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ACKNOWLEDGMENTSS

Chong Li thanks Dr. Karol Kalna for helpful advice on building the numerical model. This project is sponsored by EPSRC (UK) and e2v Technologies (UK) Ltd.
REFERENCES 1. A. Khalid, N.J. Pilgrim, G.M. Dunn, M.C. Holland, C.R. Stanley, I.G. Thayne, and D.R.S. Cumming, A planar Gunn diode operating above 100 GHz, IEEE Electron Dev Lett 28 (2007), 849851. 2. C. Li, A. Khalid, N. Pilgrim, M.C. Holland, G. Dunn, and D.R.S. Cumming, Novel planar Gunn diode operating in fundamental mode up to 158 GHz, J Phys Conf Ser 193 (2009), 012029. 3. H.M. Shieh, W.C. Hsu, C.L. Wu, and T.S. Wu, High performance double delta doping GaAs/In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs pseudomorhic heterostructure, Jpn J Appl Phys 32 (1993), L303L305. 4. J.S. Yuan, Study of AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic HEMT using a two-dimensional device simulator, Phys Status Solid A 153 (1995), 559566. 5. E. Alekseev and D. Pavlidis, GaN Gunn diodes for THz signal generation, Proc IEEE MTT-s Int Microw Symp Dig 3(2000), 19051907. 6. Online resources Available at: http://www.ioffe.ru/SVA/NSM/ Semicond/. 2010. 7. M.R. Brozel and G.E. Stillman, Properties of Gallium Arsenide, 3rd eds., (IET 1996). 8. S. Adachi, GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs@B: material parameters for use in research and device applications, J Appl Phys 58 (1985), R1R29. 9. Medici manual 2007.
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Figure 5 Measured spectrum of single and double d-doped devices with Lac 1.3 lm

chosen to be 60 lm to match the fabricated devices. In both cases, slight negative differential resistance (NDR) was seen. The average current after the onset of NDR for device with double d-doping layers is 120% greater than that from device with single d-doping layers. The increased current results from better electron connement in the channel.
3. EXPERIMENTAL, RESULTS, AND CONCLUSIONS

The RF and DC characteristics of the fabricated devices were measured. The measured IV curves are plotted in Figure 4 and compared with the simulated results. It is clearly seen that the simulated results agree well with experimental measurement. The spectrum of the two devices was measured using a Wband GSG probe with 100-lm pitch separation (ACP110-100 from CascadeMicrotech), W-band mixer (WHMP-10 from Farran Technology) and a spectrum analyzer (E4448A from Agilent Technologies). The device with Lac 1.3 lm started to oscillate when bias voltage was between 1.2 and 1.5 times, the threshold voltage of NDR onset (e.g., 2.8 V for single and 3.1 V for double d-doped devices, respectively). The output spectra are plotted in Figure 5 for comparison after an insertion loss for the mixer of 46 dB is taken into account. It can be seen that the device with single d-doping layers show a noisy peak with an output power of 27.5 dBm at 108.12 GHz. In contrast, the device with double d-doping layers shows twice the power and a slightly increased oscillation frequency. Although the output power is still relatively low, the improved spectral response for the device with double d-doping is evident. We attribute the lower noise in the double d-doped device to improved domain formation because of the higher free electron concentration. To conclude, we have numerically studied and experimentally demonstrated a performance comparison for planar Gunn diodes using single and double d-doping layers on each side of conducting channel. Simulation results show a signicant improvement in the electron concentration in the channel when extra d-doping layers were introduced. The simulated and measured currentvoltage characteristics of a device with Lac 1.3 lm show good agreement and conrm that the double d-doped device shows an average 120% increase of output current. RF measurements on the same devices indicate that both the power and oscillation frequency were enhanced for double d-doped devices. In particular, a double d-doped device showed a 3 dB increase in RF power compared to a single d-doped device. This particular technique will be useful to increase output power and phase noise performance in planar Gunn devices.

A BROADBAND SUSPENDED SUBSTRATE STRIPLINE FILTER USING DUAL-MODE RESONATOR


Jin-Sup Kim,1 Kyu-Bok Lee,1 Jae-Young Lee,1 and Hyunchol Shin1 1 Wireless Components and Telecommunication Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam, Korea; Corresponding author: kim812@keti.re.kr 2 Kwangwoon University, Seoul, Korea Received 14 October 2010 ABSTRACT: A broadband suspended substrate lter is proposed and implemented using dual-mode resonator aiming at transmitting the signals in the passband of 1018 GHz. It is composed of two quarterwavelength resonators and inductor. The inductor is a short-circuited stub. After optimization of this lter, a good bandpass behavior with 10 transmission poles is theoretically realized and experimentally conrmed. Within the whole BPF passband, the return loss is found C 2011 better than 10 dB, and the insertion loss is less than 1.9 dB. V Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 53:16261629, 2011; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.26070 Key words: broadband; bandpass filter; shielded suspended substrate stripline 1. INTRODUCTION

