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TENSE OVERVIEW A.

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE


Prezentul simplu se foloseste pentru a vorbi despre actiuni prezente, obisnuite, repetate actiuni zilnice S +VI - la persoana a-III-a singular (he, she, it) se adaug termina!ia s sau es " I drink a cup of milk every morning. She drinks a cup of tea every morning. - termina!ia es se adaug la sf#r$itul verbelor terminate in% -o, -ch, -th, -sh, -ss, -z" She goes to school from Monday to Friday. - Forma interogativa% &'(&')S(III"sing) + V Do you play tennis? Does she play the guitar? - Forma negativa% S+ &'(&')S + *'+ + V do + not , don-t does + not , doesn-t No, I dont play tennis. She doesnt play the guitar.

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


Prezentul continuu se folose$te pentru a vorbi despre ac!iuni prezente care sunt in desf $urare in momentul vorbirii" *u mai vorbim despre ac!iunile obi$nuite, repetate e.primate de prezentul simplu" S + +' /)(P0)1)*+) + V-ing" - +' /)% am, are, is She is reading a ook no!. - Forma interogativa% +' /) + S + V-ing Is he playing tennis? - Forma negativa% S + +' /) + *'+ + V-ing is not , isn-t are not , aren-t No, he isnt playing tennis. Se folose$te, de obicei, cu e.presii ca "no!, at this moment, as !e speak, ...#" She is reading a boo2 no3" )a cite$te o carte acum"

B. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE


4olosim trecutul simplu pentru a vorbi despre ac!iuni 5ncepute $i terminate 5n trecut" 6esterda7 I met m7 friend 8ac2" Pentru a e.prima o ac!iune repetat 5n trecut" 9randma drank three cups of coffee a da7" &up verbele sau construc!iile wish, as if/as though, if only, would rather, its (high) time" I 3ish I were on holida7 no3" 4orma afirmativ % S + VII I danced at the part7 7esterda7" 4orma interogativ % &id + S + VI : Did ;ar7 tell her father about the part7 last 3ee2: 4orma negativ % S + did not + VI" ;other did not buy those trousers last month" <c!iuni care erau 5n desf $urare la un moment dat din trecut" I was taking a sho3er 3hen 7ou came in" <c!iuni paralele 5n trecut Sue was peeling potatoes 3hile <nd7 was cooking the fish" <c!iuni progresive care sunt 5n desf $urare de-a lungul unei perioade de timp specificate din trecut" She was shopping bet3een = o-cloc2 anf four" 4orma afirmativ % S + 3as(3ere + V-ing" I was dancing 3hen he came in" 4orma interogativ % >as(>ere + S + V-ing : Was ;ar7 doing her home3or2 3hen 7ou arrived: 4orma negativ % S + 3as(3ere not + V-ing" ;other was not playing cards"

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

C. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


Prezentul prefect simplu arat ac!iunea 5nceput 5n trecut $i care fie mai continu 5n prezent, fie influen!eaz momentul prezent" <ccentul este pus pe rezultat" Formele " / you / we / they he / she / it firmativ I have spo2en" ?e has spo2en" !egativ I have not spo2en" ?e has not spo2en" "nterogativ ?ave I spo2en: ?as he spo2en: #$ample love loved admit admitted travel travelled hurr7 hurried

#$cep%ii la ad&ugarea termina%iei 'ed #$ceptions in spelling when adding ed &up e final se adaug doar i @onsoana final , dup vocal accentuat , scurt , precum $i l final se dubleaz y final dup consoan devine i Folosirea

Pune accent pe rezultat% ).emplu% She has !ritten five letters"

<c!iune care 5nc se desf $oar % ).emplu% School has not started 7et"

<c!iune 5ncheiat recent% ).emplu% She has cooked dinner"

<c!iune 5ncheiat ce influen!eaz momentul prezent% ).emplu% I have lost m7 2e7"

<c!iune ce nu a mai avut loc 5nainte de momentul vorbirii sau care s-a 5nt#mplat o dat sau de mai multe ori% ).emplu% I have never een to <ustralia"

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


<rat o ac!iune 5nceput 5n trecut $i care fie s-a terminat recent, fie mai continu " Pune accent pe durata ac!iunii" Formele firmativ !egativ "nterogativ " / you / we / they I have been spea2ing" I have not been spea2ing" ?ave I been spea2ing: he / she / it ?e has been spea2ing" ?e has not been spea2ing" ?as he been spea2ing: #$cep%ii de ortografiere #$cep%ii la ad&ugarea termina%iei -ing #$emplu e-ul final dispare come coming (dar% ee nu este schimbat) (dar% agree agreeing) &up o vocal scurt , accentuat , se dubleaz consoana final sit sitting @onsoana final l este dublat dup o vocal (5n /ritish )nglish) travel travelling ie final devine y Folosirea (re)entului (erfect *ontinuu

lie lying

Pune accent pe durata nu pe rezultatul ac!iunii% ).emplu% She has een !riting for t3o hours"

<c!iune recent 5ncheiat sau care 5nc mai dureaz % ).emplu% I have een living here since ABBC"

D. PAST PERFECT
+had , past participle).emple%

6ou had studied )nglish before 7ou moved to *e3 6or2" .ad 7ou studied )nglish before 7ou moved to *e3 6or2: 6ou had not studied )nglish before 7ou moved to *e3 6or2"

c%iuni /ncepute 0i terminate /naintea altor ac%iuni trecute

+recutul perfect arat c o ac!iune trecut a avut loc 5naintea altei ac!iuni trecute" &e asemenea poate ar ta c un anumit lucru a avut loc 5naintea unui moment dat din trecut" ).emple%

I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I 3ent to Dauai" I did not have an7 mone7 because I had lost m7 3allet" +on7 2ne3 Istanbul so 3ell because he had visited the cit7 several times" .ad Susan ever studied +hai before she moved to +hailand: She onl7 understood the movie because she had read the boo2" Dristine had never been to an opera before last night" >e 3ere not able to get a hotel room because 3e had not booked in advance" <% .ad 7ou ever visited /% 6es, I had been to the E"S" once before" the E"S" before 7our trip in ABBF:

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


+had been , present participle).emple%

6ou had been waiting there for more than t3o hours 3hen she finall7 arrived" .ad 7ou been waiting there for more than t3o hours 3hen she finall7 arrived: 5

6ou had not been waiting there for more than t3o hours 3hen she finall7 arrived"

12# 3 Duration 4efore 2omething in the (ast

4olosim trecutul perfect continuu pentru a ar ta c un lucru a 5nceput 5n trecut $i continuat p#n la un moment dat din trecut" Putem folosi e.presiile G4or five minutesG and Gfor t3o 3ee2sG" ).emple%

+he7 had been talking for over an hour before +on7 arrived" She had been working at that compan7 for three 7ears 3hen it 3ent out of business" ?o3 long had 7ou been waiting to get on the bus: ;i2e 3anted to sit do3n because he had been standing all da7 at 3or2" 8ames had been teaching at the universit7 for more than a 7ear before he left for <sia" <% ?o3 long had 7ou been studying /% I had not been studying +ur2ish ver7 long" +ur2ish before 7ou moved to <n2ara:

E. FUTURE TENSES 1.a FUTURE SIMPLE (will and be going o!


Viitorul simplu are A forme 5n limba englez % H3illI $i Jbe going toI" @u toate c aceste dou forme se pot substitui una pe alta ele au utiliz ri diferite"

Form& 5Will6 (+) S + 3ill + VC 6ou will help him later"


Will 7ou help him later: 6ou will not help him later"

(:) >ill + S + VC:

(-) S + 3ill not + VC

Form& 54e 7oing 8o6 (+) S + am(is(are + going to + VC (:) am(are(is + S + going to + VC 6ou are going to meet 8ane tonight"

(-) S + am(are(is( + not + going to + VC

re 7ou going to meet 8ane tonight:

6ou are not going to meet 8ane tonight"

W"99 se folose$te pentrua vorbi despre% ceea ce vorbitorul face 5n mod voluntar ac!iuni stabilite din viitor promisiuni

I will send 7ou the information 3hen I get it" I will translate the email, so ;r" Smith can read it" I promise I will not tell him about the surprise part7" &onKt 3orr7, I:ll be careful" I won:t tell an7one 7our secret"

4# 7;"!7 8; < se folose$te pentru a vorbi despre planuri $i inten!ia vorbitorului de a face un lucru" ?e is going to spend his vacation in ?a3aii"
She is not going to spend her vacation in ?a3aii"

1.b FUTURE CONTINUOUS


Form&= (+) S + 3ill be + V-ing (:) >ill + S + be + V-ing 6ou will be waiting for her 3hen her plane arrives tonight" 7 (-) S + 3ill + not + be + V-ing

Will 7ou be waiting for her 3hen her plane arrives tonight: 6ou will not be waiting for her 3hen her plane arrives tonight"

3> c%iune /n desf&0urare la un moment dat din viitor >e will be writing at this time tomorro3"

?> c%iune /ntrerupt& din viitor < o ac!iune de durat din viitor va fi 5ntrerupt de una mai scurt " I will be watching +V 3hen she arrives tonight"
I will be waiting for 7ou 3hen 7our bus arrives"

@> c%iuni paralele din viitor +onight, the7 will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time" A> tmosfer& din viitor >hen I arrive at the part7, ever7bod7 is going to be celebrating" Some will be dancing" 'thers are going to be talking" < fe3 people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer" +he7 al3a7s do the same thing"

2. FUTURE PERFECT
Form&= (+) S + 3ill have + V= (:) >ill + S + have + V=: (-) S + 3ill + not + have + V= 6ou will have perfected 7our )nglish b7 the time 7ou come bac2 from the E"S"
Will 7ou have perfected 7our )nglish b7 the time 7ou come bac2 from the E"S": 6ou will not have perfected 7our )nglish b7 the time 7ou come bac2 from the E"S"

c%iune viitoare terminat& /naintea unei alte ac%iuni viitoare=

/7 ne.t *ovember, I will have received m7 promotion" /7 the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests"

I;P'0+<*+L - *E S) 4'M'S)N+) VII+'0 O* P0'P'1IPI< SE/'0&'*<+Q +);P'0<MQ"

PRESENT SIMPLE AN" CONTINUOUS


PRESENT SIMPLE
3> Write the .#/2.#/"8 forms catch coo2 fetch live rush cop7 pla7 read smo2e start 3atch 3rite enRo7 stud7 come drin2 fi. miss bu7 fr7 tr7 run stand touch 3ish carr7 marr7

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
3> Write the B"!7 F;CD of these verbs> /rea2 clean @ome ;a2e >rite /egin 0ob Shout +urn die pla7 start put shop sit open 3ash enRo7 sing get hit dream stand visit live go Rump feel rain sleep tal2 forget

PAST TENSE
"> Write the following sentences in the (ast 8ense> ).ample% +he dog (chase) the cat" +he dog chased the cat" C" A" =" T" U" F" +he dog (chase) the cat" +he cat (climb) the tree Suic2l7" +he dog (start) to bar2" I (3ant) to chase the dog a3a7" +he dog-s o3ner (arrive) and (3al2) a3a7 3ith it" +he cat (loo2) happ7" ""> Write the sentences in the negative> ).ample% 8ane cleaned her room 7esterda7" 8ane didn-t clean her room 7esterda7" C" A" =" T" U" 4ather 3atched +V last night" +he teacher tal2ed about H0obinson @rusoeI last 3ee2" I 3anted to read the boo2" +he reporter as2ed the film star a lot of Suestions" I 3al2ed to m7 friend-s house t3o da7s ago" """> Write the sentences in e$> """ in the interrogative> ).ample% 8ane cleaned her room 7esterda7" &id 8ane clean her room 7esterda7: "E> (ut the verbs in the simple past and translate the te$ts> a) >hen I (come) home, I (find) that the famil7 had finish dinner" I (sit) do3n (eat) mine, 3hich (be) still on the table" I had onl7 Rust begun 3hen the door-bell (ring)" It (be) a friend of mine" I (tell) him to 3ait until I (finish) eating" ;7 mother (as2) him 3hether he (li2e) a cup of coffee" ?e (sa7) he 3ould rather read until I (be) read7" b) 'ne da7 3hile I (sit) in a cafV, a man (come) over to m7 table and (as2) if he ma7 sit do3n for a fe3 minutes" <fter 3e (spea2) for some time, 3e (find) out that 3e once (meet) in )urope" ?e said, GI (arrive) here t3o 3ee2s ago and I (not ma2e) up m7 mind 3hether or not to sta7 here"G G If I (be) 7ou,G I said, GI 3ould learn the language as Suic2l7 as I (can) and then ma2e a tour of the countr7" It 3ould be easier then to ma2e up 7our mind"G E> *hange the verbs in brackets into the past simple> B I (finish) finished m7 boo2 last 3ee2" C < plane (fl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW over our house" A Peter (have) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a sand3ich for lunch" = +he bus (arrive) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW t3o hours late" T ;7 sister (ma2e) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a big ca2e for m7 birthda7" U 8ohn al3a7s (3ear) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a uniform to school" F Devin (run) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to school, 7esterda7" X It (begin) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to rain" Y >e (pla7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW football for hours" Z ;7 famil7 (go) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to Portugal for a holida7" CB >e (Rump) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW into the s3imming pool" E"> Write statements, negative sentences or Fuestions with used to> B 7ou(have(bro3n hair (Suestion) Did you use to have brown hair? C people(use(the computer (negative) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW A he(go(running (statement) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 10

= T U F X Y Z CB B C A = T U F X Y

the7(li2e(painting (Suestion) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 7our brother(come(b7 bus (statement) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 3e(drin2(coffee (negative) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW m7 mother(spea2(Spanish (negative) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW he(live(in Paris (statement) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 8ulie(pla7(football (Suestion) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW houses(have(bathrooms indoors (negative) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW all children(go(to school (Suestion) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW E""> *hoose the best reply ( <") for the Fuestions (G<H)> &o 7ou 2no3 3here the theatre is: E < +hat-s a good idea" >hat does 7ou bo7friend loo2 li2e: / It-s interesting, but ver7 nois7" >hat-s *e3 6or2 li2e: @ It-s near the theatre" @ould 7ou tell me the time, please: & It-s nearl7 four o-cloc2" @an I help 7ou: ) 6es" It-s ne.t to the post office" &o 7ou mind if I sit here: 4 *o than2s, I can do it" >ould 7ou li2e some ca2e" 9 6es, please" Met-s go for some tea" ? ?e-s tall, dar2 and handsome" >here-s the bus station: I *o, not at all" E"""> 8ranslate into #nglish> C" <m cunoscut-o pe veri$oara ta 5n CZYY" A" @#nd Peter era t#n r, alerga timp de o Rum tate de or 5n fiecare diminea! " =" @#nd l-ai v zut ultima dat : T" <m 5n!eles atunci c#t de mult 5$i iubea fratele" U" )ra timpul ca ei s cunoasc adev rul" F" <$ fi de p rere s te duci acolo c#t mai cur#nd posibil" X" ;ar7 recit poezii ca $i c#nd ar fi o mare artist " Y" @e ora$ ai vizitat anul trecut: Z" &e-a$ $ti adresa lui acum" CB" <$ dori s 5n!elege!i situa!ia aceasta"

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PRACTICE I SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS PAST


"> (ut the verbs in parentheses into the (ast 2imple or the (ast *ontinuous and translate (2crie verbul din parante)e la trecut simplu sau continuu 0i tradu)= C" +he ship (approach) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW @ape +o3n 3hen the tornado (begin) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW " A" +he bomb (go) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW off 3hen the president (give) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a speech" =" ?e (not hear) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW the bell because the radio (pla7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW " T" >hen I (get) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW home ever7bod7 (dance) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW " U" +he plane (catch) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW fire 3hen it (ta2e) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW of" F" +im (crash) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW into a street light because he (drive) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW too fast" ""> 8urn the following into the interrogative and negative (8ransform& urm&toarele propo)i%ii /n propo)i%ii interogative 0i negative)= C" +he children 3ere laughing" A" +he man 3as 3aiting" =" I 3as translating the te.t" T" 6ou 3ere loo2ing at the picture" U" +he girl 3as coming home" F" I 3as learning a poem" X" +he bo7s 3ere dra3ing red cars" Y" ;other 3as ma2ing the bed" Z" 6ou 3ere leaving the office" CB" >e 3ere bu7ing fresh fruit" """> 8ranslate into #nglish (8radu /n limba engle)&)= C" @#nd am plecat de la poli!ie 8ohn $i so!ia lui 5nc mai vorbeau cu un poli!ist" A" @e se 5nt#mpla 5n casa ta c#nd am trecut pe la tine ieri sear : <m sunat la u$ dar nu mi-a r spuns nimeni, de$i se auzea muzic 5n untru" =" I-am pus aceast 5ntrebare de c#teva ori, dar el nu m-a auzit fiindc citea ziarul" T" )u 5nc dormeam c#nd a venit ste3ardesa s ne spun c trecem peste ?imala7a" U" *u ne-am dus la teatru ieri deoarece ni$te prieteni de-ai no$tri veneau pe la ora $apte" "E> *hange the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous (2chimb& timpul verbelor din parante)e /n trecut simplu sau continuu)= B 4or dinner, m7 sister (eat) ate pizza, but I (have) had soup" C ;7 brother (drin2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW coffee 3hile he (do) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW his home3or2" A ?e (3al2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW into the classroom, then he (sit) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW do3n" = >hile I (stud7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW , Sue (run) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW into the librar7" T >hen the class (finish) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW , the teacher (drive) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW home" U ?arr7 (sing) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a song 3hen 8ane (come) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW in" F *othing happened 3hen I (turn on) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW the &V& pla7er" X It (start) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to rain 3hile I (3al2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to the par2" Y 6u2i (listen) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to the radio 3hen the phone (ring) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW " Z +he children (go) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW the cinema last night" CB ;r" 8ones (find) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW some mone7 3hen he (clean) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW the cupboards" E> Cead the paragraph> *hoose the best tense for each space> 8ranslate> (*ite0te paragraful> lege cel mai bun timp pentru fiecare spa%iu> 8radu)= ;7 grandfather (B) C to the same school as me" ?e (C) WWWWWW to our school last 3ee2 to tal2 to the class about 3hat it (A) WWWWWW li2e in the old da7s" ?e (=) WWWWWW he (T)WWWWWW the names of all his teachers" 'ne of them still teaches at the school" ?e (U) WWWWWW art and music, but no3 he onl7 teaches music" <s he (F) WWWWWW , he (X) WWWWWW us pictures of his school friends" ?e (Y) WWWWWW us that the bo7s (Z) WWWWWW onl7 football, but no3 3e pla7 bas2etball as 3ell" ?e thin2s things (CB) WWWWWW better in the old da7s" B C A = T goes comes 3as being said remembered 4 3as going 4 came 4 is 4 sa7s 4 remembers * used to go * 3as coming * 3as * 3as sa7ing * 3as remembering 12

U F X Y Z CB

is teaching tal2s is sho3ing told pla7 are

4 used to teach 4 is tal2ing 4 sho3ed 4 is telling 4 3ere pla7ing 4 3ere

* teaches * 3as tal2ing * 3as sho3ing * tells * used to pla7 * used to

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FOLLOW UP PRESENT TENSES & SIMPLE PAST


"> *ompleta%i cu forma cea mai potrivit& a verbului din parante)e, folosind pre)entul continuu sau pre)entul simplu= 8ac2 is a teacher" ?e teaches (teach) at a Eniversit7" ?e isnt teaching (not teach) at the moment, he is on holida7" ?e is reading (read) a ne3spaper on the beach" )mma and /en are brother and sister" )mma [[[" (love) /en and /en [[[" (love) )mma" +he7 usuall7 [[[" (pla7) together, but toda7 )mma [[[" (help) her mother to ma2e a ca2e" It-s /en-s birthda7 and he [[["" (have) a part7" ?is father [[[" (prepare) the decorations and the games because /en [[["" (li2e) to have fun and games at his parties" /en usuall7 [[[" (invite) ten friends, but onl7 nine [[[" (come) toda7" ?enr7 [[[" (not come), he [[["" (not feel) 3ell, he has a cold" ?e often [[[" (catch) a cold in 3inter" ""> 8radu /n limba engle)& folosind pre)entul simplu sau continuu dup& ca)= C" ; 5ntreb de ce nici b ie!elul nici feti!a nu dorm la aceast or " &e obicei ei deRa dorm la aceast or " A" @opacii 5nfloresc a$a c gr dinile au un miros pl cut" =" ;ereu 5mi d telefon $i 5mi pune 5ntreb ri stupide" T" m bucur c 5!i place cadoul meu" U" @opii par foarte obosi!i 5n aceast diminea! " F" +ata se scoal foarte devreme, dar se b rbiere$te, se spal $i 5$i ia micul deRun a$a de 5ncet 5nc#t nu auzim nimic" """> 8ransform& propo)i%iile din propo)i%ii la present simplu /n propo)i%ii la trecut simplu 0i tradu= C" 6ou are tired" A" +he bab7 li2es mil2" =" ;7 sister understands him" T" >e eat brea2fast at seven o-cloc2" U" I have a headache" F" +he sho3 begins at Y o-cloc2" X" +he7 feel fine" Y" I read a paper in the morning" Z" +he7 3ant another boo2" CB" /ill7 goes to school" "E> *ompletea)& fiecare spa%iu liber cu verbul potrivit la trecut simplu> 2unt mai multe verbe decIt spa%ii libere iar unele pot fi folosite de mai multe ori> 8radu /n limba romIn&= >al2, be, sit, fl7, live, croa2, thin2, listen, hop, get, do, refer, spea2, sing, sigh, ta2e, put, s3allo3, 2no3, respect, turn, s3im, ride, hate, sa7" 'nce upon a time a big, fat frog WWWWWWWWWWW C" in a tin7 shallo3 pond" ?e WWWWWWWWWWW A" ever7 plant and stone in it" <s the biggest creature in the pond he WWWWWWWWWWW =" ver7 important and all the other animals WWWWWWWWWW T" him" >hen he WWWWWWWWWW U", the 3ater-snails WWWWWWWWWW F" politel7" <nd the 3ater-beetles al3a7s WWWWWWWWWW X" behind him" ?e WWWWWWWWWW Y" ver7 happ7 there" 'ne da7 a prett7 dragon-fl7 WWWWWWWWWW Z" to him, H6ou-re a fine frog" @ome to m7 pond" It-s much larger" Mife in a large pond is 3onderful"I HPerhaps he-s right,I WWWWWWWWWW CB" the foolish frog" So he WWWWWWWWWW CC" /ut the big deep pond WWWWWWWWWW CA" out to be hostile and unpleasant" +he 3ater-snails WWWWWWWWWW C=" rude to him, and he WWWWWWWWWW CT" afraid of the duc2s" <s the smallest frog there, he WWWWWWWWWWWW CU" lonel7 and unhapp7" ?e WWWWWWWWWW CF" on a 3ater-lil7 leaf and WWWWWWWWWW CX" sadl7 to himself, HI don-t li2e it here" I 3ant to go home"I H+here-s no place li2e homeI, he WWWWWWWWWW CY" /ut a hungr7 stor2 WWWWWWWWWW CZ" do3n and WWWWWWWWWW AB" him up for lunch"

