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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
AN ANALYSIS OF THE ELLIPSE, ITS GEOMETRY AND INFERENCE
OF THE RESULTS
PROLOGUE
This document is intended to present two geometric methods of deriving the Arc length of an Elliptical
Arc Segment. This Arc length of the Elliptical Arc Segment is derived using Geometric Intuition. The
Initial Two Chapters details the two methods of deriving the Arc length.
The next section sketches out an intuitive explanation of the current Mathematical knowledge and
explores the Analogues relationship between the various topics in mathematics. As such there is a short
description of the mathematical logic with which the thought processes of arriving at the geometric
methods are detailed.
Contents
SECTION A: This Section details the following primary chapters
1. Perimeter of the elliptical arc (arc length) a geometric method Transformation Method
2. Closed formapproximation to the elliptical integral of second kind - Transformation Method
3. Perimeter of the elliptical arc (arc length) a geometric method -Chord Length Method
4. Closed formapproximation to the elliptical integral of second kind -Chord Length Method
SECTION B: This Section details the following secondary chapters
5. Review of Differential Equation
6. The Analogy Table
7. Geometric Intuition for the Elliptical Arc length
8. The Question of Closed formsolutions to Integrals











2
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -1
PERIMETER OF THE ELLIPTICAL ARC (ARC LENGTH) A GEOMETRIC METHOD
(TRANSFORMATION METHOD)
Abstract
There are well known formulas approximating the circumference of the Ellipse given in various times.
The most famous formulas (approximations) were presented before by Kepler (1609), Euler (1773), Muir
(1883), Lindner (1904), Ramanujan (1914), Hudson (1917), and Cantrell (2001). However there lacks an
Approximation to calculate the Arc length of a given Arc segment of an Ellipse. The Arc length of the
Elliptical Arc is presently given by the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind however a
closed formsolution of the Elliptical Integral is not known. The current solution methods are numerical
approximation, based on series expansions of the Elliptical Integral is well developed. This paper
introduces a Geometric Method (procedure) to approximate the Arc length of any given Arc segment
within a quadrant Arc of the ellipse. An analytical procedure of the defined geometric method is detailed.
For a circular Arc the Arc length of the Circular Segment is given through Angular relations. However
such formulae for the Arc length of the Ellipse, derived using known trigonometric Identities is not
known. The Paper translates the defined geometric procedure to analytical method using the known
trigonometric identities. This method thus gives a method to approximate the Incomplete Elliptical
Integral of the Second Kind using trigonometric identities.
The proposal is based on a geometric discovery and the underlying intuitive reasons for the
approximation are as yet not developed. Thus an analytical research into the geometric approximation
shall result in the development of the general method and a refinement of the proposed method.
Introduction
Let us define the Ellipse in the Canonical Position (Major Axis aligned with the x- axis, and the Center at
the origin). Let the Major Axis length be 2a and Minor Axis length be 2b. The Semi Major Axis
(Major Radius) is then a and the Semi Minor Axis (Minor Radius) is then b
The equation of the Ellipse in parametric formis written as
x(t) = o cos(t)
y(t) = b sin(t)
The parameter t is called the eccentric anomaly and it is not the angle between the Radius and the X-
axis.
Intent
Our intent is to determine the Arc Length (L
e
) of the given Arc AB (Perimeter of the Elliptical Arc AB)
lying within a Quadrant Arc of the defined Ellipse.



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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Conjure
In order to determine the Arc Length of the Elliptical Arc we transformthe Elliptical Arc to a Circular
Arc such that the Circular Arc has the Same Arc length as that of the Elliptical Arc. Now to determine
this Circular Arc we first transformthe given elliptical Arc to another Elliptical Arc. For this we define a
transformation on the Ellipse. The transformation acts on a point and transformit to another point on the
ellipse (i.e. its image points). On the given Arc we apply the transformation to identify the image points
of the End points of the original Arc. This Image points are the end points of the Transformed Arc. The
Transformation is defined as
The transformation is such as to covert the parametric value (Eccentric Anomaly) of the Original
Point to the Radial Angle (Angle that the Radius at the point makes with the X- axis) of its Image
Point
Once the transformed Elliptical Arc is defined the Equivalent Circular Arc can be determined
The Equivalent Circular Arc will have a Radius equal to the Radius of the Ellipse having a negative
Slope as that of the Chord of the transformed Elliptical Arc and will subtend an angle equal to the
angle subtended by the transformed Elliptical Arc
Fromthe above conjure we can define a geometric procedure for determining the Arc length of the
Ellipse.
THE GEOMETRIC PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE ARC LENGTH
Procedure
Identify the coordinates of the End points A and B
Transformthe end points of the ellipse to two new points such that the parametric values of the
end points of the Arc are the Radial Angle of the two new points. Let the two new points be A
i

and B
i

Draw a Chord between the two new points obtained by the transformation .i.e. Chord A
i
B
i

Determine the Slope of this Chord A
i
B
i

Identify the Radius of the Ellipse R
c
having the negative slope as that of the Chord A
i
B
i

Identify the Angle Subtended by the two new transformed points A
i
and B
i
at the Center of
the Ellipse.
Draw a Circular Arc with this Radius R
c
Subtending an angle .
Determine the Arc length of this circular Arc using the Arc length formulae for the Circular Arc
This Arc length is equal to the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc

In the following Section an Analytical Method is detailed giving the Analytical application of the
Geometric Procedure.



4
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
ANALYTICAL PROCEDURE AND FORMULA
Review
Given a point on the Ellipse, let the parametric value of the point be t
i
and the Radial angle (the angle
that the Radius of the Ellipse (at the point) makes with the x- axis), be t. Then the Relation between the
parametric value t
i
and the Radial Angle t is given as
tan(t

)=[
u
b
.tan(t)
Reference: Appendix B

Identify the coordinates of the End points
Let us consider an Arc formed by two points A and B lying in the first Quadrant. Let the Coordinates
of the point A be (x
1
,y
1
) and that of B be (x
2
,y
2
). Let the Point A have the parametric value t
1
the
Point B have the parametric value t
2
then the coordinates values of A and B are

x
1
= a Cos (t
1
), y
1
= b Sin (t
1
)
&


x
2
= a Cos (t
2
), y
2
= b Sin (t
2
)

Determine the Image points of the End points by applying the transformation
Given the Arc AB having end points A and B, we identify the Image points A
i
and B
i
of A and B
respectively. The Coordinate Values (x
1
,y
1
) & (x
2
,y
2
) for A & B, is transformed to, (x
1i
,y
1i
) & (x
2i
,y
2i
)
for A
i
& B
i
respectively, and the parametric value t
1
for A is transformed to parameter t
1i
for A
i

and the parametric value t
2
for B is transformed to parameter t
2i
for B
i


Fromthe definition of transformation, the Transformation is mathematically given as
For point A: (x
1
,y
1
) to A
i
: (x
1i
,y
1i
)
tan(t
1
)=[
u
b
.tan(t
1
)
t
1i
=

tan
-1
[[
o
b
.tan(t
1
)]

For point B: (x
2
,y
2
) to B
i
: (x
2i
,y
2i
)
tan(t
2
)=[
u
b
.tan(t
2
)
t
2i
=

tan
-1
[[
o
b
.tan(t
2
)]



5
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Coordinates of Image Points A
i
& B
i
are given as
A
i
: x
1i
= a Cos (t
1i
), y
1i
= b Sin (t
1i
)
B
i
: x
2i
= a Cos (t
2i
), y
2i
= b Sin (t
2i
)

The Original Arc AB

(Fig 1)
Transformation
The End Points of the Original Arc is transformed to two new points, A
i


&

B
i
shown below,


[Fig 2]
The image points of the Original Elliptical Arc gives two new points. This image points cuts a new Arc.
Thus we have a transformed Arc with End Points the A
i
and B
i
with Coordinates (x
1i
,y
1i
) and (x
2i
,y
2i
)
respectively.
(x
1i
, y
1i
)
(x
2i
, y
2i
)
t
2

t
1


B
i

A
i

(x
2
, y
2
)
(x
1
, y
1
)
A
B


6
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
We can now determine the Chord A
i
B
i

Determine the Slope of this Chord A
i
B
i

In order to determine the slope let us construct the Right Triangle A
i
B
i
C
i
show in [Fig 3a] & [Fig 3b]. The
differential length of the x & y coordinates of the two points A
i
and B
i
is the sides of the triangle
given as

B
i
C
i
=x
i
=[x
2i
x
1i
] = [o cos(t
2
) - o cos(t
1
)]
A
i
C
i
=y
i
=[y
2i
y
1i
] = [b sin(t
2
) - b sin(t
1
)]


Now the angle between side A
i
B
i
and B
i
C
i
can be determined since we have the length B
i
C
i
and A
i
C
i
.
Therefore we can determine the Subtended Angle , [i.e. Angle A
i
B
i
C
i
= ]
tan =
A

Ax



The Ellipse showing the construction of the triangle A
i
B
i
C
i
is shown in (Fig 3a)

(Fig 3a)


C
i

(x
1i
, y
1i
)
(x
2i
, y
2i
)
B
i

A
i



7
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)

A detailed drawing of the analysis of transformed arc is given in (Fig 3b)


(Fig 3b)


Determine the Radius of the Ellipse R
c
having the negative slope as that of the Chord A
i
B
i

With reference to the Conjure the Radius R
c
will have a Radial angle equal to (-). Since we have
already determined () we can determine the length of Radius R
c
as

R
c
=R(-) =
ub
[{b Cos (-)}
2
+{(a SIn (-)}
2
]


(Formulae to determine the Length of the Radius of the Ellipse given the Radial Angle )

(x
1i
, y
1i
)
(x
2i
, y
2i
)
B
i

A
i


C
i



8
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
The Radius R
c
of the Circular Arc (Fig 4)

(Fig 4)

Determine the Angle Subtended by the two new transformed points A
i
and B
i
at the Center
of the Ellipse
Let the Angle subtended by the end points of the transformed Arc A
i
B
i
at the center be , since the
Radial Angles of the points A
i
and B
i
are t
1
and t
2
respectively (Refer [Fig 2]), We can determine
as
=t
1
t
2

Define the Circular Arc L
c
with this Radius R
c
Subtending an angle

(Fig 5)
The Arc Length of the Circular Arc is L
c
is given as
L
c
= R
c
.

