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13

CHAPTER

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Seventh Edition

Introduction

Previously, problems dealing with the motion of particles r were r solved through the fundamental equation of motion, F = ma. Current chapter introduces two additional methods of analysis. Method of work and energy: directly relates force, mass, velocity and displacement. Method of impulse and momentum: directly relates force, mass, velocity, and time.

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Work of a Force

r Differential vector dr is the particle displacement.

Work of the force is r r dU = F dr = F ds cos = Fxdx+ Fydy+ Fz dz Work is a scalar quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and sign but not direction. Dimensions of work are length force. Units are 1 J ( joule ) = (1 N )(1 m ) 1ft lb = 1.356 J

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Work of a Force

Work of a force during a finite displacement,

U12 =

= =

A2 r A1 s2 s1 A2 A1

F dr

r

s2 s1

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Work of a Force

Work of a constant force in rectilinear motion,

U12 = ( F cos ) x

dU = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = W dy U12 = W dy = W ( y 2 y1 ) = W y

y1 y2

Work of the weight is equal to product of weight W and vertical displacement y. Work of the weight is positive when y < 0, i.e., when the weight moves down.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Work of a Force

Magnitude of the force exerted by a spring is proportional to deflection, F = kx k = spring constant ( N/m or lb/in.) Work of the force exerted by spring,

dU = F dx = kx dx U12 = kx dx = 1 kx 2 1 kx 2 2 1 2 2

x1 x2

Work of the force exerted by spring is positive when x2 < x1, i.e., when the spring is returning to its undeformed position. Work of the force exerted by the spring is equal to negative of area under curve of F plotted against x,

( F + F2 ) x U12 = 1 2 1

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Work of a Force

Forces which do not do work (ds = 0 or cos = 0): reaction at frictionless pin supporting rotating body, reaction at frictionless surface when body in contact moves along surface, reaction at a roller moving along its track, and weight of a body when its center of gravity moves horizontally.

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Particle Kinetic Energy: Principle of Work & Energy

r Consider a particle of mass m acted upon by force F dv Ft = mat = m dt dv ds dv =m = mv ds dt ds F t ds = mv dv

s2 s1

2 1 2 mv2 2 mv1 Ft ds = m v dv = 1 2

Integrating from A1 to A2 ,

v2 v1

T=1 mv 2 = kinetic energy 2 r The work of the force F is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the particle. U12 = T2 T1

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy

Wish to determine velocity of pendulum bob at A2. Consider work & kinetic energy. r Force P acts normal to path and does no work. T1 + U12 = T2

0 + Wl = 1W 2 v2 2 g

v2 = 2 gl

Velocity found without determining expression for acceleration and integrating. All quantities are scalars and can be added directly. Forces which do no work are eliminated from the problem.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Applications of the Principle of Work and Energy

Principle of work and energy cannot be applied to directly determine the acceleration of the pendulum bob. Calculating the tension in the cord requires supplementing the method of work and energy with an application of Newtons second law. As the bob passes through A2 ,

Fn = m an

P W =

v2 = 2 gl

2 W v2 g l W 2 gl P =W + = 3W g l

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Power and Efficiency

Power = rate at which work is done. r r dU F dr = = dt dt r r = F v Dimensions of power are work/time or force*velocity. Units for power are

J m 1 W (watt) = 1 = 1 N s s or 1 hp = 550 ft lb = 746 W s

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Sample Problem 13.2

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of work and energy separately to blocks A and B. When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel. Solve for the velocity. Two blocks are joined by an inextensible cable as shown. If the system is released from rest, determine the velocity of block A after it has moved 2 m. Assume that the coefficient of friction between block A and the plane is k = 0.25 and that the pulley is weightless and frictionless.

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Sample Problem 13.2

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of work and energy separately to blocks A and B.

W A = (200 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 1962 N T1 + U12 = T2 : m v2 0 + FC (2 m ) FA (2 m ) = 1 2 A FA = k N A = k W A = 0.25(1962 N ) = 490 N

WB = (300 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 2940 N T1 + U12 = T2 :

0 Fc (2 m ) + WB (2 m ) = 1 m v2 2 B

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Sample Problem 13.2

When the two relations are combined, the work of the cable forces cancel. Solve for the velocity.