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PRACTICE I a. Present perfe t s!"p#e


"> Write the participle forms of the following verbs> C" shut \ A" spend \ =" give \ ""> *omplete the table in present perfect simple> positive negative >e have chatted" +he lesson has not started" She has turned around" +he7 have not arrived" """> Write sentences in present perfect simple> C" 3e ( reach ( our goal A" our team ( lose ( the match =" she ( underline ( the 3ord T" the7 ( not ( discover ( the treasure U" 0on ( not ( tal2 ( about the problem "E> Write Fuestions in present perfect simple> C" 7ou ( 2noc2 ( at the door A" the teacher ( mar2 ( the tests =" she ( bu7 ( a ne3 computer T" the7 ( rescue ( the girl U" /rad ( 3ear ( a blue shirt E> sk for the information in the bold part of the sentence> 1. +he7 have seen him at the library" 2. 0obb7 0obber has robbed another bank" 3. /ill has ordered three desserts" T" @lara has repeated the sentence five times" 5. Jane has as2ed a Suestion" T" teach \ U" sell \ Fuestion

?ave 3e 3on:

b. Present perfe t $nt!n%$%s


"> Write the ing<form of the following verbs> C" cr7 \ =" lie \ A" prepare \ T" 3in \ ""> *hoose the correct form= have or has and since or for> C" )mma been learning )nglish five 7ears" A" ;7 friends been living here ABB=" =" I been 3aiting for &ann7 AB minutes" T" 0oss and 9avin been travelling around <ustralia U" @arol been e.ercising in the g7m A oKcloc2" """> Write sentences in present perfect progressive> C" Devin ( read \ A" 7ou ( +V ( 3atch ( all da7 \ =" Paul ( to the radio ( listen ( not \ T" the men ( cards ( pla7 \ U" the girls ( c7cle ( not \ "E> Write Fuestions in present perfect progressive> C" @arol ( shout \ 15

si. 3ee2s"

A" =" T" U"

7ou ( dance \ Devin ( run \ the7 ( on the phone ( tal2 ( ho3 long \ these boo2s ( lie ( on the floor ( ho3 long \

#. "i$e%en&a din %e '%e(en 'e%$e# )i*'l+ ,i #on in++


(re)ent (erfect 2implu <ccent pe re)ultat (re)ent (erfect *ontinuu <ccent pe durata sau cursul ac!iunii <c!iune din trecut 5nspre prezent <c!iune terminat dar care influen!eaz prezentul "> (une verbele la pre)ent perfect simplu sau continuu 0i tradu= 1. I (pla7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW football for five 7ears" A" ;7 team (3in ( onl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW t3o matches so far" 3. +he others (be ( al3a7s) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW better" 4. <re 3e not there 7et: >e (3al2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWfor hours" 5. /ut 3e (cover ( onl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWan area of five miles so far" 6. I (finish(Rust) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWm7 home3or2" 7. I (3or2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW on this essa7 since t3o oKcloc2" 8. 8ane (go out) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 3ith /ob for seven 7ears" 9. ;artin (date) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW three girls this 3ee2" CB" ?o3 long (3ait ( 7ou) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for us: Cobin% I thin2 the 3aiter (forget) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW us" >e (3ait) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW here for over half an hour and nobod7 (ta2e) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW our order 7et" Dichele% I thin2 7ouKre right" ?e (3al2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWb7 us at least t3ent7 times" ?e probabl7 thin2s 3e (order, alread7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW" Cobin% Moo2 at that couple over there, the7 (be, onl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW here for five or ten minutes and the7 alread7 have their food" Dichele% ?e must realize 3e (order, not) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 7etL >e (sit) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWhere for over half an hour staring at him" Cobin% I donKt 2no3 if he (notice, even) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWus" ?e (run) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW from table to table ta2ing orders and serving food" Dichele% +hatKs true, and he (loo2, not) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW in our direction once" ""> lege varianta corect& 0i tradu=
b) haven't been seeing c) have been seeing d) have seen ". e've discovered this great caf# and we__________ there a lot. a) have been going b) have gone c) are going d) have went $. %ow's your &um' I _________ her for ages. a) had seen b) haven't seen c) haven't been seeing d) didn't see (. )ou're covered in paint* hat __________ you __________' a) have done b) were doing c) did do d) have been doing

1. I'm very hungry. I___________ all day. a) didn't eat b) haven't ate c) havent eaten d) have been eating 1. Their new kitchen looks fantastic. They ________ completely ________ it. a) have been redecorating b) have redecorated c) already redecorated d) didn't redecorated 3. Our kitchens a mess. e_______ any cleaning for weeks. a) didn't do b) haven't been doing c) have done d) haven't done !. I think they are dating. They______________ a lot of each other recently. a) had seen

16

+. ,hes gone to the doctor's. ,he ______________________ too well lately. a) hasn't felt b) hasn't been feeling c) has felt d) doesn't feel -. here have you .een' I__________________ for ages. a) have waited b) waited c) was waiting d) have been waiting 1/. I have to write an essay. I_____ a.out half of it so far. a) b) c) d) have written have been writing wrote have to write

17

PRACTICE II past perfe t s!"p#e& $nt!n%$%s


"> Write the past participle (@rd form) of the following irregular verbs> C" spea2 T" understand A" catch U" begin =" eat ""> *omplete the sentences in (ast (erfect 2imple (positive)> 1. I lost the 2e7 that he (give) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to me" 2. She told me that she (see) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a ghost" 3. I 3ent do3nstairs because I (hear) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a noise" 4. >hen the7 came home, Sue (coo2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW dinner alread7" U" >e could not send 7ou a postcard because 3e (forget) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW our address boo2" """> *omplete the sentences in (ast (erfect 2imple (negative)> 1. +he 3aiter served something that 3e (not ( order) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW" 2. ?e 3ent to <las2a 3here he (not ( be) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW before" 3. She put on the red dress, 3hich she (not ( 3ear) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for ages" 4. ?e (not ( pla7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWtennis before that da7" U" ?is mother 3as angr7 because he (not ( help) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW her 3ith the shopping" "E> *omplete the Fuestions in (ast (erfect 2imple> 1. (7ou ( finish) 7our home3or2 before 7ou 3ent to the cinema: 2. (3h7 ( 7ou ( clean) the bathroom before 7ou bathed the dog: 3. (7ou ( have) brea2fast before 7ou came here: 4. (she ( find) a place to sta7 3hen she 3ent to /oston: 5. (3here ( she ( live) before she moved to @hicago: E> (ut the verbs into the correct form (past perfect progressive)> 1. >e (sleep) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for CA hours 3hen he 3o2e us up" 2. +he7 (3ait) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW at the station for ZB minutes 3hen the train finall7 arrived" 3. >e (loo2 for) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW her ring for t3o hours and then 3e found it in the bathroom" 4. I (not ( 3al2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for a long time, 3hen it suddenl7 began to rain" 5. ?o3 long (learn ( she) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW )nglish before she 3ent to Mondon: 6. 4ran2 Sinatra caught the flu because he (sing) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW in the rain too long" 7. ?e (drive) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW less than an hour 3hen he ran out of petrol" 8. +he7 3ere ver7 tired in the evening because the7 (help) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW on the farm all da7" 9. I (not ( 3or2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW all da7] so I 3asnKt tired and 3ent to the disco at night" CB" +he7 (c7cle) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW all da7 so their legs 3ere sore in the evening" E"> Write the verbs in (ast (erfect 2imple> C" +he pupils tal2ed about the film the7 (3atch) [[[[[[[[[[ " A" I 3as late for 3or2 because I (miss) [[[[[[[[[ the bus" =" >e lived in the house that m7 father (build) [[[[[[[[[[[[ " T" >e admired the picture that Muc7 (paint) [[[[[[[[[[[ " U" +he7 3atered the trees that the7 (plant) [[[[[[[[[[[[[ " F" +he teacher corrected the tests that the pupils (3rite) [[[[[[[[[[[" " X" I received a good mar2 in m7 test because I (practise) [[[[[[[[[[["""[""[[[[["" on egoTu" Y" +he mail order house did not send me the shirt that I (order) [[[[[[[[[[[["" " Z" I had to clean the floor because m7 cats (2noc2) [[[[[[[[[["[[[[[""[ over the flo3er pots" CB" ;7 friend 3as in hospital because she (slip) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["" on a banana s2in E""> Write the verbs in (ast (erfect 2imple> 1se the negative form> C" In the shopping centre, I met a friend 3ho I (see ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[""[[[[ for ages" A" +he thief could 3al2 right into the house because 7ou (loc2 ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[""" the door" 18

=" >e lost the match because 3e (practise ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["["" the da7s before" T" <t school, 8im Suic2l7 copied the home3or2 that he (do ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ " U" >e ate at a restaurant last night because I (bu7 ( not) [[[[[[[[[[["[[[[an7thing for dinner" F" >hen 3e came bac2, it 3as cold in the house because <lice (close ( not) [[["[[[[[["the 3indo3s" X" <ll da7 long, Phil 3as angr7 3ith me Rust because I (greet ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[[""[["him first" Y" >hen I met 8ane at eleven o-cloc2, she (have ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[["[[[[[" brea2fast 7et" Z" I couldn-t go to the cinema 3ith m7 friends last night because I (finish ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[" [[[[[[[" m7 home3or2 7et" CB" 4red ans3ered m7 Suestion although I (as2 ( not) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["" him" E"""> *omplete the Fuestions in (ast (erfect 2imple> C" (3hat ( /ob ( do) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["" that he 3as 2ept in after school: A" (7ou ( eat) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["""[[[[[[[[ an7thing before 7ou 3ent to the theatre: =" (he ( live) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[""[[[[[[[[" in Mondon before he moved to 9lasgo3: T" (she ( find) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["[[ a ne3 Rob b7 that time: U" (the7 ( boo2) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["""[[[[[[[[[" a room before the7 3ent to &ublin: F" (ho3 often ( 7ou ( ring) [[[[[[[[[[["""[[[[[[[[" the bell before he ans3ered the door: X" (3h7 ( the7 ( have) [[[[[[[[[[["""[[[[[[[[[["" dinner before the7 came to the part7: Y" (@arl7 ( 3ash) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["" the dishes 3hen her mum came home: Z" (7ou ( read) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[" the contract before 7ou signed it: CB" (3ho ( live) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["""[[[[[[[["" in the house before 3e moved in: "K> (ut the verbs into the correct form > C" +he storm destro7ed the sandcastle that 3e (build) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["[[[[["" A" ?e (not ( be) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["" to @ape +o3n before CZZX" =" >hen she 3ent out to pla7, she (do ( alread7) [[[[[[[[[[[["[[[[[[[[" her home3or2" T" ;7 brother ate all of the ca2e that our mum (ma2e) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[""[[[[ " U" +he doctor too2 off the plaster that he (put on) [[[[[[[[[["""[[[[[[[[" si. 3ee2s before" F" +he 3aiter brought a drin2 that I (not ( order) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["[[[[[ " X" I could not remember the poem 3e (learn) [[[[[[[[[[[[["[[[[[[[[ the 3ee2 before" Y" +he children collected the chestnuts that (fall) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ from the tree" Z" (he ( phone) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[" <ngie before he 3ent to see her in Mondon: CB" She (not ( ride) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[""[[[["" a horse before that da7"

PRACTICE III
(resent (erfect 2imple / *ontinuous @omplete the sentences 3ith correct form of the verbs" Ese the Present Perfect Simple or @ontinuous" Ese short forms 3here possible" 3 ?o3 long WWWWWWWthe flu: $have% ? >e WWWWWWWthe house all morning" $clean% @ I WWWWWWWabroad for a 7ear, but no3 IKm going home" $live% A 'uchL I WWWWWWWm7 finger on the ovenL" $ urn% L <lan WWWWWWW4rench since September" $learn% M ?o3 long WWWWWWW8im: $you go out !ith% Present Continuous / Present Perfect Continuous 19

;r" Smith% So tell me a little bit about 7ourself, ;r" ?arris" I 3ould li2e to find out a little bit more about 7our bac2ground" ;r" ?arris% I (3or2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW in the insurance industr7 for over ten 7ears" I 3or2ed for ;et Mife for si. 7ears and >orld Insurance for four and a half" &uring that time, I heard man7 good things about ?ollings Mife Insurance and thatKs 3h7 I (appl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for the ne3 sales position" ;r" Smith% +ell me a little about 7our hobbies and interests" ;r" ?arris% In m7 spare time, I hi2e in the mountains outside of to3n, volunteer at the Sierra @lub and pla7 tennis" In fact, I (compete) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW in a tennis tournament this 3ee2end" ;r" Smith% 0eall7, ho3 long (7ou, pla7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW tennis: ;r" ?arris% I (pla7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW since high school" I love the sport" ;r" Smith% 9reatL >e li2e dedication here at ?ollings Mife" 6ou mentioned 7ou volunteer at the Sierra @lub" I (3or2, currentl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 3ith them on the sea turtle proRect" >e (tr7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to create a 3ildlife sanctuar7 near the ba7" ;r" ?arris% &o 7ou 2no3 4ran2 ?arris: ?eKs m7 brother" ?e (3or2, presentl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW on the same proRect" ;r" Smith% I 2no3 4ran2 Suite 3ell" <n7 brother of 4ran2Ks 3ould be a 3elcome addition to ?ollings Mife" 8ust one more thing, 3e (loo2) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for somebod7 3ho is fluent in Spanish] man7 of our clients are from ;e.ico" ;r" ?arris% *o problem" I (stud7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW Spanish since elementar7 school" ;r" Smith% Sounds li2e 7ou are the perfect candidate" Present Continuous / Present Perfect Continuous C" It (rain) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW all 3ee2" I hope it stops b7 Saturda7 because I 3ant to go to the beach" A" <% >here is 9ar7: /% ?e (stud7, at the librar7) WWWWWWWfor his 9erman test on >ednesda7" In fact, he (revie3) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for the test ever7 da7 for the last 3ee2" =" 6ou loo2 reall7 greatL (6ou, e.ercise) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW at the fitness center: T" 4ran2, 3here have 7ou been: >e (3ait) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for 7ou since C P";"" U"<% >hat is that sound: /% < car alarm (ring) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW some3here do3n the street" It (drive) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW me craz7 - I 3ish it 3ould stopL It (ring) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for more than t3ent7 minutes" F" 8osephKs )nglish (improve, reall7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW , isnKt it: ?e (3atch) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW <merican television programs and (stud7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW his grammar ever7 da7 since he first arrived in San &iego" Soon he 3ill be totall7 fluent" X" <% 6ou loo2 a little tired" (6ou, get) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW enough sleep latel7: /% 6es, I (sleep) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW relativel7 3ell" I Rust loo2 tired because I (feel) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW a little sic2 for the last 3ee2" <% I hope 7ou feel better soon" /% +han2s" I (ta2e, currentl7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW some medicine, so I should feel better in a couple of da7s" Simp e Past / Present Perfect C" <% &id 7ou li2e the movie GStar >arsG: /% I donKt 2no3" I (see, never) WWWWWWWthat movie" A" Sam (arrive) WWWWWWWin San &iego a 3ee2 ago" =" ;7 best friend and I (2no3) WWWWWWWeach other for over fifteen 7ears" >e still get together once a 3ee2" T" Stinson is a fantastic 3riter" ?e (3rite) WWWWWWWten ver7 creative short stories in the last 7ear" 'ne da7, heKll be as famous as ?eming3a7" U" I (have, not) WWWWWWWthis much fun since I (be) WWWWWWWa 2id" F" +hings (change) WWWWWWWa great deal at @oltech, Inc" >hen 3e first (start) WWWWWWW3or2ing here three 7ears ago, the compan7 (have, onl7) WWWWWWWsi. emplo7ees" Since then, 3e (e.pand) WWWWWWWto include more than ABBB fulltime 3or2ers" X" I (tell) WWWWWWWhim to sta7 on the path 3hile he 3as hi2ing, but he (3ander) WWWWWWWoff into the forest and (be) 20

WWWWWWWbitten b7 a sna2e" Y" Misten &onna, I donKt care if 7ou (miss) WWWWWWWthe bus this morning" 6ou (be) WWWWWWWlate to 3or2 too man7 times" 6ou are firedL Z" Sam is from @olorado, 3hich is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he (see, never) WWWWWWWthe ocean" ?e should come 3ith us to ;iami" CB" ?o3 sadL 9eorge (dream) WWWWWWWof going to @alifornia before he died, but he didnKt ma2e it" ?e (see, never) WWWWWWWthe ocean" CC" In the last hundred 7ears, traveling (become) WWWWWWWmuch easier and ver7 comfortable" In the CZth centur7, it (ta2e) WWWWWWWt3o or three months to cross *orth <merica b7 covered 3agon" +he trip (be) WWWWWWWver7 rough and often dangerous" +hings (change) WWWWWWWa great deal in the last hundred and fift7 7ears" *o3 7ou can fl7 from *e3 6or2 to Mos <ngeles in a matter of hours" CA" 8onn7, I canKt believe ho3 much 7ou (change) WWWWWWWsince the last time I (see) WWWWWWW7ou" 6ou (gro3) WWWWWWWat least a footL C=" +his tree (be) WWWWWWWplanted b7 the settlers 3ho (found) WWWWWWWour cit7 over four hundred 7ears ago" CT" +his mountain (be, never) WWWWWWWclimbed b7 an7one" Several mountaineers (tr7) WWWWWWWto reach the top, but nobod7 (succeed, ever) WWWWWWW" +he climb is e.tremel7 difficult and man7 people (die) WWWWWWWtr7ing to reach the summit" CU" I (visit, never) WWWWWWW<frica, but I (travel) WWWWWWWto South <merica several times" +he last time I (go) WWWWWWWto South <merica, I (visit) WWWWWWW/razil and Peru" I (spend) WWWWWWWt3o 3ee2s in the <mazon, (hi2e) WWWWWWWfor a 3ee2 near ;achu Picchu, and (fl7) WWWWWWWover the *azca Mines" Simp e Past / Present Perfect Since computers 3ere first introduced to the public in the earl7 CZYBKs, technolog7 (change) WWWWWWWa great deal" +he first computers (be) WWWWWWWsimple machines designed for basic tas2s" +he7 (have, not) WWWWWWWmuch memor7 and the7 (be, not) WWWWWWWver7 po3erful" )arl7 computers 3ere often Suite e.pensive and customers often (pa7) WWWWWWWthousands of dollars for machines 3hich actuall7 (do) WWWWWWWver7 little" ;ost computers (be) WWWWWWWseparate, individual machines used mostl7 as e.pensive t7pe3riters or for pla7ing games" +imes (change) WWWWWWW" @omputers (become) WWWWWWWpo3erful machines 3ith ver7 practical applications" Programmers (create) WWWWWWWa large selection of useful programs 3hich do ever7thing from teaching foreign languages to boo22eeping" >e are still pla7ing video games, but toda7Ks games (become) WWWWWWWfaster, more e.citing interactive adventures" ;an7 computer users (get, also) WWWWWWWon the Internet and (begin) WWWWWWWcommunicating 3ith other computer users around the 3orld" >e (start) WWWWWWWto create international communities online" In short, the simple, individual machines of the past (evolve) WWWWWWWinto an international >orld >ide >eb of 2no3ledge" Present Perfect / Present Perfect Continuous C" <% ?o3 long (be) WWWWWWWin @anada: /% I (stud7) WWWWWWWhere for more than three 7ears" A" I (have) WWWWWWWthe same car for more than ten 7ears" IKm thin2ing about bu7ing a ne3 one" =" I (love) WWWWWWWchocolate since I 3as a child" 6ou might even call me a GchocoholicG" T" ;att and Sarah (have) WWWWWWWsome difficulties in their relationship latel7, so the7 (go) WWWWWWWto a marriage counselor" I hope the7 3or2 ever7thing out" U" 8ohn (3or2) WWWWWWWfor the government since he graduated from ?arvard Eniversit7" Entil recentl7, he (enRo7) WWWWWWWhis 3or2, but no3 he is tal2ing about retiring" F" Matel7, I (thin2) WWWWWWWabout changing m7 career because I (become) WWWWWWWdissatisfied 3ith the conditions at m7 compan7" X" I (see) WWWWWWW8ud7 for more than five 7ears and during that time I have (see) WWWWWWWman7 changes in her personalit7" Simp e Past / Past Perfect I canKt believe I (get)WWWWWWWWWWWWWW that apartment" I (submit)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW m7 application last 3ee2, but I didnKt thin2 I had a chance of actuall7 getting it" >hen I (sho3)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW up to ta2e a loo2 around, there 3ere at least t3ent7 other people 3ho (arrive)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW before me" ;ost of them (fill, 21

alread7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWout their applications and 3ere alread7 leaving" +he landlord said I could still appl7, so I did" I (tr7)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to fill out the form, but I couldnKt ans3er half of the Suestions" +he7 (3ant) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWme to include references, but I didnKt 3ant to list m7 previous landlord because I (have)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW some problems 3ith him and I 2ne3 he 3ouldnKt recommend me" I (end)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW up listing m7 father as a reference" It 3as total luc2 that he (decide) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to give me the apartment" It turns out that the landlord and m7 father (go) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to high school together" ?e decided that I could have the apartment before he (loo2)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW at m7 credit report" I reall7 luc2ed outL Past Perfect / Past Perfect Continuous IKm sorr7 I left 3ithout 7ou last night, but I told 7ou to meetp me earl7 because the sho3 started at Y%BB" I (tr7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to get tic2ets for that pla7 for months, and I didnKt 3ant to miss it" /7 the time I finall7 left the coffee shop 3here 3e 3ere supposed to meet, I (have) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW five cups of coffee and I (3ait) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW over an hour" I had to leave because I (arrange)WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to meet Dath7 in front of the theater" >hen I arrived at the theater, Dath7 (pic2, alread7) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW up the tic2ets and she 3as 3aiting for us near the entrance" She 3as reall7 angr7 because she (3ait) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW for more than half an hour" She said she (give, almost) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW up and (go) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW into the theater 3ithout us" Dath7 told me 7ou (be) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW late several times in the past and that she 3ould not ma2e plans 3ith 7ou again in the future" She mentioned that she (miss) WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW several movies because of 7our late arrivals" I thin2 7ou o3e her an apolog7" <nd in the future, I suggest 7ou be on timeL

