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Table of Contents

Research ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 Business Research ......................................................................................................................................... 1 Financial Data............................................................................................................................................ 1 Consumer Feedback.................................................................................................................................. 1 Product Research ...................................................................................................................................... 2 Competitive Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 2 Industry Data............................................................................................................................................. 2 What managers do? ...................................................................................................................................... 2 Experience, Hunch or Hope?......................................................................................................................... 2 Good Decision Making fetches YES to the following questions.................................................................... 3 Examples of Business Problems .................................................................................................................... 3 Types of Business Research .......................................................................................................................... 3 Applied Research ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Basic Research........................................................................................................................................... 4 How is it helpful? .......................................................................................................................................... 4 Managers and Research................................................................................................................................ 4 How to locate and Select a Researcher? ...................................................................................................... 4 The Manager Researcher Relationship ......................................................................................................... 5 To summarize, the manager should make sure while hiring researchers or consultants that: ............... 5 Internal Versus External Consultants-Researcher ........................................................................................ 5 Internal Consultants/Researchers ............................................................................................................ 5 Advantages of Internal Researcher ........................................................................................................... 5 Disadvantages of Internal Researchers..................................................................................................... 6 Advantages of External Researcher/Consultant ....................................................................................... 6 Disadvantages of External Researcher/Consultant .................................................................................. 6 Ethics in Business Research .......................................................................................................................... 6 Ethics of Business Research .......................................................................................................................... 6 Importance of Business Research in Management Functions ...................................................................... 7 Testing New Products ............................................................................................................................... 7 Ensuring Adequate Distribution ................................................................................................................ 7 Measuring Advertising Effectiveness ........................................................................................................ 8

Studying the Competition ......................................................................................................................... 8 Why Is the Business Research Process Necessary to Assist Managers? ....................................................... 8 Defining Business Objective ...................................................................................................................... 8 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Analysis ..................................................................................................................................................... 9 Alternatives ............................................................................................................................................... 9 Decision Making ........................................................................................................................................ 9 CASE STUDY:................................................................................................................................................ 10 History: ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 Offering mobile financial services........................................................................................................... 10 Contributing to Pakistan's economy ....................................................................................................... 10 Business Research in Telenor:..................................................................................................................... 11 Research .................................................................................................................................................. 11 Telenor R&D Department: ...................................................................................................................... 13 Marketing Research in Telenor ............................................................................................................... 13 SWOT ANALYSIS: ......................................................................................................................................... 13 STRENGHT: .............................................................................................................................................. 13 WEAKNESS: ............................................................................................................................................. 13 OPPORTUNITY: ........................................................................................................................................ 14 THREATs: ................................................................................................................................................. 14 Conclusion: .................................................................................................................................................. 14 Recommendations: ..................................................................................................................................... 15 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 15

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Business Research and Management


Effectiveness
"The secret of success is to know something nobody else knows.
Aristotle Onassis

Research
It is a process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis to the situational factors

Business Research
Business Research is an organized, systematic, data based, critical, objective, scientific enquiry into a specific problem, undertaken with a purpose of finding answers or solutions to it. Business research is a field of practical study in which a company obtains data and analyzes it in order to better manage the company. Business research can include financial data, consumer feedback, product research and competitive analysis. Executives and managers who use business research methods are able to better understand their company, the position it holds in the market and how to improve that position.

Financial Data
Financial data takes qualitative information--such as sales reports, revenues and cost reports-to see what areas make money and what costs money. By reviewing data, managers can find the products, staff and departments that are most efficient and determine areas of unnecessary costs.

Consumer Feedback

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Understanding what the public says about the products and services a company provides is essential to making sure the company is meeting consumer needs. Customer feedback includes case studies, focus groups, customer surveys and questionnaires.

Product Research
Product research seeks to improve the product to meet the needs of consumers. This may include technological advancements, improved customer service or access to the product through a variety of distribution channels.

Competitive Analysis
Competitive analysis is when one company compares its products and services to those of another company. This can be done to improve the product, create a niche or determine a more attractive price point to lure customers.

Industry Data
Using research tools such as the information compiled by Dun & Bradstreet can help a company to understand how the industry as a whole is doing. This can help executives make decisions based on economic factors affecting their industry that are not limited to their own products.

What managers do?


Make several decisions Solve problems What would help you to make right decisions? Will it be your experience on the job? Or hunch? Or you just hope for good luck?

Experience, Hunch or Hope?


All of these will play a part after you have thoroughly investigated the problem situation and generated some alternative solutions to choose from. Whether or not managers realize it they are constantly engaged in research as they try to find solutions to the day-to-day problems; big or small, that confront them at work.

