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Incidentand Reflected Light Meterings Incident Iight metering:characteristics Incidentlight metering: basicoperation Det e rmin i nth g e li g h tin g ra tio . Flash MeterIV analyzefunction Aperture-priority meteri ng Exposure metersand film sensitivity Reflectedlight metering:characteristics Reflectedlight metering:basic operation Subjectcontrast and exposuredetermination. Contrastcontrol Creative exposuremeasurement . Cumulativeexposure metering BoosterII.... Spot-probe attachment. . Boostercompensation .

2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 28 30 38 44 46 48



Frash Meterrv

Floodlight: Tungsten Spot light: Tungsten

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bulbs, or tungsten suchas sunlight lightsources undercontinuous working Whether process photography is a flash, as electronic such light sources instantanieous or with off the subject, from the lightsourcestrikesand is reflected in which illumination A surface. passes the cameralensandformsan imageon a light-sensitive through as well as flashoutput speed, and shutter the lensaperture for controlling mechanism the of lightreaches to makesurethe rightamount, whenusingflashlight,is required film olane. lightmetering incident thisbrightness: Therearetwo basicwaysof measuring the amountof light by measuring exposure systemswhich indicatethe required which systems lightmetering and reflected the subject, (llumination) illuminating off the subject the amountof light reflected by measuring indicateexposure by the camera(SeeFig.1). (luminance) and received ' diffusers, with spherical lightmetering The Minil1aFlashMeterIVpermitsincident 5o or Viewwith Viewfinder light metering or reflected or flat diffusers, mini receotors angle)or the MinoltaBoosterII. (40' acceptance finder 10dII, a reflectedlightattachment to simpleSuidg- , systemshouldbe usedcannotbe reduced whichmetering Selecting or whetherthe receptoris directedat r situations linesbasedon specificphotographic the selectionshouldbe basedon a thoroughunderthe subjector the camera.Rather, betweenthe meritsof the two systems. of the differences standing betweenincidentand reflectedlight metering the differences Toddmonstrate black,gray,and whitewallpapersamples(respective we photographed systems, faciors[ii., the ratioof reflectedlightto incidentlighton the sublect]of reflection and and90%)shownon page3 underthe samelightconditions 4o/0,180/i approx. as indicated with the FlashMeterIV.The picturesin groupA were exposed metereO with reflected as indicaled those in groupB were exposed with incidentlight metering; lightmetering. metering light Fig. 1 Incident
Light source lncident liqht

metering metering Reflected light Reflected


Camera lightmetering lncident recePtor) (using spherical



Reflected light metering (reflected light attachment)

Incident light metering

Inincident lightmetering, lightilluminating (illumination) the subject is measured and exposure is calculated withthe formula (light striking the subject)x [illumination
Spherical diffuser

Accordingly, incident lightmetering will indicate the sameexposure level(f/16 in groupA photographs)for all subjects, i.e. irrespective of the subject reflection factor, whenphotographing uMer the samelightconditions, andtherefore render the neutral Flat diffuser graysheer as gray, the highreflection factor whitesheetas white, and the low reflection factorblacksheetas black.
*Standard reference subjects may have a ref lection factor anywhere between 120/oand26% reference subject with an 180/oreflection factor. Minolta bases its readinos on a


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Reflected-l ight attachment

Reflected light meteri ng

Reflected lightmetering measures the lightreflected luminance and by the subject calculates the exposure so the specific luminance is rendered in neutral subject (illumination)x tones. Theformula luminance usedin thiscalculation is:fsubject : exposufe.] subject reflection factor + film sensitivity (f/5.62, Accordingly, reflected lightmeters will indicate different f/160, and exposures fl32stor the black,gray, respectively; with andwhitesheets, seegroupB) for subjects reflection different factors whenphotographed underthe samelightconditions. The gray. resultis that black,grayandwhitesubjects will all be rendered in the sameneutral

Viewfinder 5o


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factorof factcir closeto 1B%,the reflection The mostoutdoorsceneshavea reflection This are based. lightmeterreadings on whichmostincident subject the reference incident and is the reason for portraiture, lightmeterquiteeffective makes the incident applications. usedfor thisand similar are mostfrequently lightmeters factors both with reflection include objects situations mostphotographic In addition, incident light explained, As previously reterence. higher and lowerthanthe 180/o The tones. lighter anddarker in respectively thesesubjects meters will reproduce averaged requiring exposure to situations suited incident lightmeteris therefore streetscenesand everyday acrossthe scene,as well as to shotsof openscenery, most indoorphotography. usedis thatthe light are so frequently lightmeters why incident reason Another are basedon the full rangeof lightstriking calculations and exposure receptor accepts is covered subject of anythree-dimensional the surface In mostsituations the subject. oTlightfromall someamount What'smore, by bothlightand darkareas(shadows). towardsthe the sidesand backof the subject,is reflected including lightsources, are receptors (SeeFig.2-a.)Spherical cameraand hassome effecton the picture. for a the subject as thatstriking the sameillumination and measure ableto reproduce determination. morepreciseexposure lesslightoriginating and posters, suchas pictures withflatsubjects Conversely, to the camera,and has a corresponfrom the sidesor backof the subjectis reflected the flatdiffusef-r (SeeFig.2-b.) In thesesituations, effecton the exposure. dingly smaller for exposure on the subject the illumination reproduce is usedto morenearly determination.

subject @ Three-dimensional


@ Flatsublect

| 1 4 2 2 6 4 5 6 8 1 11 6 2 2 3 2 4 5 6 4 9 0

Fig. 2 Effectof illumination In sources photograPhY of threeandflat dimensional subjects f/8, 1/60sec. Exoosure:



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Incident light metering: Basic operation

lightmetermodeis shownbelow. in the incident FlashMeterIVoperation Minolta

the t'':"i'"t Attach i,,.N,'.. diffuser ,i spherical to the or flat diffuser receptor, or usethe mini receolor. : Holdthe FlashMeterIV with nearthe subject pointing the receptor at the camera directly :

,"]; I Setrhemode s, I selector to the metertype. oeisiirio (AMB|, NON.C.) CORD,


i ";;i;" i Setthe function to TIME i .fi'^"r selector TIME: shutter or FNo. priority metering : aperture-PrioritY FNo. metering

AH -Jtl

the Press ' " , meaSuring buttonto take a measuremenl.