22

TENSE REVIEW
#$ercitii cu (ast 8ense 2imple si *ontinuous !"Puneti verbe e din urmatoare e propo#itii a Past $ense Simp e% C" I sleep until Z o-cloc2 ever7 da7" A" ?e meets 8ohn on Sunda7s" =" 6ou spea2 )nglish 3ell" T" 6ou drin2 too much" U" 6ou as2 too man7 Suestions" F" I pla7 football" X" I o3n t3o umbrellas" Y" I li2e to have a coffee in the morning" Z" +hat sounds interesting" CB" I al3a7s ma2e ca2es on Sunda7s" &"Puneti verbe e din urmatoare e propo#itii a negativ si interogativ% C" ?e thought about 7ou" A" +he7 dran2 all the 3ine" =" I hated him" T" ?e changed his librar7 boo2 ever7 da7" U" I sold m7 car" F" >e 3or2ed ver7 hard" X" ?e came home late" Y" I enRo7ed travelling" Z" ?e translated the te.t" CB" ?e forbade her to do this" '"Puneti verbe e din parante#e a Past $ense Simp e sau Continuous% C" >hen 7ou (come in), I (tal2) on the phone" A" >hen I first (meet) him, he (3or2) in a ban2" 23

=" >hile he (learn) to drive, he (have) an accident" T" <s I (3rite), someone (ring up)" U" >here 7ou (go) 3hen I (meet) 7ou: F" >hat 7ou (do) this time 7esterda7: X" >hen I (enter) the classroom, the teacher (3rite) on the blac2board" Y" >hen I (arrive), she (have) dinner" Z" +his time last Sunda7, I (3atch) a film on +V" CB" ?e suddenl7 (realize) that he (not 3ear) his glasses" ("$raduceti in imba eng e#a% C" Soarele nu a apus la ora Y aseara" A" <i dormit bine noaptea trecuta: =" Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot" T" ;-am sculat t#rziu ieri dimineata" U" &uminica trecuta prietenii mei au Rucat sah" F" Ieri pe vremea asta ploua" X" @e faceai martea trecuta la ora X dimineata: Y" ;a pregateam sa merg la facultate" Z" In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche" CB" /aietii Rucau carti c#nd l-au auzit pe tatal lor intr#nd in casa" CC" )i au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala" CA" @#nd te-ai intors de la munte: C=" @#nd ai cumparat acest televizor: CT" Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile" CU" /atea un v#nt puternic c#nd am iesit din casa" CF" Ende ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta: CX" Ieri m-am sculat devreme, mi-am luat micul deRun si apoi am plecat la scoala" CY" <cum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul" CZ" Saptam#na trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala" AB" )l a dat primul e.amen saptam#na trecuta" 24

AC" @ine a c#stigat meciul alaltaieri: AA" In timp ce ploua, eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia" #$ercitii cu (resent (erfect 2imple si *ontinuous !")o ositi Present Perfect Simp e in ocu infinitive or din parante#e% C" >here 7ou (be): I (be) to the mar2et" A" 6ou (3ater) the flo3ers: =" ?e Rust (leave) home" T" I (lend) him some mone7 toda7" U" +here isn-t an7 train service because the engine drivers (go) on stri2e" F" >ould 7ou li2e a ca2e: X" *o, than2 7ou, I Rust (have) one" Y" I alread7 (see) this film" Z" ?e (not come) home 7et" CB" I (not be) to the seaside this 7ear" CC" I (bu7) a ne3 house" 6ou must come and see it" CA" 6ou (visit) the Village ;useum: C=" 6ou ever (eat) caviar: CT" I (not 3rite) to m7 friend for three months" CU" It (not rain) since &ecember" CF" 6ou ever (drive) a car: CX" ?e al3a7s (rel7 on) his friend" CY" 6ou (read) Sorescu-s last boo2: CZ" 6ou (pa7) the telephone bill: AB" ?e (not go) to bed 7et" AC" ?o3 long 7ou (live) here: AA" I (live) here for one 7ear" &")o ositi Present Perfect Simp e sau Continuous in ocu infinitive or din parante#e% C" ?e (fish) for t3o hours but he (catch) nothing 7et" A" >e (2no3) each other for several 7ears" 25

=" +he radio (pla7) since X a"m" I-m tired of it" T" I (shop) all da7 and I 3ant to have a rest no3" U" ?o3 long 7ou (3ear) glasses: F" I (coo2) all morning" X" ?o3 man7 dishes 7ou (coo2): Y" >h7 7ou (be) in the garden so long: Z" I (3ater) the flo3ers" CB" ?e (sleep) for CB hours no3" It-s time 3e 3o2e him up" CC" I (as2) 7ou to clean 7our room for t3o da7s" >hen are 7ou going to do it: CA" )ver since that 3oman came to 3or2 here, she (tr7) to ma2e trouble" '")o ositi Present Perfect Simp e sau Continuous sau Past $ense Simp e in ocu infinitive or% C" I (lose) m7 pen" 6ou (not see) it an73here: -*o, I haven-t" >hen 7ou (use) it last: A" 6our ever (tr7) to give up smo2ing: -6es, I (tr7) last 7ear but I (not succeed)" =" 6ou (see) 7our mother this 3ee2: -*o, she (leave) for /rasov a 3ee2 ago" T" 6ou (be) out of 3or2 long: U" I am not out of 3or2 no3" I (get) a Rob last month" F" I (3ear) m7 hair long since I (be) a little girl" X" She (change) a lot since I (see) her last" Y" I (do) a lot of 3or2 since I (get up) in the morning" Z" +he child (pla7) the piano since I (return) from school" CB" It (rain) since 3e (leave) /ucharest" CC" ?e (be) ver7 ill since the holida7s (begin)" ("$raduceti in imba eng e#a fo osind Past $ense Simp e sau Present Perfect Simp e sau Continuous% C" @ine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza at#t de bine: A" Ende ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta: =" ;-am g#ndit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere" T" &e c#t timp inveti engleza: U" Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp" F" )l este ministru de doi ani" 26

X" +raduc un te.t de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca" Y" )l a scris numai doua scrisori de c#nd a plecat in strainatate" Z" En copil a spart geamul" +rebuie sa-l inlocuim" CB" *inge de doua ore" CC" <m mers pe Ros CB 2m p#na acum" CA" ;ergem pe Ros de la ora =" C=" &e c#nd mi-am cumparat masina, am mers arareori pe Ros la sluRba" CT" Ma ce te-ai uitat: CU" < fost un accident" CF" @u cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri: CX" *u am mers la vot" <m stat acasa si nu am regretat nicio clipa" CY" <i vazut ziarul de azi: CZ" < plecat 8ohn: AB" &a, a plecat acum o or " AC" +i-ai luat deRa micul deRun: AA" &a, l-am luat la ora Y" A=" <i mai fost in acest oras: AT" &a, am petrecut o luna aici, acum doi ani" AU" )i lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminat-o inca" #$ercitii cu (ast (erfect 2imple si *ontinuous !"Puneti verbe e din parante#e a Past Perfect Simp e% C" <fter the7 (finish) dinner, the7 dran2 some coffee" A" She said she alread7 (be) to )ngland" =" ?e as2ed me 3hether I (meet) 8ohn before" T" She discovered her child (not tell) the truth" U" ?e told me he (catch) some fish on that da7" F" <t = o-cloc2 on 4rida7, I (return) from school" X" +he house 3as much smaller then he (thin2) at first" 27

Y" +he fire (spread) to the ne.t building 3hen the firemen arrived" Z" >e 3ere shoc2ed to hear she (not pass) the e.am" CB" +he child (eat) all the ca2es before his mother became a3are of it" &"Puneti verbe e din parante#e a Past Perfect Continuous% C" >hen I left home, it (rain) for one hour" A" >hen 3e met them, the7 (3ait) for the bus for half an hour" =" >hen I arrived home, mother (coo2) for t3o hours" T" >hen she sat for the e.am, she (stud7) the subRect for a 3ee2" U" >hen I rang her up, she (3rite) letters for one hour" F" >hen she decided to have a rest, she (clean) and (dust) for U hours" X" <fter 8ane (s3im) for half an hour, she felt chill7" Y" >hen I called on her une.pectedl7, I realized she (have) a part7" Z" >hen 3e reached the top, 3e (climb) for X hours" CB" >hen 3e arrived at Sinaia, somebod7 told us it (rain) for hours" '"Puneti verbe e din parante#a a Past Perfect Simp e sau Continuous sau a Past $ense Simp e% C" +he professor (spea2) for CB minutes 3hen I (enter) the hall" A" <fter 8ohn (listen to) the ne3s bulletin, he (go) do3nstairs to have dinner" =" ?e (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the da7 before" T" >e (as2) him 3hat countries he (visit)" U" ?e (learn) )nglish for t3o 7ears before he (go) to )ngland for the first time" F" She Rust (go) out 3hen I (call at) her house" X" +he river became deeper after it (rain) heavil7 for a fe3 hours" Y" <fter 8ohn (leave), she (tell) me the7 (be) friends for five 7ears" Z" <fter 3e (3al2) for an hour, 3e (realize) 3e (lose) our 3a7" CB" >hen I (find out) he (get married), I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him" ("$raduceti in imba eng e#a fo osind Past Perfect Simp e sau Continuous sau Past $ense Simp e% C" ;i-a parut rau ca il Rignisem" A" )l mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el" =" &e indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea, a inm#nat-o profesorului" 28

T" )l nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul" U" &e indata ce au plecat musafirii, am mers la culcare" F" @#nd am aRuns la statia de autobuz, mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa" X" Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o Rumatate de ora" Y" )i mi-au spus ca locuiau in 4ranta din CZYB" Z" *u ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate" CB" )i au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit" #$ercitii cu timpurile NFutureO !"Puneti verbe e din parante#e a timpu )uture Simp e% C" I (2no3) the results in three da7s- time" A" 6ou (be) in Mondon tomorro3" =" 6ou (recognize) him 3hen 7ou see him: T" I (remember) this da7 all m7 life" U" I am sure 7ou (li2e) this boo2" F" ?e (be) pleased if 7ou invite him" X" I am sure I (succeed)" Y" 6ou (remember) to post m7 letter: Z" I hope I (pass) the e.am" CB" 6ou (not find) a solution if 7ou don-t 2no3 the 3hole truth" &"Puneti verbe e din parante#e a timpu )uture Continuous% C" +his time ne.t month, I (s3im) in the sea" A" >hen 7ou reach Sinaia, it probabl7 (rain)" =" &on-t ring her up at Y o-cloc2 p"m" She (3atch) +V" T" 6ou (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorro3 or ma7 I borro3 it: U" I am sure 3hen I arrive home, the bab7 (cr7)" F" Met-s hurr7 to the beach" +he sun (rise) in CB minutes" X" ?e (stud7) all da7 tomorro3" Y" +his time ne.t da7, 3e (climb) the mountain" Z" +omorro3 morning at Y o-cloc2, I (have) brea2fast" 29

CB" &on-t e.pect me home for dinner, I (3or2) at the office till late at night" '" Puneti verbe e din parante#e a timpu )uture Perfect Simp e sau Continuous% C" In a 3ee2-s time, 3e (ta2e) our e.am" A" I (finish) reading the ne3spapers b7 lunch time" =" *e.t 7ear, the7 (be married) for AU 7ears" T" If 3e don-t hurr7, the sun (rise) before 3e reach the beach" U" /7 the end of the season, one hundred thousand people (spend) their holida7s at the seaside" F" /7 the time 7ou come home, I (coo2) for t3o hours" X" >hen I ta2e the e.am, I (read) all the boo2s on the bibliograph7 list" Y" /7 the beginning of ne.t 3ee2, I (3or2) on this paper for a month" Z" /7 U o-cloc2, 7ou (see) all the e.hibits in the museum" CB" /7 the end of the month, I (pa7 off) all m7 debts" (" $raduceti in imba eng e#a fo osind unu din tipuri e de viitor% C" P#na anul viitor pe vremea aceasta, vor fi economisit U milioane" A" @e faci m#ine dimineata la ora CC: =" Voi vizita t#rgul international" T" <m cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat" U" P#na la sf#rsitul lunii, voi fi vazut acest film de U ori" F" +renul va fi plecat inainte de a aRunge noi la gara" X" P#na la ora C, ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa" Y" Vineri, intre orele CA si C, ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza" Z" )l va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora C la U" CB" &in cauza grevei $oferilor de autobuze mult lume va merge pe Ros la sluRb , m#ine" CC" Eite ce am cumparat la o licita!ieL CA" ) un obiect frumos" Ende 5l vei pune:

30

T'E NOUN
I. CLASIFICAREA 1. substantive comune i proprii 2. substantive concrete i abstarcte 3. substantive numrabile i nenumrabile Substantivele nenumrabile pot fi: a) material nouns, like air, milk, cotton, bread, pork, etc. b) abstract nouns, like biology, peace, music, etc. c) names of sports, like football, skating, s imming, etc. d) names of edible plants, when reference is made to the species itself, like mai!e, onion, tomato, potato, etc. e) names of towns, countries, months, etc., like London, England, February, etc. bs: !ubstantive ca advice, luggage"baggage, "ome ork, money, kno ledge, information, ne s, furniture, progress sunt numrabile #n en$le%, dar #n alte limbi, i #n rom&n, sunt nenumrabile. Cuantificatori 'u toate c substantivele nenumrabile sunt considerate a denumite mase nediferen(iate, cantitatea, i astfel i numrabilitatea pot fi reali%ate cu a)utorul cuantificatorilor. 'uantificatorii pot fi: - $enerali: piece, bit, item - specifici bar, lump, fit, grain, etc. - care indic o msur e*act: inc", gramme, mile, metre, yard, pound, etc. II. #$%&R$L A. variabile 'i invariabile Substantive variabile: o form de sin$ular i una de plural 1. +e$ular plurals: sin$ular , the inflection (s a) *rtografiere - nouns endin$ in a sibilant consonant plural in (es -e.$. bo*-bo*es) - nouns endin$ in .y: / consonant , y plural in (ies -e.$. fl0- flies) / vowel , y plural in (ys -e.$. da0-da0s) - nouns endin$ in (o plural in (es -e.$. hero-heroes) b) +luralul substantivelor compuse - #n $eneral se adau$ (s ultimului cuv&nt -e.$. washin$-machines, handfuls, for$et-me-nots) - se adau$ (s primului cuv&nt c&nd: / este un substantive care se termon #n (er sau #n (ing -e.$. passers-b0, $oin$s-out) / substantivul compus este alctuit din dou substantive le$ate de o prepo%i(ie -e.$. editors-inchief, sons-in-law) / este format din substantiv plus ad)ectiv -e.$. courts-martial, attorne0s $eneral) - cele cu and marchea% ambele elemente -e.$. ins-and-outs, pros-and-cons) - cele cu man i oman marchea% ambele elemente -e.$. women drivers, men sin$ers)
31

bs: woman-haters, man-eaters 2. 1rre$ular plurals a) ,oicing - .s plural - lon$ sound , .t" 234 plural in 25%4 -e.$. baths, paths) - .f/e) 2f4 plural in .ves 2v%4 -e.$. thieves, leaves) b) Alte situa0ii 6apte substantive -i compuii lor) schimb vocalele la plural: man-men, woman-women,foot-feet, tooth-teeth, louse-lice, mouse-mice, $oose-$eese. c) (en plural 7rei substantive: child-children, o*-o*en, brother-brethren d) +lural !ero: the same form in the sin$ular and in the plural 1) animal names: fish, trout, deer, sheep, moose bs: the fishes of the 8lack !ea 2) nationalit0 names or other proper nouns endin$ in .ese: 'hinese, 9iennese, :apanese ,the noun !wiss 3) nouns denotin$ measure, ;uantit0, number, when the0 are preceded b0 an indication of number: do%en, hundred, thousand, million, score <) nouns endin$ in (s: means, works, crossroads, series, species, barracks, head;uarters =) other nouns: aircraft, hovercraft e) Substantive importate 1) >atin plurals / .us ? .i 2ai4 " .ora 2@r@4 " .era 2@r@4 -e.$. stimulus-stimuli, bacillus-bacilli, $enus$enera, corpus-corpora) 8oth forms: cactus-i"uses, nucleus-i"uses, radius-i"uses / .a ? .ae 2i:4 -e.$. larva-larvae, al$a-al$ae) 8oth forms: vertebra-ae"as, formula-ae"as / .um ? .a 2@4 -e.$. bacterium-bacteria, erratum-errata) 8oth forms: sanatorium .a"ums, memorandum-a"ums, stratum-a"ums, ultimatum-a"ums / .e12.i1 ? .ices 2isi:%4 -e.$. code*-codices) 8oth forms: matri*-matrices"matri*es, inde*-indices"inde*es, appendi*appendices" appendi*es 2) Areek plurals / .is 2is4 ? .es 2i:%4 -e.$. anal0sis-anal0ses, basis-bases, crisis-crises) / .on ? .a 2@4 -e.$. criterion-criteria, phenomenon-a) 8oth forms: automaton-a"ons 3) Brench plurals / .e/a)u ? .1 2%4 -bureau-bureau*"-s, adieu-adieu*"-s) <) 1talian plurals / .o2e ? .i 2i:4 -e.$. virtuoso-virtuosi"-os, tempo-tempi"-os, libretto-libretti"-os) nl0 re$ular plural: solo, soprano =) Cebrew plurals e.$. cherub-cherubim seraph-seraphim Invariable #ouns: doar o form, fie de plural, fie de sin$ular 3) Substantive invariabile la trecut -, verb #n sin$ular)
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1. !ubstantive nenumrabile concrete: chocolate, su$ar, $old, furniture, lu$$a$e '&nd unele dintre ele sunt folosite la plural li se schimb sensul: e.$. 1Dd like a coffee. +omaniaDs wines are famous. 2. !ubstantive nenumrabile abstracte: music, pro$ress, nonsense, information, knowled$e, advice, homework, difficult0, work, research, dirt Enele dintre ele pot fi deasemenea numrabile atunci c&nd se refer la o parte a unui anume fapt sau fenomen. e.$. Ffter man0 failures/difficulties, he succeeded. 3. !ubstantive proprii: :ohn, +omania, ctober <. 'ele care se termin #n (s - news - denumesc boli: measles, mumps - denumesc ramuri tiin(ifice: optics, lin$uistics, statistics Gac se schimb sensul fac acordul #n plural. e.$. Statistics is a branch of mathematics. 7he statistics show that imports are low. - )ocuri: cards, dominoes, drau$hts, darts, billiards =. Fd)ective abstracte substantivi%ate: the $ood, the evil, the useful 4) Substantive invariabile la plural -, verb la plural) 1. pr(i ale corpului: bowels, tonsils, entrails -e.$. Cis bowels are ver0 sensitive.) 2. subtantive ce denumesc stri: h0sterics, blues, spirits -e.$. Ci$h spirits are alwa0s appreciated.) 3. articole de #mbrcminte: trousers, shorts, flares, ti$hts, braces, p0)amas, tails -e.$. Hour pyjamas are on the bed.) <. instrumente alctuite din 2 pr(i: scales, scissors, $lasses"spectacles, ton$s, pincers, -nail"hairdresserDs) clippers, bellows -e.$. Ihere are the pincersJ) =. !ubstantive proprii: the Ci$hlands, the Flps, the Ketherlands L. subtantive verbale #n (ing: savin$s, earnin$s, belon$in$s, proceedin$s, surroundin$s M. Npluralia tantumO: clothes, customs, wa$es, premises, stairs, eaves, con$ratulations P. ad)ective substantivi%ate: chemicals, riches, valuables, $oods, the rich, the poor, the dead e.$. 7heir riches were donated to charities. The poor are sufferin$. 5. #umr 'i sens !unt posibile urmtoarele situa(ii: 1. Substantive cu 4 forme de plural6 fiecare cu sensul su: brother . brothers"brethren, $enius . $eniuses"$enii, staff . staffs"staves 4. Substantive cu un sens la plural 'i unul la: air . airs, n0lon . n0lons, advice . advices, content - contents 7. !ubstantive ale cror forme de plural au 4 sau mai multe sensuri : effect . effects1"effects2, custom . customs1" customs2" customs3 8. !ubstantive ce au un sens numrabil 'i unul nenumrabil: hair, business, character, $ame, sport