(2940 N )(2 m ) (490 N )(2 m ) = 1 (200 kg + 300 kg )v 2 2 (500 kg )v 2 4900 J = 1 2

v = 4.43 m s

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Sample Problem 13.3

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of work and energy between the initial position and the point at which the spring is fully compressed and the velocity is zero. The only unknown in the relation is the friction coefficient.

A spring is used to stop a 60 kg package which is sliding on a horizontal surface. The spring has a constant k = 20 kN/m and is held by cables so that it is initially Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound of the package. The compressed 120 mm. The package has a only unknown in the relation is the velocity of 2.5 m/s in the position shown velocity at the final position. and the maximum deflection of the spring is 40 mm. Determine (a) the coefficient of kinetic friction between the package and surface and (b) the velocity of the package as it passes again through the position shown.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Sample Problem 13.3

SOLUTION: Apply principle of work and energy between initial position and the point at which spring is fully compressed.

2 1 T1 = 1 mv1 = 2 (60 kg )(2.5 m s )2 = 187.5 J 2

T2 = 0

(U12 ) f

= kW x

= 1 (2400 N + 3200 N )(0.040 m ) = 112.0 J 2

U1 2 = (U1 2 ) f + (U1 2 )e = (377 J ) k 112 J

T1 + U1 2 = T2 :

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

k = 0.20

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Sample Problem 13.3

Apply the principle of work and energy for the rebound of the package.

T2 = 0

2 1 2 T 3= 1 mv3 = 2 (60kg )v3 2

T2 + U 23 = T3 :

2 (60 kg )v3 0 + 36.5 J = 1 2

v3 = 1.103 m s

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Sample Problem 13.4

SOLUTION: Apply principle of work and energy to determine velocity at point 2. Apply Newtons second law to find normal force by the track at point 2.

A 2000 lb car starts from rest at point 1 Apply principle of work and energy to and moves without friction down the determine velocity at point 3. track shown. Apply Newtons second law to find Determine: minimum radius of curvature at point 3 such that a positive normal force is a) the force exerted by the track on exerted by the track. the car at point 2, and b) the minimum safe value of the radius of curvature at point 3.

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Sample Problem 13.4

SOLUTION: Apply principle of work and energy to determine velocity at point 2.

T1 = 0

2 T2 = 1 mv2 = 2

U1 2 = +W (40 ft ) T1 + U1 2 = T2 :

1W 2 v2 2g 1W 2 v2 2g

0 + W (40 ft ) =

v2 = 50.8 ft s

Apply Newtons second law to find normal force by the track at point 2.

+ Fn = m an : W + N = m an = N = 5W

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 W v2 W 2(40 ft )g = g 2 g 20 ft

N = 10000 lb

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Sample Problem 13.4

Apply principle of work and energy to determine velocity at point 3. T1 + U13 = T3 0 + W (25 ft ) = 1W 2 v3 2g v3 = 40.1ft s

Apply Newtons second law to find minimum radius of curvature at point 3 such that a positive normal force is exerted by the track. + Fn = m an : W = m an =

2 W v3 W 2(25 ft )g = 3 g 3 g

3 = 50 ft

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10

Sample Problem 13.5

SOLUTION: Force exerted by the motor cable has same direction as the dumbwaiter velocity. Power delivered by motor is equal to FvD, vD = 8 ft/s. The dumbwaiter D and its load have a combined weight of 600 lb, while the counterweight C weighs 800 lb. Determine the power delivered by the electric motor M when the dumbwaiter (a) is moving up at a constant speed of 8 ft/s and (b) has an instantaneous velocity of 8 ft/s and an acceleration of 2.5 ft/s2, both directed upwards.

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In the first case, bodies are in uniform motion. Determine force exerted by motor cable from conditions for static equilibrium. In the second case, both bodies are accelerating. Apply Newtons second law to each body to determine the required motor cable force.