R
c

R
c


R
c

-
(x
c
, y
c
)
L
c


9
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)

Determine the Arc Length L
e
of the Elliptical Arc using the Arc length formulae for the Circular
Arc





Appendices
Appendix A: Ellipse in Canonical Position
Appendix B: Relation between the Radial Angle and Parametric Value (Eccentric Anomaly)
Appendix C: Sample Problem; Application of Method
Appendix D: Salient Features of the Method















Elliptical Arc Length (L
e
) R
c
.


10
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix A: Ellipse in Canonical Position
We define the Ellipse in the Canonical Position (Major Axis aligned with the x- axis and the Center at the
origin). Let the Major Axis Length be 2a and Minor Axis Length be 2b. The Semi Major Axis (Major
Radius) is then a and the Semi Minor Axis (Minor Radius) is then b. See [Fig 1]. Below


(Fig 1)
The equation of the Ellipse in parametric formis written as
x(t) = a Cos(t )
y(t) = b Sin(t )

The parameter t is called the eccentric anomaly and it is not the angle between the Radius and the X-
axis.








11
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix B: Relation between the Radial Angle and Parametric Value (Eccentric Anomaly)
Consider a point on the Ellipse in canonical position, given by the coordinates (x
i
, y
i
). The Semi
major and Semi minor axis lengths is a and b respectively. Let the point be parameterized by
the parametric Value t
i
. We can now define a relationship between the Radial Angle i.e. the
Angle that the radius of the Ellipse (at the given point) makes with the x- axis and the parametric
value t
i
. Let this radial angle be defined as t.
The relation between parametric value and Radial Angle (Fig 2)

(Fig 2)
The Coordinate values in terms of parametric value t
i
is
x
i
= a Cos (t
i
)
y
i
= b Sin (t
i
)
From (Fig 2), the Tangent of the Radial Angle is given as
tan(t) =

i
x
i

tan(t) =
b sIn(t
i
)
a cos(t
i
)

tan(t) =[
b
u
. (
sIn(t
i
)
cos(t
i
)
)
(x
i
, y
i
)
t
y
i

x
i


12
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
tan(t) =[
b
u
. tan(t

)
[
u
b
.tan(t) =tan(t

)

tan(t

)=[
u
b
.tan(t)



Definition: - Radial Angle: is the angle that the Radius at a given point makes with the x- axis

















t
i
=

tan
-1
[[
o
b
.tan(t)]


13
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix C: Sample Problem; Application of Method
Problem Description
It is required to calculate the Arc Length (L
e
) of an Elliptical Arc given the Coordinates of the End points
of the Arc. Let the End points be designated A & B and the Coordinates be (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
)
respectively. We are required to determine the Arc length.
The Semi Major Axis and Semi Minor Axis are a and b respectively. The Ellipse is aligned in the
Canonical Position i.e. center at origin and Major axis along the x- axis.
Solution
Step 1: Determine the parametric value of the end points of the given Arc
We can identify the parametric value for the End Points. Let the Parametric value be given as t
1
for
point A and t
2
for point B.
The parametric values are given as
x
1
=a Cos (t
1
)
Cos (t
1
) =
x
1
u

t
1
= us
-1
[
x
1
o
------------------------------------------(1)
x
2
=a Cos (t
2
)
Cos (t
2
) =
x
2
u

t
2
= us
-1
[
x
2
o
------------------------------------------(2)
Step 2: Determine the parametric value of the (Transformed) Image points of the given end points
As a next step we apply the transformation equations to the end points in order to determine the Image
points of the End points of Arc. The Image point for A is given as A
i
and for B is given as B
i
. The
parametric value t
1i
for A
i
and the parametric value t
2i
for B
i
can be determined
By applying the Relation between Radial Angle at a point and its parametric value
The transformation for Point A to A
i
is given as :
tan(t
1
)=[
u
b
.tan(t
1
)
t
1i
=

tan
-1
[[
o
b
.tan(t
1
)] ---------------------------------------(3)

14
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)

And for Point B to B
i
as
tan(t
2
)=[
u
b
.tan(t
2
)
t
2i
=

tan
-1
[[
o
b
.tan(t
2
)] --------------------------------------(4)
The Coordinate Values of the image points are given as
A
i
: x
1i
= a Cos (t
1i
), y
1i
= b Sin (t
1i
) ----------------------------------(5)
B
i
: x
2i
= a Cos (t
2i
), y
2i
= b Sin (t
2i
) ----------------------------------(6)

Step 3: Determine the Radial angle - of the Equivalent Circular radius
The Slope of the Chord A
i
B
i
be tan (), can be determined using the equation
tan() =
A

Ax


tan() =

2i
-
1i
x
2i
-x
1i
---------------------------------------(7)

=tan
-1
[
y
2i
y
1i
x
2i
x
1i
---------------------------------------(8)
The Radial angle for the equivalent Circular Arc is -

Step 4: Determine the parametric value t
c
for the point of the ellipse at which the Radius of equivalent
Circular Arc will occur, fromthe Radial Angle - as

Form1
tan(t
c
) =[
u
b
.tan() =(-1). [
u
b
.tan()
t
c
=tan
-1
[(1).[
o
b
.tan()] -------------------------------(9)
Refer: Appendix B


15
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Form2
Substituting for tan () fromEquation (7) in Equation (9) we get
t
c
=tan
-1
[(1).[
o
b
.[
y
2i
y
1i
x
2i
x
1i
] -------------------------(10)
Form3
Substituting for (x
2i
, x
1i
, y
2i
,y
1i
) fromequation (5) and (6) in equation (10)
t
c
=tan
-1
[(1).[
u
b
.[
b sIn(t
2i
)-bsIn(t
1i
)
ucos(t
2i
)-ucos(t
2i
)
]
t
c
=tan
-1
[(1).[
u
b
.[
b{sIn(t
2i
)-sIn(t
1i
)}
u{cos(t
2i
)-cos(t
2i
)}
]
t
c
=tan
-1
[(1).[
u
b
.[
b
u
.[
{sIn(t
2i
)-sIn(t
1i
)}
{cos(t
2i
)-cos(t
2i
)}
]
t
c
=tan
-1
[(1).[
sIn(t
2i
)-sIn(t
1i
)
cos(t
2i
)-cos(t
2i
)
] -----------------------------(11)

Step 5: Determine the Coordinate Values (x
c
, y
c
) of point on the ellipse at which the Radius of the
Equivalent Circular Arc will be, using the parametric value t
c
.
x
c
= a Cos( t
c
) --------------------------------------(12)

y
c
= b Sin( t
c
) -------------------------------------(13)

Step 6: Determine the Length of the Radius of the Equivalent Circular Arc R
c
as

Form1: Using Coordinate Values (x
c
, y
c
)

R
c
=x
c
2
+y
c
2
-----------------------------------(14)
Substituting fromequation (12) & (13)
R
c
=o
2
cos(t
c
)
2
+ b
2
sin(t
c
)
2
----------------------------------(15)


16
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Form2: Using the Radial angle - the radius R
c
can be determined as
R
c
=R() =
ub
[{b Cos (-)}
2
+{(a SIn (-)}
2
]
--------------------(16)

Step 7: Determine the Subtended angle of the Equivalent Circular Arc
The subtended angle is the Angle subtended by the image points A
i
& B
i
at the center of the Ellipse
and is given as
=t
1
t
2
----------------------------------------(17)

Step 8: Determine Arc Length L
e
of the given Elliptical Arc as


















Elliptical Arc Length (L
e
) R
c
.


17
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix D: Salient Features of the Method
Suppose the major and minor axis lengths are made equal the Ellipse reduces to a circle. Now if
the Arc length is determine using the Method the Result Match with Arc length for the Circular
Arc
When the Limits are applied to cover one Quadrant Arc and we Scale it four times we get the
Circumference of the Ellipse. This Circumference matches with the Circumference obtained with
Euler Method
An analysis of the Output fromthe Formulae with a Numerical Approach gave the following
Noticeable features
The Error between the Numerical Output and the Result fromthe formulae is Equal to the
Error with the Euler Formulae
However when an Arc length smaller than the Quadrant Arc is considered the Error is
always less than the Error for the Complete Quadrant Arc. However the distribution of
error is not uniform.
The Error in comparison with the Numerical Result is more when the Arc considered is
near to the End point of the Major Axis
Note: Explanation: The Error with numerical method is more for Arcs nearer to the Major
Axis Quadrant point. This is because the Numerical method considers differential straight
lines. Since the Curvature varies more towards the end point of the Ellipse the numerical
Accuracy is bound to reduce when this numerical method is applied to Arcs nearer to the
Major Axis Quadrant point.
When an Arc nearer to the Minor Axis Quadrant point is considered then the Numerical
Error is bound to be less. The Formulae Result Matched closely with the Numerical
Result for Arc Segment in this Region.