> *ount and !oncount !ouns

33

#$ercise 3 <re the follo3ing nouns count or noncount: Put an * ne.t to the noncount nouns and a @ ne.t to the count nouns" If the noun can be either noncount or count depending on the conte.t, put a & ne.t to it" 3orld te.tboo2 acid smo2ing poetr7 applause thought banana conduct progress biolog7 essa7 cr7stal shopping

#$ercise ? 4ill in the blan2 3ith the form of the noun in parentheses that is appropriate to the grammatical conte.t of the sentence and the meaning of the passage as a 3hole" Diabetes= 4eyond the 4asics /ecause diabetes can cause devastating WWWWWWWWW (damage, damages) to virtuall7 all bod7 WWWWWWWW (s7stem, s7stems), people 3ith diabetes should not underrate the seriousness of their disease" Mearning to live 3ith a chronic WWWWWWWW (illness, illnesses) such as diabetes must be an ongoing process" +he ?ospitalKs @enter for 4amil7 Mife )ducation is sponsoring a five-part educational series on diabetes" +he series 3ill begin on <pril =B and continue through ;a7 AZ" +he WWWWWWWWW (program, programs) 3ill be held in the second floor classroom of the )ducation @enter from X-Z p"m" +he diabetes series is free and open to the public and 3ill be of specific WWWWWWWWW (interest, interests) to people 3ho have diabetes and their families and friends" #$ercise @ 4ill in the blan2s 3ith the appropriate article if one is needed" 8he *omputer Jungle +hough 7ou can ma2e WWWW decision on purel7 economic grounds, bu7ing WWWW computer is often more li2e Roining WWWW religious cult" /u7 WWWW <pple, for e.ample, and almost b7 default 7ou Roin <pple chairman Steve 8obs in his crusade against I/;" )ver7 machine has its GusersK groupsG and WWWW band of lo7al enthusiasts 3ho tout its merits" +hat ma2es it all WWWW more difficult for WWWW uninitiated to decide 3hat machine to bu7" Students have WWWW huge advantage, ho3ever" +he computer companies are so eager for studentsK business (it builds Gbrand lo7alt7G) that man7 offer huge discounts" In the past si. months, I/;, <pple, and others have brought out ne3 computers, and WWWW fierce competition has forced prices do3n" <lso, time is on 7our side% ne.t 7ear at WWWW time 7ouKll have even more choice and more computing po3er and features for WWWW same price" 'n WWWW other hand, this 3ill probabl7 be true for man7 7ears" So for those 3ho need or 3ant WWWW computer no3, itKs a great time to bu7 one"

34

4
+radu urm toarele propozi!ii 5n limba englez , folosind substantive proprii $i abrevieri% C" Ncoala 5ncepe 5n septembrie" A" *oi mergem la 5not duminic " =" &l" /ro3n este membru al parlamentului" T" On fiecare an la data de T iulie, americanii s rb toresc 1iua Independen!ei" U" &un rea se vars 5n ;area *eagr " F" &octorul Ionescu consult elevii 5n fiecare luni" X" Spania se 5nvecineaz cu 4ran!a" Y" @hinezii, vietnamezii $i Raponezii tr iesc 5n <sia" Z" ?otelul Intercontinental din /ucure$ti se afl l#ng +eatrul *a!ional" CB" Studiem engleza $i germana la $coal " +rece urm toarele substantive compuse la num rul plural% CC" passer-b7 CA" bedroom C=" car race CT" loo2er-on CU" man singer CF" merr7-go-round CX" horse-race CY" forget-me-not CZ" footstep AB" fireman

C" schoolbo7 A" masterpiece =" brother-in-la3 T" father-in-la3 U" headmaster F" mil2man X" 3oman dentist Y" postman Z" blac2board CB" son-in-la3 Pune substantivele din paranteze la num rul plural%

C" +here are hundreds of (boo2) on the (shelf)" A" <ll his (to7) are in his room" 35

=" +hose (man) are (tourist)" T" (@hild) li2e (stor7)" U" +he7 left their (3atch) on the table" @ompleaz propozi!iile urm toare cu cuantificatori potrivi!i ca sens (piece, bit, item, pair, head etc)%

C" I need a 3hite """"" of paper" A" She bought t3o """"" of chocolate 7esterda7" =" I 3ant a """"" of 3hite bread and t3o """"" of bro3n bread" T" 9ive me a """"" of chal2, 3ill 7ou: U" >hat a """"" of 3or2 is manL +radu urm toarele propozi!ii 5n limba englez %

C" Ntirile pe care le-am primit sunt interesante" A" ;i-am f cut bagaRele asear " =" Vom publica toate informa!iile care sunt necesare candida!ilor" T" @uno$tin!ele lui de istorie sunt remarcabile" U" <m cump rat fructe $i c#teva pr Rituri" F" Pi-ai f cut temele: +radu 5n limba englez %

C" Ende este cle$tele: A" ;ulte mul!umiri" =" S-au 5ncercat toate miRloacele" T" @artierul general al armatei era l#ng Mondra" U" 4izica este obiectul lui preferat" F" <m prins trei p str vi mari" X" +ocmai s-a publicat o carte despre pe$tii de ap dulce din 0om#nia" Y" <re p r $aten" Z" )a are c#teva fire de p r alb" CB" & -mi dou p#ini, te rog" CC" < f cut progrese mari 5n 5nv !area limbii engleze" 36

CA" <cesta este procesul verbal al $edin!ei" +radu urm toarele propozi!ii 5n limba rom#n %

C" +here is a glass of mil2 on the table" A" &oes he 3ear glasses: =" 6ou have to declare ever7thing at the customs" T" +he7 3ant to get acSuainted 3ith this 0omanian custom" U" <re 7ou 3riting a letter: F" ?e is a great man of letters" X" I don-t li2e her airs" Y" +here is something in the air" Specifica!i corespondentele feminine ale urm toarelor substantive masculine% X" stag Y" bo7 Z" husband CB" man CC" 2ing

C" son A" nephe3 =" uncle T" father U" brother F" coc2 +radu 5n limba rom#n %

C" at a mile-s distance A" 7esterda7-s ne3spaper =" in t3o 7ears- time T" a pound-s 3eight U" at a stone-s thro3 F" to m7 heart-s content X" art for art-s sa2e

AD(ERBUL
37

dverbe de mod - arata modul in care se petrece o actiune ;od de formare% de obicei, aceste adverbe se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -l7 la finalul unui adRectiv" ).emple%

beautiful ^_ beautifull7 sad ^_ sadl7 capable ^_ capabl7 slo3 ^_ slo3l7 eas7 ^_ easil7

dverbe de loc - arata locul in care se petrece o actiune ).emple% here, there, upstairs, do3nstairs, an73here, ever73here, outside, inside dverbe de timp - arata timpul in care se petrece o actiune ).emple% toda7, 7esterda7, tomorro3, Saturda7, ;onda7, no3, finall7, later, soon, Rust, still dverbe de durata - arata perioada de timp a unei actiuni ).emple% forever, shortl7, long, permanentl7 dverbe de comparatie - arata gradul de intensitate al unei actiuni ).emple% e.tremel7, greatl7, hugel7, partiall7, perfectl7, strongl7, totall7, almost, ver7, entirel7 dverbe de frecventa - arata gradul de repetabilitate al unei actiuni ).emple% al3a7s, constantl7, often, rarel7, regularl7, seldom, sometimes, occasionall7, rarel7, never dverbe de probabilitate 38

- arata gradul de probabilitate a unei actiuni ).emple% certainl7, perhaps, ma7be, possibl7, definitel7 *omparison of dverbs Similar to the comparison of adRectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison the (ositive, the *omparative and the 2uperlative" ;ost adverbs 3hich end in `-ly- form the @omparative 3ith `more- and the Superlative 3ith `most-" (ositive *omparative 2uperlative comfortabl7 more comfortabl7 most comfortabl7 happil7 more happil7 most happil7 2indl7 more 2indl7 most 2indl7 loudl7 more loudl7 most loudl7 noisil7 more noisil7 most noisil7 Forming dverbs <dverbs can be formed from nouns, adPectives and verbs" ;ost adverbs end in `-ly-" *ouns <dRectives Verbs <dverbs beaut7 beautifull7 success successfull7 angr7 angril7 foolish foolishl7 continue continuall7 2no3 2no3ingl7

PRACTICE
3> 8ransformati urmatoarele adPective in adverbe=

horrible ^_ careful ^_ nervous ^_ desperate ^_ slo3 ^_ sudden ^_ bright ^_ proud ^_

?> 2ubliniati termenul corect din urmatoarele propo)itii si traduceti=


&enisa 3as 3earing a prett7 ( prettil7 dress at the 3edding" I had a terrible ( terribl7 dream last night" 4inal ( 4inall7, she passed the e.am" 39

She 3as 3al2ing rapid ( rapidl7" Sam is fluent ( fluentl7 in 4rench" >as 7our grammar test eas7 ( easil7: +he7 3ere tal2ing loud ( loudl7 so ever7bod7 could hear them"

@> legeti varianta corecta= C" Please don-t tal2 so """""""""""""""""""" " I-m tr7ing to sleep" a) louder] b) loudest] c) loudl7 A" >e """""""""""""""""""" go on picnics on 3ee2ends" >e love fresh air" a) never] b) usuall7] c) seldom =" +he bouSuet 3as """""""""""""""""""" " She loved it" a) beautiful] b) beautifull7] c) ugl7" T" 8ames """""""""""""""""""" put the bro2en glass into the rubbish bin" a) careful] b) more carefull7] c) carefull7 A> Find the adPective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the adverb> C" 8oanne is happ7" She smiles [[[["" A" +he bo7 is loud" ?e shouts [[[[[[" =" ?er )nglish is fluent" She spea2s )nglish [[[[""" T" 'ur mum 3as angr7" She spo2e to us [[[[""" U" ;7 neighbour is a careless driver" ?e drives [[[[[[" F" +he painter is a3ful" ?e paints [[[[[""" X" 8im is a 3onderful piano pla7er" ?e pla7s the piano [[[[[[[" Y" +his girl is ver7 Suiet" She often snea2s out of the house [[[[["" Z" She is a good dancer" She dances reall7 [[[[[["" CB" +his e.ercise is simple" 6ou [[[[[[ have to put one 3ord in each space" L> *ompare the following adverbs>
Example: newly - __________ - __________ Answer: newly - more newly 0 most newly 1) ) !) #) $) %) fastwell caref"lly often badly hard -

40

&) clearly ') little () m"ch 1)) early -

M> "s the underlined word an adverb or notQ C" /e carefulL +he iron is ver7 hot" A" < micro3ave can coo2 food fast" =" 8un sang ver7 loudl7" T" +his bacon is lovel7L U" 8oe dresses ver7 informall7" F" SheKs a ver7 strange 3omanL X" IKm free tomorro3" Shall 3e meet at five: Y" 8an is ver7 helpful if 7ou have a problem 3ith 7our computer" Z" Sam 3al2s ver7 sha2il7, because heKs getting old" CB" I get up earl7 ever7 morning" R> dPective or adverbQ
1* * +he sho"ted ___ at him* a* angry b* angrily ,e is a __ wor-er* a* careless b* carelessly .f yo" as- ___/ . will give it to yo"* a* nice b* nicely 0e 1"iet2 . can't thin- ___ if yo" are tal-ing* a* clear b* clearly 3hy are yo" ___4 a* angry b* angrily %* 5o" are always so ___/ come on2 a* slow b* slowly 6hose chocolates loo- ___* 7an . have one4 a* nice b* nicely +he opened the door ___* a* slow b* slowly .t is a bea"tif"l __ day* a* clear b* clearly

&*

!*

'*

#*

(*

$*

1)* 5o" write so ___* 8oo- at these mista-es* a* careless b* carelessly

41

NUMERALUL
8radu /n limba engle)&= C" A au mers la $coal " A" On clas sunt prezen!i doar CT copii din AC" =" X fete, U b ie!i $i CY p rin!i sunt la mare" T" <m fost $i eu la munte pe data de CY mai CZX=" U" Ma $coal am T note de X, CA note de Y, = note de Z $i CC note de CB" F" <cum este ora A%CY" 8radu in engle)a C" @omisia e.amineaz c#te cinci candida!i pe zi" A" Propun s form m grupuri de lucru de c#te patru" =" &ecanul nu aprob dec#t cererile a c#te trei din fiecare grup " T" <m distribuit materiale la c#te trei din fiecare grup " U" @opii, merge!i doi c#te doiL F" Proiectul prevede restaurarea a circa AB de cl diri" X" On sal sunt 5n Rur de UB de studen!i" Y" @#t am fost plecat: *u mai $tiu precis, cam patru luni" Z" +rebuie s lu m vreo dou 2ilograme de fursecuri pentru at#ta lume" CB" Ia $i tu dou -trei 2ilograme de mere, sa ne !in p#n luni" CC" St m la Sinaia o zi-dou $i pe urm mergem la /ra$ov" CA"Ont#lnirea a durat pu!in peste dou ore" C=" <ici trebuie s fie mult peste patru 2ilograme de f in " CT" Sunt mai bine de opt 2ilometri p#n la caban L CU" I-ai dat mai mult de un milion, ai griRa cum numeri baniiL CF" P#n la caban sunt opt 2ilometri $i mai bineL CX" *u e a$a de mult de citit, te.tul sta are sub o sut de pagini" 2crie datele urmatoare= B="BU"CZFU, CY"BY"CZUX, A="BC"CZXB, AT"CA"CZT=, BC"CC"ABBB, AZ"CB"CZZZ, CY"BA"ABBU, B="BC"ABBC, AC"B="CYYT, =C"BX"CACC 8radu= C" +ranslate the first page of this te.t into 0omanian, please" A" ;7 friendsK daughter is in the first grade" =" +he fifth one (masc") is a ver7 interesting gu7" T" +he fourth one (fem") impressed me ver7 much" U" ^ &o the7 live on the first floor: ^ *o, the7 live on the third floor" F" <t first I could not understand 3hat he 3as sa7ing" +he second time he spo2e to me, I understood almost ever7thing" X" I li2e the third part of this s7mphon7 ver7 much" Y" +he7 did Rust one-third of their home3or2" +he7 said the7 3ould have done it all, had the7 had more time" Z" +he AUth e.ercise 3as ver7 difficult" CB" *obod7 read the =Cst stor7, because it 3as too long"

RE(ISION 2
3> We are taking the bus to school> <" >e ta2e the bus to school ever7 da7" /" >e are on the bus to school right no3" @" >e prefer to ta2e the bus to school" &" >e donKt ta2e the bus to school" ?> 8wo boys are in the park now> <" +he7 are pla7ing football" /" +he7 pla7 football" @" +he7 do pla7 football" &" +he7 football pla7" @> SSSSSSS they SSSSSSSS to schoolQ <" <re, go /" <re, going @" Is, go &" &o, going A> 8oms father is (eter> <" +om is PeterKs father" /" Peter is +omKs father" @" +om is a father" &" +om doesnKt have a father" L> SSSSSSSS rice do you wantQ <" ?o3 man7 /" ?o3 lots @" ?o3 much &" ?o3 lot of M> Jen and Tim SSSSSSSSS at school now, but they SSSSSSSSS at school last night> <" 3ere, 3ere /" 3ere, are @" are, 3erenKt &" arenKt, 3erenKt R> 8oday he SSSSSSS, but yesterday he SSSSSSSSS> <" is angr7, 3as happ7 /" 3as happ7, is sad @" is bored, 3ere e.cited &" 3as happ7, 3as happ7 H> SSSSSSSS three Packets on the chair> <" +here is /" +he7 are @" +here are &" +hat are U> Describe that car> <" It is a big, <merican, blac2 car" /" It is an <merican, big, blac2 car" @" It is a blac2, <merican, big car" &" It is a big, blac2, <merican car" 3G> (eter lives SSSSSSSSS 8oronto> <" at /" to @" in &" of 9evel ? Vuestions CC" ;7 sister 3or2s for a travel agenc7" WWWWWWWW is the manager" <" She /" ?er @" ?ers &" ?e CA" ;7 mother al3a7s as2s me to WWWWWW the dishes" <" do /" ma2e @" have &" help C=" ;7 girlfriend WWWWWWWWWWWWWW t3o da7s ago" <" call /" callt @" calt &" called CT" Mast +uesda7, m7 hoc2e7 practice WWWWWWWWWWW at U%BB p"m" <" begun /" begin @" began &" begon CU" Misa used to be fat" <" Misa is still fat" /" Misa 3as thin before" She is fat no3" @" Misa 3as fat before" *o3 she is thin" &" Misa 3as never fat" CF" Peter used to pla7 hoc2e7" <" ?e pla7s hoc2e7 ever7 da7" /" ?e pla7ed hoc2e7 before" *o3 he doesn-t pla7 hoc2e7" @" ?e pla7ed hoc2e7 before" *o3 he pla7s hoc2e7" &" ?e is accustomed to pla7ing hoc2e7 ever7 da7" CX" 9reg didn-t use to smo2e" <" ?e didn-t smo2e before" ?e smo2es no3" /" ?e smo2ed before" ?e doesn-t smo2e no3" @" ?e smo2ed before" ?e smo2es no3" &" ?e didnKt smo2e before" ?e doesnKt smo2e no3" CY" +he7 bought the shoes 3hen the7 3ere in +oronto" <" +he7 bought the shoes before the7 3ent to +oronto" /" +he7 bought the shoes after the7 returned from +oronto" @" +he7 3ore the shoes in +oronto" &" +he7 bought the shoes at the same time that the7 3ere in +oronto" CZ" +he7 have WWWWW apple and WWWWW banana" WWWWW apple is red" <" a, a, < /" an, the, +he @" an, a, < &" an, a, +he AB" 8odie 3ore WWWWWWW ugl7 dress to WWWWWWW part7" <" an, the /" a, a @" a, the

&" the, the AC" >hich of the follo3ing is a non-count noun: <" apple /" banana @" stra3berr7 &" fruit AA" Marr7 sometimes cuts WWWWWWWWWWWWW 3hen he shaves in the morning" <" he /" him @" himself &" his 9evel ?4 Vuestions A=" +he phone is ringing, WWWW get it" <" I-m going to /" I-ll @" I am &" I do AT" >hat WWWW do ne.t 7ear: <" are 7ou going to /" 3ill 7ou @" 3onKt 7ou &" do 7ou AU" +here is a big blac2 cloud in the s27" I thin2 it WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW rain" <" 3ill /" is going to @" 3onKt &" isnKt going to AF" ;7 brother is WWWWW +om" <" more tall than /" taller than @" tallest &" as tall than AX" >e 3ent to a fortune teller" She said 3e WWWWWWWWWW become rich and famous" <" is going to /" are going to @" 3ill &" both / and @ are correct AY" I am WWWW no3" <" confuseder /" confused more @" more confused &" the most confused AZ" Met-s meet WW the afternoon, WW T%BB" <" in, on /" at, at @" in, at &" on, at =B" ;7 brother 3as born WWWWWWWW *ovember CF WWWWW CZXB" <" on, on /" on, in @" in, in