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Sample Problem 13.5

In the first case, bodies are in uniform motion. Determine force exerted by motor cable from conditions for static equilibrium. Free-body C:

+ Fy = 0 : 2T 800 lb = 0 T = 400 lb

Free-body D:

+ Fy = 0 : F + T 600 lb = 0

Power = Fv D = (200 lb )(8 ft s ) = 1600 ft lb s

Power = (1600 ft lb s )

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1 hp = 2.91 hp 550 ft lb s

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11

Sample Problem 13.5

In the second case, both bodies are accelerating. Apply Newtons second law to each body to determine the required motor cable force.

a D = 2.5 ft s 2 aC = 1 a = 1.25 ft s 2 2 D 800 (1.25) 32.2

Free-body C:

+ Fy = mC aC : 800 2T = T = 384.5 lb

Free-body D:

+ Fy = m D a D : F + T 600 = 600 (2.5) 32.2 F + 384.5 600 = 46.6

F = 262.1 lb

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1 hp = 3.81 hp 550 ft lb s

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Potential Energy

r Work of the force of gravity W, U12 = W y1 W y 2

Work is independent of path followed; depends only on the initial and final values of Wy. V g = Wy

U12 = (V g ) (V g )

1

2

Choice of datum from which the elevation y is measured is arbitrary. Units of work and potential energy are the same: V g = Wy = N m = J

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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12

Potential Energy

Previous expression for potential energy of a body with respect to gravity is only valid when the weight of the body can be assumed constant. For a space vehicle, the variation of the force of gravity with distance from the center of the earth should be considered. Work of a gravitational force, GMm GMm U12 = r2 r1 Potential energy Vg when the variation in the force of gravity can not be neglected,

Vg = GMm WR 2 = r r

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Potential Energy

Work of the force exerted by a spring depends only on the initial and final deflections of the spring,

U12 = 1 kx 2 1 kx 2 2 1 2 2

The potential energy of the body with respect to the elastic force,

Ve = 1 kx 2 2 U12 = (Ve )1 (Ve )2

Note that the preceding expression for Ve is valid only if the deflection of the spring is measured from its undeformed position.

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13

Conservative Forces

Concept of potential energy can be applied if the work of the force is independent of the path followed by its point of application. U12 = V ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) V ( x2 , y 2 , z 2 ) Such forces are described as conservative forces. For any conservative force applied on a closed path, r r F dr = 0 Elementary work corresponding to displacement between two neighboring points, dU = V ( x, y, z ) V ( x + dx, y + dy, z + dz ) = dV ( x, y, z )

V V V Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = dx + dy + dz y z x r V V V + + F = = grad V x y z

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Conservation of Energy

Work of a conservative force,

U1 2 = V1 V2

U1 2 = T2 T1

Follows that

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 E = T + V = constant T1 = 0 V1 = Wl T1 + V1 = Wl

2 T2 = 1 mv2 = 2

When a particle moves under the action of conservative forces, the total mechanical energy is constant. Friction forces are not conservative. Total mechanical energy of a system involving friction decreases. Mechanical energy is dissipated by friction into thermal energy. Total energy is constant.

1W (2 gl ) = Wl V2 = 0 2g

T2 + V2 = Wl

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14

Sample Problem 13.6

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of conservation of energy between positions 1 and 2. The elastic and gravitational potential energies at 1 and 2 are evaluated from the given information. The initial kinetic energy is zero. A 20 lb collar slides without friction along a vertical rod as shown. The spring attached to the collar has an undeflected length of 4 in. and a constant of 3 lb/in. If the collar is released from rest at position 1, determine its velocity after it has moved 6 in. to position 2.

