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1. (a)

SERIES FAULTS (or Open Circuit Faults) Figure 1 shows a system with an open circuit PQ. The positive, negative and zero sequence networks of the open-circuited system are shown in Figure 2 Unlike the case of shunt faults, the fault terminals for interconnection are P and Q, therefore not involving the neutral. The sequence equivalent network blocks (Figure 3) will have terminals P and Q for interconnection. Terminal N is also indicated in the blocks although it is not used for interconnections. The terminal conditions imposed by different open circuit faults will be applied across points P and Q on the three line conductors (see Figure ii- ). Therefore the fault terminal currents will be Ia, Ib and Ic flowing from P to Q on the three conductors, and the terminal potentials will be the potential across P and Q
' , V - V ' , and Vc - V ' . They will be represented by , , respectively. i.e. Va - Va a b c b b c

(b)

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2.

SIMULTANEOUS FAULTS The range of faults we have considered so far involves only a single fault at one fault location. Symmetrical components can be used to analyse two (or more) faults either in the same location or at different locations in a system. When deriving the sequence network interconnections for single faults, the sequence currents and voltages are all sequence components of the reference phase, 'a' phase being selected to be the reference phase. Since the sequence components of the other two phases were not involved, the phase subscript 'a' was omitted without causing confusion. In the derivation of sequence network connections for simultaneous faults, especially when the faults are on different phases, sequence components of more than one phase are employed. The omission of phase subscripts will cause confusion. Therefore, the sequence components will be phase subscripted accordingly. It is essential, however, to finally express the constraints of all faults with respect to the same reference phase. Another point to watch out for is that when connecting the sequence networks, it must be ensured that no additional fault constraint that cannot be proved is introduced. This is generally achieved by making direct connection at one fault location and employ 1/1 ratio transformer coupling at the other, if necessary (section 2,1), When the fault constraints involve phase shifted sequence quantities, there will be a need for phase shifting transformer coupling (section 2.2)

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