times the predicted stress that may occur during lifting/jacking operations, and prevent the jack from moving its fixed design location. (j) Only workers essential to connect slabs to the supporting columns shall be allowed under suspended slabs until all slabs have been permanently attached to the supporting columns. 10.405: Time Restriction on Lifting/Jacking Operations The lifting of slabs shall only take place duringdaylight hours which are 30 minutes after sunrise and 30 minutes before sunset. The time of sunrise and sunset shall be as determined and published by the United States Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C. 10.406: Engineering Oversight and Site Supervision (1) An independent, registered, professional, engineer shall be on the site during lift/jacking operations. In this context, the engineer's presence is required from the time of casting and pre-tensioning of slabs and the assembly of the lift/jacking system, to the time when all slabs have been permanently secured to the structure. The on-site professional engineer shall, on a daily basis, conduct regular and systematic reviews of the lift slab operation including compliance with the Safety and Lift Plan as submitted to the Commissioner. The on-site professional engineer shall have the authority to stop lifting/jacking operations if he/she has reason to believe that the operation is unsafe or in violation of 454 CMR 10.000. The on-site engineer shall maintain a signed daily log of lift/jacking operations including times, activities and unusual events or conditions encountered or observed. (2) A principal competent person shall be designated by the prime contractor. Additional competent persons may be appointed depending on the complexity and magnitude of the lift-slab operation. This person shall be responsible for inspection of all aspects of the lift-slab operations, the completeness and accuracy of maintenance logs, the training of workers engaged in lift-slab operations, and the identification and correction of hazards. There shall be at least one competent person per shift. 10.407: Worker Training (1) In addition to the requirements set forth in 454 CMR 10.03, on-site prime and subcontractors engaged in lift- slab operations, shall only allow employees qualified by training and experience to engage in work associated with lift-slab operations. Worker training shall take place prior to beginning site lift-slab operations, and shall include a review ofthe operation, discussion of associated hazards, safety standards and safe work practices. A safety tool box type meeting will be held each day before lift-slab operations begin. A record of all training shall be maintained showing the date and time of training, persons attending, person(s) conducting and signatures so attesting.

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10.408: Record Retention Records and documentation required by 454 CMR 10.400 shall be retained by the prime or subcontractor for a period of seven years from the date of completion of work permanently securing all slabs to the building structure. 10.409: Independent Testing The Department shall be authorized to conduct independent tests of any component of the lift/jacking system or of the structure as it relates to lift slab operations to determine compliance with 454 CMR 10.000. 10.410: Erection of Barricades and Alarm Systems Wooden or metal barricades shall be erected around the entire perimeter of lift-slab operations in such a manner as to prevent only authorized personnel from entering the site. These barricades shall be suitably posted and guarded so as to prevent unauthorized access. An alarm system, audible throughout the lift-slab site, shall sound whenever a slab is in motion. 10.411: Public Records (1) All material, including related correspondence, submitted to the Department in compliance with 454 CMR 10.411 is considered to be a public record under the provisions of 950 CMR 32.00. as most recently amended.

REGULATORY AUTHORITY 454 CMR 10.000: M.G.L. c. 149, 6 and12.

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APPENDIX A:

Standards Referred To In Construction Regulations

ANSI A11.1-1965 R1970 - Illumination ANSI Z89.1-1981 & Z89.2-1971 - Head Protection ANSI Z87.1-1979 - Eye & Face Protection C.G.A. G7.1-1966 - Compressed Oxygen Federal specifications BB-A1034a June 1968 - Breathing apparatus NFPA 10A-1970 - Fire Extinguisher N.E.C. 70-1971 & ANSI C1-1971 - Electric Code NFPA 251-1969 & NFPA 80-1970 - Fire Test for Buildings & Doors NFPA 30-1969 - Combustible Liquids NFPA 13-1969 - Sprinkler Systems NFPA 385-1966 - Flammable & Combustible Liquids D.O.T. 49 CFR Part 178 - Shipping Containers ANSI D6 1-1971 - Traffic Control ANSI Z35 1-1972 & ANSI Z35 1-1972 - Accident Prevention Signs ANSI B15.1-1984 - Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus ANSI B7.1-1978 - Abrasive Wheels ANSI 01.1-1975 - Woodworking Machinery D.O.T. 49 CFR Part 178 - Gas Cylinders ANSI Z49.1-1983 - Welding & Cutting D.O.T. 49 CFR Part 192 - Gas Pipelines ANSI C1-1984 - Electric Welders ANSI A14.1-1982 - Portable Wood Ladders ANSI A 14.2-1982 - Portable Metal Ladders ANSI A14.3-1984 - Fixed Ladders ANSI A92.2-1979 - Rotating Work Platforms ANSI A120.1-1970 - Powered Platforms ANSI A92.2-1979 - Aerial Lifts ANSI A92.2-1979 - Electrical Tests ANSI B30.5-1985 - Wire Rope Safety SAE J959-1966 - Wire Rope Safety ANSI B15.1-1958 - Mechanical Power Transmission D.O.T. 49 CFR - Fuels Transported SAE J743a-1964 - Cranes & Tractors ANSI B30.2.0-1983 - Overhead Cranes ANSI B30 6-1984 - Derricks ANSI A10.5-1981 - Material Hoists ANSI A10.4-1981 - Workmens Hoists ANSI A17.1-1984 / ANSI A17.1a-1967 / ANSI A17.1b-1968 / ANSI A17.1c-1969 / ANSI A17.1d-1970 / ANSI A17.2-1995 / ANSI A17.2a-1965 - Permanent Elevators ANSI B20.1-1984 - Conveyors ANSI A92.2-1979 - Rotating Work Platforms A.W.S. B3.0-41 / A.W.S. D8.4-61 / A.W.S. D10.9-69 / A.W.S. D2.0-69 Welding Standards A.S.M.E. 1968 Sec VIII - Boiler Code D.O.T. 49 CFR Part 571 - Seat Belts S.A.E. J386-1969 - Seat Belts S.A.E. J3196-1971 / S.A.E. J236-1971 / S.A.E. J166-1971 / S.A.E. J237-1971 / S.A.E. J321a-1970 - Earthmoving Equipment ANSI B56.1-1983 - Industrial Trucks ANSI A10.9-1983 - Masonry Works ANSI C1-1987 - Electric Code D.O.T. 14CFR Part 103 / D.O.T. 46CFR Part 146-149 / D.O.T. 49CFR Part 171-179 / D.O.T. 49CFR Part 390-397 - Transportation of Explosives ANSI J6.6-1971 / ANSI J6.7-1935 / ANSI J6.4-1971 / ANSI J6.2-1950 / ANSI J6.1-1950 / ANSI J6.5-1971 - Rubber Protective Equipment ANSI Z89.2-1971 - Protective helmets U.S. Corps of Engineers EM-385-1-1-1967 - Safety Requirements

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American Society of Testing A370 - Testing of Steel Products SAE J320a / SAE J394 / SAE J395 / SAE J396 / SAE Handbook-1971 Roll-Over Equipment

454 CMR: DIVISION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

Appendix A: continued SAE J168-1970 - Protective Enclosures ASAE R313 - Soil Cone Penetrometer SAE J334a-1970 - Frame Test Procedures SAE J167-1971 - Overhead Protection ANSI 29.2-79 - Exhaust Ventilation