Many microwave components are manufactured using suspended stripline (SSL), due to its higher Q-factor than printed stripline and microstripline. SSL is a widely used transmission media used in the upper microwave and low-millimeter wave frequency bands. Most of the microstripline components, such as

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Figure 1

Dual-mode resonator

power dividers, transistor amplier, directional coupler, receiver mixers, and frequency multipliers are manufactured using SSL. Because of the symmetrical shielding, the suspended substrate line is particularly useful for integrated circuits with waveguide components, and the wide range of impedance values achievable makes these media particularly suitable for lters. In the SSL, the strip conductors are placed on the surfaces of thin dielectric substrate, and the substrate is then suspended in a metal enclosure. In SSL, the conductors are usually wider much than those in microstripline lters. SSL has many advantages in comparison with the microstripline. The most interesting aspect is that the presence of an air gap between the substrate and the ground plane reduces the effects of dispersion on the propagation constant, generally to such an extent that the quasi-state results remain valid even at much higher frequencies. Structural inaccuracies are smaller due to the wider conductors, so also electrical properties are more precise. The major portion of the electromagnetic eld is conned to the air gap between dielectric substrate and ground plates. Both sides of the SSL are available for circuit patterns, which enables broadside strong coupling. In this article, a quarter-wavelength resonator loaded with open-circuited stubs is proposed. The proposed resonator is a slow-wave resonator [1]. Using the proposed resonator, a broadband suspended substrate bandpass lter is designed and implemented.
2. DUAL-MODE RESONATOR

Figure 1 shows the proposed dual-mode resonator. The resonator is composed of a main strip line and two open-circuited stubs. The length of the T-shaped open-circuited stubs determines the fundamental resonant frequency and rst spurious resonant frequency. The length of the main strip line is less than k/8, and dielectric constant of the substrate is 2.2. Figure 2(a) shows the proposed lter with dual-mode resonator. The lter resonators consist of inductor connected to the ground plane and loaded capacitance patterns. An inset is used to increase the length of the narrow strip, whereas the loaded capacitance patterns can be regarded as a shunt capacitance, resulting in a shunt resonator. To characterize the resonator properties, we simulated the resonators using EM simulators, extracted inductance, and capacitance. The cross-sectional view of the suspended substrate stripline with sidewalls is illustrated in Figure 2(b). Table 1 shows its characteristic impedance and electrical length. Figure 2(c) shows the simulated results. As can be seen, it has center frequency of 13 GHz and shows the rst spurious passband at 39 GHz. A 1018 GHz SSL lter has been designed using six unit cells of Figure 3(a). Figure 3(b) shows the simulated results of the SSL lter using dual-mode resonators. The coupling patterns (width: W 2.0 mm, length: L 0.75 mm) are placed on the

Figure 2 Unit cell of suspended substrate stripline lter. [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

opposite side of the substrate, thus enabling strong broadside coupling. It has an inherent broadband characteristic, resulting form the strong coupling produced by the two broad-coupled strips [2, 3]. Figure 3(c) shows the simulated group delay.

TABLE 1

Characteristics of Dual-mode Resonator Z1 55 L1 13.3 Z2 157 L2 9.4

Impedance (X) Electrical length ( )

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Figure 4 Photographs of broadband SSL lter. [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Figure 3 3D model and simulated results of the SSL lter. [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

3. MEASURED RESULTS

A broadband SSL lter, built on a substrate with er 2.2, tan d 0.002, and thickness h 10 mils, is fabricated to demonstrate the proposed idea. Figure 4(a) shows the Printed Wiring Board of the broadband SSL lter that has the six dual-mode resonators and ve patterns for broadside coupling. The photograph of the fabricated SSL lter is in Figure 4(b). The passband is designed from 10 to 18 GHz. Figures 5(a) and 5(b) show the measurement responses. The measured group delay ranges between 0.1 and 0.9 ns. The measured return loss is better than 10 dB. The measured insertion loss is better than 1.9 dB. In the lower transition band, the measurement agrees very well with the simulation. In the upper transition, however, the measured data shows slight deviations from the simulation. The discrep-

Figure 5 Measured results

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ancy may attribute to the parasitic effects from the housing at the high frequency.
4. CONCLUSIONS

C 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt radiation characteristics. V Technol Lett 53:16291632, 2011; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.26044

A broadband SSL lter structure using dual-mode resonator has been proposed and implemented. A broadband SSL lter fabricated using 12 resonators of the proposed structure shows fractional bandwidth from 10 to 18 GHz and 1.9 dB insertion loss in the passband. The measured group delay ranges between 0.1 and 0.9 ns. In this article, design and performance of broadband SSL lter with 12 resonators have reported. The fabricated broadband SSL lter has a wide upper stop-band characteristic. The wider bandwidth will be very useful for various wideband microwave systems.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Key words: antenna; triple band antenna; handheld; radio frequency identification 1. INTRODUCTION

This project was funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy.


