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Water Treatment Plant: T he water available f rom dif f erent water sources cannot be used directly in boilers as such.

T he objective of water treatment plant is to produce the boiler f eed water so that there shall be: 1. No scale f ormation 2. No corrosion 3. No f ouling T he treated water is called De-mineralized Water and the plant where it is treated is called Water Treatment Plant. Process Sequence of Water Treatment Plant Water f rom river Flash mixer Clarif ier Filter pack Clarif ied water tank Softening plant Sof t water to various units Step Discussions: Water from river: Water comes f rom various rivers in water treatment plant. Flash mixer: In this segment Al2 (SO4)3, polymer etc are mixed in water. Softening plant: In this segment activated carbon are used as a sof tener.
WTP p ro c e s s

Soft water to various units: Af ter sof tening of water it is supplied in various units f or various purposes. T here are two types of water are prepared in water treatment plant: 1. Clarif ied water f or washing purpose. 2. Sof t water f or dyeing purpose. Chemicals are Used in WT P: 1. Aluminum Sulphate 2. Polyelectrolyte 3. Sodium Chloride

Amount of Chemical Used: 1. Polymer- .1% solution 2. Al2 (SO4)3- 10% solution 3. Lime- 10% solution Experiments Performed in WT P: 1. Total hardness test 2. Jar test 3. pH meter test 4. Titration f or chlorine content test Requirements of WT P: T he importance of maintaining supply of high purity water f or Boiler purposes in T hermal power stations is well recognized. T he presence of undesirable contaminants in water exceeding the f ew PPB level may lead to serious consequences. T he requirements of pure water have been met by recent developments of improved ion exchange resins and regeneration techniques. T he need f or removal of dissolved solids f rom water arises under several situations. T hese range f rom ef f luent water treatment, water purif ication f or portability, treatment as boiler f eed and other industrial applications. Why Water Treatment is Required? If proper treatment is not done f or water then Corrosion, Scaling, Microbiological contaminants and f ouling will occur in the system. a). Corrosion: It is an electrochemical process by which a metal returns to its natural state. For e.g. Mild Steel is commonly used metal in cooling water systems and is very susceptible to corrosion. It will return to its iron oxide. Corrosion can be prevented by or minimized by one or more of the f ollowing method: 1. When designing a new system choose corrosion resistant material to minimize the ef f ect 2. Apply protective painting 3. Protect catholically using sacrif ice metals 4. Add protective f ilm f orming chemical inhibitors. b). Scaling: Scale is a dense coating of predominantly inorganic material f ormed f rom the precipitation of water soluble constituents Some common scales are: Calcium carbonate Calcium phosphate Magnesium salts Silica Four principal f actors determine whether or not water is scale f ormed:

1. Temperature 2. Alkalinity or Acidity 3. Amount of scale f orming material present 4. Inf luence of other dissolved materials Scaling can be controlled by f ollowing methods: Limit the concentration of scale f orming minerals by controlling Cycle of concentration Feed acid to keep the Calcium carbonate dissolved Treat with chemicals designed to prevent scale. c). Fouling: It is the accumulation of solid material other than scale in a way that hampers the operation of plant equipment. Common f ouling elements are: 1. Dirt and silt 2. Sand 3. Corrosion products 4. Microbial organism 5. Aluminum phosphates Process in Water Treatment Plant: T he treatment process can be divided in two sections: 1. Pre treatment methods 2. Demineralization methods Pre-treatment Methods: Pre-treatment plant removes suspended solids like clay, salt, plants, micro-organisms, etc. f orm raw water to give clarif ied water. Suspended solids can be separable or nonseparable. Separable solids are heavier & large and can easily be removed by an aerator. Non-separable solids have f iner size and taken long to settle down. Hence they are required to be f locculated. In this, water is f irst dozed with lime and alum. T his f orces f iner particles to coagulated increasing their weight and size. Non-separable solids can now be separated in clarif locculator. T he clarif ied water is then stored in clarif ied water storage tanks. Following are the dif f erent pre-treatment methods used in water treatment plant: 1. Mechanical methods 2. Chemical methods Demineralization Methods: T he f ollowing methods are normally used f or demineralization of water: 1. Membrane based physical process and electro chemical process 2. Separation by Phase change method 3. Ion exchange method

Factors for Selection of Treatment Methods: T he f ollowing specif ic site f actors are to be considered in choosing the treatment method: Feed water source and quality available Feed water cost and quantity available Final makeup water quantity and quality required Final make up water maximum and average f low required Chemical storage handling and usage cost Waste disposal cost and waste treatment equipment available Existing water and waste treatment equipment available Operation & Maintenance cost Storage capacity Other Factors to be Considered: Short or long term requirement of equipment or service Acceptable limitations on membrane liability Operating labour availability Capital available Environmental policy

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