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Topography In the subject line, write the name of a European country. Describe the topography of your chosen country.

Look at where the major cities are located and compare it to the topography. What do you see? How does topography affect travel? How does topography affect the country's climate? Give specific details and reasons for all questions.

Finland Finland is divided into four parts, southern, western, central, and northern. Both southern and western Finland has a coastal plan with a deeply indented coastline. It has thousands of small islands that stretch outward toward Aland. Northern Finland consists of a thickly forested plateau. Central Finland is a lake plateau that holds the bulk of the countrys lakes. The major cities of Finland are generally located around lakes or bodies of water. Other cities are scattered along the coastal line, while a few are centered on the more mountainous areas. By being so close to many bodies of water, Finland has developed a much milder climate than what would be expected. In the mountainous areas, there is a lot of snow coverage. If forms like the Gulf Stream were not affecting the climate, it would share like weather patterns with that of Siberia and Alaska. Considering Finland does not have a bumpy terrain travel is fairly easy, whether by walking, train, or bus.

Geologic Time Periods Search the Internet for information when it occurred, why it occurred, and three unique events that happened during that time. The Cretaceous era is the longest period of the Mesozoic era; spanning 70 million years and began just about 144 million years ago. The decline of small marine plants was the catalyst to the collapse of most large organisms. This is where the first flowering plants flourished. While there were other plants before this period, they did not develop in a sustainable way. These angiosperms were able to adapt in damp climates, low nutrient lands, and swamps. Around the same time, the many insects we see every day

were beginning to diversify. A major evolution came in the form of the eusocial bee that was associated with the ecology and the flowering of plants. The ending of this era saw the extinction of dinosaurs, flying reptiles, and marine reptiles. The continents also started to align much like how it looks presently with the break-up of Pangea. The splitting into different masses caused a great deal of effects. The creation of the Atlantic and Indian oceans, thus seasons began to be more distinct, the climate grew cooler, and geographic isolation, which caused the separation in evolution for land animals, became imperative for survival. The meteor that is believed to have hit the earth is known for killing off a mass amount of species. The interesting thing about this is that dinosaurs were not the only forms of life to inhibit the earth; so why only dinosaurs? It is also believed that those species that became extinct were already in decline due to the dramatic changes of the earth. The Pennsylvanian period was known as the swamp era for its lush vegetation and wetness. It lasted for about 33 million years and during this time the tetrapod evolution thrived. The first reptiles were able to evolve and diversify without difficulties, soon making them the dominant life form living on land, surpassing the tetrapods. Today we have an oxygen content of 21%, because of the burial of biological carbon there was a surplus in oxygen. It is said to have reached a content of 35%, resulting in ginormous sized creatures, like the first flying insects, also known as dragonflies. The first appearance of the Appalachian Mountains and the Ancestral Rockies both rose. The creation of the amniotic egg gave new life to aquatic reptiles; they were able to leave the sea and live fully on land. This era saw the most stable of life forms due to its hot and humid climate. Pangea was in the process of coming together as Gondwana (modern day Africa) was colliding with Euramerica. Three different floras inhibited the earth, northern Angaran temperate flora, Euramerican tropical flora and the southern Gondwanan temperate flora. Towards the end of the period the swamps dried up and plants that were once abundant died out. Transitional changes that caused a break in the flora saw the official end to the Pennsylvanian era and birth to new fauna at the beginning of the Mississippian era.