'"ii-'; Usethe ,"*F i decrease/ . to selecl control inCiease speed eitherthe shutter (f-number). or aperture (fhis should be normally set to the flashsync flash during speed photography.)

oAMBI: (continuous) light. ambient measures light. ligltandambient light flash orflash measures NONC: CORD, onoperation. fordetails oPlease manual IVinstruction Meter read theFlash

meterto producea moreaccuratereading. basedon the calculations makeexposure lightmeters incident before, As stated factorof densitysubjectwith a reflection a neutral to reproduce required exposure and photographing whenmetering required is therefore consideration 1B%.Special thanthis 1B%standard. factor higher of lowerreflection with a significantly subjects


(A)Exposed at metered values.

(B)Slightly (B)Slightly "underexposed"

lf the reflection factoris high:lighter subjects

Forexample, are to if the sceneis of predominantly factor, and thesewhitesubjects white,i.e.has a high reflection to one be reproduced with maximum one-half the picture detail, betterresults will be obtained by underexposing stopfrom the exposure indicated by the incidentlightmeter.

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(A)1122, Exposure: 1/60sec.;1/3stop (B)t132, 1/60sec; 1/3stop

lf the reflection factor is low:dark sub ects

Similarly, if the sceneis darkoverall, i.e.has a low reflection factor, and the darkareasare to be emphasized, the exposure should be increased one-half to one stopfromthe exposure indicated by the incident lightmetering. Notethat the exposure compensation described hereand aboveshouldnot be usedwhen photographing peopleand othersubjectshavingan average reflection factor.
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Exposure: (A)11132, 1/60sec.;1/2stop (B)t122,1/60 sec.; 1/2stop (A)Exposed at metered values.

lf the subjectis backlit

by backlighting opaquesubjebtsilluminated Normally, by following can be safelymetered or side lighting incidentlightmeteringrules,but thereare also standard illuminated and/or is translucent timeswhenthe subject at and the receptormust be directed by backlighting the lightsourceitselfin orderto meterand determine the properexposure. lightfrom all sourceswill havea In such situations to and it is necessary drrecteffecton the exposure, in orderto directions pointthe receptorin numerous properly meterthe overalllightsituation. readingshouldbe a standard In such situations, and the receptor takenwith incidentlightmetering, shouldbe pointedboth o@o up,awayfrom the light 1 l L 2 2 A 4 5 6 8 1 1 1 6 2 2 3 2 6 5 6 4 9 0. and directlyat the source, FNo f,@ r- r-t The exposure source. ':rli JJ',"on" mustthen be determined ''oi;Y , I -tL \ with resoectto the stop sec;1/3 Il32+112,1/60 desired Exposure: composition, results and other lighting factors.



Open scenery
Although placednearthe the lightreceptoris normally subjectand directed at the cameralens,this is often possible not and frequently not necessary when photographing outdoors. The receptor can usually be placed nearthe camerawith acceptable results. This is becausea lightsourcesuch as the sun will provide the same illumination at the cameraas at the subiect.
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Exoosure: f/8. 1/250sec.

Determining the lighting ratio

is the ratiobetweenthe ratio, or contrast, The lighting highlight and shadowareasof a subject.In normal ratioof between4: 1 and a lighting color photography, 8:1, or two to threestops,will producethe most natural rendition of colorsand contrast. The lightingratiocan be usedto controlthe overall betweenthe the relationshtp lighting effect,including or the effectof shadows main subjectand background or productphotoon the mainsubjectduringportrait graphyin a studioenvironment. of The MinoltaFlashMeterIV can meterillumination lightsources the subjectfrom a numberof individual in the memory usinga flat diffuserand storereadings indexnumber on the exposure for easycomparison the (ExlN.) displayand contrastscaleto determine ratio. lighting ratiocan be determined, how the lighting Toillustrate on the pageat right.Thisshot referto the photographs the main lightsource with two lights: was illumrnated as ratiowas determined and a fill light.The lighting follows: (1)Attacha flat diffuserto the lightreceptor. mode as described (2)Setthe film speedand metering on Page9. in "Basicoperation" . Makesurethe functionselectoris set to TIME (3)Fointthe flat diffuserdirectlyat the main lightsource and storethe readingin the from the subjectposition memory. (4)Now meterthe fill lightin the sameway and store the reading. . The flat diffusershouldbe shielded that no from the main lightsourcedirectlystrikes illumination the flat diffuser. can be (5)Thedifference betweenthesetwo readings scale (or the f-number scale). readfrom the contrast to obtainthe Storedvaluescan alsobe recalled is the ratioof the two light Thisdifference difference. (SeeTable1 and Fig.3.) sourceson the subject. indexnumberJorthe main if the exposure Forexample, (11322) and that of the fill lightis t122, lightsourceis 1O.2 or a is 10.2- 9.2:1.O stop, in sources the difference lighting ratioof the mainlightto the fill lightoI2:1. *Thelighting the to check inorder is normally determined ratio wltha photographing subjects when lighting situation actual in thereflection Extreme dlfferences ratio. normal reflection the mayexceed thepicture composing ratio of thesubjects Insuch is adjusted. after thellghting latitude of thefilmeven exposure Jor determining used thetechniques situations 22under on page asdescribed contrast based onsubject beused. metering should reflected light

Meter the main light (memorized)