REFERENCES 1. D.M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Addison Wesley Publishing Company. 2. J.S. Hong and M.J. Lancaster, End-coupled microstrip slow-wave resonator lters, Electron Lett 32 (1996), 14941496. 3. M. Tran and C. Nguyen, Modied broadside-coupled microstrip lines suitable for MIC and MMIC applications and a new class of broadside-coupled band-pass lters, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 41 (1993), 13361342. 4. Y.-h. Shu, X.-x. Qi, and Y.-j. Wang, Analysis equation for shielded suspended substrate microstrip line and broadside-coupled stripline, IEEE MTT-S Int Microwave Symp Dig, Las Vegas, NV, (1987), 693696. 5. W. Menzel, A novel miniature suspended stripline lters, 33rd European Microwave Conference, Munich, Germany, 2003. 6. W. Menzel, Quasi-lumped suspended stripline lters with adjustable transmission zeroes, IEEE MTT-S Int Microwave Symp Dig, Fort Worth, TX (2004), 16011604. 7. C.L. Hsu, F.C. Hsu, and J.T. Kuo, Microstrip bandpass lters for ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communications, IEEE MTT-S Int Microwave Symp Dig, Long Beach, CA (2005), 679682. 8. J.S. Kim, N.S. Kim, W.G. Moon, S.G. Byeon, and H.S. Shin, A novel broadband suspended substrate stripline lter using resonators with T-shaped open-circuited stubs, IEEE MTT-S Int Microwave Symp Dig, Honolulu, HI (2007), 917920.
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With the tremendous development of modern supply chain, the radio frequency identication (RFID) systems have been paid more and more attention, and face to a huge potential market [1]. Several frequency bands have been assigned to RFID applications: 125 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 902928 MHz (UHF band), 2.45 (2.4002.483) GHz, and 5.8 (5.7255.875) GHz [2]. High and low frequency bands have their own advantages, which are procient for various RFID applications. Because the operational circuitry is becoming more compact day-by-day the urge of multiband RFID readers and consequently multiband reader antennas are also becoming vivid. A handheld reader unit should be as compact, lightweight, rigid, and easy to use as possible, which simultaneously demands compact antennas for the operation [3]. For handheld applications, some reader antennas have been proposed [46]. But these are operational in only one frequency band. Some antennas report multiband RFID reader operation [2, 7, 8]. These antennas either cannot be easily integrated in portable devices [2, 7] or consist of complex matching circuitry [8]. In this letter, a compact antenna is introduced for tri-band handheld RFID operation. The antenna consists of a bent monopole like arm with a matching small patch printed on the opposite side of the ground plane, which might also be the common for the multi-layer circuitry. The antenna can be directly integrated in the front casing [5] of the handheld reader or inside the casing itself, which would also make it less vulnerable to the external damaging effects. To verify the simulated results a prototype was fabricated and measured. The simulated and measured results conrm that the compact antenna can be strongly prescribed for tri-band handheld application.
2. ANTENNA CONFIGURATION

TRIPLE BAND RFID READER ANTENNA FOR HANDHELD APPLICATIONS


A. T. Mobashsher,1 M. T. Islam,2 and N. Misran1,2
1 Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering 2 Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; Corresponding author: titareq@yahoo.com

Received 16 September 2010 ABSTRACT: A novel compact microstrip antenna is presented for triband RFID applications. The antenna consisting of a monopole like bent arm with a capacitively coupled small patch, printed on the alternative side of the ground plane, which might be common for multi-layer reader circuitry. By adjusting the dimension of the bent arm as well as the embedded bent and capacitive coupling, tri-band antenna has obtained in a small prole. The prototyped antenna shows broad impedance bandwidths (10 dB  return loss) of 17.5, 32.7, and 25.5% accordingly in UHF (902928MHz), 2.45GHz and 5.8GHz RFID bands with stable

The schematic diagram of the proposed tri-band antenna for handheld RFID applications is depicted in Figure 1. It has the dimension of 37.5 mm 17 mm, whereas the dimension of the ground plane is 80 mm 40 mm, which is much smaller than reported practical multilayer RFID circuit boards, which are used to adopt the circuitry designed for RFID operation [9]. The smaller ground plane would be able to cope with the increasingly compacting of circuit design for smaller RFID handheld readers. Moreover, since the antenna is printed on the substrate, there is no extra space required for the height of the antenna. The antenna is printed on a 1.6 mm-thick low cost FR4 dielectric substrate of permittivity of 4.4 and loss tangent of 0.0245. The detail dimensions of the antenna pattern are as shown in Figure 1(a). The chosen position of the feed point of the microstrip line is convenient from the point of view of an experimental testing [10]. The radiator is fed by a microstrip line of width 3 mm, which is equivalent to 50-X characteristic impedance. The antenna consists of two 35-lm thick copper layers with the antenna placed at the upper side of the board for better radiation and detection performances, whereas the ground plane is etched at the bottom side. The microstrip line excitation connecting the antenna is divided into two parts from the point of connection. One portion excites a bent monopole like arm and another

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