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Sample Problem 13.6

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of conservation of energy between positions 1 and 2. kx 2 = 1 (3 lb in.)(8 in. 4 in.)2 = 24 in. lb Position 1: Ve = 1 2 1 2 V1 = Ve + Vg = 24 in. lb + 0 = 2 ft lb T1 = 0

Vg = Wy = (20 lb )( 6 in.) = 120 in. lb

2 T2 = 1 mv2 = 2

Conservation of Energy: T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

2 0 + 2 ft lb = 0.311v2 5.5 ft lb

v2 = 4.91ft s

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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15

Sample Problem 13.7

SOLUTION: Since the pellet must remain in contact with the loop, the force exerted on the pellet must be greater than or equal to zero. Setting the force exerted by the loop to zero, solve for the minimum velocity at D. Apply the principle of conservation of energy between points A and D. Solve for the spring deflection required to produce the required velocity and kinetic energy at D.

The 0.5 lb pellet is pushed against the spring and released from rest at A. Neglecting friction, determine the smallest deflection of the spring for which the pellet will travel around the loop and remain in contact with the loop at all times.

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Sample Problem 13.7

SOLUTION: Setting the force exerted by the loop to zero, solve for the minimum velocity at D. 2 + Fn = man : W = man mg = m vD r

2 vD = rg = (2 ft )(32.2 ft s ) = 64.4 ft 2 s 2

(36 lb ft )x 2 = 18 x 2 V1 = Ve + Vg = 1 kx 2 + 0 = 1 2 2

T1 = 0 V2 = Ve + Vg = 0 + Wy = (0.5 lb )(4 ft ) = 2 ft lb

2 T2 = 1 mvD = 2

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 0 + 18 x 2 = 0.5 + 2

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16

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

From Newtons second law, r d r r F = (mv ) mv = linear momentum dt r r Fdt = d (mv )

t2 t1

Dimensions of the impulse of a force are force*time. Units for the impulse of a force are

N s = kg m s 2 s = kg m s

t2 t1

The final momentum of the particle can be obtained by adding vectorially its initial momentum and the impulse of the force during the time interval.

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Impulsive Motion

Force acting on a particle during a very short time interval that is large enough to cause a significant change in momentum is called an impulsive force. When impulsive forces act on a particle, r r r mv1 + F t = mv2 When a baseball is struck by a bat, contact occurs over a short time interval but force is large enough to change sense of ball motion. Nonimpulsive forces are forces for which r F t is small and therefore, may be neglected.

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17

Sample Problem 13.10

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. The impulse is equal to the product of the constant forces and the time interval. An automobile weighing 4000 lb is driven down a 5o incline at a speed of 60 mi/h when the brakes are applied, causing a constant total braking force of 1500 lb. Determine the time required for the automobile to come to a stop.

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Sample Problem 13.10

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. r r mv1 + Imp12 = mv2 Taking components parallel to the incline,

mv1 + (W sin 5)t Ft = 0 4000 (88 ft s ) + (4000 sin 5)t 1500t = 0 32.2 t = 9.49 s

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18

Sample Problem 13.11

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of impulse and momentum in terms of horizontal and vertical component equations.

A 4 oz baseball is pitched with a velocity of 80 ft/s. After the ball is hit by the bat, it has a velocity of 120 ft/s in the direction shown. If the bat and ball are in contact for 0.015 s, determine the average impulsive force exerted on the ball during the impact.

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Sample Problem 13.11

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of impulse and momentum in terms of horizontal and vertical component equations. r r mv1 + Imp1 2 = mv2 x component equation: mv1 + Fx t = mv2 cos 40 4 16 (80) + Fx (0.15) = 4 16 (120 cos 40) 32.2 32.2 Fx = 89 lb

y component equation:

y

0 + Fy t = mv2 sin 40

x

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19

Sample Problem 13.12

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to the package-cart system to determine the final velocity. Apply the same principle to the package alone to determine the impulse exerted on it from the change in its momentum.

A 10 kg package drops from a chute into a 24 kg cart with a velocity of 3 m/s. Knowing that the cart is initially at rest and can roll freely, determine (a) the final velocity of the cart, (b) the impulse exerted by the cart on the package, and (c) the fraction of the initial energy lost in the impact.