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Meter the fill light (memorized)

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(A)Lighting ratio:B:1 (A)Il22+ 213,1160 Exposure: sec; 1/2stop

Thesetwo exposures were madewith different lighting ratios to demonstratethe effectof differing ratioson the finalexposure.The top photograph hada lighting ratioof 8: 1 which was adjusted to the 2:1 ralioo1the lower photograph by filling in snadows.
Fig. 3 Lightingratio

Table 1

Difference in Lighting meteredexposure ratio (ExlN ) 1 stop 2:1

2 stops 3 stops 4 stops 5 stops 6 stops 7 stops


B:1 16:1

64:1 128:1

(B) Llghtingratio'. 2:1 (A)Il22+ 213,1160 Exposure: sec; 1/2stop

function MeterlV analyze Flash

the total light used for the exposurecontainssome degree ln actual flash photography This meansconventional of ambientlight-unless you'reworkingin totaldarkness. exposure as the the required flashmeters(e.9. the MinoltaFlashMeterIII)express withinthe periodthe striking the receptor and flash illumination sum of both constant does not know the amountof the photographer shutteris open.Accordingly, provided by onlythe flashor ambientlight,and the meterseemsto illumination evenijthe shutterspeedwas changedafter light indicate a constantexposure was completed. metering for ambientand metering and adjustment The FlashMeterIV employsseparate the exposure setting. flashexposures. lt then storesthesevaluesto calculate the ratiobetweenflashand ambientlightcan be readfrom an analog Accordingly, scaleon the FlashMeterIV and usedto retainthe effectso{ ambientlight(whether this raliocan lights) shadows,Furthermore, or to emphasize naturallightor modeling by changing the shutterspeedto varythe amountof the ambientlightor be controlled is to varythe amountof flashlightafter metering the guidevaluecan be adjusted completed. at right with the Flash Meter IV, When meteringthe scene shown in the photographs lo meterthe flash light;the threepointers switchat ANALYZE set the normallanalyze required for the overalllightlevelis shown appearon the analogscaleand the exposure The pointers in pholograph on the digitaldisplay. @oo B indicate: -4.-3.. -? ."t ' 0 . I . 2N. 3.4 (1)Total valueof the ambientlightand exposure F -I .|n flashlight(thepointerat 0 on the electronic nrct.c ;__:_____--_\ lJ ii '-. contrastscale) L.Lr I b,t \ pointer) (2)Proportion of the flashlight(blinking (3)Proportion of ambientlight with The difference betweenflashand ambientlightlevelscan be determined pointers (2)and (3).The difference nearly 1/4stop,indicating here is approximately (seephotograph B at right). p of flashand ambientlightin the exposure equalportions (ambient) the tungsten lo increase In photograph A, the shutterspeedwas lowered lightcomponent, As shownon the contrastscale,the ratioof flashto tungstenlightis at 2 stopswhiletungstenlightis clear:the flash lightto totallightratiois indicated indicated at 1/4stops. the flash units power levelwas increased C the situationwas reversed: In photograph lightto totallight The tungsten the amountoJflash lightin the exposure. to increase ratiois - 2.5 stops,makingthe flashthe main lightsource. flffhilethe same ratiocan the shutterspeed,the totallightlevelwill also changq and by increasing be obtained a largerapertureis required.) will indicate the display

-4.,3".-.;, r- .. t 3 , , E@ ,s | ;;-:---------\ r-h1 Fs 1fI f 1'1 rJ NoNc ,-.Lf -r . 2.. 3.4N

(A) Erp.rosure: iilr. l sec

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J f l r , n Io * .

(B)Exposure I!2+31t1,
L/4 -qec

(-.1 i- 'o. '".i i. e.

priorityflashmetering reApertu
in addition to ambientlight flashmetering The FlashMeterIV permitsaperture-priority light.i metering of daylight andtungsten ;:1, .r . , : ., the .,,., whichControls by the aperture, lightexposures arecontrolled Sinceambient of time'r j i the length whichcontrols speed, the film,and shutter amount of lightstriking metering for shutter-priority the aperture the film,one mustdetermine this lightstrikes metering. the shutterspeedfor aperture-priority and,conversely, it is not , .: andwith mostcameras, is veryshort, However, tne flasnunit'sduration the film plane. i)'' possible of time lighifromthe flashstrikes the amount to control of lightreaching the amount adjusted to control is normally Accordingly, the aperture ln conventional is controlled.) flashes the flashduration thb film.(Onautomatic the metering systems(theMinoltaFlashMeterIII),the shutterspeedwas set (within of flashand was calculated for the amount the aperture camera's X-syncrange)and speed. at thisshutter the receptor lightwhichwouldstrike ambient for ambient and adjustment metering separate Sincethe FlashMeterIV employs the scenecan be of flashlight, the amount whichcan indicate andflashexposure and the meter X-syncshutterspeedand desiredaperture, metered with the required as a 'guidevalue"IGW is flashlight(expressed how muchadditional will indicate (unvarying)ambient light Thisfigureis basedon a constant required for the exposure. or decreased how manystopsthe powerlevelmust be increased level,and indicates aperture. at the specified a properexposure to provide at right.Accordingly, of fieldwas desiredin the photograph lessd'epth Forexample, that flash was set to f/16,and the meterindicated* 1 GV indicating the aperture powershould lo 1t2the current be reduced one stop,i.e. illumination mustbe reduced one stop. be increased the powerlevelshould level. if +'1 GV is indicated, Similarty,