In case an Arc length is to be determines which crosses a Quadrant point we split the Arc to two arcs with
the Quadrant point as the separation point. We can then sumthe two arcs to obtain the Complete Arc
length.










18
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -2
CLOSED FORM APPROXIMATION TO THE ELLIPTICAL INTEGRAL OF SECOND KIND
(TRANSFORMATION METHOD)
Abstract
Elliptic Integrals are a class of Integrals which arose with the problem of giving the Arc length of the
Ellipse. Modern mathematics generalizes the Elliptic Integral to a general class of Integral functions. In
general elliptic Integrals cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions.
The Elliptical Integral arises in mathematical modeling of many physical situations. Examples of physical
problems modeled by the class of elliptical Integrals include period of a simple pendulum, Deflection of
thin elastic bar etc.
The formof the Elliptical Integral which gives the Arc length of an Elliptical Arc segment is known as
the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind. Applying the limits so as to cover the Arc Segment
of one complete quadrant of the Ellipse gives the complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind.

Introduction
The Incomplete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind, gives the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc. Hence a
geometric method to determine the Arc length shall give a method to obtain a closed formapproximation
of the Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind. This paper presents a closed formapproximation to the
Elliptical Integral of the Second kind using a newly discovered geometric intuition to approximate the
Arc Length of an Elliptical Arc segment within a Quadrant Arc of the Ellipse.
Closed Form Approximation to the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind
A brief description of the geometric intuition as well as application of the intuition used to arrive at the
closed formsolution to the Integral is detailed below
The Geometric Intuition
Given an Elliptical Arc segment within a quadrant Arc of an Ellipse we can define a Circular Arc having
the same Arc length as that of the Elliptical Arc. This circular Arc will have the following parameters.
The Angle of the Circular Arc will be equal to the difference in the Eccentric anomaly of the End points
of the given Elliptical Arc. The Radius of this Circular Arc will be the Radius of the Ellipse which has a
negative slope as that of the Chord of the Ellipse whose end points have the their Radial Angles equal to
the eccentric anomaly of the end points of the given Arc segments. The Radial angle at a point is the
angle that the Radius of the Ellipse at that point makes with the x-axis. The circumference of the Circular
Arc can then be determined using the standard formulae for the Arc length of the Circular Arc. This will
give the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc.



19
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind
The Elliptical Integral giving the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc segment in trigonometric formis given
as
L
e
= b [1c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt
Where e is the Eccentricity of the Ellipse, the current known solution to the integral is through
numerical Integration. A method to approximate a closed formsolution to this integral using the
geometric intuition is detailed below.
Approximation to the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind
From the Geometric Method determining the Arc Length, we can approximate the incomplete
Elliptical Integral as well as the Complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind. In our Method
of determining the Arc Length we approximate the Elliptical Arc to an equivalent Circular Arc.
Let the Elliptical Arc length be represented L
e
and the Circular Arc length be L
c

L
e
L
c

L
e
= b (1 c
2
sin(t)
2
t
1
t
2
Jt R()Jt
t
1
t
2
=L
c


L
c
= R()Jt
t
1
t
2
= R()
Jt
t
1
t
2
= R() (t
1
t
2
)

Let
(t
1
t
2
) = 0

Then
R()
Jt
t
1
t
2
= R().0
b (1 c
2
sin(t)
2
t
1
t
2
Jt R()Jt
t
1
t
2
=R().0

Result


b [1 c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt R().0

20
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Analyzing the geometric intuition the Radius, R () is given as
R() =
ub
[{b Cos (-)}
2
+{(a SIn (-)}
2
]

Where is given as
=tan
-1
[
y
2i
y
1i
x
2i
x
1i

Where x
1i,
y
1i,
x
2i,
& y
2i
is given as
x
1i
= a Cos (t
1i
), y
1i
= b Sin (t
1i
)
x
2i
= a Cos (t
2i
), y
2i
= b Sin (t
2i
)
Where t
1i,
& t
2i
is given as
t
1i
=

tan
-1
[[
o
b
.tan(t
1
)]

t
2i
=

tan
-1
[[
o
b
.tan(t
2
)]

And is given as
=t
1
t
2

Where t
1
& t
2
are the limits of the incomplete, Elliptical Integral of Second kind

Conclusion and Future Prospects
Developing an analytical theory to explain the geometric result can be a precursor to developing a method
of solving the Elliptical Integrals.
Appendices
Appendix-A: Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind, derived as the Arc Length of Ellipse
Appendix-B: Complete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind from the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of
Second Kind





21
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix-A: Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind, derived as the Arc Length of Ellipse
The Arc Length of any Arc can be given by taking the Integral of the differential length. Let the Elliptical
arc length be represented as (L
e
). Let the Differential length of the elliptical arc be given as dl The
Elliptical Arc length is given by the integral
L
e
= Jl
Now dl = (Jx)
2
+(Jy)
2

L
e
= (Jx)
2
+(Jy)
2
---------------------------------------(1)
Consider the ellipse with the Semi Major Axis and Semi Minor Axis, a and b respectively. The Ellipse
is aligned in the Canonical Position i.e. Center at Origin and Major axis along the x- axis.
The Equation of the Ellipse in Parametric formis
x (t) = a Cos (t)
y (t) = b Sin (t)
The Parameter t is the eccentric anomaly of the ellipse
Differentiating, x (t) with respect to t we get
dx
dt
= o sin(t)
Jx = o sin(t) Jt ----------------------------------------(2)
Differentiating, y (t) with respect to t we get
d
dt
= b cos(t)
Jy = b cos(t) Jt ----------------------------------------(3)

Supposed we want to determine the Arc length between two points A & B on the Ellipse. Let the
Parametric value for the points A be t
1
and the parametric value for the points B be t
2
.Now
substituting equation (2) & (3) in the Integral Equation (1) and applying the parametric values of the end
point of the Arc as the limits of the Integral will give the Integral equation for the Arc length of the
Elliptical Arc AB
Substituting Equation (2) and (3) in Equation (1)
L
e
= {o
2
sin(t)
2
Jt
2
+ b
2
cos(t)
2
Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= {o
2
sin(t)
2
+ b
2
cos(t)
2
}Jt
2
t
1
t
2
------------------------------------(4)

22
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Consider the trigonometric identity
cos(t)
2
=1 sin(t)
2

Substituting the Trigonometric identity in Equation (4) and Analyzing
L
e
=
_
{o
2
sin(t)
2
+ b
2
(1sin(t)
2
)}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= {o
2
sin(t)
2
+ b
2
b
2
sin(t)
2
)}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= {b
2
+(o
2
sin(t)
2
b
2
sin(t)
2
)}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_
{b
2
+(o
2
b
2
) sin(t)
2
}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_
{b
2
(b
2
o
2
) sin(t)
2
}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_[b
2
b
2
{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}]Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_b
2
(1 [{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}])Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= b _(1[{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}])Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=b
_(1[{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}])Jt
2
t
1
t
2
-------------------------------(5)

Eccentricity of the ellipse commonly denoted e is given as
c =
_
(o
2
b
2
)
o
2
=
_
1
b
2
o
2

c
2
=
(o
2
b
2
)
o
2
={1
b
2
o
2
}

Substituting in the eccentric anomaly e in Equation (5) we get
L
e
= b [1c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt -----------------------------(6)
This equation is known as the in complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind

23
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix-B: Complete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind from the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of
Second Kind
If we consider one Quadrant Arc of the Ellipse, the arc length is obtained by applying the limits
t
2
=0 and t
1
=
n
2
we get the Complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind as
L
e
= b (1c
2
sin(t)
2
n
2
0
Jt ----------------------------(7)
Once we have the Elliptical Arc length of the Quadrant Arc we can determine the Circumference as the
Quadrants are symmetric.





















24
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -3
PERIMETER OF THE ELLIPTICAL ARC (ARC LENGTH) A GEOMETRIC METHOD
(METHOD OF CHORD LENGTH)
Abstract
There are well known formulas approximating the circumference of the Ellipse given in different periods
in history. However there lacks a formula to calculate the Arc length of a given Arc segment of an
Ellipse. The Arc length of the Elliptical Arc is presently given by the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of the
Second Kind, however a closed formsolution of the Elliptical Integral is not known. The current solution
methods are numerical approximation methods, based on series expansions of the Elliptical Integral. This
paper introduces a Geometric Method (procedure) to approximate the Arc length of any given Arc
segment of the ellipse based on the Chord Length. An analytical procedure of the defined geometric
method is detailed.
For a circular Arc the Arc length of the Circular Segment is given through Angular relations. However a
similar formula for the Arc length of the Ellipse, using known trigonometric Identities is not known. The
Paper translates the defined geometric procedure to analytical, algebraic method using the known
trigonometric identities. This method thus gives a method to estimate the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of
the Second Kind using trigonometric identities.
The formulae for circular Arc can be considered to be based on the intuitive reasoning Equal Arcs Cuts
Equal Angles at the center for a Circle. This paper presents a similar intuitive logic for the Elliptical
Arc. The proposal is based on a geometric discovery based on intuitive reasoning and the algebraic theory
explaining the intuitive logic is as such not yet developed. An analytical research into the intuitive logic
behind the geometric approximation shall result in the development of the general theory and an
analytical, algebraic proof of the proposed method.
Introduction
Let us define the Ellipse in the Canonical Position (Major Axis aligned with the x- axis, and the Center at
the origin). Let the Major Axis length be 2a and Minor Axis length be 2b. The Semi Major Axis
(Major Radius) is then a and the Semi Minor Axis (Minor Radius) is then b.
The equation of the Ellipse in parametric formis given as
x(t) = o cos(t)
y(t) = b sin(t)
The parameter t is called the eccentric anomaly and it is not the angle between the Radius and the x-
axis.
Intent
Our intent is to determine the Arc length (L
e
) of the given Elliptical Arc Segment AB (Perimeter of the
Elliptical Arc AB).