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Good Decision Making fetches YES to the following questions


Do managers identify where exactly the problem lies? Do they correctly recognize the relevant factors? Do they know what type of information to be gathered and how? Do they know how to make use of the information collected and draw appropriate conclusions to make the right decisions? Do they know how to implement the results of this process to solve the problem?

Examples of Business Problems


Accounting
Budgets control systems, inventory costing methods, accelerated depreciation taxation methods are some areas that are researched.

Management
Study of employee attitude and behavior, HRM, POM, strategy formulation.

Finance
Financial Ratios, mergers and acquisitions, mortgages, operations of financial institutions

Marketing
Product image, Advertising, Sales promotion, packaging, pricing, after sale service, new product development etc.

Types of Business Research

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Applied Research
Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organization is called Applied Research.

Basic Research
Research done chiefly to enhance the understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational settings, and seek methods of solving them is called basic or fundamental research. It is also known as pure research. Such knowledge generated is usually later applied in organizational setting for problem solving

How is it helpful?
1. Identify and effectively solve minor problems in the work setting. 2. Know how to determine good from bad research. 3. Appreciate and be constantly aware of the multiple influences and multiple effects of factors impinging on a situation. 4. Take calculated risks in decision making, knowing full well the probabilities associated with the different possible outcomes. 5. Prevent possible vested interests from exercising their interests in a situation. 6. Relate to hire researchers and consultants more effectively. 7. Combine experience with scientific knowledge while making decisions.

Managers and Research


Managers with knowledge of research have an advantage over those without. Though you yourself may not be doing any major research as a manager, you have to understand, predict, and control events that are dysfunctional to the organization Due to complexity of modern organizations and the uncertainty of environment they face, the management has become one of constant trouble shooting in workplace This Research will help managers sense, spot, and deal with problems before they get out of hand.

How to locate and Select a Researcher?


Through telephone directories. The consulting firms will provide lists of individuals that have expertise in specific areas.

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Other organizations that have used their services can also be contacted to ascertain the merits and effectiveness of the individuals and the reputation of the firm.

The Manager Researcher Relationship


When the manager is knowledgeable about research, then the interactions between the manager and researcher become more meaningful purposeful and beneficial to both organization and the researcher. Managers provide information. What records will not be made available.

To summarize, the manager should make sure while hiring researchers or consultants that:
The roles and expectations of both parties are made explicit. Relevant philosophies and value systems of the organization are clearly stated, and constraints, if any, communicated. A good rapport is established with the researchers, and between the researchers and the employees in the organization, enabling the full co-operation of the later.

Internal Versus External Consultants-Researcher


Internal Consultants/Researchers
Some organizations have their own consulting or research department, which might be called the Management Services Department, the Organization and method department

Advantages of Internal Researcher


The internal team is readily accepted by the employees where research is to be done. The team requires much less time in understanding the structure. They would be available for implementation after the research findings are accepted, if bugs appear it would be removed with their help. Cost is less as compare to external team.

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Disadvantages of Internal Researchers


They may fall into stereotype way of looking at the organization and its problems. There is scope of certain powerful coalitions in the organizations to influence the internal team to conceal, distort or misrepresent certain facts. They might not be perceived as experts by the staff and management. Certain organization biases of the internal research team might in some instances make the findings less objective and less scientific.

Advantages of External Researcher/Consultant


The external team has a wealth of experience as they have worked with various organizations. They would think divergently and convergent rather than hurry to an instant solution on the basis of apparent facts in the situation. They have periodic training programs. External research institutions ensure that their members are current on the latest innovations through periodic organized training programs.

Disadvantages of External Researcher/Consultant


The cost of hiring External Researcher is usually high. They seldom get a warm welcome, nor are accepted by employees. The external team also charges additional fees for their assistance in the implementation and evaluation phases.

Ethics in Business Research


Ethics in business research refers to a code of conduct or expected societal norm of behavior while conducting research Ethical conduct applies to Organization Members sponsoring the research The researchers who undertake the research The respondents who provide them with the relevant data

Ethics of Business Research


The person instituting the research should do so in good faith.

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Pay attention to what the results indicate. Surrender the ego. Pursue organizational rather than self interest. Ethical conduct should be reflected in the behavior of the researchers, participants who provide the data, analyst who provide the result and the entire research team who provide the interpretation and suggests alternative solutions.

Importance of Business Research in Management Functions


Companies conduct business research for a number of reasons, including gathering crucial information on consumers and business clients. However, companies must make sure they use the correct methods for collecting customer information. Most company market researchers use phone surveys when they want to get reliable information quickly. However, companies must make sure they complete enough surveys so the results can best represent opinions of the entire demographic.