2 00 w s

b b 200ws

filmSiensitivity mefers'ehd &posihte

aboutexposure. of the film whenthinking to knowthe characteristics It is important on the film appearsas the the amountof light(exposure)* Whenthe film is developed, expobetween the relationship on the film.The linegraphillustrating of images density curveindicates Thecharacteristic curve. is the film characteristic sureanddensity andother : film latitude exposure, whendetermining whichis required film sensitivity, correctexposure. to a obtaining factorsimportant "and color negative curvesfor color reversal Fig.A showsthe typicalcharacteristic for each of tendencies opposite thesecurvesindicate films.As wouldbe expected, curveof the threeprimarycolors,red:green,and blue.We will referto the composite here. the discussion Fig.B to simplify and the Y-axisis the transmission of the exposure, the logarithm TheX-axisindicates as the expotransparent film becomesincreasingly densityof the film.Colorreversal prodecreases, opaqueas the exposure and becomesincreasingly sureincreases, indicates that exposure The curve right. to the descending S-curve inverted ducingan , (thetop and bottomof the curve)' at the two extremes and densityare not proportional lineindicates Thisstraight linein between. the straight through but are proportional on . .l in lightintensity variations reproduces thatpartof the filmwhichmostaccurately ,;,'-, .'t.t: thesubject. most commonlya difference latitude, to as the film'sexposure This rangeis referred with color reversal ,:. of aboutfive stopsbetweenmaximumand minimumexposures :' S and H on the FlashMeterIVcontrastscaleis the exposure film.(Theareabetween Hm,which exposure latitude of the film.)Ataboutthe centerof this rangeis reference Hm produces at whichreference the intersection film sensitivity; is usedto calculate M. Dm is filmsensitivity density midtone illumi' is obtained by measuring exposure the required lightmetering, Withincident to reproduce in this systemare designed calculations nationon the subject.Exposure and shutterspeedin neutral :.: aperture at the indicated an 18% graysubjectexposed Dm. -, tones, meandensitY to ..,,, by the subjectis measured the lightreflected metering systems, In reflected-light to refer- '" so this is equivalent is adjusted and exposure subjectluminance, determine factor, reflection no matterwhattheir Hm. In otherwords,all subjects, ence exposure the highest as a meandensityDm image.In actualphotography, will be reproduced and the lowest for whiteobjectsis about85% to 9Ao/o, factorencountered reflection to 3%. about2.5o/o factoris that of blackobjects, reflection this rangebreaksdown intoaboutfive stoPsof differences, In termsof exposure the 18% graysubject 4Bo/0, and 96%, placing 120/o,24.0/0, 3o/0,60/o, apprOximately by an incidentlightmeterand indicated the exposure Accordingly, roughly the middle. lightmeterusinga subjectwith a reflection by a reilected theixposure indicated conditions. lighting equalunderequivalent 18% will be nearly factor of approximately factorof from with a reflection levels, subjects at the metered lf thepictureis exposed


Fig. A Colorfilm characteristic curve

Color negativefilm

Fig. B Composite film characteristic curve

This example approximates an area with 18% reflectance.

' i -2 . -4.-3s. r . 0 . 1 . 23. 3.4


by the subject.The the lightreflected Reflected lightmetering systemsmeasure the actuallight receptoris pointeddirectlyat the subjectand therebymeasures (luminance) both on film.All scenescontain whichwillenterthe lensand be recorded lightmetercan be the reflected lightand dark objects,and for certainapplications of which are basedon a the readings moreeffective than an incidentlightmeter, reference reflection ratioof 18%. seeksa naturalbalancein which lightobjectsappearlightand dark One normally presented by reflected some problems objectsappeardark.Thereare,consequently, lt lightmetersas theywill turn both lightand dark objectsgray in the finalphotograph. is therefore important to meterthe rightpart of the sceneto producethe best results. to to adjustthe exposure this principle will enablethe photographer Understanding In white or dark picture. emphasize a particular subject,or to add detailto a generally lighting how certain in the sceneand monitoring addition, determining the contrast to use othertechniare reproduced on film will enablethe photographer conditions questo get the most from the film'spotential. neon subjects, of translucent Reflected lightmetersalso permitaccuratemetering of subjects to metering in addition lights,lamps,and other light-emitting subjects, which cannotbe conveniently approached.


o =

Exposure: il45+112, 1/60sec; 1/3aperture

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Reflectedlight metering: Basic operction

lightmetermode is shownbelow. in the reflected MinoltaFlashMeterIV operation

Attach the Viewfinder5", the 10' II or Viewfinder reflectedlight meter attachmentto,the receptor,or use the booster. , Fointthe receptor directlyat the subject


Set the measuring I mode selector to the desired meter type. (AMB|,CORD,NONC.)


Set the function selectorto TIME or FNo.TIME:shutterprioritymetering FNo: aperture-priority metering

Pressthe measunng button to take a measuremenl

Use the decrease/increase control to select either the shutter speed or (fhis aperture(f-number). be set to shouldnormally the flash sync speed during flash photography.)

Bead the requrreo from exposure setting thedatapanel

r For manual. refer lo theinstruction further details, lightmeterand an incident with a reflected betweenmetering The biggestdifJerence must alwaysbe directed the receptor lightmetering is in step 5: in reflected lightm-e1er at which the camerawill be located. at the subjectfrom the direction (1)averaging*, in lightmetering: used in reflected Thereare two majortechniques in and (2)spot metering, which the entiresubjectis meteredfrom the cameraposition, (See angleis usedto metera specificpart of the subject. which a narrowacceptance Fig.4.) *Care thesubject. do notcover fromthemeter or photographer so thatshadows muslbe taken
betweenacceptanceangle and subject Fig. 4 Relationship



Average metering
In averagemetering,the receptoracceptanceangle (40' on the reflectedlight attachment,10" on the VieMinder10o[, 5o on the Viewfinder 5")permits metering of light reflectedoff the subject,therebyproducingan averagedreadingand exposure. lf the reflection factorof the overall scene is approximately 18%,the exposure will be equivalentto an incidentlight meteredexposureof the same scene.See photographsA and B. produces Although this technique a quick,easy reading, the exposure will be unbalancedif largepartsof the sceneare extremely light,dark,or backlit.See photographsC and D.