25
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
The Conjure
In order to determine the Arc Length of the Elliptical Arc we transformthe Elliptical Arc to a Circular
Arc such that the Circular Arc has the Same Arc length as that of the Elliptical Arc. The following
Conjure defines this Equivalent Circular Arc.
The Equivalent Circular Arc having the same Arc length as that of a given Elliptical Arc, will have a
Chord length equal to the Chord length of the given Elliptical Arc and it (Circular Arc) will subtend an
angle at the center whose value in radians is equal to the difference in the Eccentric anomalies of the
end points of the given Elliptical Arc
Fromthe above conjure we can define a geometric procedure for determining the Arc length of the
Ellipse.

The Geometric Procedure for Determining the Arc Length
Procedure
Identify the coordinates of the End points A and B of the given Elliptical Arc Segment
Draw a Chord between the two End points A & B of the Elliptical Arc segment .i.e. Chord
AB
Determine the length of this Chord AB
Determine the eccentric anomalies (Parametric Values) of the End points A and B of the given
Elliptical Arc Segment
Determine the difference between the Eccentric Anomaly Values as angle in Radians.
Construct a Circular Arc whose Chord length is equal to the Chord length AB of the given
Elliptical Arc and Subtending an angle equal to the difference between the Eccentric Anomaly
Values of the end points of the Elliptical Arc. Now for constructing this Circular Arc the length of
radius of the Circular Arc can be determined by the following procedure
o Construct an isosceles triangle whose base length is equal to the length of the Chord of
the Elliptical arc, and the Angle opposite to the base is . The two equal angles are
then[
n-0
2
. (All angles in Radians)
o Determine the length of the Equal Side of this Isosceles triangle, and Radius of the
Circular Arc is equal to this length of the equal side of the Isosceles triangle
The Arc length of this Circular Arc is equal to the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc.

In the following Section an Analytical Method is detailed giving the Analytical application of the
Geometric Procedure.




26
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Analytical Procedure and Formula
Identify the coordinates of the End points
Let us consider an Arc formed by two points A and B lying in the first Quadrant. Let the Coordinates
of the point A be (x
1
,y
1
) and that of B be (x
2
,y
2
). Let the Point A have the parametric value t
1
and
Point B have the parametric value t
2
, then the coordinates values of A and B are

x
1
= a Cos (t
1
), y
1
= b Sin (t
1
)
&


x
2
= a Cos (t
2
), y
2
= b Sin (t
2
)

The Elliptical Arc AB

(Fig 1)

Chord Length AB can be determined by constructing the Right triangle ABC. The chord AB forms the
hypotenuse of the Right triangle ABC. Side AC is given by the differential x-coordinate length, and
Side BC is given by the differential y-coordinate lengths, of the End points A: (x
1
, y
1
) & B: (x
2
, y
2
)
of the given Elliptical Arc
AC =x =x
2
- x
1

BC =y =y
2
- y
1
h = AB = (x)
2
+(y)
2


(x
2
, y
2
)
(x
1
, y
1
)
A
B
C

27
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Equivalent Circular Arc
The Equivalent Circular Arc will have a Chord length equal to AB. Now for a Circular Arc the Radius
will always be same. Hence a Chord of the Circular Arc always cut an Isosceles Triangle with the two
equal sides, equal to the Radius.
Determining the Subtended Angle at the Center of the Circular Arc
Formour Conjure the Equivalent Circular Arc will cut an angle equal to the difference between the
parametric values of the End points of the Circular Arc. Let this Angle be .
Then is calculated as
= t
1
t
2

Determining the Radius of the Circular Arc
In order to determine the Radius of the Circular Arc we now define the isosceles triangle formed by the
two radiuses of the Circular Arc and the Chord of the Circular Arc.
Fromthe Conjure, the Circular Arcs Chord length is the same as that of the Elliptical Arc. Hence we
know the base length h of the Isosceles Triangle as length of AB. Also we know the angle opposite to
the base of the Isosceles triangle as fromthe Conjure.
We can now algebraically determine the length of the Side of the Isosceles triangle denoted R
c
which
will be equal to the Radius of the Circular Arc using the formulae
R
c
=
h
2stn[
0
2



Where h is the Chord length and is the subtended angle opposite to the base.
For derivation; Reference: Appendix A

Determine the Arc length
We now have the Radius and Subtended angle of the Circular Arc. We can now define the Circular Arc

(Fig 2)

h
R
c

R
c


28
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Result
Once we have defined the Circular Arc whose Arc length is equal to the Elliptical Arc we can determine
the Elliptical Arc length L
e
using the Arc length formula for Circular Arc as

Elliptical Arc Length (L
e
) = Rc
.

Substituting for R
c
, we get the Equation in Single formas
Elltpttal Ar Length (L
e
) =_
h
2stn[
0
2

_ .0

Substituting for h and we get the formulae in terms of the coordinates of the End points of the
Elliptical Arc and the parametric values of the End points of the Elliptical Arc as
Elltpttal Ar Length (L
e
) =_
(x
2
x
1
)
2
+(y
2
y
1
)
2
2 stn[
t
1
t
2
2

_ .{t
1
t
2
}

Conclusions
Thus we have a formula in standard trigonometric functions to determine the Arc length of given
Elliptical Arc segment.
Suppose the Major and Minor axis lengths are made equal the Ellipse reduces to a circle. In this case the
derived formula reduces to the standard Arc length formula for the Circular Arc.

Appendices
Appendix A: Determine the side of an Isosceles Triangle given the Angle opposite to the Base and
Base length
Appendix B: Sample Problem; Application of Method





29
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix A: Determine the Side of an Isosceles Triangle from the Angle opposite to the
Base and Base length
Consider the Isosceles triangle PQR. Let the Base length QR be given as h and the length of the equal
Sides PQ & PR be given as R
c
. Let the angle RPQ be given as . Then the equal angles PQR &
QRP are given as[
n-0
2
, (Since sumof the angles of a triangle is equal to ).



FromLaw of Sines we get
R
c
stn_
(a 0)
2
_
=
R
c
stn_
(a 0)
2
_
=
h
stn0
(1)

FromEquation (1) Consider the Identity
R
c
stn_
(a 0)
2
_
=
h
stn0
(2)

R
c
R
c

h

_
a 0
2
] _
a 0
2
]
P
Q
R

30
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Let us analyze
stn_
(a 0)
2
_ =stn_
a
2

0
2
] (3)

Consider the trigonometric identity
stn[
a
2
A =us A
(The Angle A is in Radians)

Applying the identity to Equation (3) we get
stn_
(a 0)
2
_ =us
0
2
(4)


Substituting result (4) in Equation (2) we get
R
c
us
0
2
=
h
stn0
(5)

We know fromthe Double Angle Formulae
stn2A =2stnAus A

Applying this to stn0
stn0 = stn_2_
0
2
]_
stn_2_
0
2
]_ =2 stn
0
2
us
0
2
()




31
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Substituting result (6) in Equation (5) we get
R
c
us
0
2
=
h
2stn
0
2
us
0
2


R
c
= _
[hus
0
2

[2stn
0
2
us
0
2

_ (7)

Result
R
c
=
h
[2stn
0
2



















32
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix B: Sample Problem; Application of Method
Problem Description
It is required to calculate the Arc Length (L
e
) of an Elliptical Arc given the Coordinates of the End points
of the Arc. Let the End points be designated A & B and the Coordinates be (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
)
respectively. We are required to determine the Arc length.
The Semi Major Axis and Semi Minor Axis are a and b respectively. The Ellipse is aligned in the
Canonical Position i.e. center at origin and Major axis along the x- axis.
Solution
Step 1: Determine the parametric value of the end points of the given Arc
Let the Parametric value (Eccentric Anomaly) be given as t
1
for point A: (x
1
, y
1
) and t
2
for point B:
(x
2
, y
2
).
The parametric values are then determined as
x
1
=o cos(t
1
)
cos(t
1
) =
x
1
o

t
1
= us
-1
[
x
1
o
------------------------------------------(1)

x
2
=o cos(t
2
)
cos(t
2
) =
x
2
o

t
2
= us
-1
[
x
2
o
------------------------------------------(2)

Step 2: Determine the Subtended angle of the Equivalent Circular Arc
The subtended angle has a value in radians equal to the difference between the parametric values
(Eccentric Anomalies) of the End points of the Given Arc, i.e. t
1
for Point A & t
2
for Point B The
value of in Radians is determined as

=t
1
t
2



33
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Step 3: Verify the y coordinate values of the end points A & B of the Elliptical Arc as
y
1
=b sint
1

y
2
=b sint
2

Step 4: Determine Length of the Chord of the Equivalent Circular Arc h
The Chord of the Equivalent Circular Arc will have the same Arc length as that of the Chord of the
Elliptical Arc. Since they have the same length let us denote the Chord of the Elliptical Arc also as h.
The length h is then given as
= x
2
+y
2

= (x
2
x
1
)
2
+(y
2
y
1
)
2


Step 5: Determine Radius of the Equivalent Circular Arc R
c
as
R
c
=
h
[2stn
0
2



Step 6: Determine Arc Length of the given Arc Elliptical Arc L
e
as













Elliptical Arc Length (L
e
) R
c
.