&" in, on =C" &o 7ou WWWWW to eat peanut butter: <" li2e /" enRo7 @" 3ish &" seem 9evel @ Vuestions =A" 8ohn bought a present for his girlfriend" <" 8ohn bought it for her" /" 8ohn bought it for himself" @"8ohn-s girlfriend bought it" &" 8ohn bought his girlfriend it" ==" Peter and +om discussed WWWWat the meeting" <" to bill clients /" billing clients @" both a) and b) &" neither a) nor b) =T" ;7 friends enRo7 dancing" <" +he7 enRo7 to dance" /" &ancing is something 3e enRo7 to do" @" &ancing is fun for them" &" ;7 friends li2e to dancing" =U" +he7 decided WWWWW 3hen the7 sa3 the fight brea2 out" <" to leave /" leaving @" both a) and b) &" neither a) nor b) =F" She WWWWW letters 3hile her son WWW" <" 3as 3riting , 3as 3atching +V /" 3rote, 3atched +V @" 3as 3riting, 3atched +V &" 3rote, 3as 3atching +V =X" Peter 3ould rather have tea than coffee" <" Peter prefers coffee" /" Peter has rather a lot of coffee" @" ?e 3ould be better not to give Peter tea" &" Peter li2es tea better than coffee" =Y" Should I turn up the radio: <" *o, it-s loud enough" /" 6es, it-s too loud" @" 6es, it-s ver7 loud" &" *o, I can-t hear it" =Z" I-d li2e to tr7 on a bigger pair of pants, please" +hese ones are WWWWWWWW small" +he7-re not big WWWWWWWWW" <" too, enough /" ver7, enough @" to, enough &" ver7, too TB" +om 3as WWWW bus7 to go 3ith us" <" ver7 /" too @" so &" to TC" ;7 soup 3as delicious"

<" ?o3 3as 7our soup: /" >here 3as 7our soup: @" >h7 3as 7our soup: &" ?o3 is 7our soup: TA" >hat 3ere 7ou doing 3hen the spaceship landed: <" I slept" /" I 3as sleeping" @" I 3o2e up" &" I didn-t sleep" T=" ?e-s ver7 intelligent" <" >hat is he li2e: /" >hat does he loo2 li2e: @" >hat does he li2e: &" >hat li2es he: TT" *o one ans3ered the door" I guess WWW is home" +here WWW lights on" <" none, aren-t no /" nobod7, aren-t an7 @" no one, are none &" nothing, isn-t an7 TU" I am ver7 full" I don-t 3ant WWWWWWWW" <" nothing /" something @" an7thing &" no more 9evel @4 Vuestions TF" +he7 borro3ed a boo2 WWWWWWWWWWWW the librar7" <" to /" from @" for &" at TX" Peter has 3or2ed at Starbuc2s for three 7ears" <" +hree 7ears ago, Peter 3or2ed at Starbuc2s" /" Peter 3or2ed for Starbuc2s for three 7ears and then Suit" @" Peter 3or2s for Starbuc2s" ?e started 3or2ing there = 7ears ago" &" Peter 3or2ed for Starbuc2s = 7ears ago but Suit" TY" I don-t 3ant to see that movie" I WWWW it five times alread7" <" sa3 /" have seen @" seen &" have been seeing TZ" >e WWWWWWWWWWW @hristmas dinner WWWWWWWWWW three hours" <" have been coo2ing, for /" have been coo2ing, since @" have coo2ed, for &" have coo2ed, since UB" >hen 7ou don-t do 7our home3or2 7ou get a terrible mar2" <" 6ou should not do 7our home3or2" /" 6ou could do 7our home3or2" @" 6ou couldn-t do 7our home3or2"

&" 6ou had better do 7our home3or2" UC" +he ca2e is almost gone" <" Some of the ca2e is left" /" +here isn-t an7 ca2e" @" < little of the ca2e has been eaten" &" ;ost of the ca2e is here" UA" <lmost all of the @anadians that I 2no3 li2e to 3atch hoc2e7" <" ;ost @anadians 3atch hoc2e7" /" Some @anadians 3atch hoc2e7" @" <ll @anadians 3atch hoc2e7" &" 'ne @anadian 3atches hoc2e7" U=" *one of the 3or2ers 3ere ta2ing a brea2" <" *ot one of the 3or2ers 3ere bus7" /" *o 3or2ers 3ere 3or2ing" @" < fe3 of the 3or2ers 3ere not ta2ing a brea2" &" <ll of the 3or2ers 3ere 3or2ing" UT" ;7 pen is bro2en" I need WWWWW " <" other one /" almost one more @" each one &" another one UU" ;aria has three dictionaries" +3o are Spanish-)nglish" WWWWWWWWWWWWW one is )nglish-)nglish" <" 'ther /" +he other @" <nother &" )ach UF" ;an7 students stud7 )nglish in @anada" WWWWWWWWWWWW stud7 4rench" <" 'thers /" +he others @" <nother one &" )ach one 9evel A Vuestions UX" H>hat are these s7mbols for:I HI-m not sure but the7 could be laundr7 instructions"I <" 8oe has no idea if the7 are laundr7 instructions" /" 8oe thin2s that the7 might be laundr7 instructions" @" 8oe is sure that the7 are not laundr7 instructions" &" 8oe thin2s that the7 must be laundr7 instructions" UY" WWWW 7ou please close the door: <" @ould /" Shall @" ;ight &" &o UZ" +hat pen must be Susan-s" She 3as sitting at the des2" <" It must be Susan 3ho has the pen" /" +he pen ought to be Susan" @" Susan must be the o3ner of the pen" &" +he pen had better belong to Susan" FB" If I have time, I-ll go 3ith 7ou" <" I have time" I-ll go 3ith 7ou" /" I might have time" I-ll go 3ith 7ou if I do" @" I don-t have time" I can-t go 3ith 7ou"

&" I might have time" I 3on-t go 3ith 7ou" FC" I could drive there if I had a car" <" I have a car so I-ll drive there" /" I don-t have a car so I-ll drive there" @" I don-t have a car but I-d drive there if I did" &" I have a car but I 3on-t drive there" FA" If 7ou let me 2no3 3hen 7our computer comes, I WWWWWW 7ou connect it" <" helped /" 3ill help @" 3ould help &" could have helped F=" Susan li2es pizza, WWWWW" <" and Peter too /" and Peter neither @" and Peter does, too &" and Peter does, neither FT" 6ou-ve eaten sushi before, WWWWW: <" didnKt 7ou /" did 7ou @" havenKt 7ou &" 3onKt 7ou FU" +he7 didn-t pic2 up the tic2ets, WWW: <" did the7 /" donKt the7 @" didnKt the7 &" do the7 FF" I have a friend WWWWWWWWW loves to s2i" <" 3ho /" 3hom @" 3hose &" 3hich FX" +he girl WWWWWWWWWW I li2e is ver7 funn7" <" 3ho /" 3hom @" 3hose

&" 3hich FY" ?ave 7ou read the boo2 WWI gave 7ou: <" 3here /" 3hen @" 3hich &" 3ho FB" +he dinner made me feel sic2" <" +he dinner 3hich I ate made me feel sic2" /" +he dinner that I ate made me feel sic2" @" +he dinner I ate made me feel sic2" &" <ll of the above" XB" I 2no3 the 3omen WWWWWWWW ne.t door" <" 3ho lives /" 3ho live @" that lives &" lives

(ERBELE MODALE
@onceptul de capacitate, posibilitate, necesitate sau obliga!ie este redat de a$a numitele Gmodal au.iliar7 verbsG % can, could, shall, should, must,!ill, !ould, need, ought to, used to, dare. *aracteristici=

*u au infinitiv lung *u primesc GsG la persoana a III a singular prezent simplu *u primesc G-ingG Verbele care urmeaz sunt la infinitiv scurt] e.cep!ie% used to, ought to *u au toate timpurile si modurile unui verb normal, de aceea unele au echivalen!i 4ormeaz interogativul prin inversiune] negativul + not

Can
*and se foloseste W #$emple 3> e$prima capacitatea fi)ica sau intelectuala I can spea2 )nglish" I can s3im ver7 3ell" ?> pentru a e$prima imposibilitatea sau neincrederea *an +om ma2e such a mista2e : @> pentru a e$prima permisiunea in imba*u neoficia *an I borro3 7our boo2 : +ota% &ceasta forma de e'primare a permisiunii nu este foarte delicata si poate fi va(uta si ca o cerere politicoasa. A> pentru a e$prima continuitatea verbelor de perceptie I can see somebod7 near m7 car" *omentarii C" Pentru a e.prima permisiunea in lim a)ul oficial( politicos se foloseste G;a7G] A" @ererea cu G@ouldG este ma7 politicoasa decat cea cu G@anG] de aceea de regula cererile se fac cu G@ouldG] =" G@ouldG este folosit in unele cazuri drept trecutul lui G@anG"

Ma)
*and se foloseste W #$emple 3> cand se cere permisiunea in mod oficial, politicos Day I go home no3 : *ota% *ermisiunea se poate cere si cu +,an+ insa in mod neoficial, protocolar. ?> e$prima posibilitatea "t may rain in the afternoon" ( Se poate sa ploua in dupa-amiaza ) *ota% Daca se foloseste +might+ pro a ilitatea e mai mica decat +may+, insa diferenta nu e foarte mareIt might rain in the afternoon" ( S-ar putea sa ploua in dupa-amiaza ) @> e$prima o dorinta Day all 7our 3ishes come true" ( 4ie ca """ ) *omentarii .. +May+ in situatia in care e'prima posi ilitatea poate fi inlocuit cu Git is possibleG fara ca sensul sa se schim eIt is possible for +om to do that thing"

W!##

).prim voin! , hot r#re I !ill pay you as much as you ask for.

Promisiune I !ill not make such a mistake again. Posibilitate, presupunere /hat girl !ill e his sister? $Fata ceea o fi sora lui?% @eva inevitabil (e.presii fi.e) ,hildren !ill e children. &ccidents !ill happen $accidentele sunt inevita ile% Onlocuie$te prezentul simplu pentru ac!iune obi$nuit , repetat I al!ays drink milk in the morning0I !ill drink milk in the morning Invita!ie, cerere politicoas 1ill you come and...?$ 2rei s3...?%

W$%#*

).prim o cerere politicoas >ould 7ou pass"""

>ould 7ou please"""

>ould 7ou be so 2ind"""

>ould 7ou mind+ V (-ing)


).prim o ac!iune repetat 5n trecut $i 5ncetat 5n prezent (obi$nuiam s """) <pare dup % !ish $i if only pentru o dorin! 5n viitor

).prim o probabilitate ).% +hat girl 3ould be his sisterL

S+a##

?ot r#re /he enemy shall not pass.

Promisiune If you get a good mark you shall have a present. 0efuz, insisten! , amenin!are 4e shall pay for insulting my daughter. ).prim o interdic!ie 5n acte oficiale &ll the candidates shall not ring$may not% the dictionaries into the e'amination room" 'fert , sugestie Shall I help you?

S+$%#*

).prim obliga!ie, sfat, recomandare (obliga!ia este mai slaba dec#t cea cu must) ).prim surpriza 5n 5ntrebare retoric 5'- 1hy should I go there? ).prim presupunere, deduc!ie logic

S%bst!t%te
9erb modal
must must not can ma0 need need not shall " should" ou$ht to to have to not to be allowed to to be able to to be allowed to to have to not to have to

!ubstitut

Q*emplu
1 must swim. R 1 have to swim. 1 must not swim. R 1 am not allowed to swim. 1 can swim. R 1 am able to swim. 1 ma0 swim. R 1 am allowed to swim. 1 need to swim. R 1 have to swim. 1 need not swim. R 1 donSt have to swim.

to be supposed to " to be e*pected 1 shall " should " ou$ht to swim. R 1 am supposed to swim. " 1 am to " to be to e*pected to swim. " 1 am to swim.

PRACTICE
*.;;2# 8.# *;CC#*8 21428"818# F;C # *. D;D 9 E#C4> C" >e ought to 3in the race" \ >e """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 3in the race" A" I can s3im" \ I """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" s3im" =" 6ou must meet m7 best friend" \ 6ou """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" meet m7 best friend" T" ?e should be in bed b7 no3" \ ?e """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" be in bed b7 no3"

U" I must get up earl7" \ I """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" get up earl7" F" +he7 ma7 sta7 up late" \ +he7 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" sta7 up late" X" She needs to see the doctor" \ She """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" see the doctor" Y" >e need not 3al2" \ >e """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 3al2" Z" 6ou must not sleep \ 6ou """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" sleep" CB" Should I go to the cinema 3ith them: \ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" go to the cinema 3ith them: *.;;2# 8.# *;CC#*8 !2W#C F;C # *. 7 ( 4#9;W C" +edKs flight from <msterdam too2 more than CC hours" ?e be e.hausted after such a long flight" A" +he boo2 is optional" ;7 professor said 3e could read it if 3e needed e.tra credit" /ut 3e read it if 3e donKt 3ant to" =" Susan hear the spea2er because the cro3d 3as cheering so loudl7" T" +he television isnKt 3or2ing" It been damaged during the move" U" Date% hold 7our breath for more than a minute: 8ac2% *o, I canKt" F" 6ou be rich to be a success" Some of the most successful people I 2no3 havenKt got a penn7 to their name" X" IKve redone this math problem at least t3ent7 times, but m7 ans3er is 3rong according to the ans3er 2e7" +he ans3er in the boo2 be 3rongL Y" 6ou (do) the Rob if 7ou didnKt spea2 8apanese fluentl7" Z" 6ou 3orr7 so much" It doesnKt do 7ou an7 good" )ither 7ou get the Rob, or 7ou donKt" If 7ou donKt, Rust appl7 for another one" )ventuall7, 7ou 3ill find 3or2" CB" 6ou be 2iddingL +hat canKt be true" CC" 6ou leave the table once 7ou have finished 7our meal and politel7 e.cused 7ourself" CA" 8enn7Ks engagement ring is enormousL It cost a fortune" C=" 3e move into the living room: ItKs more comfortable in there and thereKs a beautiful vie3 of the la2e" CT" If I had gone 3hite 3ater rafting 3ith m7 friends, I be do3n the @olorado 0iver right no3" CU" <t first, m7 boss didnKt 3ant to hire Sam" /ut, because I had previousl7 3or2ed 3ith Sam, I told m7 boss that he XXXXXX ta2e another loo2 at his resume and reconsider him for the position" CF" 6ou ta2e along some cash" +he restaurant ma7 not accept credit cards" CX" +he machine turn on b7 flipping this s3itch" CY" I canKt stand these people I get out of here" IKm going to ta2e off for a3hile 3hile 7ou get rid of them" CZ" 6ou forget to pa7 the rent tomorro3" +he landlord is ver7 strict about pa7ing on time" AB" &o 7ou al3a7s have to sa7 the first thing that pops into 7our head" 7ou thin2 once in a 3hile before 7ou spea2: AC" +err7 and 4ran2 said the7 3ould come over right after 3or2, so the7 be here b7 F%BB" AA" 6esterda7, I cram all da7 for m7 4rench final" I didnKt get to sleep until after midnight" A=" >e no longer suffer the inRustice of oppressionL 4reedom shall be oursL AT" If I had gone to the Eniversit7 of ;iami, I participated in their Spanish immersion program" AU" +he lamp be bro2en" ;a7be the light bulb Rust burned out" F"99 "! 8.# 2( *#2 W"8. 8.# C"7.8 D;D 9 E#C42> ).ample% I WWWWWWWW spea2 )nglish ver7 fluentl7" (2e7 , can)

6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW run faster if 7ou 3erenKt so laz7" A" =" T" U" F" X" Y" Z" CB" CC" CA" C=" CT" CU" CF" CX" CY" CZ" AB" * ! W D128 aC - +hatKs ridiculous- 7ou WWWW be Ro2ing" can must aA - +hatKs the phone- 3ho WWWW it be: can must a= - +he7 havenKt eaten for hours- the7 WWWW be starving" can must aT - IKm bus7 this morning, but I WWWW see 7ou this afternoon if 7ou li2e" can must aU - It WWWW be the postman] itKs far too earl7" canKt *.;;2# 8.# C"7.8 *.;"*#= 6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW leave the class before C oKcloc2" 6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW behave 3ell in front of guests" Stop being sill7" 6ou loo2 tired" 6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW have some sleep" 6ou failed in 7our final test" 6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW have studied harder" WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW I borro3 7our pen: >e WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 3atch +V so much" >e WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW not climb those mountains 3hen 3e 3ere 2ids" +he proRect WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW finish in t3o 7ears time" Stop smo2ingL 6ou reall7 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW not smo2e" Sami WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW lift that heav7 table" ?e is too 3ea2" ;uneera WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW come to the part7, but nobod7 is sure" Maila WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW not s3im 3hen she 3as one 7ear old" ItKs too cold" I WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW close the 3indo3" It WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW rain in the desert sometimes, but 7ou canKt depend on it" If I had enough mone7, I WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW travel 3ith m7 friends but no3 I canKt" I WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to stud7 3ell for the e.am" I 3ish I WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW bu7 a ne3 car but i do not have an7 mone7" I have no time" I WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW leave no3" ;7 parents are 3aiting for me" ?e WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW be friendl7, but he is usuall7 unfriendl7" mustnKt aF - 6ou WWWW enter the countr7 3ithout a visa" can must aX - +he7Kre t3o hours late- there WWW be something 3rong" can must aY - She left t3o hours ago, so she WWWW have arrived b7 no3" can must aZ - ;7 doctor sa7s I WWWW lose some 3eight" can must aCB - WWWW 7ou smell something burning: @an ;ust

3> 6ou seem to be having trouble there" WWWWWWWWW I must have help 7ou: 3ill have >ould R> IKm reall7 Suite lost" WWWWWWWWWWWWWWW sho3ing >ill me ho3 to get out of here: Shall >ould 7ou mind ?> I donKt have enough mone7 to bu7 lunch" >ould 7ou be WWWWWWWWWW 7ou lend me a couple of dollars: ;ust 7ou be ;a7 H> +hat bus is usuall7 on time" It WWWWWWWWW to be @ould here an7 time no3" Shall might @> +hat ice is dangerousl7 thin no3" 6ou WWWWWWWW has go ice-s2ating toda7" ought mustnKt U> I read about 7our planeKs near disaster" 6ou might not WWWWWWWWWWWW terrifiedL 3ould mind not to might have been A> ItKs 3a7 past m7 bedtime and IKm reall7 tired" I must have been WWWWWWWW go to bed" shall have been should 3G> ItKs the la3" +he7 WWWWWWWWWWWW have a blood ought test before the7 get married" could might L> ?e WWWWWWWWWWWWWW have committed this crime" could ?e 3asnKt even in the cit7 that night" have to might 33> Professor Villa, 3eKve finished our 3or2 for toda7" shouldnKt WWWWWWWWW 3e leave no3, please: couldnKt ;a7 M> 8ohn is over t3o hours late alread7, ?e @an WWWWWWWWWWW missed the bus again" ;ust should have * !, D Y, D128 C ?e """"""""""""""""" go s2ating because he bro2e his leg" A ;an7 children in /ritain """""""""""""""""""" 3ear school uniforms" = IKm not sure but 8ane """""""""""""""""""""""""""" come to visit me this afternoon" T &idnbt 7ou see the sign: 6ou """"""""""""""""" drive more than =B miles" U ?e spea2s a lot of languages but he """""""""""""""""""""""""" spea2 @hinese" F It """""""""""""" sno3" It loo2s li2e it" X 6ou """""""""""""""""""" drive on the right in /ritain" Y ?e is a good bo.er" 6ou """""""""""""""""""" be careful" Z 6ou """"""""""""""""""""""" to smo2e in the office" CB +his test 3ill be ver7 difficult" So 7ou """"""""""""""""" learn a lot" CC 6ou """"""""""""""""" eat more vegetables because the7 are health7" CA I donKt """"""""""""""""""""""""" the car" 6ou can ta2e it" C= ?e does ever7thing himself" ?e """""""""""""""""" no help" CT Itcs going to rain" 6ou """"""""""""""""""""" shut the 3indo3" CU 6ou """""""""""""""""""""" start a fire in the forest"

D;D 9 E#C42 < #K#C*"2#2

Put the correct modal verb in its correct form combined 3ith the verb in brac2ets to ma2e deductions" In Suestions one to F, tr7 to use a different modal verb in each situation" Situation % +here are five mil2 bottles on their front door step" C" +he7 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (forget) to cancel their mil2 deliveries" A" +he7 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (3a2e up) 7et" =" +here WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (be) some guests sta7ing 3ith them" Situation % ?is coat is on the floor" T" ?e WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (drop) it" U" It WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (be) his coat" F" +here WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (be) some logical reason for itL Put the correct modal verb in its correct form into the gaps" X" ?e 3as ver7 strong] he WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW s2i all da7 and dance all night" Y" >e WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW to borro3 umbrellas] so 3e didnKt get 3et" Z" I 3as so far from the stage that I WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW see ver7 3ell" CU" +he7 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW get up earl7] the7 3ere on holida7" @omplete these sentences in an appropriate 3a7" CF" I left m7 bic7cle here and no3 itKs gone" Someone WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (steal) it" CX" I bought t3o bottles of mil2" 6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (bu7) mil2] 3e have loads in the fridge" CY" I have Rust 3atered the roses" 6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW (3ater) them" Moo2, itKs raining no3L ;'&<M V)0/S CB" ?e sees ver7 badl7] he WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 3ear glasses all the time" CC" *'+I@)% <ll dogs WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 2ept on leachesL CA" 4armers WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW get up earl7" C=" 6ou WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW drive fast] there is a speed limit here" CT" >e WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW drive fast] 3e have plent7 of time"

IF CLAUSE
Fraza condiional de tipul 1 O fraz condiional de tipul 1 se refer la o condiie posibil n viitor i la rezultatul probabil al acesteia. Ea implic obinerea unui anumit rezultat prin indeplinirea unei condiii date. Folosim timpul prezent in subordonata condiionala(pentru exprimarea condiiei) si viitorul in propoziia principal (pentru exprimarea rezultatului). PROPOZIIA PRI !IPA"# SIM !E F"#"$E &e %ill pass t'e exam El va lua examenul PROPOZIIA !O $IIO A"# SIM !E $ESE%# if 'e studies. dac va (nva.