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Spot metering
A narrowed acceptance angleis usedfor spot metering, thus permitting metering of a closelydefinedpart of the subject. This narrowangleprevents interference from surrounding lightsand reproduces the meteredarea as a midtonedensity. lf the metered area has a reflectionfactor of about 18%, an averagedexposuresimilarto that producedby an incidentlightmeterwill result. See photographs E and F. With the FlashMeterIV,the photographer can metereithertight(whites)ordark (blacks) (H)or shadow(S)keyto retainmaximumdetail areas,and pressthe highlight in that part of the subjectwhile maintaining a natural balanceon the overall exposure. Accordingly, best results are obtained with spot metering by first determining the overall comDosition beforemeterino.


Subject contrast and exposuredetermination

pagecompensates for many on the previous described technique The spot metering and can be usedto produce lightmetering in reflected inherent of the problems of the possibilities To reallyoptimize photographs for specificobjectives. exposed should technique iettecteO tigntmetersand to get the most from the film,the following also be mastered. and then and shadows, of both highlights spot metering Thistechniqueinvolves latitude of and the exposure from thesemeteredexposures the expoSure determining is the subject of the ie. luminance, the film. In otherwords,knowingthe brightness, theseimageson film.This rangeof subject way to reproduce most effective range) and is expressed is calledsubjectcontrast*(or subjectbrightness brightness on the subject.Subject as a ratiobetweenthe highestand lowestluminances factor' ratioand the subjectreflection contrastis definedby the lighting both a memoryfunctionand analogscalefor easy, The FlashMeterIV includes (H),shadow with highlight lt is alsoequipped of subjectcontrast. visualconfirmation by the exposure determine (A)keyswhich let the photographer (S)and averaging beforeshutterrelease. m6nitoring subjectbrightness and (thewall of the outsidebuilding) betweenhighlights the difference Forexample, grill inside) at rightis eightstops,or a subject in the pictures shadows(thecar radiator contrastof 256: 1.(SeeTable2.) film is approximately of most color reversal At the same time,howevetthe latitude five stopswith subject Table 2 (see contrastof32:1 area (memorized) Highlight in Difference Subject pages16and 17). In meteredexposure contrast where such situations (ExlN.) ' " " J J , o * ' * J [ . film contrastexceeds z , I 1 stop the latitude, exposing ,.ori,/ A'1 L L -1 2 stops \ scenewith an averaged 6.1 stops 3 will [(A)key]exposure 16:1 4 stops oroducewashed-out 0 32:1 5 stops anddark highlights ,/in! -? f, 64:1 6 stops B). shadows(picture 128:1 allows 7 stoos lf the situation to be the highlights 256:1 B stops and the emphasized expohighlight-weighted (highlight) for a press key to meter the H shadowsdismissed, black sure;all shadowareasbelowthe S mark on the contrastscalewill be completely pressthe S (shadow) key (picture if the shadowsare to be emphasized, A). Conversely, abovethe H on the contrastscalewill ' all highlights exposure; for a shadow-weighted to the rightof ,' indicated C). Referto the scalesand exposures be washedout (picture each photograph.



*lt is important points to thecomposition, essential anddarkest meter thebrlghtest to selectively to lt is alsoimportant points contrast. of maximum anytwoindiscriminate notsimply measure hues. related to color inbrightness thedifferences consider


(A)Highlight-weighted re exposu

Exposure. Il11+ 114,I /30 sec

'l J


Exposure I l 5 6 + 1 1 2 ,1 / 3 0 sec

(C)Shadow-weighted exposure

Exposure: Il4+ 114,1/30sec


The photographer can judge the subject'sbrightness leveland decidewhere'jnthe film'slatitude the tones shouldbe reproduced. A-3, the subject In the scene show4 in photograph contrast is 1.5stops,'a 3: 1 ratio.The darkesttones were the shadowsin the facq and the lightesttones in the white clothes.When the photowas exposedusingan averagemeter reading,the white clothes became a light gray,as shown in gray and the face was a slightlydarke.r reading, A-1.When exposed usinga shadow-weighted very darkly,as shown in A-2. the face was reproduced Since the most importantareas in the scene are white or very lighttones,it is clearthat a highlight-weighted readingshouldbe used to give added detailto the face without loss of detail in the white dress,as shown in photoA-3. In photographB, the subject contrastwas approx.4 with a shadowstops,16:1.The scenewas exposed weightedreading to retaintonaldetailofthe clothes.By meteringthe face, it was determinedthat it would appearlighterin the final results. The Flash Meter IV will fix the exoosurevalueon the digitaldisplayderivedfrom an incidentor reflectedlight Afier takinga measurement, additional measurement. areas can be measuredto determinethe tonal relationship betweendifferentparts of the picture.These measurementscan be comoaredon the contrastscale.For if the face in photoA-3 is to be a midtone example, density,meter the face and pressthe A key was pressed and Thenthe clothing on the display. to lockthe reading with this and compared highlights can be metered referencepoint to determinehow brightlythey will reproducein relationto the face.

Exposure: fl11 +114.1/60 sec

Meter the face, monitorthe clothes.


ghted exposure A-2 Shadow-wei


':Eh ":-"

Exoosure: tl22+112.1/60sec.