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Sample Problem 13.12

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to the package-cart system to determine the final velocity.

y x

r r m p v1 + Imp1 2 = m p + mc v2

x components:

m p v1 cos 30 + 0 = m p + mc v2

v2 = 0.742 m/s

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20

Sample Problem 13.12

Apply the same principle to the package alone to determine the impulse exerted on it from the change in its momentum.

y x

r r m p v1 + Imp1 2 = m p v2

x components:

y components: (10 kg )(3 m/s )sin 30 + Fy t = 0 m p v1 sin 30 + Fy t = 0

m p v1 cos 30 + Fx t = m p v2

Fx t = 18.56 N s Fy t = 15 N s

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Ft = 23.9 N s

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Sample Problem 13.12

(10 kg )(3 m s )2 = 45 J T1 = 1 m v2 = 1 2 p 1 2

T1 T2 45 J 9.63 J = = 0.786 T1 45 J

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21

Problem 13.150

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Problem 13.154

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22

Impact

Impact: Collision between two bodies which occurs during a small time interval and during which the bodies exert large forces on each other. Line of Impact: Common normal to the surfaces in contact during impact.

Direct Central Impact

Central Impact: Impact for which the mass centers of the two bodies lie on the line of impact; otherwise, it is an eccentric impact.. Direct Impact: Impact for which the velocities of the two bodies are directed along the line of impact. Oblique Impact: Impact for which one or both of the bodies move along a line other than the line of impact.

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Direct Central Impact

Bodies moving in the same straight line, vA > vB . Upon impact the bodies undergo a period of deformation, at the end of which, they are in contact and moving at a common velocity. A period of restitution follows during which the bodies either regain their original shape or remain permanently deformed. Wish to determine the final velocities of the two bodies. The total momentum of the two body system is preserved, m Av A + mB v B = mB v B + mB v B A second relation between the final velocities is required.

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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23

Direct Central Impact

e = coefficient of restitution

Rdt = u vA Pdt v A u

0 e 1

Period of restitution:

m Au Rdt = m Av A v u e= B u vB v B v A = e(v A v B ) m A v A + m B v B = (m A + mB )v v B v A = v A vB

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A similar analysis of particle B yields Combining the relations leads to the desired second relation between the final velocities. Perfectly plastic impact, e = 0: v B = v A = v Perfectly elastic impact, e = 1: Total energy and total momentum conserved.

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Problems Involving Energy and Momentum

Three methods for the analysis of kinetics problems: - Direct application of Newtons second law - Method of work and energy - Method of impulse and momentum Select the method best suited for the problem or part of a problem under consideration.

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24

Problem 13.176

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Sample Problem 13.17

SOLUTION: Apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine the velocity of the block at the instant of impact. Since the impact is perfectly plastic, the block and pan move together at the same velocity after impact. Determine that velocity from the requirement that the total momentum of the block and pan is conserved. A 30 kg block is dropped from a height of 2 m onto the the 10 kg pan of a Apply the principle of conservation of spring scale. Assuming the impact to energy to determine the maximum be perfectly plastic, determine the deflection of the spring. maximum deflection of the pan. The constant of the spring is k = 20 kN/m.

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25

Sample Problem 13.17

SOLUTION: Apply principle of conservation of energy to determine velocity of the block at instant of impact. T1 = 0 V1 = WA y = (30 )(9.81)(2 ) = 588 J V2 = 0

(30)(v A )2 T2 = 1 m (v )2 = 1 2 2 A A 2 2

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

(30)(v A )2 0 + 588 J = 1 2 +0 2

(v A )2 = 6.26 m s

Determine velocity after impact from requirement that total momentum of the block and pan is conserved.

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Sample Problem 13.17

Apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine the maximum deflection of the spring.

2 1 (m A + mB )v3 T3 = 1 = 2 (30 + 10 )(4.7 )2 = 442 J 2

V3 = Vg + Ve

)(

)2 = 0.241 J

V4 = Vg + Ve = (WA + WB )( h ) + 1 kx 2 2 4

2 = 392( x4 x3 ) + 1 20 103 x4 2

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h = 0.225 m

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26

Problem 13.177

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics Oblique Central Impact (freely moving particles)

Final velocities are unknown in magnitude and direction. Four equations are required.

