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SANTHOSH N1*, Dr.U.N.KEMPAIAH2, Dr.ASWATHA3
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology. Bangalore.
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, UVCE, Bangalore.
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BIT, Bangalore. *Email I D: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Scenario of fuel consumption across the world is ringing alarm bells, urging us to find an alternative. The main source of fuel used today is fossil fuel. However with the rise in prices of crude oil and depletion of the resources, petroleum products are becoming increasingly difficult for an average man to afford, it has thus become inevitable to explore new possibilities in fuel production sector. Initiating from this view point various sources were looked at for production of alternative fuels .Most of the raw materials like seeds, grass, and bio mass have been in the line of successful experimentation. Hence a unique raw material that is the milk dairy wash water scum has been selected. By trans-esterification, methyl ester can be obtained from the scum which can be blended with diesel to get a new form of bio diesel. Further study of the properties of biodiesel developed and its performance characteristics when used to operate IC engines can open up new avenues in the research development and characterisation of bio fuels. Keywords: Milk Scum, Trans-esterification, Methyl ester, Performance, Engine.
Biodiesel is a biodegradable and nontoxic diesel fuel consisting of long polymeric chains of alkyl esters. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can be used in late-model (after 1992) diesel engines without any need to modify the engines beforehand. Biodiesel can be produced from straight vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, tallow and waste cooking oil, milk dairy wash water scum. The Milk Scum is a waste product (effluent) obtained from the wash water of the milk dairy. The Milk scum is produced by the sequential order of processes involving dairy wash water collection and its treatment in Effluent treatment plant (ETP). The biodiesel is obtained from milk scum by Trans-esterification process. Transesterification process is the reaction of a triglyceride (fat/oil) with an alcohol to form esters and glycerol. A triglyceride has a glycerine
molecule as its base with three long chain fatty acids attached. usually a strong alkaline like sodium hydroxide. either base can be used for the methyl ester. LITERATURE SURVEY P Sivakumar et al . The analysis confirmed that bio-diesel from dairy waste scum is quite suitable as an alternative to petroleum diesel with recommended fuel properties as per ASTM standards. the potential of using dairy waste scum as a feed stock for bio-diesel production was investigated. and DI diesel engine. pure biodiesel. The characteristics of the fat are determin ed by the nature of the fatty acids attached to the glycerine. or biodiesel and crude glycerol. During the esterification process. The exhaust gas and sound reduced with the increase of e thanol percentage in diesel biodiesel-ethanol blends.2 wt.% of Potassium Hydroxide. The NOx and CO2 emissions increased with the increased percentage . Venkata Subbaiah et all . Potassium hydroxide has been found to be more suitable for the ethyl ester biodiesel production. Gas chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of Dairy Waste Scum Oil. Results revealed that the low free fatty acid content was a notorio us parameter to determine the viability of alkaline transesterification. This new way for using dairy waste scum reduces the cost of production of bio-diesel and the problem related to the disposal of Dairy scum. The experimental result shows that the highest brake thermal efficiency was observed with 30% methanol in diesel -biodiesel-ethanol blends. Thermo gravimetric analysis followed the evaluation of transesterification process. 30 min of time and 6:1 Methanol oil ratio at 350 rpm. In this work. When fuelled with conventional diesel fuel. The alcohol reacts with the fatty acids to form the mono-alkyl ester.7% when 1. The nature of the fatty acids can in turn affect the characteristics of the biodiesel. In most production methanol or ethanol is the alcohol used (methanol produces methyl esters. reaction temperature of 75 °C. A common product of the trans-esterification process is Methyl Ester produced from oil reacted with methanol. Present study optimized the parameters involved in transesterification process of Dairy Waste Scum Oil. ethanol produces ethyl esters) and is base catalysed by either potassium or sodium hydroxide. a blend of diesel and biodiesel and three blends of diesel -biodiesel-methanol were studied over the entire range of load on the engine. four stroke. the triglyceride is reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The end product thus obtained can be further blended in various volume fractions with diesel and tested for its influence on performance characteristics of CI engines. The yield of bio -diesel reached 96. used Rice Bran oil as Bio -Diesel with Methanol in a single cylinder. Methyl ester is generally refined and the moisture content is driven out by successive heating.