(Ihis example shows that the photographwill be slightly underexposed compared to photograph A-3)


A-3 Highlight-weighted exposure

Exposure: ll56+314, 1/60 sec


B Shadow-weighted exposure

ll9' 314 1/60sec Lxposure.

on the as described lightmetering Monitoring subjectcontrastwith reflected to control preceding page is a particularly lighting meansof adjusting effective placeof highlights and reflections, to depictof translucent objectsand to accurately the.sceneon the pageat right. shadows. Consider by lightfrom below the Toemphasize the tonesof the purpleglass illuminated lightmetering and the scenewas meteredwith reflected readinglockedwith the A key.The blue glasson the beneaththe purpleglassand the bright transparency whitewere then monitored. Thesereadings is showedthat when the exposure weighted for the purpleglass(whichthen becomesthe 0 reference), the whiteareaswill appearas highlights on the printed film and the blue glasswill be reproduced at approximately the samedensityas the 0 reference {or glass. the purple
. Meterthe purpleglass ('A' key) sec. tl32 + 112,1160
-4..3s..2 ,filCrfi . { . O . FNd I E . 2x. 3.4.

.Eli rsoEU \

J-ar"o"o JL:'
. Monitor the white highlights------l zit Ern


2500 ws

!9 2500ws was beiow.Herethe exposure by the photograph is demonstrated Anotherapplication was lockedby pressing then the digitaldisplay lightmetering, with incident determined 'A' key. light with reflected The tilesand shadowof the can were then monitored the tiles metering to confirmthat colorswouldappearin the shadowwith the remaining beinga brightwhite. . Monitor the white areas on the tiles
.lncident lioht measurement ('.A' key)
I E . 2 r . 3 . 4 . - 4 . 3 s . - 2 .j . 0 . ird l nr fU FNo

#_\ Jls"'""


I . O. 4..3E.2. 5irerl


\ JL


E,', \



1 7 J-r.o,o

| .2r.3.4. A

. Monitor the f ront tiles

- 4 . - 3 s . - 2 . j . 0 . .

2 r . 3 . 4


'*" l^l

- "o Jl_]""""

Exposure: sec il22+ 213.1/60


When the subject contrastexceedsthe latitudeof the film, shadowsor highlightsare (seepage23).Bothin the studioand out, lighting can the composition oftensacrificed In the withoutlosingany detailin the picture. to adjustsubjectcontrast be controlled and the than the inside(thecontrastis high), sceneat right,the outsideis brighter subject contrastexceedsthe film latitude. lf the exposureis adjustedfor the outside,the model and car will be too dark as to the inside, if the exposure is adjusted shownin photoC at the bottomright.Similarly, (photoB, bottom left).In such situations, the.outsidewill be grosslyoverexposed flash* will add light and decreasethe contrast,producingphotodaylightsynchronized (flashlightin this case)lowersthe subjectcontrast graphA. In short,additional lighting to withinthe film latitude.

Metered outside (memorized)


indoors, on face

Metered indoors, on face with synchronized flash o3 @tfl b




(ambient) (A)the natural the flash is then lightoutsideis metered, In the photograph 2: 1 so to fill the shadowsinsideand lowerthe contrastto approximately synchronized (onthe radiator grill), the model's Shadows is slightly overexposed. that the background (on the wall)werethen monitored with reflected lightmetering. face and highlights
Shadows monitored


ifrl,Fn NLi


J.D ?"o""

^ ?F

*Daylight flash sync is a process is which sunlight(ambientlight)and flash light are both used in The analyzeand memory functions of the Flash Meter IV are very effectivewhen the exposure. photographing scenes using both daylightand flash light.



(A)Exposure: f/5 6, 1/60sec

mxrng a

flash lighting

Mixingambientlightwith a flashand an orangefiltercan effectively createa twilight atmosphere on cloudydays.In the photograph right,exposure was balanced for the background. The hat was then measuredand a strong flash added to enhancecontrastand accents,turningan othenruise non-descript, cloudysky intoa brightevening sky with sunlight slanting downthroughthe clouds.

. Flash exposure was meterd.


t* '1fr fr*."
\ f. L, I

. Measure ambient light

r T * ,..11

112 sec. EXposure: Il5 6 + 112,

Mixed lighting control: neon and flash lighting

Flashlightwas addedto the modelholdinga blue neontube and the green neon lightin the background was movedthroughout the one-second exposure to createa flickering effect. The model'sface and legs,illuminated by boththe blue neon lightand flash,were metered. The analyze functionwas then usedto determine the ratiobetweenambientand flash lighton the face and legsto adjustthe lighting. Flashintensity was decreased to emphasize the blue lightfrom the neontube.

On face
4 Z 4 @ @

. 0 . I . 2x. 3.4


\ f






On legs





Exposure: Il2B+112, 1 sec

The model'sbodyand the flowerswere illuminated with a spotflash,lettinglightfrom the television screenilluminate the face. Usingthe analyze function, a measurement of the model'sface indicated additional lighting was neededon the bodyand flowers; the spot flashwas positioned to help accentthe face. The FlashMeterIV handlessuch assignments metering easily. Conventional techniques havea hardtime determining the effectthat subtlechangesin lighting will haveon exoosure cominofrom sourcessuch as a W screen.
Readingon face .u ! 6. t . 2".3.4@

Readingnear waisl
-r-. t r..3..-2 . {,.\0 . 1 . 24. 3.4 ,fi[E] , s F&

Readingon flowers
I3 s . -. -4.2{ @ rl! r D. F& 1 . 2x. 3.4


I * El_l

, 8


rr J.A ,/"o""

=-=-f---. ''hI \

t/ fl 7**. r'r't L



J.D 1"o""


Exposure: Il4+112,1 sec.

Bo*! &

1 5Ows

A senseof dynamicactionwas captured by movingthe cameraduringa one-second exposure undermixedlighting consisting of a blue filterovera tungsten lightand normalflash.While the blursare accentedhighlights illuminated only by the tungsten, flashlightwas addedwhen the camerawas stopped. The analyze functionwas usedto determine the illumination and color reoroduction of the motorcycle whilethe camerawas still.The bike was almostcompletely exposed with a 1/30sec. following and priorto exposure shutterrelease cameramovement. With an f/5.6aperture, the tungstenlighthad virtually no effecton colors.