Testing New Products


Business research tests the potential success of new products. Companies must know what types of products and services customers want before they market them. For example, a restaurant chain may initially interview focus groups to test half dozen types of fish meals. The focus groups will likely consist of small groups of customers. The objective of the focus group may be to determine which fish meal customers like the best. The company may even use customer input in naming the entree and ask how much consumers would spend for the meal. Eventually, the company may test the fish meal through surveys with larger groups of people.

Ensuring Adequate Distribution


Companies may also use business research to ensure the adequate distribution of their products. For example, a telephone directory publisher may conduct a distribution follow-up study to make sure phone directories have been delivered to all residential customers. Publishers of telephone directories base their advertising rates on distribution. Therefore, ensuring that all residences receive phone books is crucial to the success of the publisher's business clients. Similarly, a consumer products company may want to talk to retailers about all

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the different brands they sell. The results of the business research will help marketing managers determine where they need to increase their product distribution.

Measuring Advertising Effectiveness


Companies use business research to determine the success of their advertising. For example, a milk manufacturer may want to know what percentage of the population saw its most recent television commercial. The milk company may find that more people become aware of its advertising the longer the television ad runs. The milk company may need to run its television advertisements at different times if few people have seen the commercials. Companies also use business research to see if consumers recall the message or slogan of their commercials.

Studying the Competition


Companies often use business research to study key competitors in their markets. Companies will often start with secondary research information or information that is already available. For example, a software company may want to know the percentage of customers in the market who purchase its products versus competitors' products. The researchers can then study the purchasing trends in the industry, striving to increase their company's share of the market. Companies will often need to increase their market share in an industry to increase sales and profits.

Why Is the Business Research Process Necessary to Assist Managers?


Business research is the process of gathering the necessary data for an industry to be successful. Business research is synonymous with market research, but companies typically use every type of market research available to fully analyze their business situation: industry analysis, product research, and even identifying key customer groups. The business research process is necessary to assist managers in making major business decisions.

Defining Business Objective


Before a business can start operating, it first must define its business. For example, a new discount health-care company may define its objective as providing affordable health care to individuals and families. After a company defines its main objective, it then is ready to study the

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industry and competition. The process of defining a business objective is necessary for managers to properly align their business plans with the right customers.

Data Collection
Companies usually start the data collection process by studying secondary research data. Some of this information may be available in business articles or at local libraries. A company often will need to purchase this data from vendors. Businesses can acquire information through secondary research about the size of their industry and how sales have trended. The second part of data collection entails primary research surveys. Companies do research surveys to measure satisfaction among customers, to ensure that the customer's needs are being met with current products and to identify consumers that are most likely to use their products.

Analysis
Marketing managers and other business professionals analyze data so they fully understand where they stand versus competitors in sales volume and market share. A company may also learn more about its key strengths and weaknesses versus competitors. For example, secondary research may reveal that a key competitor is on the verge of merging with another company. Another competitor may be suffering financially. Additionally, analyzing primary research can help a company understand how it fares against competitors in product quality, service, price and value. Customers also may want additional features added to the company's products. The ultimate goal of the analysis stage is to start developing some relevant choices or alternatives.

Alternatives
After fully analyzing all available data, business managers usually will list possible alternatives for harnessing strengths and overcoming weaknesses. These alternatives eventually will need to be winnowed down to one viable solution or alternative. The goal of this solution will be to better satisfy key customers, increase distribution or whatever it takes to improve the company's sales and profits.

Decision Making
Ultimately, the business research process will lead to certain company decisions or strategies. The savvy business man knows that he can learn a lot from business research. However, he

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must also use it to avoid being outmaneuvered by competitors on important issues such as service and product features. For example, a company may revamp its customer service department to deal with low customer satisfaction scores revealed in the research. New product features may be added to satisfy the sector of the market that requested them.

CASE STUDY:
History:
Telenor Pakistan is 100% owned by the Telenor Group, an international provider of high quality voice, data, content and communication services in 11 markets across Europe and Asia. Telenor Group is among the largest mobile operators in the world with 140 million mobile subscriptions (Q4 2011) and a workforce of approximately 30,000. Telenor Pakistan is the country's single largest European foreign direct investor, with investments in excess of US$2 billion. It acquired a GSM license in 2004 and began commercial operations on March 15, 2005. At the end of December 2011 it had a reported subscriber base of 28.11 million, and a market share of 24% making it the country's second largest mobile operator.