No tangential impulse component; tangential component of momentum for each particle is conserved. Normal component of total momentum of the two particles is conserved. Normal components of relative velocities before and after impact are related by the coefficient of restitution.

(v A )t = (vA )t

(v B )t = (vB )t

m A (v A )n + m B (v B )n = m A (v A )n + mB (v B )n

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27

Sample Problem 13.15

SOLUTION: Resolve the ball velocities into components normal and tangential to the contact plane. Tangential component of momentum for each ball is conserved. The magnitude and direction of the velocities of two identical frictionless balls before they strike each other are as shown. Assuming e = 0.9, determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity of each ball after the impact. Total normal component of the momentum of the two ball system is conserved. The normal relative velocities of the balls are related by the coefficient of restitution. Solve the last two equations simultaneously for the normal velocities of the balls after the impact.

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Sample Problem 13.15

SOLUTION: Resolve the ball velocities into components normal and tangential to the contact plane.

(v A )n = v A cos 30 = 26.0 ft

s s

s s

(vA )t = (v A )t = 15.0 ft

Total normal component of the momentum of the two ball system is conserved.

m(26.0 ) + m( 20.0 ) = m(vA )n + m(v B )n m A (v A )n + mB (vB )n = m A (vA )n + mB (v B )n

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28

Sample Problem 13.15

The normal relative velocities of the balls are related by the coefficient of restitution. (vA )n (vB )n = e[(v A )n (vB )n ] = 0.90[26.0 ( 20.0 )] = 41.4

Solve the last two equations simultaneously for the normal velocities of the balls after the impact. (vA )n = 17.7 ft s (vB )n = 23.7 ft s

r r r = 17.7t + 15.0n vA

15.0 vA = 23.2 ft s tan 1 = 40.3 17.7 r r r = 23.7t + 34.6n vB

t

1 34.6 v = 55.6 B = 41.9 ft s tan 23.7

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Sample Problem 13.16

SOLUTION: Determine orientation of impact line of action. The momentum component of ball A tangential to the contact plane is conserved. The total horizontal momentum of the two ball system is conserved. Ball B is hanging from an inextensible The relative velocities along the line of cord. An identical ball A is released action before and after the impact are from rest when it is just touching the related by the coefficient of restitution. cord and acquires a velocity v0 before striking ball B. Assuming perfectly Solve the last two expressions for the elastic impact (e = 1) and no friction, velocity of ball A along the line of action determine the velocity of each ball and the velocity of ball B which is immediately after impact. horizontal.

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29

Sample Problem 13.16

r = 0. 5 2r = 30 sin =

r r mv A + Ft = mv A

(vA )t = 0.5v0

The total horizontal (x component) momentum of the two ball system is conserved.

0.5(vA )n + v B = 0.433v0

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Sample Problem 13.16

The relative velocities along the line of action before and after the impact are related by the coefficient of restitution. (vB )n (vA )n = e[(v A )n (vB )n ] v B sin 30 (v A )n = v0 cos 30 0 0.5v B (v A )n = 0.866v0

Solve the last two expressions for the velocity of ball A along the line of action and the velocity of ball B which is horizontal.

(vA )n = 0.520v0

v B = 0.693v0

= tan 1

0.52 = 46.1 0. 5

= 46.1 30 = 16.1

v B = 0.693v0

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30

Oblique Central Impact (one particle is constrained in its motion)

Block constrained to move along horizontal surface.

r r Impulses from internal forces F and Fr along the n axis and from external force Fext exerted by horizontal surface and directed along the vertical to the surface.

Final velocity of ball unknown in direction and magnitude and unknown final block velocity magnitude. Three equations required.

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Oblique Central Impact

Tangential momentum of ball is conserved. Total horizontal momentum of block and ball is conserved. Normal component of relative velocities of block and ball are related by coefficient of restitution.