Fuel properties (such as density. methanol blends at different purities of ethanol and different temperatures. The engine performance and emission characterist ics were investigated. the flash point of blends containing ethanol was quite different from that of conventional diesel. Ethanol. flash point and pour point) of the selected blends and their emissions performance in a diesel engine were examined and compared to those of base diesel. Fernando et al . four strokes. the rice bran oil biodiesel can be used as an emulsifier to mix higher percentage of ethanol with fossil diesel to improve the performance and reduce the emissions of a diesel engine. PrommesKwanchareon et al . In his work. The thermal efficiency. It was found that the fuel properties were close to the standard limit for diesel fuel. Concluded that the addition of ethanol to biodiesel diesel blends did not alter the engine performance significantly. whereas NOx increased. when compared to those of diesel. used pongamia oil as Bio -Diesel with ethanol i n a Single cylinder. which is another renewable fuel. a blend of 80% diesel. B75 and B100 biodiesel diesel blends with 5% and 10% ethanol addition. they studied the phase diagram of diesel-biodiesel-ethanol. The HC emissions increased with ethanol but lower than that of the diesel fuel. Concluded that. 15% biodiesel and 5% ethanol was the most suitable ratio for diesohol production because of the acceptable fuel properties (except flash point) and the reduction of emissions. it was found that CO and HC reduced significantly at high engine load. cetane number. In this work. which is the oxygenate in e-diesel. is a renewable fuel that reduces the dependency of non-oil-producing countries on foreign petroleum. heat of combustion. B50. can be used successfully as an amphiphile (a surface-active agent) to stabilize ethanol and diesel. Research also has revealed that methanol-biodiesel-diesel (EB-diesel) fuel blend micro emulsions are stable well below sub-zero temperatures and have shown equal or superior fuel properties to regular diesel fuel. however. However. Taking these facts into account. The high cetane value of biodiesel could compensate for the decrease of the cetane number of the blends caused by the presence of ethanol. As for the emissions of the blends. water cooled. NOX and smoke emissions were found experimentally. . DI Diesel Engine. Studies have revealed that biodiesel. The engine produced lower NO X and smoke emission with ethanol addition.of ethanol in diesel -biodiesel-ethanol blends. Pugazhvadivu . a major drawback with e-diesel is that ethanol is immiscible in diesel over a wide range of temperatures. The heating value of the blends containing lower than 10% ethanol was not significantly different from that of diesel. experimental investigations were carried using B25.
and lubricity value than biodiesel or diesel fuel alone. Despite methanol having a considerably lower energy value. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. The minimal change of the heat of combustion suggested that micro emulsions may be contributing to the overall combustion process in a positive way. a blend that has energy values comparable to those of fossil fuels but also has superior lubricity and environmentally friendly characteristics. durability and emissions is also considered. the heat of combustion and cetane numbers of the B-diesel blends remained steady. viscosity and lubricity. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for the oxidation of CO or absorbs oxygen for the reduction of NOx. performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke computerized variable compression ratio engine coupled with an eddy current dynamometer and a data acquisition system. it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability. This work has paved the way to formulate a new form of bio fuel blend from renewable materials. maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank improve complete . The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. without significant reduction. The effect of the fuel on engine performance.Micro emulsions of certain component concentrations have shown substantially increased lubricity without compromising the cetane numbers and energy values. However. cetane number. stability of neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles are analyzed. An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nano particles as additive in a neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. In the second phase. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blend to combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly. In the first phase of the experiments. The phase separation between diesel and ethanol is prevented using vegetable methyl ester (Biodiesel) prepared from the castor oil through trans-esterification process. Alanet al . After series of experiments. safety and materials compatibility. These factors include blend properties such as stability. Arul et al .