Blu! filter

'gN, NZEV i-r,.-. .. @'tfi _fr-f F&

\ o h3n)

.i!i. , . 2,.3.4^

r f * t;i_1 J.A J*""

- a . _ 3 , . - 2. l i . fue

i. FM

1 .





Exposure: fl5 6, 1 sec

re metering Cum ulative exposu

The the bluesof the blinds. The first exposure captured turnedthe spacesbetweenthe slats secondexposure throughfrom the white and caughtthe tire peeking the blindswere removed bottom.In the thirdexposure, as a blue silhouette. and the bicyclewas exposed lightmetering readings with reflected Cumulative to controlthe contrast the photographer enabled of those betweenthe slatsand monitorthe exposure by the bicyclethroughthe blindsand areassilhouetted thoseareasnot silhouetted. valueof the integrated The digitaldisplayindicates The creating the bicyclesilhouette. the threeexposures pointerabovef/45on the analogscale indicates the part f/90 is the of the slatswhich will not be silhouetted; for the spacesbetweenthe slats. cumulative exposure

Exposure: 1st Blindsexposedblue 2 n d Tiresvisiblethroughblinds
from exposed: illuminatton in bluelights behind the blinds; front extinguished white Bicyclesilhouetted: litwith bluelights; background blindshavebeen removed

Cumulative exposuremetering: Mul

Toilluminate with a smallflash(GN theselargebuildings 32),the tableswere exposed by firinga flash8 times. The building was exposed by firinga flash22 timeswith the flashunit as shownin the figurebelow. The tablesand patiowere meteredeighttimeswith incident readings; lightmetering and the cumulative the building was metered22 timeswith the reflected light metering and the cumulative readings. The exposure was adjusted so the background would becauseambientlighthas an underexposed be slightly Flash effecton the exposure duringthe duration. per exposure recharge was 8 secondswith the camera set at "bulb'i



Guide number: 32 Meter the building

1 142284 @ 568 It162232456490!



i ' ? s

lJ \-

, F M

-, I? _t.Lf


: NoNc L uu,r,


Exposure: (approx4 min ) f/5 6, bulb exposure FlashfiredB times towardsthe tables,22 times towardsthe buildinqs

metering of this scene indicated Cumulative exposure with the first and most objectswould be fullyexposed leaving miniatures the lamp-lit to be secondexposures, The miniatures on finished with ambient and flashlight. by boththe lamp lightand the chairwere illuminated on the chairwere flash light.The miniatures blue-filtered with the edgeslit only compared overexposed, slightly by the flash. soughtto flare the photographer In the thirdexposure, in the chairand the openings the lightcomingthrough cumulative An aperture-priority illuminated from behind. readingindicated that the flashshouldbe firedfour the gapsby timeswith the lensat f/90to overexpose in aboutthreestopscomparedwith the main lighting one and two. exoosures
lst exposurereading

*Jfl" '"o.i,/

l,'*33-.o"o L L f"u.r, \'

Cumulativereadingof 1st and 2nd exposure

'tg'u $

Yellow f ilter

3#--,.1'"r r l,-"
3rd exposure reading




tl22+112,30 sec. tl22+112,30 sec. tl22+1l2,"bulb" exposure; flash fired4 times.

Exposure:1st Exposure made with a smalltungsten lampon the chairand flashlightwith blue filter. from small stand 2nd Exposure lamp on chair top: soft effectsfilteron lens. 3rd All lightson chair turnedoff; f rom backillumination ground flashwith yellow filter;soft effectsfllteron lens

The Minolta Booster II is a TTLexposure metercell directmetering whichpermits of low lightlevels using receptors. The anyof the Booster II reflected-light receptors via FlashMeter[V*of enable directmetering lightlevels whichcannotbe metered with a flashmeter alone. Someexamples: brightness at the focusing screen of large formatcameras, at the film planeof SLRcameras or at the eyepiece of the viewfinder, in the eyepiece of a microscope and otherapplications in whichlighthas passed already through an opticalsystem. jack on Thebooster's cableplugsintothe accessory the FlashMeterIV,and the spot-probe attachment, SLR microscope receptor or 35mm eyepiece attachment, is attached film olaneattachment to the booster. Oneof is used: two metering techniques
Booster II and attachments

Fixed aperture metering

In thistechnique the aperture is preset. The meterreading can be readfromthe Flash MeterIVdatapanelas whenmetering with FlashMeterIV alone. Thistechnique corresponds to exposure measurement and is usedwith the spotat openaperture. probeattachment or SLReyepiece attachment.

Stop-down metering
andthe As the nameimplies, is stopped downto the desired aperture the aperture is readwhenthe FlashMeterIV indicates a specified shutter speedor guidevalue(GV) TTLmetering and is usedwith aperture. Thistechnique corresponds to stopped-down, receptor. or microscope the 35mm film planeattachment factor it is also necessary to obtainthe ccjinpensation Whenfirst usingthe booster, indicated on the compensation scaleaccording to the optical characteristics of the photographic equipment used,including the cameraand lens. lf the sameequipment factoris determined, and materials for whichthiscompensation are used, TTLmetering is possible underthe sameconditions as reflected light metering. . For manual. II instruction 48and49andtheBooster details refer to pages * TheBooster Meter withMinolta Flash III,FlashMeterII,andAuto beused II canalso
Meters III. IIIF.and II

attachment Spot-probe

SLR eyepiece attachment


35mm film planeattachment

Takenwith large format view camera (using attachment) spot-probe 4 x 5 viewcamera.fl32. 11250 sec

Macrophotography with 35mm SLR, magnification3.35X (using SLR eyepiece attachment) 35mm camera: f/11. 1/60 sec

Photomicrograph(10Xobjective, 10Xclose-up lens) (using microscope receptor) polarizing 35mmcamera; using light