(v B )t = (vB )t

m A (v A ) + m B (v B ) x = m A (v A ) + m B (v B )x

Note: Validity of last expression does not follow from previous relation for the coefficient of restitution. A similar but separate derivation is required.

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31

Sample Problem 13.14(impact of a particle with a massive rigid body)

SOLUTION: Resolve ball velocity into components normal and tangential to wall. Impulse exerted by the wall is normal to the wall. Component of ball momentum tangential to wall is conserved. A ball is thrown against a frictionless, vertical wall. Immediately before the ball strikes the wall, its velocity has a magnitude v and forms angle of 30o with the horizontal. Knowing that e = 0.90, determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the ball as it rebounds from the wall. Assume that the wall has infinite mass so that wall velocity before and after impact is zero. Apply coefficient of restitution relation to find change in normal relative velocity between wall and ball, i.e., the normal ball velocity.

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Sample Problem 13.14

SOLUTION: Resolve ball velocity into components parallel and perpendicular to wall. vn = v cos 30 = 0.866v vt = v sin 30 = 0.500v Component of ball momentum tangential to wall is conserved. vt = vt = 0.500v

t

Apply coefficient of restitution relation with zero wall velocity. = e(vn 0 ) 0 vn = 0.9(0.866v ) = 0.779v vn

r r r v = 0.779v n + 0.500v t 0.779 v = 0.926v tan 1 = 32.7 0.500

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32

Quiz 2

Block B having a mass of 9 kg is initially at rest as shown on the upper surface of a 22.5 kg wedge A which is supported by a horizontal surface. A 2 kg block C is connected to block B by a cord, which passes over a pulley of negligible mass. Using computational software and denoting by the coefficient of friction at all surfaces, calculate the initial acceleration of the wedge and the initial acceleration of block B relative to the wedge for values of 0. Use 0.01 increments for until the wedge does not move and then use 0.1 increments until no motion occurs.

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%% Problem 12.C1 and Quiz 2 clear all, clc, fprintf('\n\n\t Solution of Problem 12.C1 and Quiz 2 ') g = 9.81; for me242=1:2 if me242==1 Wa = 200; % homework Wb = 80; % homework Wc = 18; % homework fprintf('\n\n\t\t\t\t----Problem 12.C1----\n\n') elseif me242==2 Wa = 22.5*g; % quiz2 Wb = 9*g; % quiz2 Wc = 2*g; % quiz2 fprintf('\n\n\t\t\t\t----Quiz 2----\n\n') end ma = Wa/g; mb = Wb/g; mc = Wc/g; t = 30; th = t*pi/180; Mu = 0; A = (1-Mu.^2)*sin(th)-2*Mu*cos(th); a_A = g*(A*Wb*cos(th)-Wa*Mu)/(Wa+Wb*A*sin(th)); % print heading fprintf(' Mu Accel. of A (m/s^2) Accel. of B wrt A, (m/s^2)\n');

2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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33

Seventh Edition

while a_A > 0 a_BwA = (1/(Wb+Wc))*(g*(Wc-Wb*(Mu*cos(th)-sin(th)))+a_A*(Wb*Mu*sin(th)+(Wc+Wb)*cos(th))); fprintf(' %3.2f %4.3f %4.3f\n',Mu,a_A,a_BwA); Mu = Mu+0.01; A = (1-Mu.^2)*sin(th)-2*Mu*cos(th); a_A = g*(A*Wb*cos(th)-Wa*Mu)/(Wa+Wb*A*sin(th)); end % Increase Mu to the next tenth Mu = 0.20; a_BwA = (g/(Wb+Wc))*(Wc-Wb*(Mu*cos(th)-sin(th))); % print heading fprintf('\n'); fprintf(' Mu Accel. of B wrt A, (m/s^2)\n'); while a_BwA > 0 a_BwA = (g/(Wb+Wc))*(Wc-Wb*(Mu*cos(th)-sin(th))); if a_BwA > 0 fprintf(' %3.2f %4.3f\n',Mu,a_BwA); end Mu = Mu+0.10; end end

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