alkaline catalyzed transesterfication process converts the products of the first step to its mono-esters and glycerol. In acid esterification. Finally 850ml of biodiesel and 150 ml of glycerin was obtained from 1litre of scum oil. The lower layer is separated for further processing (alkaline esterification). the solution is again allowed to settle for 24 hours. 1000 ml scum oil is heated to about 50 °C.modifications. acid phase reactor. Finally after filtration process. confirming the long-term effects on engine durability and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol diesel blends. the solution is allowed to settle for 24 hours in a separating funnel. After washing the final product is heated up to 105 °C for 10 minutes . With this mixture 2% H2SO4 is also added and stirred at a constant rate with 65 °C for one and half hour. The excess alcohol along with sulphuric acid and impurities floats at the top surface and is removed. a two step transesterification process is chosen to convert the nonedible scum oil to its methyl ester. PROCESSING OF MILK SCUM The sequential treatment of wash water used for cleaning milk silos and other container in Effluent Treatment plant and other units such as screening chambers. Yelahanka and heated to 100oC to drain all the moisture content away.5 g NaOH dissolved in 150 ml methanol is added and stirred for 90 minutes. The first step acid catalyzed esterification reduces the FFA value of the oil to about 2%. With this mixture. The glycerin settles at the bottom and esterified scum oil rises to the top. Benson verghese Babu et al . B. MATERIAL AND METHODS A. Therefore. The second step. TRANSESTIRIFICATION OF MILK SCUM . 150 ml methanol is added and stirred for a few minutes. The milk scum was then filtered to remove coarse and floating impurities.2 litres of scum oil was obtained. the products of the first step are again heated to about 65 to 70 °C. Aerobic tank and clarifier yields Milk scum. In alkaline catalyzed esterification. Transesterification is the process of reacting a triglyceride with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to produce fatty acid esters and glycerol. anaerobic sludge banker. 10 kg of overall Milk scum thus processed was collected from KMF Mother Diary. 6. It is difficult to produce ester from scum oil using alkaline catalyst (NaOH/KOH) because scum oil used is having high free fatty acid (FFA). After the reaction is over. fat removal unit. This esterified scum oil is separated and purified with warm water. After the reaction is over.The esterified scum oil so prepared is referred as scum biodiesel. around 6. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics.
The blending process was carried out with the help of a measuring jar and beaker. This mixture of milk scum. 8 g of NaOH pellets dissolved in 300 ml of methanol in beaker is added by slowly opening the valve. the scum oil was acid catalyzed to reduce its FFA (free fatty acid content) to about 2%. the products of acid esterification process is once again heated to 75 oC . the mixture is allowed to settle for around 12 hours and the FFA. 1 litre of scum is heated to 75 degree centigrade and is transferred to the round bottom flask of the esterification setup. which is nothing but biodiesel is obtained after the removal of glycerine.Thus neat bio diesel is obtained. which involved two major steps. This is later heated to 100 degree centigrade to get dry biodiesel which is free from moisture . Finally 820 ml of esterified scum oil. BLENDING OF FUEL The bio diesel is then blended with the fossil diesel in different percentages as shown in table 1. WATER WASH The biodiesel obtained is washed 4 times with water to remove the catalyst. the heated scum is then transferred to the round bottom flask of esterification setup and to this mixture. once glycerine forms a separate top layer. If clear wash water is got back it indicates that the catalyst is not present in the biodiesel. 350ml of methanol and 10ml of sulphuric acid mixed thoroughly is added into a beaker in the setup and slowly allowed into the flask containing scum. methanol and sulphuric acid is stirred continuously until the FFA forms a separate top layer. The bottles were agitated well and were allowed to stay upside down to ensure proper mixing of fuels The bottles were stored in dry place and kept still for the next 24 hour. D. In the first step known as the acid catalyzed esterification process. C. the products of first step were converted to its mono esters and glycerol. All the blends were stable and passed the 24 hrs stability test and were ready to be used on engine. . Blends were checked for every 6 hrs time intervals for any layer formation. The mixture is then stirred until glycerine forms a separate layer. In base catalyzed esterification process. While in the second step. Impurities floating on the top surface is removed. the mixture is allowed to settle for around 12hours and the glycerine floating on the top surface is removed. The appropriate percentages of diesel and biodiesel were added to the beaker and then transferred to bottle. Once FFA’s form a separate top layer. known as base catalyzed transesterification process.One litre of scum oil was taken for tranesterification process. In acid catalyzed esterification process.
Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph (figure 2). DENSITY . Second test was to find out calorific values of the blended fuel samples and also for regular diesel. This test was carried at a temperature of 400oC (ASTM standard). PROPERTIES OF SCUM BIODIESEL The blended fuel samples and biodiesel were tested for different chemical and physical properties. This test was carried at a temperature of 250oC (ASTM standard).815). The results have been furnished in table 2. RESUSLTS & DISCUSSIONS In the present investigation. The engine performance and emission characteristics are also discussed and different graphs showing the performance and emission characteristics are drawn and those graphs are analyzed in detail. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY The kinematic viscosity of Diesel. From the graph we can conclude that the specific gravities of the blends increase with the percent volume of biodiesel. The fuel samples were also tested for the flash points. The next test conducted was the viscosity test with the help of a Red Wood Viscometer for the blended fuel samples as well as regular diesel to check whether they hold good for ASTM fuel standards. The specific gravity of biodiesel is 0. some of the important properties like kinematic viscosity.From the graph we came to know that the viscosity of diesel-biodiesel blends were less compared to fossil diesel. This is done by testing 50 grams of fuel in a bomb calorimeter and directly obtaining the calorific value of the fuel. the characteristics of fuel are analyzed by drawing different graphs. SPECIFIC GRAVITY The specific gravities of Diesel. This test was conducted with the help of a spirit lamp to check whether it burns without sparks and with a blue flame. but comparing with fossil diesel the viscosity of blends are very much less. density and calorific value of different blends on the addition of biodiesel are also studied by comparing results with that of fossil diesel and 100% biodiesels. Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph (figure 3). And as the percent of biodiesel increases the viscosity of the blends increases slightly.E. The first test conducted was the flame test for the produced biodiesel to make sure that it is in anhydrous form.855 and it is more than fossil diesel (0.
FLASH AND FIRE POINT The flash and fire point of B100 is 1400c and 1520c. September 2009 S. Issue 1. its fuel properties and its emission characteristics from diesel engine. vol. Fernando. no. The flash point and fire point of blends is less when compared to the biodiesel and fossil diesel REFERENCES P Sivakumar. 18. 1695-1703. 7. Prommes Kwanchareon. 2010. The CV of blends was found to be less than the fossil diesel (44515. Fuel. The density of biodiesel is 848kg/m3 and it is more than fossil diesel (0. Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph (figure 4). 4. Arul mozhiselvan. K Anbarasu. Apanee Luengnaruemitchai and Samai Jai-In. Energy& Fuels 2004. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment . Udayakumar. PP 147-151 G. R. Venkata Subbaiah. Anand and M. V. Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in Diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends onthe performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine . CALORIFIC VALUE The calorific Value of Diesel. K. Solubility of a diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blend. .221. ARPN journal of engineering and applied sciences. 1 ( 3 ) : 211 . S Renganathan. This test was carried at a temperature of 150c (ASTM standard).6 KJ/KG). Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph The CV of B100was found to be 40188. Raja Gopal and Syed Altaf Hussain. Bio-diesel production by alkali catalyzed transesterification of dairy waste scum. January 2011.The density of Diesel. B. D e v e l o p m e n t o f a N ovel Biofuel Blend Using Ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Micro-emulsions: EB-Diesel. The effect of Biodiesel and Bioethanol Blended Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine. From the graph we can conclude that the densities of the blends were less compared with fossil diesel as % of biodiesel increases the density increases slightly. Volume 90. the flash and fire point of fossil diesel was found to be 750c and 790c respectively.869kg/m3).58 KJ/Kg and the CV of different blends were also determined according to ASTM Standards.
4. 6. V. ARPN journal of engineering and applied sciences. no. Hansen. Udayakumar. Reversal of the trend in global anthropogenic sulfur emissions. 7. a review. B i o r e s o u r c e T e c h n o l o g y . Arul mozhiselvan. R.16(2). E t h a n o l diesel fuel blends. Qin Zhang and Peter W. Alan C. Lyne.L. B. vol. September 2009. 7. effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in Diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends onthe performance and emissioncharacteristics of a CI engine .pp 207220. Stern DI. Kinematic viscosity in cp Figure 1 Kinematic Viscosity of different Blends .5. Anand and M. 96 (2005) 277285. Global Environ Change 2006.
8 3.3 3.FUEL BLENDS FLASH POINT ⁰C CALORIFIC VALUE (kJ/kg) 44515 43632 43193 42745 40188 DENSITY (kg/m3) VISCOSITY (CP) DIESEL B10 B20 B30 B100 75 76 76 77 79 844 833 834 836 868 3. No.8 Sl.38 3.35 3. 1 2 3 Bio diesel percentage 10% 20% 30% Diesel percentage 90% 80% 70% Notation B10 B20 B30 preethiyaamma@1089 .