Offering mobile financial services


Telenor Pakistan acquired 51% of Tameer Microfinance Bank in November 2008. In 2009 it launched 'easy paisa' to become Pakistan's first telecom operator to partner with a bank to offer mobile financial services across Pakistan.

Contributing to Pakistan's economy


The company continues to contribute to Pakistan's economy. It has created 3,000 direct and 25,000 plus indirect jobs and has a network of over 180,000 retailers, franchises and sales & service centers, thus providing a means to livelihood to thousands.

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For 2011 it is estimated that Telenor Pakistan contributed over Rs. 23 billion in various forms of direct and indirect taxes to the economy of Pakistan.

usiness

Research in Telenor:

Telenor Research and Innovation (Telenor R&I, prior to September 1, 2006 known as
Telenor R&D) is Norway's largest research establishment within Information and Communications Technology (ICT), with more than 200 full-time researchers. Telenor R&I have research facilities in Fornebu, Kuala Lumpur, Trondheim and Troms. In 2009 Telenor R&I was merged with Global Coordination team, and is now part of the executive entity Telenor Business Development - headed by EVP Morten Karlsen Srby. Telenor also owns 51, 8% of EDB Business Partner that offers a wide range of IT-services. The company is listed on Oslo Stock Exchange.

Research
Telenors research portfolio is closely linked to our strategic challenges. Main areas for Telenor research are: Customer insight, including innovations in customer facing processes and customer data analytics Business models, including competition strategy and regulations, and Internet value networks New services, such as service diffusion and the Internet of things Future technologies, such as future network concepts and next generation IS/IT architecture

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Subscribers stats for Telenor:

Market share of Telenor Pakistan:

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Telenor R&D Department:


Telenor Research and Development (R&D) is a business unit within the Telenor Group. Their goal is to follow with, and contribute to, the development within the telecom industry, technology and market, so that Telenor stays at the forefront of its chosen areas. The main fields of operations are Service Development Network Solutions and "Project I" - next generation IP protocols and applications.

Marketing Research in Telenor


By questionnaires Research in allover Pakistan (Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, etc.) Through telephonic verification Using external Researcher/consultants (Oasis International (Pvt) ltd.) Research in Product and Packages that they offer and also evaluate customer satisfaction.

SWOT ANALYSIS:
STRENGHT:
Research covering all over Pakistan cities Micro and Macro Based researchs Superior Customer Care Financial Strength Excellent Coverage & Distribution Contract with Siemens & Nokia Brand Image of Quality Superior Product quality for customers Better Customer relationship than competitors Extra Features and services Committed And Efficient Staff Products innovations ongoing Good reputation among customers Good packages according to the target market

WEAKNESS:
Delay in timely present Research Reports. Less time in market as compared to other cellular companies, like mobilink. Less coverage as compared to the competitors like mobilink

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Less experienced employees than competitors Seth Organization Not able to capitalize on start

OPPORTUNITY:
Covering tribal areas of Pakistan. Mergers joint ventures or strategic alliances Extension to overseas Low Cellular market penetration Decline of major competitors E-Commerce Usage Mobile Number Portability IMEI System Technologically better environment More customers on newer products introduced

THREATs:
Emerging companies in market Unstable political Conditions MNP Mobile Number Portability Wireless Technology at Boom New companies entrance in the telecommunication market High Public Expectations Low Prices of competing brands Propagandas attacking

Conclusion:
Telenor is a telecommunication company having fewer weaknesses because of its well organized managerial structure and a better study of local markets. Despite of having so many threats Telenor came with very attractive packages and captured the attention of youngsters, shift of young generation was due to affordable rates, relaxation in Short Message Service, Easy Load Facility and GPRS Facility all at a same time. Telenor faced a lot of challenges during last years but survived due to strategic planning and better distribution of sales and services.

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Recommendations:
Most people associate the research and development (R&D) function of a company with the invention of new products. Whilst this is very important, the development of existing products is of equal significance because consumer preferences are continually changing. The task of product research and development is to come up with the goods and services that meet the needs of tomorrow's customers. In Telenor Company, research and development have strictly commercial functions - to further the company's business objectives by creating better products, to improve operational processes and to provide expert advice to the rest of the company and to customers. Some research is not expected to pay for itself within a foreseeable time span. Large companies may allocate as much as one-tenth of their research budget to so-called blue-sky investigations whose most likely contribution is to the development of new products and a possible pay-off in the distant future.

REFERENCES
1. Internet a. Telenor.com b. Wikipedia c. Ask.com d. google.com Books a. Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2010). Business Research Methods (11th Ed)

2.