34
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -4
CLOSED FORM APPROXIMATION TO THE ELLIPTICAL INTEGRAL OF SECOND KIND
METHOD OF CHORD LENGTH
Abstract
Elliptic Integrals are a class of Integrals which arose with the problem of giving the Arc length of the
Ellipse. Modern mathematics generalizes the Elliptic Integral to a general class of Integral functions. In
general elliptic Integrals cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions.
The Elliptical Integral arises in mathematical modeling of many physical situations. Examples of physical
problems modeled by the class of elliptical Integrals include period of a simple pendulum, deflection of
thin elastic bar etc.
The formof the Elliptical Integral which gives the Arc length of an Elliptical Arc segment is known as
the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind. Applying the limits so as to cover the Arc Segment
of one complete quadrant of the Ellipse gives the complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind.
Introduction
The Incomplete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind, gives the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc. Hence a
geometric method and formula to determine the Arc length shall give a method to obtain a closed form
approximation of the Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind. This paper presents a closed form
approximation to the Elliptical Integral of the Second kind using a newly discovered geometric method
based on intuition to estimate the Arc length of an Elliptical Arc segment.

Closed Form Approximation to the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind
A brief description of the geometric intuition as well as application of the intuition used to arrive at the
closed formsolution to the Integral is detailed below

The Geometric Intuition
Given an Elliptical Arc segment of an Ellipse we can define a Circular Arc having the same Arc length as
that of the Elliptical Arc. This circular Arc will have the following parameters. The Angle of the Circular
Arc in Radians will be equal to the difference in the Eccentric anomaly values of the end points of the
given Elliptical Arc. The Circular Arc will have a chord length equal to the chord length of the Elliptical
Arc. Thus we now know the Chord length and the Angle subtended at the center of the Equivalent
Circular Arc. Fromthese parameters we can derive the Arc length of the Circular Arc which will be equal
to the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc.



35
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind
The Elliptical Integral giving the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc segment in trigonometric formis given
as
L
e
= b [1c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt
Where e is the Eccentricity of the Ellipse, the current known solution to the integral is through
numerical Integration. A method to estimate a closed formsolution to this integral using the geometric
intuition is detailed below.
Estimating the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind from the Geometric Intuition
From the Geometric method determining the Arc Length, we can estimate the incomplete
Elliptical Integral as well as the Complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind. In our method
of determining the Arc Length we transform the Elliptical Arc to an equivalent Circular Arc with
the same Arc length. Let the Elliptical Arc length be represented L
e
and the Circular Arc length
be L
c

L
e
L
c
L
e
= b (1 c
2
sin(t)
2
t
1
t
2
Jt R(t)Jt
t
1
t
2
=L
c

L
c
= R(t)Jt
t
1
t
2
= R(t)
Jt
t
1
t
2
= R(t) (t
1
t
2
)

Then
b (1 c
2
sin(t)
2
t
1
t
2
Jt R(t)Jt
t
1
t
2
=R(t).(t
1
t
2
)

Result



Analyzing the geometric intuition the Radius, R (t) is given as
R(t) =_
(x
2
x
1
)
2
+(y
2
y
1
)
2
2 stn[
t
1
t
2
2

_
b [1 c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt R(t).(t
1
t
2
)

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)

Where x
1,
y
1,
x
2,
& y
2
is given as

x
1
= a Cos (t
1
), y
1
= b Sin (t
1
)
&


x
2
= a Cos (t
2
), y
2
= b Sin (t
2
)

Where a & b are Constants (i.e. semi-major and semi-minor axis of ellipse), and t
1
& t
2
are
the limits of the Incomplete, Elliptical Integral of Second kind.
Solution
The Closed formsolution in Single formis given as
b _ [1c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt = _
(a us t
2
a us t
1
)
2
+(h stn t
2
h stnt
1
)
2
2 stn [
t
1
t
2
2

_{t
1
t
2
}

b _ [1 c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt = _
a
2
(us t
2
us t
1
)
2
+h
2
(stn t
2
stn t
1
)
2
2 stn [
t
1
t
2
2

_ {t
1
t
2
}

Conclusion and Future Prospects
Developing an analytical, algebraic theory to explain the geometric result based on the geometric intuition
can be a precursor to developing a method of solving the Elliptical Integrals. The Method can be further
refined to encompass the whole class of functions defined as the Elliptic function. The geometric fact
certifies an analogy
Appendices
Appendix-A: Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind, derived as the Arc Length of Ellipse
Appendix-B: Complete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind from the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of
Second Kind




37
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix-A: Incomplete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind, derived as the Arc Length of Ellipse
The Arc Length of any Arc can be given by taking the Integral of the differential length. Let the Elliptical
arc length be represented as (L
e
). Let the Differential length of the elliptical arc be given as dl The
Elliptical Arc length is given by the integral
L
e
= Jl
Now dl = (Jx)
2
+(Jy)
2

L
e
= (Jx)
2
+(Jy)
2
---------------------------------------(1)
Consider the ellipse with the Semi Major Axis and Semi Minor Axis, a and b respectively. The Ellipse
is aligned in the Canonical Position i.e. Center at Origin and Major axis along the x- axis.
The Equation of the Ellipse in Parametric formis
x (t) = a Cos (t)
y (t) = b Sin (t)
The Parameter t is the eccentric anomaly of the ellipse
Differentiating, x (t) with respect to t we get
dx
dt
= o sin(t)
Jx = o sin(t) Jt ----------------------------------------(2)
Differentiating, y (t) with respect to t we get
d
dt
= b cos(t)
Jy = b cos(t) Jt ----------------------------------------(3)

Supposed we want to determine the Arc length between two points A & B on the Ellipse. Let the
Parametric value for the points A be t
1
and the parametric value for the points B be t
2
.Now
substituting equation (2) & (3) in the Integral Equation (1) and applying the parametric values of the end
point of the Arc as the limits of the Integral will give the Integral equation for the Arc length of the
Elliptical Arc AB
Substituting Equation (2) and (3) in Equation (1)
L
e
= {o
2
sin(t)
2
Jt
2
+ b
2
cos(t)
2
Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= {o
2
sin(t)
2
+ b
2
cos(t)
2
}Jt
2
t
1
t
2
------------------------------------(4)

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Consider the trigonometric identity
cos(t)
2
=1 sin(t)
2

Substituting the Trigonometric identity in Equation (4) and Analyzing
L
e
=
_
{o
2
sin(t)
2
+ b
2
(1sin(t)
2
)}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= {o
2
sin(t)
2
+ b
2
b
2
sin(t)
2
)}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= {b
2
+(o
2
sin(t)
2
b
2
sin(t)
2
)}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_
{b
2
+(o
2
b
2
) sin(t)
2
}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_
{b
2
(b
2
o
2
) sin(t)
2
}Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_[b
2
b
2
{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}]Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=
_b
2
(1 [{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}])Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
= b _(1[{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}])Jt
2
t
1
t
2

L
e
=b
_(1[{1
b
2
u
2
}{sin(t)
2
}])Jt
2
t
1
t
2
-------------------------------(5)

Eccentricity of the ellipse commonly denoted e is given as
c =
_
(o
2
b
2
)
o
2
=
_
1
b
2
o
2

c
2
=
(o
2
b
2
)
o
2
={1
b
2
o
2
}

Substituting in the eccentric anomaly e in Equation (5) we get
L
e
= b [1c
2
sin(t)
2
]
t
1
t
2
Jt -----------------------------(6)
This equation is known as the in complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Appendix-B: Complete Elliptical Integral of Second Kind from the Incomplete Elliptical Integral of
Second Kind
If we consider one Quadrant Arc of the Ellipse, the arc length is obtained by applying the limits
t
2
=0 and t
1
=
n
2
we get the Complete Elliptical Integral of the Second Kind as
L
e
= b [1c
2
sin(t)
2
]
n
2
0
Jt ----------------------------(7)
Once we have the Elliptical Arc length of the Quadrant Arc we can determine the Circumference as the
Quadrants are symmetric.





