Fraza condiional de tipul & O fraz condiional de tipul & se refer la o condiie i'probabil sau ipotetic i la rezultatul probabil al acesteia. Folosim acest tip de condiional pentru a exprima o situaie i'a(inar contrar realitii prezente sau pentru a exprima o situaie i'probabil intr)un 'o'ent viitor. Folosim timpul trecut in condiional )i *ondiionalul prezent in propoziia principal. PROPOZIIA PRI !IPA"# $ESE%# *O%+I#IO%,! &e %ould pass t'e exam El ar lua examenul PROPOZIIA !O $IIO A"# SIM !E ,S# if 'e studied. dac ar (nva.

Fraza condiional de tipul * O fraz condiional de tipul * se refer la o condiie ireal trecut si exprim o situaie imaginar sau contrar realitii intr-un moment trecut . Folosim mai mult ca perfectul in subordonat si condiionalul perfect in re-ent. PROPOZIIA PRI !IPA"# E$FE*# *O%+I#IO%,! PROPOZIIA !O $IIO A"# SIM !E ,S# E$FE*#

&e %ould +ave passed t'e if 'e +ad studied. exam El ar fi luat examenul dac ar fi (nvat. Exemplul de mai sus se refer la o situaie contrar realitii trecute . el nu a (nvat/ deci nu )i0 a luat examenul

PRACTICE
Fill in the best form of the verb/phrase to make conditionals types G/3/?/@> C" A" =" T" U" F" X" Y" Z" CB" CC" CA" C=" CT" CU" CF" CX" CY" CZ" AB" If 7ou thin2 7our boss (be) smarter" stupid, remember% 7ou 3ouldnKt have a Rob if he 3as an7 driven out of business" 7our brea2fast first"

;7 3arning% If 7ou donKt drive 7our business 7ou (be) If 7ou marr7 for mone7, 7ou (surel7 earn) If 7ou (can count) it"

*ever 3or2 before brea2fast" If 7ou have to 3or2 before brea2fast, (get) If I had no sense of humour, I 3ould long ago (commit) ;an7 people might have attained 3isdom (the7 not assume) is used) If 7ou (have to as2) ho3 much it costs, 7ou canKt afford it" >e 3ould accomplish man7 more things if 3e (not thin2) If the blind lead the blind, both (fall) I 3onKt belong to an7 organization that (have) If 7ou build a better mousetrap, 7ou (catch) I 3ish people that have trouble communicating (Rust shut up) If 7outh (2no3) ] if age could" 7ouL If 7ou donKt program 7ourself, life (program) If 3e (spea2) I 3ish I (have) If 7ou (not care) into the ditch" *o one 3ould have doubted his abilit7 to reign (he never be) suicide"

7our mone7, then 7ouKre not a rich man" the7 alread7 had it" (*' KI4K

of them as impossible" an emperor" (*' KI4K is used) me as a member" better mice" L

<dvice is 3hat 3e as2 for 3hen 3e alread7 2no3 the ans3er but 3ish 3e (not) the voice of ?omer" , 7our customer never 3ill"

"

a different language, 3e 3ould perceive a some3hat different 3orld"

Fill in the best form of the verb to make conditionals C" 6ou must not blame me if I WWWWW to the clouds" had tal2ed tal2 tal2ed 3ill tal2 3ould tal2 A" I 3onder 3hether if I WWWWW an education I should have been more or less a fool that I am" could have had had had have 3ill have =" If it loo2s li2e shit, smells li2e shit, mail it to 7our enem7""" he WWWWW 3hat to do 3ith it" 3ould 2no3 3ill 2no3 2no3 had 2no3n to 2no3 T" If I WWWWW m7 best, I can 3in an73here in the 3orld against an7bod7" 3ould pla7 3ill pla7 pla7ed pla7 had pla7ed U" I donKt Rog, if I WWWWW I 3ant to be sic2" 3ould die 3ill die died die can die F" If 3hat happens does not ma2e us richer, 3e must 3elcome it if it WWWWW us 3iser" had made ma2es 3ill ma2e made ma2e X" If I WWWWW t3o-faced, 3ould I be 3earing this one: 3ill be 3ere have been had been be

Y" /elieve and act as if it WWWWW impossible to fail" be ma7 be 3ere 3ere not 3ill be Z" If it WWWWW, admit it fran2l7 and tr7 another" /ut above all, tr7 something" fail fails had failed have failed 3ill fail CB" If I die, I forgive 7ou" If I WWWWW 3e shall see" 3ill live lived had lived 3ould live live CC" 6ou can onl7 be free if I WWWWW free" am had been 3as 3ere 3ill be CA" If I WWWWW m7 friendKs silence, I 3ill never get to understand his 3ords" can not understand could not understand did not understand had not understood 3ill not understand C=" )ver7 da7 is a gift- even if it WWWWW" 3ill suc2 3as suc2ing suc2s suc2ed suc2 CT" If I WWWWW one heart from brea2ing, I shall not live in vain" can stop could stop had stopped stopped 3ill stop CU" If itKs a good script I WWWWW it" <nd if itKs a bad script, and the7 pa7 me enough, IKll do it" did does have done 3ill do 3ould do CF" If it 3ere not for hopes, the heart WWWWW" 3ould brea2 3ill brea2 can brea2 brea2s brea2 CX" <n idea is 3orth nothing if it WWWWW no champion" had has have have had to have CY" If it is not right, do not do it] if it is not true, WWWWW it" 3ould not sa7 does not sa7 do not sa7 did not sa7 could not sa7 CZ" If I WWWWW allo3ed to laugh in heaven, I donKt 3ant to go there" could not be 3ill not be 3ere not am not 3as not AB" >hat do 3e live for] if it WWWWW not to ma2e life less difficult to each other: 3as be is had been 3ere 1sing the words in parentheses, complete the te$t below with the appropriate conditional form C" (If ( >hen) I leave 3or2, I usuall7 go to the fitness center to 3or2 out" A" She hates +V" She thin2s television is a 3aste of time" (If ( >hen) she 3atches an7 television at all, it is usuall7 a documentar7 or a ne3s program" =" ;7 friend al3a7s 2eeps in touch b7 mail" (If ( >hen) I get a letter, I usuall7 3rite bac2 immediatel7" T" If I (have) enough mone7, I (go) on safari to Den7a" ?o3ever, m7 ban2 account is empt7L U" I love to travelL >hen I (have) enough mone7, I (go) abroad" I do it almost ever7 7ear" F" I reall7 3anted to go on safari to Den7a 3ith m7 friends, but I couldnKt afford to go" If I (have) enough mone7, I (go) 3ith them" X" IKm sorr7, I didnKt 2no3 7ou 3ere allergic to chocolate" If I (2no3) , I (ma2e) 7ou a vanilla birthda7 ca2e" Y" Stop as2ing me 3hat <manda bought 7ou for @hristmas" )ven if I (2no3) 3hat she bought 7ou, I (tell, not) 7ou" Z" *obod7 here spea2s )nglish" +oo bad 9loria isnKt here" If she (be) 3ith us, she (can) act as our interpreter" CB" I am afraid I 3onKt be able to come to 7our 3edding ne.t 3ee2 because m7 compan7 is sending me to *e3 6or2 to attend a trade sho3" I (miss, never) 7our 3edding if I (have) a choice in the matter" CC" If the 3eather is nice tomorro3, she (3al2) along the river to school" CA" If 7ou help me move tomorro3, I (treat) 7ou to a dinner and a movie" C=" If 7ou 3ere to help me move tomorro3, I (treat) 7ou to a dinner and a movie" CT" If I 3ere in +ahiti right no3, I (snor2el) along a beautiful reef" I 3ouldnKt be stuc2 here in

this office 3ith mountains of paper3or2" CU" If 8err7 hadnKt stopped to pic2 up that Suarter, he (cross) the street 3hen the bus ran the red light" ?e might have been 2illedL CF" +inaKs train arrived ahead of schedule" If I hadnKt decided to go to the train station earl7, she (3ait) there for more than t3ent7 minutes before I arrived" CX" If I (pass) the test, I (get) an G<G in the class" Instead, I got a G@"G I reall7 should have studied more" CY" If I (be) rich, I (bu7) that ne3 ;ercedes 3e sa3 7esterda7" Enfortunatel7, I canKt even afford a used car" CZ" >e (go) s2iing this 3ee2end, but thereKs no sno3" 'h, 3ellL >e 3ill Rust have to find something else to do instead" AB" If ?eather spo2e @hinese, she (translate) the email for 7ou 7esterda7"

C$n*!t!$na# #a%se E,er !ses


8radu partea > C" A" =" T" U" F" X" Y" Z" CB" CC" CA" C=" CT" CU" CF" CX" CY" CZ" AB" 4> AC" AA" A=" AT" AU" AF" AX" AY" AZ" If 7ou 3ant to read this boo2 [[ Enless the light improves ["" If I 3ere to 3in the competition [" If 7ou hadn-t offended him [" If 7ou had lost that tic2et [ If I 3anted to do the Rourne7 in one da7 onl7 [ I shouldn-t be so pleased if 7ou [ I 3ouldn-t have been able to find m7 3a7 [ I 3ouldn-t need to 3ear glasses if [ Zi continu&, formulInd enun[uri proprii, partea 4=

&ac s-ar sim!i deprimat , ar ie$i la o plimbare prelungit " dac ai ceva timp liber, treci pe la mine s mai discut m" &ac nu ar fi avut vitez mare, nu ar fi f cut accidentul de ieri" &ac ne scrie ast zi, m#ine va primi r spunsul" *-ai fi f cut nici un progres dac nu ai fi 5nv !at mult" &ac plec pe munte, 5mi iau bocanci speciali" &ac 5l v d, 5l voi avertiza s nu spun nimic" *u ai fi aRuns acas 5naintea l s rii 5ntunericului dac nu ai fi plecat de acolo la ora =" &ac nu !i-ar pl cea spectacolul ai pleca 5nainte de final" *u-mi c#nt dac nu 5l rog" ;i-ar fi trimis un mesaR de felicitare dac ar fi $tiut c#nd este ziua mea de na$tere" &ac ai fi trimis coletul prin po$t , l-a$ fi primit p#n acum, dar nu a aRuns" Vei vinde casa imediat, dac nu ceri un pre! e.agerat" +oat lumea ar fi r#s de ea dac ar fi purtat p l ria aceea caraghioas " Ni-ar termina raportul dac nu ar fi obosit " *u ar tremura dac nu ar fi at#t de frig" <$ fi mers $i eu 5n e.cursie dac mi-ai fi spus c pleci" *u ar sta acas dac ar fi vreme bun " 8ohn ar lua note mai bune dac ar fi mai atent" Vom pune cortul destul de repede dac nu bate v#ntul"

=B" =C" =A" ==" =T" =U" =F" =X" =Y" =Z" TB" TC" TA" T=" TT" TU" TF" TX" TY" TZ" UB" *>

If I sa3 an accident [ If m7 friend had not come [ If gold had not been found in @alifornia [ If the thief had been caught [ If he hadn-t made so man7 mista2es[ +here 3ould be man7 accidents if [ ;an7 visitors 3ould have been disappointed if [ +he surprise 3ill be e.traordinar7 if [ +he heat 3ill be unbearable if [ <ll the pla7ers 3ould not have done their best if [ If 7ou don-t understand """ 6ou 3ouldn-t be so tired if [ If the7 3ere in 7our place [ >hat 3ould 7ou do if [: She 3ouldn-t have arrived so late [ >hat 3ill 7ou do if [: I 3on-t go unless [ If 7ou had telephoned earlier [ She 3ouldn-t have gone on the trip unless [ If he 3ouldn-t have been frightened b7 the bear [ If she spends all the mone7 I gave her [

3>Dark the correct verb form= a"If 7ou don-t spend(didn-t spend so much mone7 on clothes,7ou could go on a trip" b"If I hadn-t been so rude,the7 3ould li2e(3ould have li2ed me" c"If I 2ne3(had 2no3n 7our e-mail address I 3ould send 7ou these photos" d"If he doesn-t tell the truth 3e 3ill(3ould never spea2 to him again" e">hat 3ould 7ou do(3ould 7ou have done if 7ou had been me: ?>*omplete each sentence so it means the same as the sentence above it= a"8oe 3as ill,so he couldn-t come to m7 part7" 8oe 3ould [[[ b"6ou 3on-t get a good mar2 unless 7ou stud7 hard" If 7ou don-t[[[" @>*omplete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets= a"If I 3ere 7ou,I [[[[""(leave) no3" b" ?e might have 3on the contest if he[[["(tr7) harder" c" I-ll call the police if I [[[[[[""(hear) a strange noise"

A> *omplete the sentences= a" >hat[[[[[["if 7ou 3ere in m7 shoes: b"If I see him again,I [[[[[["" c" >ould 7ou have lent him the mone7 if[[[[[[["": L> nswer the following Fuestion= >hat 3ould 7ou do if 7ou 3on the lotter7:

CONDITIONAL FOLLOW UP
> Fill the gaps with the correct verb form= C"- I don-t thin2 she-s 3orried about us" If she (be) 3orried, she (phone) or something" A"- I have an appointment at ="=B tomorro3" If I (manage) to finish before T"=B, I (do) the shopping on m7 3a7 bac2" ="- +om missed his flight" ?e (get) to the airport on time if he (not oversleep)" T"- If I (have) such a large house as 7ours, I (invite) all m7 friends for the 3ee2end" U"- If the child (not be pla7ing) 3ith matches, he (not burn) himself" *o3 he-s in hospital" F"- She-s so sh7" If she (tal2) to people, she (ma2e) friends" X"- So, 7ou-re seeing +err7 tonight" If he (as2) 7ou about me, (not, tell) him I-m going out 3ith 8ohn" Y"- If a machine (be) properl7 maintained, it (fail, never) Z"- >e (invite) him if 3e (2no3) his address, but he never gave it to us" CB"- Enless I (have) a problem, I (bother, never) m7 friends" CC"- 6ou-re ver7 strong" If 7ou (tr7) 7ou (3in) 7our opponent" CA"- Moo2 3hat 7ou-ve done" If 7ou (be) careful, 7ou (not, brea2) all those glasses" C="- I 3as so stupidL *othing (happened) if I (not, moved) to his flat" CT"- She-s a bit short" If he (be) taller he (can) pla7 bas2et" CU"- Sorr7" I (lend) 7ou the mone7 7ou need if I (have) it" CF"- +he bus is full up" If there (be) an empt7 seat, I (sit) do3n" CX"- >h7 didn-t 7ou go to the police station: If 7ou (report) the theft, the7 (can arrest) the robbers" CY"- I (leave) him a message is he (not, be) home 3hen I phone" 4> If to ,n ess conversion C"- If nobod7 helps me, I-ll get into trouble" "ll get into trouble unless somebody helps me> A"- I 3on-t 2no3 an7thing about m7 friends if the7 don-t 3rite to me" ="- +he7 3ouldn-t have bothered 7ou if the7 hadn-t needed 7our help" T"- If there isn-t a traffic Ram, 3e-ll be home b7 five o-cloc2" U"- People don-t go to the doctor if the7 aren-t ill" F"- I-ll punish 7ou if 7ou don-t tell me the truth" X"- +he7 3on-t invite 7ou to their part7 if the7 don-t 2no3 7our phone number" Y"- +he7 3on-t give 7ou the Rob if the7 don-t li2e 7our appearance" Z"- If 7ou don-t finish 7our home3or2 no3, I 3on-t let 7ou 3atch +V" CB"- I 3on-t phone 7ou if there isn-t an7thing urgent" CC"- I 3ouldn-t invest all this mone7 if I 3eren-t sure I 3ould get it bac2" CA"- If 7ou don-t get up earl7, 7ou-ll miss 7our train" C="- I 3ouldn-t have as2ed him an7 Suestions if he hadn-t been read7 to ans3er them" CT"- >e 3on-t go fishing if the 3eather isn-t fine" CU"- I 3on-t as2 him to 3rite if he doesn-t 3ant to" CF"- I never hitch-hi2e if it isn-t absolutel7 necessar7" CX"- If I don-t 2no3 an7thing about him in t3o da7s, I-ll report his disappearance to the police" CY"- She 3ouldn-t save an7 mone7 if she didn-t 3ant to bu7 a house of her o3n" *> *ircle the right option= C"- If 3e ta2e ( 3ill ta2e a ta.i, 3e 3ill arrive ( arrived sooner" A"- 6ou 3ouldn-t get ( didn-t get 3et if 7ou 3ould have 3orn ( 3ere 3earing a coat" ="- If our team had scored ( scored more goals, it had 3on ( could have 3on" T"- I had given ( 3ould have given 7ou the ne3s if 7ou phoned ( had phoned me 7esterda7" U"- If 7ou too2 ( 3ould have ta2en more e.ercise, 7ou might feel ( had felt better F"- If +im drove ( had driven more carefull7, he 3ouldn-t have crashed ( didn-t crash" X"- If 3e are(3ould be late for class, our teacher 3ill be ( 3as angr7" Y"- If 3e lived ( 3ould live on another planet, 3e 3ould see ( 3ill see the )arth in the s27"

Z"- If 3e 3ere ( are birds, 3e 3ould be able ( are able to fl7" CB"- If 7ou don-t 3ear ( 3ouldn-t 3ear 7our pullover, 7ou 3ill feel ( felt cold" CC"- If I had ( 3ould have lots of mone7, I 3ould give ( gave some to all m7 friends" CA"- If I had 2no3n ( 3ould 2no3 it 3as 7our birthda7, I 3ould sen ( 3ould have sent 7ou a card" C="- If 7ou had come ( came to seen the film, 7ou 3ould have enRo7ed( had enRo7ed it" D> *orrect the mistakes C"- If 7ou-d be more sensible, 7ou didn-t thin2 about such stupid things" A"- Enless I don-t have an7 problem, I 3on-t bother 7ou" ="- >ould 7ou help me if 7ou can: T"- I-d have bought her a present if she invited me to her birthda7 part7" U"- *obod7 had noticed if 7ou left the part7 before the others" F"- If he had been a vegetarian, he 3ouldn-t eat meat" X"- If 7ou came to m7 part7, 7ou-ll enRo7 7ourself" Y"- I 3ouldn-t loo2 up his phone number in the director7 if I 2no3 it" Z"- She 3ouldn-t spend her savings unless it 3eren-t necessar7" CB"- >ould he 3in de contest if he had entered for it: CC"- I-ll give up smo2ing if I had a cold" CA"- If she 3or2s harder, she 3ould pass her e.ams" C="- If she hadn-t a dog, she 3ould feel lonel7" CT"- +he7-d had understood if 7ou-d e.plained it to them clearl7" #> Cewrite the following sentences turning all of them into *oditional *lauses C" 6ou shouldn-t eat fish unless it-s fresh" A" Enless 7ou 2ic2 the ball ver7 hard, it 3on-t reach the goal =" Enless it is cold, 3e-ll have the part7 outdoors T" Enless 7ou read the te.t thoroughl7, 7ou 3on-t understand it U" unless 7ou dress propert7, 7ou 3on-t go to the part7 3ith me F" 6ou 3ould avoid failing 7our test b7 stud7ing hard X" I canct bu7 these shoes" I haven-t enough mone7 Y" I 3ould li2e to live in a castle but I-m not rich Z" I don-t 2no3 the ans3er" I can-t tell 7ou CB" I 3ould li2e to ta2e more e.ercise but I don-t have the time CC" I-m not going to open the 3indo3" It-s too nois7 CA" I can-t find m7 glasses" I can-t read the paper C=" 3e don-t have bi2es" >e can-t go c7cling CT" 3e don-t live in a to3n" >e can-t go to the cinema ver7 often CU" the 3eather 3as bad" >e didn-t go to the sea CF" she got angr7 because he forgot to phone her CX" She didn-t bu7 the computer because she didn-t have the credit card CY" Sarah didn-t attend the class because she overslept CZ" I didn-t have 7our address, so I didn-t pa7 7ou a visit AB" Peter 3ent to bed earl7 so he didn-t 3atch his favourite programme AC" Susan didn-t get up earl7" She didn-t catch the Y"CU train AA" I didn-t help 7ou because 7ou didn-t as2 me" F> Datch the beginnings with the endings to make sentences= C" If 7ou don-t give up smo2ing, a) if I hadn-t had a 2nee inRur7" A" If 7ou ta2e 7our medicine, b) she 3ould have died" =" If 7ou had ta2en 7our doctor-s advice, c) 7ou 3on-t be fit enough to Roin our team" T" If 7ou had 7our o3n g7m, d) 7ou 3ill have more time to go training"