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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -5
A REVIEW OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

Analysis Preceding Differential Equations
We start our mathematics with algebra. Taking a geometric representation view of algebra we
have studied functions, the geometric representation of functions in 2D, 3D space or in higher
dimensions. We have seen that the functions can represent a curve in 2D or 3D and a Surface
in 3D. We also developed the vector functions as a equivalent form of Cartesian system to
easily represent a function or a surface or shape.
Before we analyze functions we define spaces and meaning of functions. We have three spaces
we can define geometrically, the (One Dimensional) 1D Space, (Two Dimensional) 2D Space
& (Three Dimensional) 3D Space. The 1D Space is geometrically represented as a number line
(x-axis), the 2D Space is geometrically represented as an infinite Straight Plane (represented x-
y plane using x & y axis). The 3D Space is geometrically represented as an infinite Straight
Volume (represented x-y-z Euclidean space using x, y & z axis). In each of the Spaces are
defined as a collection of points and by defining the space we mean that we can mathematically
define each point by defining the coordinate. A point in the 1D plane is defined by defining the
coordinate value in the number line. A point in the 2D space is defined by defining the (x, y)
coordinates on the x-y-axiss and any point in the 3D space is defined by defining the three
coordinates the (x, y, z) on the x-y-z- axis.
We explained previously that a geometric object can be defined on a space. However for any
given space the geometric object that can be defined on the space will start with objects of one
dimension less. This means if we have an n-dimensional space. We can define geometric
objects having dimensions [(n-1), (n-2) ----, 0] in this space. Thus in a 3D Space we can define
a 2D object (surface), a 1D object (Curve), a 0D object the point. Similarly in a 2D Space we
can define a 1D object (Curve), a 0D object the point etc.
Now that we have defined spaces as points we can see how we can attribute properties to these
spaces. We can add properties to these spaces through functions. By saying that we add
properties to this space we mean that we attribute properties to each point on the space. The
property added to a point in the space can be of two forms. The property assigns only a scalar
value to the point. The property assigned to the point adds a scalar value to a point in a
particular direction that is we assign a vector value to a point on the space. This is achieved by
defining a function on the space, for the former case we use a scalar function and for the latter
we use a vector function.
A physical application of the above mathematical concept is consider a flat rectangular metal
plate. We can define this rectangular Plate as a 2D space by defining the edges as the
coordinate axis. With the coordinates we can define any point on the plate geometrically by
defining the coordinate of the point in the reference axis. Now we have used the concept of
space to define each point on the plate uniquely. Now we attribute property to teach of the

41
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
point. Let us consider the property of Temperature at each point on the plate. If one end of the
plate is heated the temperature will vary from point to point as the plate is not heated
uniformly. The temperature is a scalar value. Now a scalar function can be defined in the form
f(x, y) such that you plug in the values of the geometric coordinates of a point in the plate into
the function f and we get the temperature at that point as the output. Similarly we can define
another physical property at each point as a quantity defining the direction of maximum rate of
change of temperature and the magnitude of this rate of change. This physical property can be
defined using a vector, where the assigned vector gives the direction and magnitude of
maximum rate of change of temperature. This is defined by a vector function of the form F(x,
y) which assigns a vector to any point defined by the geometric coordinates (x, y).
Defining a function on a space attributes values to each point in our geometric space. Such a
geometric space with a property attached to each point in the space is called a Field. If the
property is a scalar value then we have our space converted to a Scalar field and if the property
attached to each point is a vector then we have a vector field. When such a property is attached
to our space it is no more a simple geometric space but a Field. Now we go to visualizing a
Field in a geometric sense.
A scalar filed in particular dimensional space can be seen as a geometric object of the same
dimension in the next higher dimension. That is if we have a scalar field defined as function in
an n-dimensional space, then this can be visualized as an n-dimensional geometric object in
(n+1) dimensional space. Example a scalar field defined on a one dimensional number line
can be defined as 1D Curve on a 2D space. The curve is a geometric object. Similarly a scalar
field defined on a two dimensional x-y plane can be defined as 2D Surface (possibly Curved)
on a 3D space. Thus a 1variable function representing a curve in 2D space can be a scalar field
in a 1D space and similarly a 2variable function representing a surface in 3D space can be a
scalar field in a 2D space.
For a Vector function 2varaiable vector function is represented in 2D space itself and is
visualized by assigning arrows showing the vectors to each point in the 2D space. Similarly a
3varaiable vector function is represented in 3D space itself and is visualized by assigning
arrows showing the vectors to each point in the 3D space. Thus an n-variable vector function
assigns n-dimensional vectors to n- dimensional space.
We have seen the algebraic equations, the equations as functions and the meaning of functions
as scalar field or vector fields and also as geometric objects in space.
Next we went on to the manipulations of the functions. In this we studied Differentiation of the
functions. That is splitting a function into infinitely small parts. If our function represented a
curve then our differentiation split our curve into infinitely small elements (for this we define
tangents to the curve or tangent planes if it is a surface). Thus if our curve was not straight the
infinitely small elements can be approximated to be straight. We then analyzed the Integration
that is adding together of these infinitely small elements. These methods helped us to analyze
and arrive at certain Qualities or factors of these functions that we studied such as the length of
the curve or, The Area of Surface, Volume of a closed region (bounded by a surface) etc.

42
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
We developed two forms of representation of functions the analytical model that is using
algebraic functions and then the vector model where Vector functions where used to represent
points curves figures etc.
We even went on to study vector fields where we defined vectors functions and then
Differentiated and integrated them. The differentiation and integration allowed us to arrive at
quantities of the function which cannot be found by other means Such as area of a given
surface or Volume of a surface.
In vector cases also we can differentiate and integrate vector fields using Del Operators.
However in all the studies we had a function which we defined on a 2D or 3D space and then
study the properties of the functions.
Geometrically we define objects such as Points, Curves, Surfaces etc. then we use the tools to
study and arrive at the properties of theses geometric objects. In order to study the properties of
the geometric object we define the object as algebraic functions and use Calculus
(differentiation (Differentiation for 2D and Partial Differentiation for 3D) and integration
(Simple integration, Double Integration, Triple Integration depending on the dimension and
application). Alternatively we also define the objects in vector formand apply vector calculus.
In the Vector Space form we first defined another form of geometric objects called as vectors.
We then went on to define another form of Space called the Vector Space. This was our normal
2D or 3D Space but with vectors assigned to each point in the space. The geometric
representation of the space is still in the same form as using the coordinate axes to define each
point in the space with its coordinate values. However unlike the scalar field instead of scalar
values for the space we assigned vector to each point defined by the coordinates. Thus our
normal space with points was converted to a Vector Field. We then analyzed the properties of
this defined (the Space) Field again by doing Differentiation and Integration of vector spaces.
The differentiation of vector spaces was different from the differentiation of the functions as a
vector was differentiated. This was achieved using the Del Operator and we defined two
forms of differentiation of the Vector space as the Curl and Divergence. The Integration of
these spaces was achieved using the double and Triple Integrals as usually however we had a
vector derivative
d
-- as the differential for the integration. We also developed several theorems
to simply the Integration. The important theorems are the Greens Theorem, Stokes Theorem &
Gauss Divergence Theorem. (Stokes theorem applied to Differentiation as Curl and Divergence
applied for Differentiation as Divergence)
This is a note on the development in defining the geometric space and objects and studying the
properties of objects.
Differential Equations
With differential equation we have to do the opposite. We are given certain conditions instead
of functions. We need to define a space and a function in the space that will satisfy our
conditions. Thus if our Equation involves two variables only it is obvious that out function lies

43
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
in the 2D space. But the important thing is that we should have sufficient conditions to define a
geometric object in the space that will satisfy our conditions.
In our above discussion we had seen that a geometric object is represented by functions if our
space can be defined geometrically that is 1D, 2D or 3D.Hence the given some conditions the
solutions of differential equations are functions that satisfy the conditions. The Differential
Equations give conditions that not only the function but also the differentials of the function
should satisfy. The solutions are functions that satisfy the conditions specified. Now since we
have seen that functions can be represented geometrically as geometric objects. The solutions
of our differential equation can also be represented and visualized as geometric objects if it is
within the realmof the 3D space.
In the algebraic case we represented the function as s geometric object in the corresponding
geometric space. Then the coordinate values of the points of the geometric object gave the
coordinates of the algebraic function. In fact the algebraic function defines the conditions
satisfied by the geometric object in the space and correspondingly we define the geometric
object. However with the differential equation case we have seen that the differential equation
specifies the condition for the entire space and not just a geometric object. Hence the
conditions of the differential equation define the space itself which means every point in the
space and the coordinates of the space. The conditions defined by the differential equation to
each point in the space is geometrically represented as a vector field by assigning vectors to
every point in the geometric space with each vector satisfying the condition specified by the
differential equation at that point. (The condition specified by the differential equation i.e. the
derivative is the slope of the vector and hence the direction of the vector. The representation
vectors only represent the direction and is hence vector field is also called as slope field or
direction field)
We should also note that the solution depends in the conditions defined by the differential
equation. If we have sufficient conditions and the form in which we have the conditions we can
define solution of differential equations. The solutions depend on the conditions specified. For
a general differential equation we normally have a number of solutions that is a number of
functions satisfying the specified conditions. This means we can say that we can have more
than one geometric object that can be defined in a space that will satisfy the conditions
specified in the differential equation. Hence we have to have specific conditions with which we
can define a particular solution. That is if we are given only a differential equation we may
have a number of functions that can satisfy the condition of the differential equation and hence
we can plot a number of geometric objects that will satisfy the conditions specified in the
Differential Equation. However in order to identify a particular function or the geometric
object as the solution we should have additional conditions. Sometimes this is given as initial
value problem that is the additional conditions are initial values. Thus gives the start point of
the solution hence we have the particular function which is the solution we are looking for. In
the geometric sense the condition gives the start point of the geometric object. In another case
this gives the boundary conditions for the solution. This will allow us to fit a function that will
satisfy the conditions of our differential equation.