U" F" X" Y"

I 3ould have been pic2ed for the team, 6ou might have had serious problems, If the doctor hadn-t diagnosed the illness, If 7ou 3or2 fe3er hours,

e) f) g) h)

7ou 3ould have recovered sooner" 7ou 3ouldn-t have to Roin a fitness club" 7ou 3ill get better" if 7ou hadn-t had the operation at the right time"

7> *omplete the following sentences containing second and third conditionals= C" If I got lost in Paris, A" If I 3ere /atman, =" If ever7bod7 on earth spo2e the same language, T" If I fell in love 3ith someone m7 parents didn-t approve of, U" If the Second >orld >ar hadn-t bro2en out, F" If humans had colonized space CBB 7ears ago, X" If I had gone to 4rance last 7ear, Y" If I had discovered electricit7, .> Cephrase the following sentences with the given beginning= C" 6ou 3on-t get fired unless 7ou do something foolish" If 7ou A" If 7ou stop eating so man7 ca2es, 7ou-ll get slimmer" 6ou 3on-t =" If 7ou don-t miss the bus, 7ou-ll get there in time" Provided T" If 7ou-re careful, 7ou 3ill not have a car accident" So U" I can-t help 7ou unless 7ou tell me 3hat the problem is" I-d F" I thin2 7ou are 3rong not to trust him" If I X" >hat 3ould 7ou do if there 3ere an earthSua2e: In case Y" 6ou have to have an invitation" +hen 7ou 3ould be able to go there" 6ou 3ould be able to go there provided Z" >hat 3ould happen if a meteorite crashed into )arth: Suppose CB" I left the map at the hotel, so I got lost in the to3n" If I CC" Sue 3as ill, so she didn-t go to the part7" Sue CA" ?e didn-t find a ta.i and he missed the train" If C=" ?e didn-t dro3n because that 7oung man reached him in time" If CT" ?e left home because he didn-t e.pect them to come that evening" If he CU" Sarah did not 3a2e me up, and so I 3as late for the concert" If Sarah "> 9ook at the sentences below> Write a paragraph for each sentence> 7ive advice to your friend> What should your friend doQ 1se the paragraph given as an inspiration source

>hat advice should 7ou give 7our friend: (C) 6our friend has been drin2ing a lot" (A) 6our friend has a test tomorro3 but is pla7ing computer games" (=) 6our friend is gambling all his mone7" (T) 6our friend is going hi2ing but it loo2s li2e it 3ill rain" (U) 6our friend 3ants to go fishing but 7ou heard a t7phoon 3arning" (F) 6our friend sta7s up too late pla7ing on the internet and is sleep7 in class" #$ample% (A) ;7 friend has a test tomorro3 but is pla7ing computer games" &ear S7dne7, If I 3ere in 7our position, I 3ould stop pla7ing video games" 6ou could spend some time stud7ing for 7our test tomorro3 instead of pla7ing video games" I 3ant 7ou to get a good grade, so 7ou should stud7 more" >h7 don-t 7ou pla7 7our game for half an hour, and then stud7 for an hour: I hope this helps" Sincerel7, Datrina

ACTI(E (OICE - PASSI(E (OICE


*1%+ ES#E +I,#E2, ,SI34 FO!OSI#45 Folosim diateza pasiv atunci c6nd7 ,A- ,utorul este necunoscut7 (i) M8 mobile 'as been stolen. (9 Someone 'as stolen m8 mobile) (ii) #'e first tools :ere made in ,frica t:o million 8ears a-o. (9 eople made t'e first tools in ,frica t:o million 8ears a-o.) ,.- ,ciunea sau cel care suport aciunea sunt mai importante dec6t autorul7 (i) Income tax :as introduced in En-land in ;<=>. (ii) #'e rime Minister :as -iven a :arm :elcome. ,!- Este evident cine sau ce a fcut aciunea7 (i) #'e t'ief 'as been arrested. (?8 t'e police) (ii) #'e meetin- is called off. (?8 t'e mana-ement) (iii) #'e ne: la: of income tax is introduced. (?8 t'e -overnment) $E@"!I E%#$" , #$,%SFO$M, +I% ,*#I3 A% ,SI3

,A- +oar verbele tranzitive (cele care primesc un complement pentru a le (ntre-i sensul) pot fi
puse la diatez pasiv. Ex. (i) S'e ate an apple. (9vb. tranzitiv) ,n apple was eaten b8 'er. (ii) #'e tree grows. (9vb. intranzitiv) *anBt be c'an-ed into passive.

,.- Se sc'imb locul subiectului )i al complementului.


Exemple7 Active Sentence: @re- painted t'e -ate Cust no:.

Subject: The person who did the ction.

$cti#e %erb

!bject: The thin" th t recei#ed the ction

Passive Sentence:

#'e -ate was painted b8 @re- Cust no:.

Subject: The thin" th t recei#ed the ction

& ssi#e %erb

!bject: The person who did the ction.

,!- *6nd se tranform propoziia din activ (n pasiv se modific )i structura predicatului7
O/ 1 & * 4 5 6 7 8 9 1:

01 21 Simple resent #ense Simple ast #ense Simple Future #ense resent *ontinuous #ense ast *ontinuous #ense Future *ontinuous #ense resent erfect #ense ast erfect #ense Future erfect #ense Infinitive Form

A!0I31 DriteEs :rote Dill :rite IsEamEare :ritinDasE:ere :ritinDill be :ritin&asE'ave :ritten &ad :ritten Dill 'ave :ritten #o :rite

PA22I31 IsEamEare F :ritten DasE:ere F :ritten Dill F be F :ritten IsEamEare F bein- F :ritten DasE:ere F bein- F :ritten Dill be :ritin- (No Changes) &asE'ave F been F :ritten &ad F been F :ritten Dill F 'ave F been F :ritten #o F be F :ritten

11 1& 1* 14 15

Modal ,uxiliar8 Imperative Sentences Sentences :it' H!E#B Miscellaneous Miscellaneous

Ma8Emi-'tEs'allEs'ould G F :rite Drite t'at letter !et 'er :rite a letter It is said G Ever8one predicts t'at...

Ma8Emi-'tEs'allEs'ould G F be F :ritten !et F t'at letter F be F :ritten !et F t'at letter F be F :ritten &e is said to G It is predicted t'at G

,$- *onCuncii ca Hb8B/ H:it'B/ HtoB/ HinB etc. apar (n faa complementelor (de a-ent) (n diateza
pasiv. Exemple7 (i) , sa: cut t'e tree. (,ctive) #'e tree :as cut with a sa:. Icram/ cro:d/ decorate/ fill/ flood t'ron-J (ii) I Kno: 'im. (,ctive) &e is Kno:n to me. ( assive) (iii) #'is racK contains LMM booKs. (,ctive) LMM booKs are contained in t'is racK. ( assive) (iv) %ila :rote a nice letter. (,ctive) , nice letter :as :ritten by %ila. ( assive)

,1- "neori propoziia la diatez pasiv nu precizezaz cine face aciunea (subiectul).
urmare/ atunci c6nd tranformm (n activ aproximm cine ar putea fi autorul aciunii. Example7 (i) Our 'ouse :as broKen into last ni-'t. ( assive) Some bur-lars broKe into our 'ouse last ni-'t. (,ctive)

rin

,F- 3erbe cu dou complemente7


"neori c6te un verb la diatez activ (ex. -ive) prime)te dou complemente7 , :itness -ave t'e police some information. (,ctive)
; L

Oricare complement poate (ndeplini rolul de subiect al propoziiei la diatez pasiv7 #'e police :ere -iven some information b8 a :itness. ( assive) .00 (,)
L

Some information :as -iven to t'e police b8 a :itness. ( assive)


;

000 (?)

ot; +e obicei se profer varianta (n care subiectul este o persoan )i nu un lucru/ prin urmare varianta , este preferat (n cazul exemplului de mai sus.

,<- ,tunci c6nd folosim adverbe de timp/ mod sau frecven de obicei acestea apar dup primul
auxiliar al predicatului/ de ex. ;. De are al%a=s tau-'t to be Kind and 'onest. L. S'8am and $aCu 'ave seldo' been seen at t'e -8m. N. #'e carpets are often put out to air in t'e sun.

,>- *6nd se transform o locuiune verbal (verb F preposition O$ verb F adverb) din activ (n
pasiv este important s nu omitem adverbul sau prepoziia care intr (n structura acestuia/ de ex7 ,. *oca *ola tooK over t'e brand #'umbs up in t'e last decade of LMt' centur8. . #'e brand #'umbs up :as taKen over b8 *oca *ola in t'e last decade of LMt' cen.

LET.S PRACTICE/

,A-

(Simple resent) #urtles OOOOOOOOO (find) in all t'e :arm oceans of t'e :orld. #urtleBs nests OOOOOOOOO (maKe) at ni-'t on sand8 beac'es. ,bout one 'undred e--s OOOOOOOOO (la8) in eac' nest. &o:ever/ nestin- turtles OOOOOOOOO (often disturb) b8 noise and li-'t of t'e discos. D'en t'e babies leave t'e nest for t'e sea/ t'e8 follo: t'e li-'t of t'e moon. ?ut if t'e8 OOOOOOOOO (distract) b8 'otel li-'ts/ t'e8 move in t'e :ron- direction. ?abies :'o lose t'eir :a8 on t'e beac' OOOOOOOOO (often Kill) b8 birds. If t'e8 reac' t'e sea/ t'e8 OOOOOOOOO (sometimes inCure) or even Killed b8 speedboats.

,.-

(,E ) eople all over t'e :orld OOOOOOOOO (drinK) tea. It OOOOOOOOO (suppose) to be a ver8 refres'in- drinK. It OOOOOOOOO (also offer) to t'e -uests as a marK of courtes8. #o maKe tea OOOOOOOOO (be) Puite eas8. #ea leaves OOOOOOOOO (taKe) in a teapot and boilin- :ater OOOOOOOOO (pour) over t'em. #'e teapot OOOOOOOOO (Keep) aside for a couple of minutes. Mean:'ile milK OOOOOOOOO (boil) in anot'er pot. %o: tea :ater OOOOOOOOO (pour) into a cup. MilK and su-ar OOOOOOOOO (add) to it accordin- to oneBs taste. ,nd a refres'in- cup of tea OOOOOOOOO (be) read8.

,!-

(Simple ast) #'e countr8Bs first sc'ool of ma-ic OOOOOOOOO (open) last 8ear in #'iruvant'apuram. In t'e first 8ear/ sixt8 students OOOOOOOOO (teac') conCurin- and ot'er illusions. Ma-icians from ot'er states OOOOOOOOO (invite) for -uest lectures. ,pproval for t'e sc'ool OOOOOOOOO (-ive) b8 t'e International ?rot'er'ood of Ma-icians. #'e sc'ool/ :'ic' OOOOOOOOO (start) b8 @opinat' Mut'uKad/ 'as become ver8 popular. Mut'uKad :on an a:ard for ma-ic from t'e San-eet %ataK ,Kademi . t'e first one to be -iven after ma-ic OOOOOOOOO (add) to its list of a:ards in music/ dance and t'eatre.

,$-

(Simple ast) !ast summer #om :ent campin- :it' ?o8 Scouts. First/ t'e -round OOOOOOOOO (clear) of stones and plants. #'e tents OOOOOOOOO (put up) in a circle. , special s'elf OOOOOOOOO (maKe) in eac' tent Q inc'es off t'e -round. #'e suitcases and sleepin- ba-s OOOOOOOOO (put) on t'is s'elf. Dood OOOOOOOOO (collect) and OOOOOOOOO (place) in t'e centre of t'e circle for fire. #'e Kitc'en tent OOOOOOOOO (put up) near t'e sleepin- tents. ,ll t'e food OOOOOOOOO (put) inside t'is tent to Keep it safe. #'e bo8s sta8ed in t'is camp for ei-'t da8s.

,1-

(,E ) !et me tell 8ou of a countr8 :'ere plantin- trees OOOOOOOOO (be) an essential part of life. #'is countr8 is Israel. In Israel/ in t'e da8s -one b8/ fat'ers OOOOOOOOO (plant) trees :'en t'eir c'ildren OOOOOOOOO (bear). , cedar tree OOOOOOOOO (plant) if t'e c'ild OOOOOOOO (be) a bo8/ for cedars are usuall8 tall and stron-. ?ut if t'e c'ild OOOOOOOOO (be) a -irl/ t'e fat'er OOOOOOOOO (plant) a c8press tree/ for c8press su--ests softness and s:eetness. #'e c'ildren OOOOOOOOO (looK) after t'ese trees until t'e8 OOOOOOOOO (-et) married. ,t t'e marria-e ceremon8/ branc'es from t'ese trees OOOOOOOOO (cut) to 'old up t'e :eddin- tent.

,F(;) (L) (N) (Q) (R) (S) (<) (rescue).

ut t'e verb into t'e correct form/ present simple or past simple/ active or passive. It is a bi- factor8. Five 'undred people OOOOOOOOO (emplo8) t'ere. OOOOOOOOO (somebod8Eclean) t'is room 8esterda85 Dater OOOOOOOOO (cover) most of t'e eart'Bs surface. &o: muc' of t'e eart'Bs surface OOOOOOOOO (cover) b8 :ater5 #'e parK -ates OOOOOOOOO (locK) at S.NM p.m. ever8 evenin-. #'e letter OOOOOOOOO (post) a :eeK a-o and it OOOOOOOOO (arrive) 8esterda8. #'e boat 'it a rocK and OOOOOOOOO (sinK) PuicKl8. Fortunatel8 ever8bod8 OOOOOOOOO

(>) $ec'ardBs parents OOOOOOOOO (die) :'en 'e :as ver8 8oun-. &e and 'is sister OOOOOOOOO (brin- up) b8 t'eir -rand parents. (=) I :as born in !ondon/ but I OOOOOOOOO (-ro: up) in *anada. (;M) D'ile I :as on 'olida8/ m8 camera OOOOOOOOO (steal) from m8 'otel room. (;;) D'ile I :as on 'olida8/ m8 camera OOOOOOOOO (disappear) from m8 'otel room. (;L) D'8 OOOOOOOOO (SueEresi-n) from 'er Cob5 +idnBt s'e enCo8 it5 (;N) D'8 OOOOOOOOO (?illEsacK) from 'is Cob5 D'at did 'e do :ron-5 (;Q) #'e compan8 is not independent. It OOOOOOOO (o:n) b8 a muc' lar-er compan8. (;R) I sa: an accident last ni-'t. Somebod8 OOOOOOOOO (call) an ambulance but nobod8 OOOOOOOOO (inCure)/ so t'e ambulanceOOOOOOOOO (notEneed). (;S) D'ere OOOOOOOOO (t'ese p'oto-rap'sEtaKe)5 In !ondon5 OOOOOOOOO (8ouEtaKe) t'em/ or somebod8 else5 (;<) Sometimes it is Puite nois8 livin- 'ere/ but it is not problem for me . I OOOOOOOOO (notEbot'er) b8 it.

,<-

(Simple Future) Mrs. !al is t'e 'eadmistress of a bi- sc'ool. #'e students of 'er sc'ool are -oin- to sta-e a pla8 Mrs. !al is talKin- to t'e director. Mrs. !al7 &ave t'e bo8Bs costumes been made5 +irector7 #'e8 OOOOOOOOO (maKe) b8 t'e end of t'is :eeK. Mrs. !al7 D'at about t'e -irlBs dress5 +irector7 #'e8 OOOOOOOOO (finis') tomorro:. Mrs. !al7 &ave t'e curtains been mended5 +irector7 I donBt t'inK t'e8 OOOOOOOOO (mend) until #'ursda8. Mrs. !al7 D'at about t'e c'airs5 +irector7 I t'inK t'e8 OOOOOOOOO (sell) in a couple of da8s.

,>-

(,E ) De promise t'at if our part8 comes into po:er/ :e OOOOOOOOO (tr8) out best to improve t'e livin- conditions in t'e cit8. #o deal :it' t'e t:o maCor problems of :ater and po:er s'orta-e/ :e OOOOOOOOO (construct) a ne:/ lar-e :ater reservoir at a suitable place and OOOOOOOOO (set) up a t'ermal po:er plant. Some ot'er plans are also under active consideration. #:o ne: senior secondar8 sc'ools OOOOOOOOO (open) in t'e next session. Midda8 meals OOOOOOOOO (suppl8) free in all t'e -overnment sc'ools. +rains OOOOOOOOO (repair)/ roads OOOOOOOOO (improve) and parKs OOOOOOOOO (develop) in all colonies. Sports and transport facilities OOOOOOOOO (improve). It OOOOOOOOO (be) our sincere effort to maKe t'is cit8 a model one.

,I-

(Mixed) , 8out' OOOOOOOOO (find) dead on t'e outsKirts of Mota ?'andari8a villa-e on #'ursda8. ,ccordin- to officials of ,mreli rural police/ t'e 8out' OOOOOOOOO (stran-le) to deat' :it' a 'andKerc'ief. T#'e deceased OOOOOOOOO (identif8) as remsin' Manusin'. #'e name OOOOOOOOO (tattoo) on 'is :rist/U said a police official. T#'e 8out' :as from Mad'8a rades' and 'ad OOOOOOOOO (come) to Mota ?'andari8a to :orK as a labourer/U t'e official added.

,?-

(Mixed) &ospitals are places :'ere people OOOOOOOOO (examine) and OOOOOOOOO (brin-) bacK to -ood 'ealt'. IBm lucK8 because I OOOOOOOOO (never E taKe) to 'ospital. ?ut I 'appened to -o t'ere once. D'en $ad'a OOOOOOOOO ('it) b8 a car last mont'. !ucKil8 no bones OOOOOOOOO (breaK) but s'e OOOOOOOOO (examine) carefull8 and x0ra8s OOOOOOOOO (taKe). S'e OOOOOOOOO (Keep) t'ere for a ni-'t and s'e OOOOOOOOO (-ive) permission to leave t'e next da8. ,mbulance services are also important. atients OOOOOOOOO (must E taKe) to 'ospital as PuicKl8 as possible. , lot of people OOOOOOOOO (Kill) in road accidents and a lot more OOOOOOOOO (inCure) but if more ambulances OOOOOOOOO (put) into service/ more lives OOOOOOOO (can E save).

,@-

(Mixed) !ast summer/ I tooK an airplane fli-'t from !ondon to %e: VorK. I OOOOOOOOO (board) t'e plane at *ro8don ,irfield and/ from t'at moment on/ m8 life OOOOOOOOO (arran-e) for me b8 t'e fli-'t attendants on t'e trip. First/ I OOOOOOOOO (direct) to m8 seat b8 t'e fli-'t attendants. #'en/ :'en t'e plane OOOOOOOOO (be) read8 to taKe off/ t'e ot'er passen-ers and I OOOOOOOOO (tell) to fasten our seat belts. %ext/ :e OOOOOOOOO (advise) :'ere t'e emer-enc8 exits :ere. I OOOOOOOOO (maKe) sure t'at I OOOOOOOOO (-ive) a seat next to an exit. , fe: minutes after taKeoff/ ma-azines and ne:spapers OOOOOOOOO (distribute). ?ecause m8 ears 'urt/ I OOOOOOOOO (taKe) out some -um to c'e:. %ext/ :e OOOOOOOOO (-ive) instructions on :'at to do in case of an emer-enc8. I OOOOOOOOO (pa8) t:o dollars for some earp'ones/ :'ic' I OOOOOOOOO (use) later to :atc' t'e movie. ?efore dinner/ :e OOOOOOOOO (asK) if :e OOOOOOOOO (:ant) a cocKtail. +inner OOOOOOOOO (serve) on a tra8/ and it OOOOOOOOO (be F not) too badW it :as c'icKen. De OOOOOOOOO (permit) to 'ave a refill on an8 bevera-e. ,fter dinner/ :e OOOOOOOOO (s'o:) a funn8 movie. D'en I OOOOOOOOO (feel) cold/ I OOOOOOOOO (-ive) a blanKet/ and :'en I felt airsicK/ I OOOOOOOOO (-ive) a paper ba-. Ever8t'in- OOOOOOOOO (do) for t'e comfort of t'e passen-ers. D'en t'e plane OOOOOOOOO (land)/ I OOOOOOOOO (be) sorr8 to 'ave to leave and start doin- t'in-s for m8self a-ain.

,"-

(Mixed) Four bur-lars 'ave escaped from custod8 onl8 'ours after OOOOOOOOO (sentence) to ten 8ears in prison. #'e8 OOOOOOOOO (transfer) from t'e la: courts in Manc'ester to Stran-e:a8s rison. #'e8 OOOOOOOOO (find) -uilt8 of stealin- electrical -oods and mone8 from s'ops in t'e Manc'ester area. It OOOOOOOOO (t'inK) t'at t'e8 :ere all members of t'e same -an-. #'e8 escaped from t'e van in :'ic' t'e8 OOOOOOOOO (transport)/ :'en t'e driver OOOOOOOOO (force) to stop because of a tree across t'e road. It OOOOOOOOO (believe) t'at t'e tree OOOOOOOOO (place) b8 ot'er members of t'e -an-/ :'o OOOOOOOOO (inform) of t'e route OOOOOOOOO (taKe) b8 t'e van. , full investi-ation of t'e events leadin- to escape OOOOOOOOO (order) and an8one :it' information OOOOOOOOO (asK) to contact t'e police to 'elp :it' t'eir enPuiries.

,A-

#:ent8 five 8ears a-o/ m8 fat'er OOOOOO (Coin) a :ell Kno:n la: firm as a Cunior la:8er. +ad OOOOOO (dedicate) and smart and 'e OOOOOO (rise) PuicKl8 in t'e firm. Soon after/ t'e firm OOOOOO (emplo8) Mum as t'e personal assistant to t'e mana-er. +ad and Mum OOOOOO (fall) in love and OOOOOO (-et) married six mont's later. #oda8/ +ad OOOOOO ('old) t'e position of a senior partner in t'e firm. M8 parents OOOOOO (raise) t'ree c'ildren. #'e8 OOOOOO (-ive) us plent8 of love/ encoura-ement and sound advice :'en :e :ere 8oun-. De OOOOOO al:a8s OOOOOO (be) -rateful to t'em. %ext Frida8/ m8 parents OOOOOO (celebrate) t'eir silver :eddin- anniversar8. M8 brot'ers and I OOOOOO (compere) an evenin- of entertainment. De OOOOOO (present) t'em :it' -ifts to c'eris' as mementos.

, (;) (L) (N) (Q) (R) midni-'t. (S) (<)

Fill in t'e blanKs :it' t'e correct passive form of t'e verb in bracKets. , -overnment minister OOOOOOOOO (find) -uilt8 of fraud 8esterda8. It :as a lovel8 surprise to find all t'e :as'in-0up OOOOOOOOO (do) :'ile I :as asleep. #'ese souvenirs OOOOOOOOO (maKe) b8 c'ildren from t'e local sc'ool. I didnBt come 'ere in order OOOOOOOOO (maKe) a fool ofX #'e votes OOOOOOOOO (count) ri-'t no: and :e s'ould Kno: t'e result before #'is parcel appears OOOOOOOOO (open) before it OOOOOOOOO (deliver). ,s 'e OOOOOOOOO (sacK) from 'is previous Cob/ 'e found it 'ard to -et anot'er.

(>) #'e Cud-es still 'ave to decide :'ic' desi-n OOOOOOOOO (a:ard) t'e top prize. (=) Man8 accidents OOOOOOOOO (cause) b8 dan-erous drivin-. (;M) *'eese OOOOOOOOO (maKe) from milK. (;;) #'e roof of t'e buildin- OOOOOOOOO (dama-e) in a storm a fe: da8s a-o. (;L) Vou OOOOOOOOO (invite) to t'e :eddin-. D'8 didnBt 8ou -o5 (;N) , cinema is a place :'ere films OOOOOOOOO (s'o:). (;Q) In t'e "S/ elections for president OOOOOOOOO ('old) ever8 four 8ears. (;R) Ori-inall8 t'e booK OOOOOOOOO (:rite) in Spanis'/ and a fe: 8ears a-o it OOOOOOOOO (translate) into En-lis'. (;S) ,lt'ou-' :e :ere drivin- Puite fast/ :e OOOOOOOOO (overtaKe) b8 a lot of ot'er cars. (;<) Vou canBt see t'e 'ouse from t'e road. It OOOOOOOOO (surround) b8 trees. (;>) #'e situation is serious somet'in- must OOOOOOOOO (do) before itBs too late. (;=) I 'avenBt received t'at letter. #'at mi-'t OOOOOOOOO (send) to t'e :ron- address. (LM) , decision :ill not OOOOOOOOO (maKe) until t'e next meetin-. (L;) +o 8ou t'inK t'at more mone8 s'ould OOOOOOOOO (spend) on education5 (LL) #'is road is in ver8 bad condition. It s'ould OOOOOOOOO (repair) a lon- time a-o. (LN) #'e inCured man couldnBt :alK and 'ad to OOOOOOOOO (carr8). (LQ) It is not certain 'o: t'e fire started. ?ut it mi-'t OOOOOOOOO (cause) b8 an electrical fault. (LR) I told t'e 'otel receptionist I :anted to OOOOOOOOO (:aKe) at S.NM t'e next mornin-. (LS) If 8ou 'adnBt pus'ed t'e policeman 8ou :ouldnBt OOOOOOOOO (arrest).

,Oneeded7 ;. L. N. Q. R. S. <. >. =. ;M. ;;.

$e:rite t'ese sentences in ,ctive 3oice. Suppl8 t'e subCect 8ourself :'erever &er s:eet :ill never be 'eard a-ain in t'is 'all. Superstitions are still believed in. #'ese instructions can be easil8 understood. #'e account 'ad alread8 been c'ecKed b8 me. !ivin- conditions are bein- -raduall8 improved. It is often said t'at 'onest8 pa8s in t'e lon- run. #'e late comers s'ouldnBt be permitted into t'e examination 'all. Das t'e patient rePuested to :ait5 D'at are 8ou bein- disturbed b85 &o: man8 candidates :ere called for intervie:5 $otten e--s and tomatoes :ere t'ro:n at t'e speaKer. $e:rite t'ese sentences in assive 3oice. $emove subCects if needed7 Somebod8 cleans t'e room ever8da8. #'e8 cancelled all fli-'ts because of fo-. eople donBt use t'is road muc'. Somebod8 accused me of stealin- mone8. &o: do people learn lan-ua-es5 Somebod8 :arned us not to -o out alone. Somebod8 'as cleaned t'e room. #'e8 'ave postponed t'e meetin-. Somebod8 is usin- t'e computers at t'e moment. I didnBt realise t'at somebod8 :as recordin- our conversation. D'en :e -ot to t'e stadium/ :e found t'at t'e8 'ad cancelled t'e -ame. #'e8 are buildin- a ne: rin-0road round t'e cit8. #'e8 'ave built a ne: 'ospital near t'e air port.

,P;. L. N. Q. R. S. <. >. =. ;M. ;;. ;L. ;N.

,B;. L. N. Q. R. S. <. >. =. ;M. ;;. ;L. ;N. ;Q. ;R. ;S. ;<. ;>. ;=. LM. L;. LL. LN. LQ. LR. LS.

ut t'e follo:in- sentences into t'e ,SSI3E 3OI*E7 Someone 'as alread8 paid t'e electrician for 'is :orK. #'e8 tau-'t 'im Frenc' and -ave 'im a dictionar8. D'en :e first met/ t'e8 'ad alread8 offered me a Cob at t'e banK. , man rePuested t'e stran-er to leave t'e meetin-. , 8oun- :oman asKed t'e rest of us to be t'ere at ei-'t oBclocK. #'e8 'ad eaten all t'e dinner before t'e8 finis'ed t'e conversation. D'o :rote it5 #'e aut'or 'as :ritten a special edition for c'ildren. +id t'e idea interest 8ou5 D'8 didnBt t'e8 mend t'e roof before it fell in5 #'e bur-lars 'ad cut a 'u-e 'ole in t'e steel door. #'e or-anizers :ill ex'ibit t'e paintin-s till t'e end of t'e mont'. D'en did t'e8 rin- t'e c'urc' bells5 +oes listenin- to music disturb 8ou5 #'e principal 'as announced a revised pro-ramme of terminal tests. #'e8 :ill build a fl8over at t'is site. eople often sa8 t'at it pa8s to be 'onest. Vou can avoid man8 serious accidents :it' a little care. +onBt offer eatables to t'e animals. #'is ma-azine contains muc' useful information. D'8 :ere t'e8 pa8in- us so little5 ?8 R p.m./ t'e -uide 'ad s'o:n us all t'e places of 'istorical interest. +o 8ou deal in sports -oods also5 , senior student of 'er sc'ool -ives 'er Cudo lessons. De expect our students to be'ave properl8. D'o 'as pacKed m8 lu--a-e5

,R;. L. N. Q. R. S. <. >. =. ;M. ;;. ;L. ;N. ;Q.

*'an-e t'ese sentences into ,SSI3E FO$M7 eople believe t'at t'e striKe :ill end soon. eople believe t'at t'e t'ieves -ot t'rou-' t'e Kitc'en :indo:. eople sa8 t'at t'e compan8 is loosin- a lot of mone8. D'en is 'e -oin- to pa8 t'e taxes5 D'o 'as desi-ned t'ese buildin-s5 &o: muc' do t'e8 spend on t'ese activities5 #'e8 broKe a lot of plates :'ile t'e8 :ere dancin-. D'o invented t'e electric bulb5 eople believe t'at t'e8 are secret a-ents. eople t'inK t'at 'e taKes 'armful dru-s. +id t'e8 -ive 8ou a -reat reception5 %obod8 sends 'er a card at *'ristmas. +id an8one call an ambulance after t'e accident5 Dill 8ou pa8 t'e fine5 ,2#urn into t'e ,SSI3E7 a. Students s'ould stud8 environment problems at sc'ool. Environment problems OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO b. #eac'ers could include t'is topic in t'eir classes. #'is topic OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO c. Some people bu8 returnable bottles and use rec8cle paper. $eturnable bottles OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

d. @overnments 'ave constantl8 i-nored important issues on economic reasons. Important OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO e. ,t sc'ool teac'ers advise students about pollution and its prevention. Students OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO f. In develop countries aut'orities :ill lead ever8bod8 to cooperate. Ever8bod8 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO -. Ever8bod8 s'ould t'ro: t'eir bottles into rec8clin- bottle banKs. #'eir bottles OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO '. arents must teac' t'eir c'ildren :'at to do about rubbis'. *'ildren OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO i. !ast 8ear several nations 'eld a meetin- to discuss environmental problems. , meetin- OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO C. Or-anizations liKe @reenpeace are -ivin- people leaflets about :'at to do. eople OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO K. Mot'ers s'ould teac' c'ildren not to t'ro: litter in t'e streets. *'ildren OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO l. *onsumers could bu8 returnable recipients instead of t'ro: a:a8 ones. $eturnable OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO m. In developed countries people are rec8clin- -lass/ paper/ metal and even plastic. @lass/ paper OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO n. In underdeveloped countries ever8one :astes and t'ro:s a:a8 useful obCects. "seful obCects OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO o. Ever8bod8 s'ould pass t'eir bottles on to ot'ers :'en t'e8 no lon-er use t'em. ?ottles OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO #urn into t'e ,SSI3E a-ain ;. De s'ould clean t'ese :indo:s before tomorro:. L. #'e :orKers -ave t'e boss some flo:ers. N. #'e police follo:ed t'e t'ieves into a buildin-. Q. #'e mec'anic canBt fix m8 car. R. #'e nei-'bour 'as told us t'e ne:s. S. #'e students painted t'e :alls last 8ear. <. #'e old :oman feeds t'e pi-eons ever8 da8. >. #'e8 :ill picK up Yo'n at t'is office. =. S'e s'o:ed t'e visitors t'e ne: 'ouse. ;M. Vou s'ouldnBt t'ro: litter on t'e -round. ;;. #'e teac'er asKed t'e students a ver8 difficult Puestion at t'e oral exam. ;L. First/ :e 'ave to read t'e text and t'en/ :e 'ave to do t'e exercises. ;N. &is parents promised #om a 'undred Euros if 'e passed t'e test. ;Q. +id t'e8 repair all t'e :indo:s5 ;R. #'e ne:s surprised us all. ;S. Is t'e teac'er correctin- t'e exams ri-'t no:5 ;<. Someone 'as sent Yo'n a m8sterious letter. ;>. D'ere did t'e8 find t'e booK5 ;=. #'e taxi driver drove us to t'e airport. LM. Man8 people 'ave seen a "FO in t'is area. L;. &ave t'e8 :atered t'e plants5 LL. Someone stole m8 purse :'ile I :as doin- t'e s'oppin-. LN. #'e secretar8 'as alread8 sent all t'e documents to Mr. Smit'. LQ. #'e8 'ave offered Mic'ael an excellent Cob in a ?ritis' compan8. LR. #'e police could arrest t'e banK robbers :'en t'e8 :ere crossin- t'e border.

,0-

LS. Someone 'as used t'e computer :it'out permission. L<. M8 -randmot'er is baKin- a delicious caKe. L>. #'e maid :as cleanin- m8 'otel room :'en I came in.

REPORTED SPEEC'
Expression of time & place Direct Today Vesterda8 #'e da8 before 8esterda8 #omorro: #'e da8 after tomorro: %ext :eeKEda8E8ear... !ast :eeKE8earG , :eeKE8ear a-o %o: Modals: *an Ma8 Must S'all Dill Demonstratives: #'is #'ese &ere #E%SE $ESE%# SIM !E $ESE%# *O%#I%"O"S ,S# SIM !E ,S# *O%#I%"O"S $ESE%# E$FE*# $ESE%# E$FE*# *O%#I%"O"S ,S# E$FE*# F"#"$E SIM !E +I$E*# S EE*& TI %orC 'ard.U TI a' %orCin( 'ard.U TI %orCed 'ard =esterda=.U TI %as %orCin( 'ard at six t+is 'ornin(.U TI +ave %orCed 'ard.U TI +ave been %orCin( 'ard.U TI +ad %orCed 'ard.U TI %ill %orC 'ard.U Reported t'at da8 t'e da8 before t:o da8s before t'e nextEfollo:in- da8 in t:o da8s time t'e follo:in- :eeKE8earG t'e previous :eeKE8earG a 8ear beforeEt'e previous 8ear. t'en Et'at time could mi-'t 'ad to s'ould :ould t'at t'ose t'ere #E%SE ,S# SIM !E ,S# *O%#I%"O"S ,S# E$FE*# ,S# E$FE*# *O%#I%"O"S ,S# E$FE*# ,S# E$FE*# *O%#I%"O"S ,S# E$FE*# *O%+I#IO%,! $E O$#E+ S EE*& &e said t'at 'e %orCed 'ard. &e said t'at 'e %as %orCin( 'ard. &e said t'at 'e +ad %orCed 'ard t+e previous da= D t+e da= before. &e said t'at 'e +ad been %orCin( 'ard at six t+at 'ornin(. &e said t'at 'e +ad %orCed 'ard. &e said t'at 'e +ad been %orCin( 'ard. &e said t'at 'e +ad %orCed 'ard. &e said t'at 'e %ould %orC 'ard.

PRACTICE
A/ Put t+e follo%in( into indirect speec+ usin( t+e (iven reportin( verbs/ TDe donBt liKe 'is attitudeU (sa8) TIBm not competent to -ive advice on t'is subCectU (claim) T lease tell us t'e latest ne:s t'at 8ou 'ave 'eardU (rePuest) TDill 8ou 'ave supper :it' us after t'e performance toni-'tU (:onder) ./ Put t+ese state'ents usin( introductor= verbs in t+e past/ TI 'ave no reason not to believe 8ouU TIBll pa8 a 'undred and fift8U TS'eBs been cr8in- till s'eBs 'alf blindU 'er mot'er reports T+onBt -o too deep into t'e :aterU s'e told 'er c'ildren T#'e8 lie and steal and 'ave to be :atc'ed all t'e timeU s'e noted TIBm looKin- for sunn8 side cotta-e. I donBt suppose 8ouBve 'eard of itU T+onBt leave me 'ere aloneU TI s'all never claim of an8 trouble to 8ouU TMrs. Yoe 'as been out a dozen times/ looKin- for 8ou/ ipU. T,nd s'e is out no:U !/ Report %+at t+ese fa'ous people said ,stupid Euotes-; ;. ZI t'inK t'at -a8 marria-e is somet'in- t'at s'ould be bet:een a man and a :oman.Z 0 ,rnold Sc':arzene--er L. Z#raditionall8/ most of ,ustralia[s imports come from overseas.Z 0 Former ,ustralian cabinet minister \eppel Enderber8 N. ZIf 8ou taKe out t'e Killin-s/ Das'in-ton actuall8 'as a ver8 lo: crime rate.Z 0 Marion ?arr8/ ma8or of Das'in-ton/ +.*. Q. ZSure t'ere 'ave been inCuries and deat's in boxin- 0 but none of t'em serious.Z 0 ,lan Minter/ ?oxer R. Z?etter maKe it six/ I can[t eat ei-'t.Z 0 +an OsinsKi/ ?aseball pitc'er/ :'en a :aitress asKed :'et'er 'e :anted 'is pizza cut into six or ei-'t slices. S. Z#'e doctors ]0ra8ed m8 'ead and found not'in-.Z 0 +izz8 +ean explainin- to t'e media 'o: 'e felt after bein- 'it on t'e 'ead b8 a ball in t'e ;=NQ Dorld Series. <. ZFor most people/ deat' comes at t'e end of t'eir lives.Z 0 @!$ broadcaster/ "\ >. ZI o:e a lot to m8 parents/ especiall8 m8 mot'er and fat'er.Z 0 @re- %orman/ @olfer =. ZI -et to -o to lots of overseas places/ liKe *anada.Z 0 ?ritne8 Spears/ op Sin-er ;M. ZI don[t diet. I Cust don[t eat as muc' as I[d liKe to.Z 0 !inda Evan-elista/ Supermodel ;;. ZSo/ :'ere[s t'e *annes Film Festival bein- 'eld t'is 8ear5Z 0 *'ristina ,-uilera ;L. Z!isten/ ever8one is entitled to m8 opinion.Z 0 Madonna $/ Re%rite in Reported 2peec+ ;. HI :atc' a film on Saturda8s.B *aroline said L. H&eBs m8 best friend.B Fed told me N. H#'e scarf is in m8 ba-.B Yanice said Q. H#'is film :asnBt ver8 interestin-.B #om told me R. H#'is isnBt m8 sc'ool.B Yerr8 said S. HDeBll :alK for 'alf an 'ourB Vesterda8 Yennifer told me <. H#'ese #0s'irts donBt fit me.B MiKe said >. HDeBre parKin- our car 'ere.B #'e8 said =. HItBs m8 bo8friendBs birt'da8 part8 tomorro:.B &elen told me ;M. HI t'inK t'ere :ill be a studentsB meetin- ver8 soon.B &e said ;;. HItBs difficult to finis' t'is proCect t'is :eeK.B #'e students said ;L. HIBm not bus8 no:.B ,licia told me ;N. HI donBt :ant t'ese *+s an8more.B M8 brot'er said ;Q. HDe feel fine no:.B #'e -irls said

;R. HDeBre -oin- s'oppin- toda8.B M8 parents told me ;S. HS'e 'ad finis'ed 'er 'ome:orK :'en I arrived.B Mar8 said ;<. HI often t'inK about m8 future.B MariK said ;>. HI -o to t'e doctor tomorro:. I am not feelin- :ellB &elen said 1/ AaCe indirect sentences in t+e past/ A ;) [D'en did 8ou bu8 t'is television set5[ Frank to Jenny L) [D'8 :ill 8ou plant trees in t'e -arden5[ Mr Ford to o!a N) [!et[s pla8 basKetball.[ " to #en Q) [I met 8our mot'er 8esterda8.[ Mrs $ibson to %ave R) [D'at is t'e capital of India5[ Sa!!y to &ob S) [#id8 8our room/ c'ildren.[ Mother <) [Vou are standin- on m8 foot no:.[ Sa!!y to &ob >) [Dill 8ou 'elp me :it' m8 'ome:orK5[ Sa!!y to &ob =) [Meet me in front of t'e cinema.[ Frank to Jenny ;M) [Dere 8ou looKin- after 8our little sister 8esterda8/ Yulie5 Frank . ;. TI spent a lot last Frida8U/ s'e said L. TI :orKed 'ard last :eeKU/ 'e said N. TVou 'ave extra lessons t'is :eeKU/ t'e8 told us Q. TIBve :on a fortune on t'e football poolsU/ m8 uncle said R. TMrs Yo'nson isnBt at :orK toda8 because s'e is illU/ t'e secretar8 said S. TIBm -oin- to bu8 a car tomorro:U/ 'e told me <. TI donBt 'ave muc' mone8U/ #on8 told me >. TIt ma8 rain at t'e :eeKendU/ 'e said ! ;. TD'oBs t'at -irl5U / I asKed L. TD'atBs 8our name5U/ t'e bo8 asKed me N. T+o 8ou 'ave an8 brot'ers or sisters5U/ I asKed 'er Q. T+id 8ou 'ear t'at explosion5U/ t'e8 asKed us R. T'ave 8ou spent all 8our mone85U/ 'is mot'er asKed S. T D'en did eter -et up5U/ I asKed t'em <. TD'ere 'ave t'e8 -one5U/ s'e asKed me >. T+o 8ou t'inK it :ill rain tomorro:5U I asKed 'im $ ;. T+onBt touc' t'atU/ m8 mum said (tell) L. T&ave a restXU S'e said (tell) N. T lease/ donBt drive so fastU 'is :ife said (asK) Q. T +onBt tell an8bod8U I said (:arn) R. T@ive t'is to 8our brot'erU/ m8 fat'er said (tell) S. TDould 8ou liKe to -o on 'olida8 :it' us5U t'e8 said (invite) <. T+onBt for-et to post t'e letterU s'e said (remind) >. TIf I :ere 8ou/ I :ouldnBt taKe t'e CobU s'e told 'im (advise) =. T!etBs :alK instead of :aitin- for t'e busU/ 'ilip said