44
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
J ust as for algebraic function given a coordinate x the corresponding y value satisfying the
function can be determined by identifying the point on the geometric curve representing the
algebraic function having the given x coordinate. The y coordinates of this point is our
corresponding y value satisfying the function. Similarly if we plot the direction filed of a
given differential equation which is the geometric plot of our space satisfying the differential
equation we have a vector field. If we are given conditions then we can define the point on the
space satisfying the conditions. We start with the vectors satisfying the differential equation.
We take an infinitesimally small differential length. At the end point of this vector we have
another vector defined by the differential equation and at the end point of the second one
another new vector and so on. By connecting the vectors starting from the defined point we can
get a curve which is satisfying the differential equation subject to the condition. By making the
differential length infinitesimally small we can get a smooth curve which satisfy the condition
of the differential equation and is the solution of the differential equation for the given
conditions. This is analogous to identifying the y value satisfying a algebraic function for a
given x value by plotting the algebraic function as a curve and indentifying the point on the
curve have the x coordinate equal to the given x value. The corresponding y coordinate
value is our solution satisfying the algebraic function for the given x coordinate. The same is
done with differential equation. However the only difference is that the initial condition
represents a point on the space and the solution represents a curve instead of a value as was the
case with the algebraic equation.
Since the solution of our differential equations were curves (not values (y-coordinate value) as
was the case with algebraic equation) the solution of the differential when written algebraically
will be functions. (Since functions represent the curves geometrically)
Thus a differential equation gives us certain conditions and we have to fit functions satisfying it. These
functions formthe solutions of the differential equation. A number of physical situations are modeled as
differential equations. The solutions are functions satisfying the differential equations and hence for 2D
and 3D the solutions can be plotted as geometric objects.
Analyzing a Differential Equation in the Geometric frame
We can analyze a differential equation by representing the differential equation geometrically.
We did this for a normal equation by representing the equation as function in the x-y Cartesian
plane. However for the differential equation we do not represent the equation as a function
Instead the differential Equation is represented as a Vector field called the direction filed. The
solutions to the differential equation are then curves on this space. This is analogues to our
algebraic equation in that if an algebraic equation is represented as a curve (function) given an
x value the corresponding y value can be found by plotting the point on the curve
corresponding to x value and then finding the y coordinate of that point on the curve. For a
solution for the differential equation also we will do a same procedure only difference is that
given a point on the vector field representing the differential equation we first identify the vector
at the point and connecting the vectors we will plot the solution curve for the point. In the
algebraic case our solution was a Value the y- coordinate corresponding to the given x-

45
Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
coordinate. However in the vector case our solution is a curve (a function) corresponding to the
given initial conditions.
Representation of Differential Equation as Vector Field
We are familiar with representing a function as a curve in the x-y plane. An Algebraic equation
can be converted to a function form and represented as a curve geometrically. Now we will
explain how a differential equation is represented as a Vector field.
A geometric interpretation of the derivative is as the slope of a tangent. Now if we have a curve
representing a function the derivative of that function will give the slope of the tangent to the
curve. By substituting the point into the derivative function we can get the slope of the curve at
that point. Thus using the derivative we can define the tangent to the point on the curve with the
slope.
If we represent the curve as a vector function with the vector equation giving the position vector
for a unique point on the curve. The tangential vector can be given as a derivative of the vector
function. Thus the tangent vector at a point can be obtained by taking the derivative of the
position vector of the particular point.
Now as we discussed before the algebraic equation gives the condition for a geometric object
(curve) in a space i.e. defines the curve in the space e.g., a 1D curve in the 2D space.
Analogously a differential equation defines not a geometric object in the space but the entire
space itself. Hence we can define the tangent vectors from the derivative at each point in the
space.
We have also seen that the tangent vector is defined by the first derivative only. Hence if we
have a first order differential equation of the form
y =f(y, t)
This will not be a problem as we can define a y-t plane and plugging in value of y & t for
points on the plane we can get the corresponding slope values as y and with the slope values
plot the direction vectors at each point on the y-t space.
But what if our differential equation is of a higher order that is say a second order
equation of the form
y=f(y,y, t )
In this case y cannot be thought as the slope as it is only the first order equation which
form the slope of a differential equation. However in this case we can do some algebraic
substitutions. With these substitutions we can get the second order differential equation as a
system of two fist order equation with two unknown variables to be solved. Given sufficient
conditions we can define these two first order equations. Here since the solution to differential

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
equations is actually functions the unknowns of the system of differential equations are also
functions.
Now this system of differential equation can be written in matrix form. With this we get
matrix equations. In our analysis of Linear Algebra we know that a vector can be written as a
column matrix and operated by using Matrices. Writing this System of Differential Equation in
Matrix form will give us just this that is a Vector Equation with a Matrix as the Vector operator.
Thus our Second order differential equation is converted to a first order matrix
differential equation with a 2x2 matrix A as the operator. Thus if we input a vector
x
into the
equation the Operator A acts on
x
to give the derivative vector
x
.
As with our preceding discussion the derivative vector
x
represents a tangent vector.
Hence if we define a Space whose coordinates are the entries of vector
x
which is the
unknown functions of our system of equation that is the solution of our second order differential
equation, we can define a vector space where the vector this space is given by the derivative
vectors
x
that is the tangent vectors. Thus we get a tangent vector space. This is the geometric
representation of the Second order differential equation.
We can generalize this to any order differential equation with the dimensions of the vectors in the Vector
equation of the corresponding differential equation being equal to order of the differential equation. So if
we have a 3
rd
Order Differential equation we will have a system of 3 First Order Differential
Equations and the vector in the phase plot will be three dimensional vectors. Thus the Geometric
plot will be three dimensional vector fields.
Thus for an n
th
order Differential Equation the Vector field will be an n-dimensional
vector field curve or surface.

General Solution & Numerical Solution
We have seen that if given sufficient conditions to identify a point in the vector field then we
can identify a curve satisfying the differential equation by connecting vectors to get the
solution for the given conditions.
In some cases we will be able to identify an algebraic solution to the differential equation in the
form of a function. We then form the general solution to the differential equation in the form of
algebraic function. However there will still be some unknown terms in the general solution.
Once we have the general solution we will go forward for a particular solution. Given an initial
condition we will substitute into the general solution to identify the unknown constant. This
general solution then transforms into a particular solution identifying a single function.

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
The geometric meaning of the general solution is that if we plot the vector field of the
Differential equation that is the direction filed we have a general pattern for the solution curves
that is the curves formed by connecting vectors follow a general pattern. The Algebraic
function forming the general solution defines this pattern. Substituting values for the constant
terms in the general solution defines different curve. However since the function is the same
the patterns of the curves remains same. Giving the initial conditions defines a constant and
thus defines one of these curves. Thus by finding a general solution we define a general
function which will give a particular shaped curve. This curve can be translated to cover the
entire space. Thus we have infinite number of curve of specific pattern spanning the entire
space. Giving initial conditions defines a particular curve of the infinitely possible individual
curves in the space.
In many cases however we do not have algebraic methods developed to define a general
solution that is a general shape of the curve. It is perfectly possible as we know that if we make
arbitrary hand drawing of a curve in 2D space it is not necessary that we have function
representing the shape. Thus if we write a differential equation and we plot a curve by
connecting vectors then it is not necessary that we have a algebraic function representing the
figure we define. Thus it is perfectly normal not to have a general solution for a given
differential equation. In fact it more generally the rule and most of the differential equations do
not have a solution defined as an algebraic function.
However with the geometric method of plotting the direction field (vector field) of the
differential equation we can identify the solution for any given condition. First we plot the
direction field of the differential equation. We define the point in the direction field satisfying
the given initial condition. We then plot our solution curve from this initial point by connecting
vectors. Thus we can define the curve which is the solution to our differential equation for the
given conditions. This solution is geometric one and there may not be algebraic function
representation of our geometric curve. However we have the solution defined for the given
differential equation for the given condition. In this procedure we have to note that the
accuracy of our solution depends on how small we consider the direction vectors i.e. the
differential length of the direction vectors. Reducing the differential length increases the
accuracy, smaller the length more accurate. However when we plot geometrically we have a
limitation on how small we can get. Hence there is always an error associated with this
approach.
We have seen the geometric method of arriving at a solution. However it is tedious to
geometrically plot a differential equation. Also if our initial condition is define away from the
origin we may need to have an extremely large plot which will become impossible. In order to
avoid this and generate a geometric solution without having to generate a complete field plot
we have developed numerical method
Given a differential equation the geometric method identifies the point corresponding to the initial
conditions for the solution. It then defines a vector at the point satisfying the differential equation. This
vector is made infinitesimally small and then the next vector is defined thus by connecting lengths we
define the solution. The numerical method follows an iterative method to define the vector. As we

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
increase the number of iterations the smaller becomes the differential length and hence the accuracy
increase. However with the increase in iterations the computational time also correspondingly increases.
This represents a geometric meaning of the numerical solution of the differential equations also.
The classical numerical methods for first Ordinary (Single Variable) Differential Equations are the
Eulers Method, Midpoint Method & Runge Kutta Method etc.
However the solution curve obtained by the above methods is geometric one and we may not be able to
represent it algebraically. If we draw a smooth geometric curve in a plane it is not necessary that we are
able to write it as algebraic equation. In fact there are very few curves which can be written as an
algebraic equation. In this case also we will not get an algebraic solution to the curve. However we can
still use some curve fitting methods such as (Poissons distribution etc.) once we numerically plot our
geometric curve to obtain an algebraic representation of our geometric plot.

Partial Differential Equations
Partial differential equations just generalize this concept to higher dimensions. In partial differential
equations we can have more than one variable. If it is a two variable equation then we have our solution
in the 3D geometric space. The differential equation defines a 3D vector field. The solution is then a two
variable function that is a surface. Geometrically the solution of our differential equation forms a surface.
If we go for a graphical solution we can plot a surface. Now this is possible only with a computer
software program.
This is a more tedious process than the ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) where we plotted a
solution curve on a 2D direction field. Here our solution is a surface instead of a curve. Hence we will
define small surface elements and then connect themtogether to formour solution surface. This is
analogues to forming differential length vectors and connecting themtogether to formour solution curve
for ODEs.
If we go for a numerical approach we will have to define small surface elements instead of differential
lengths. These surface elements then connected together fromthe solution. This approach for partial
differential equations of two variables whose solution is defined as surface is called Finite Element
Analysis.
Now analogously for a three variable differential equation the solution is in the formof a geometric
volume. The geometric and corresponding Numerical approach is called as the Finite Volume Method.






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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -6
THE ANALOGY TABLE






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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -7
GEOMETRIC INTUITION FOR THE ELLIPTICAL ARC LENGTH
Geometric Intuition
The logic behind the geometric Intuition is based on the Transformation of triangles. For a circle the
Tangent to the circle at any point is always a right triangle. However for an Ellipse this is not the Case.
For an ellipse the tangential angle is always aligned at angle to the Radius. The angle between the tangent
and the Radius of the Ellipse is unique for each point on the Ellipse. Also for an ellipse the angle that the
tangent makes with the Radius keeps changing frompoint to point.
Thus if we consider a differential length on the Arc of an Ellipse we have an Acute angle triangle
whereas for a Circle it is always a right triangle. The acute angle triangle for the ellipse is unique for each
point of the Ellipse. For a circle the Differential Triangle is congruent for any point on the circle.
Analogy between the Circle and Ellipse
The Circle
Consider a circle with the center at the origin.
The Circular Equation in polar formis given as
x(t) =r cos0
y(t) =r sin0
Where is the angle that the Radius makes with the x Axis
Given two points given as representing
1
&
2
then the Arc length (L) is given as
L =r(0
2
0
1
)
That is radius subtended between the parametric values
The Ellipse
We define the Ellipse in the Canonical Position i.e. Major Axis aligned with the x- axis and the Center at
the origin.
The equation of the Ellipse in parametric formis written as
x(t) = a Cos(t )
y(t) = b Sin(t )
The parameter t is called the eccentric anomaly and it is not the angle between the Radius and the X-
axis.


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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Analogy
Now for the circle we defined the Circular Arc length as the product between the constant r and the
difference between the parametric values. Here we can define this constant as the radius of the Circle.
Proceeding in analogously we should be able to define the Elliptical Arc length in a similar fashion as
both the Ellipse and Circle belong to the same family and circle is only a Special Case of Ellipse.
For the circle the parametric value is the radial angle itself however for an ellipse the parametric value is
the eccentric anomaly. Hence when considering the Ellipse we should consider the eccentric anomaly not
the Radial Angle.
Circle
For a circle given the Chord length C and the angle subtended by the two radius of the circle the
Radius R in terms of Chord Length C and the angle can be given as
R =
C
2sin[



An analogous intuitive thought leading to underlying geometric equations will yield the geometric
formulae for an Ellipse in a similar fashion relating the Chord defined with the parametric Values of the
End point and The Radial Angle.
The Geometric intuition begins with the thought process of Equal Arcs of Circles cutting equal angles.
However for ellipse equal angles in different locations cuts unequal Arcs on the same ellipse. However
they are related trough the Major and minor axis lengths which are constants ( They are analogous to the
radius of the Ellipse). The position of the points are related trough their parametric values. Assembling
these factor logically we can arrive at our Conjure.
The Conjure
Given an Elliptical Arc, the Arc length of the Elliptical Arc will be equal to that of a Circular Arc whose
Radius and Subtended Angle is given by the following conjure
The Equivalent Circular Arc having the same Arc length as that of a given Elliptical Arc, will have a
Chord length equal to the Chord length of the given Elliptical Arc and it (Circular Arc) will subtend an
angle at the center whose value in radians is equal to the difference in the Eccentric anomalies of the
end points of the given Elliptical Arc
Aravind Narayan
30-April -2012
Using the above conjure we can define geometric methods for the determining the Arc length and
similarly we can define the Algebraic formulas also.

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)


Intuition
If we consider the relationship between the coordinate value of an ellipse and its Eccentric anomaly we
can identify that this relationship is analogous to the relationship between the Coordinate values and
Radial angle of a circle
Hence
The Relationship between a Circular Arc and The subtended angle at the center is analogous to the
Relationship between the (difference in the eccentric anomaly values) and the Elliptical Arc.




















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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
Chapter -8
THE QUESTION OF CLOSED FORM SOLUTIONS TO INTEGRALS
Introduction & Problem Description
We have well defined formulas for integrating many functions; however we do not have defined formulas
for many integral functions. This is an impending question.
The Integrals with closed formsolutions or formulae solutions are the ones which have well defined anti
derivatives. However we cannot solve many Integrals and we have only numerical methods.
This paper gives an intuitive logic to the Integration and Differentiation and so gives the explanation why
some integrals do not have formula or closed formsolutions.
Analogy of Differentiation & Integration with Division and Addition
With algebraic differentiation we split a given function to infinitesimally small Elements. Thus
Differentiation is analogous to dividing. Hence differentiating is analogues to splitting or dividing a
number into smaller parts. Now when a number is divided it can be divided into equal parts or unequal
parts.
With Integration we suma differentiated function, i.e. we sumthe infinitesimally small elements to get
the summed result. Integration is analogues to summing.
Now let us analyze the analogy
We apply the analogy of differentiation & integration to a number.
Differentiating a number means splitting (dividing) the number into small parts. & Integrating menas
summing the split parts back to get the same number
Analogous differentiation of number
However here we have an option to split the number into equal differential units or in unequal differential
units
For example consider the number 6
We can split the number in the following fashion with equal differential units
6 =1+1+1+1+1+1 (1)
6 =2+2+2 (2)
6 =3+3 (3)

Or in the following fashion with unequal differential units
6 =1+2+3 (4)
6 =4+2 (5)

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)

6 =1+1+1+2+1 (6)
Analysis and intuition
If we view the splitting up of the number 6 in Equations (1), (2),(3) the differential units are equal in this
case the summation can be expressed using the Multiplication formula of the differential unit
This means for Equation - (1); (with differential unit =1)
6 =1 6
For Equation - (2); (with differential unit =2)
6 =2 3
For Equation - (3)); (with differential unit =3)
6 =3 2
However for the splitting up for Equations (4), (5), and (6) we cannot write a single formula or a closed
formsolution to the Summations. The only option is to numerically add the differential unit to arrive at
the summation result.
Inference
We can write a multiplicative formula for a summation equation only if the differential elements
(divided parts of the number) are equal
If the division elements are equal we can write a multiplication formula to give the result
However if the division elements are unequal then numerical addition is the only solution
Applying this analogy of number to Algebraic Differentiation and Integration
By integrating we define the Summation Result of a differentiated function. However we do not have
results for many Integrals.
This is because if the function in the integral gives equal infinitesimal parts then we can write a closed
formsolution (formula) solution to the Integral. Otherwise we have only the option to numerically
execute the summation and arrive at the Result of the Integral.
If the differential function in the Integral has unequal derivatives (differentials) then it is not possible
to provide a closed form or single form solution to such integral

A logical solution to the Problemof Integration with unequal differential
We cannot get the solution of the Integral whose differential gives unequal derivatives, (by derivatives we
mean single differential units).

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Created by: Aravind Narayan, (Kottoor, TC/76/2169, Anayara P.O, Trivandrum, Kerala, India: 695029)
However if we can reformulate the differential in a formso that it represents a derivative with equal
intervals then it is possible to give a closed formsolution to the Integral.
For this we will have to transformthe given derivative giving unequal differential units to an equivalent
derivative giving equal differential units.
This can be done if we are able to determine the derivative giving differential unit which is an average of
the unequal differential units.
As described before we cannot have a formula for summations in equations (4), (5) & (6). However if we
closely observe the equation (4) we can follow that there is a pattern among the parts and we can write a
formulae to derive a single part. This means that the equation (4) can be written as a series with a formula
solution for its summation similar to the summation formulas for mathematical series (e.g. summation
equation of geometric series etc.). Now a formula solution is possible for this kind of series.
Analogously considering, if we have our differential terms in an integral to be unequal but we still can
derive the differential terms to be derived using the position of the differential termwe have a option to
derive a formula for summation and hence the Integration. For the Elliptical integral each differential unit
is different but depending on the position of the point we can derive the Differential unit. Hence it should
be possible to write a Formula solution to such integrals. A similar Case exists for the Elliptical Integral.
This logic is applied in defining the geometric intuition for the Formula to determine the Arc length of the
ellipse and thus for the Solution of the Elliptical Integrals of the Second Kind. A refinement and
standardization of this logic and putting it on a theoretical foundation will provide a method to solve
many class of Integral and Differential Equations.