Low illuminationexposure (using boosted ref sensilivity. lected lightreceptor) 4 x 5 camera (with UVfilter), 1122, 12min,30ws ultra.viotet liqht source

with the spot-probe attachment:

wqr/ camera exposures

TTLmetering withina 5mm diameter circleon the focusing screen of a viewcamera used is possible attachment to the Booster II. Commonly by attaching the spot-probe permitsaccurate with the spot-probe in productphotography, metering on-screen increases. and subject contrast without calculating exposure metering of the exposure measurement is madepossible of exposure Evenmoreprecise by usingthreechoices (highlight biased, shadow biased and averaging). with illumination shining through the Forexample, the photograph at rightwas taken glasses. was usedto carefully meterthe subjects and Thespot-probe attachment variouslocations in the background the exposure so that subjectcontrast to determine remained withinthe latitude of the film.Toemphasize the tonesof the bird,the bird Numerous was metered to lockthe reading. spotsfrom and key[A]was pressed partsalongthe stemof the purple highlights in the background, various to shadows glassandthe glasswith liqueur wereall thenmetered.
Reading: Glass bird
1 . 2n. 3.4

glassste Purple
-4.-3..-2. -r . O. | . 2H. 3.4


llo ,


JtJ J tr-5


*"-ffi'--7'l 5"o*o
Bluein centerglass
I -4.-35. -2 . -t . . | . 2H. 3.4.

highlights Background
r4.-3s. -2 . -1 . O . | . 2N. 3.4



'* J^J 7 EI




FNo E '1 't

-5 fi

. 1 .


in the packground Blues

t -4.-3s..2 . -l . ,flte , -r O . FNo t E . 26. 3.4

liqueur Green
- 4 . - 3 s . - 2. - i . 0 2r.3.4

* l.'o
t"" 5 rl

1l-q'o'.% t _ l



1( 5



Exposure. tl32+112, 1/125 sec. Reading:-Flash Meter IVwith BoosterII and spotorobeattachment

shadows Background


J( 5



meter feature whichboosts increased sensitivity a built-in The Booster II contains dialis set to C, sensitivity is sensitivity in 1/3stopintervals; whenthe compensation five stops;when set to H, sensitivity is boostedapprox. eightstops. boosted !: Booster matches thatof the FlashMeterIVwhenthe dialis setto L, sensitivity to be usedas a reflected lightreceptor with a 60o acceptance the booster allowing hood. the receptor angleby extending systemand spotin sensitivity between Thedifference opticsof the photographic probeattachment light mustbe determined withthe booster set up as a reflected Aftercalibrating the booster, the scene meterbefore usingthe spot-probe attachment. metering. is metered with either fixedaperture or stop-down

metering Fixed aperture


'1. attach3. Setthe spot-probe dialto L 2, Directthe cameraat the Setthe sensitivity ',1. mentto the focusing screen and metera flat surface $ameevenreflectance ti.:,'. and holdit firmly.' andturnthe compensation using , surface with evenreflectance* ' . .i dial untilthe reading Focus the lensat infinity reflected light receptor. Jot matches that notedin to and closethe aperture downthe reading. ' , r, *The the desired setting. surface should beanevenly , step1. ;,,:.' ;: e Setting illuminated surface, such asa the dialto H may in wall,large enough to coverthe notbe somecircumstances angleof the lensto be used. lf thishappens, sufficient. on increase the ISOsetting the FlashMeterIVuntilthe readings matchor usethe o Blockany lightwhichdoes through not come directly on the lenswhen metering the focusing screen. Metering: Fixed aperture metering. in step3 abovebefore determined be set to the position dialshould The compensation factorhas to be to the lensin use,the compensation factordiffersaccording As the compensation

meterins iJ:f,ffiyJ

Adjustthe cameraand lights and set the lensto the aperture usedwhen : :.: j:.:, :;: calibrating the booster.

Setthe spot-probe atl&sh- ,: menton the groundglass and takea reading. indi. Readings catedon the FlashMeterIV display can be usedas is. :


Stop-down metering
Calibration Compensation required for the stopdownmetering modeis determined as explained below:

1.Setthe sensitivity dialto L . and metera flat surface ::l , with evenreflectance* :' using the reflected light receptor. Jot down the reading. *The reading should bea shutter speed andaperture smaller than thefulllens aoerture.

2. Directthe cameraat the sameevenreflectance surface. Focusthe lensat infinity and closethe apertureto obtain the same reading as in step 1.

3. Set the spot-probe attach*. menton the focusing screenand meterwiththe shutter speednotedin step 1.Turn the compensation dial untilthe display on the FlashMeterIV indicates the sameaperture setting. o Blockany light whichdoes nol come directly through the lenswhenmetering on glass. the focusing

The compensation dial shouldbe set to the position determined in step3 abovebefore (lf the booster metering. is calibrated in fixedaperture metering with an f/5.6aperture, that settingon compensation dial can be used in stop-down metering, too.) ..,

i i

Adjust the cameraand lights andclosethe lensto the desiredaperture. .;

Setthe spot-probe attachmentto the groundglass and takea reading. Usethe shutterspeedor GV reading indicated whenthe display on the FlashMeterIVfor correct exposure. o Either aperture-priority or ,.: priority shutter metering can be used.lf aperture-priority metering is used,set the FlashMeterIVto FNo. mode.Usef/5.6to takethe reading.

Wirelessremote data transfer via the Data ReceiverDR-IOOO

The Minolta Flash firsthand-held exoosure MeterlV is the world's meterto incorporate infrared whichpermits an on-board transmitter from a distance. wireless datatransfer and cameracontrol By attaching the DataReceiver DR-1000 to the Minolta 9000/ MAXXUM 7000), the usercan a'utomatically 9000(or7000/MAXXUM transfer the correctmeter-derived and shutter speedto the aperture camera, thentrigger flash shutter...a tremendous time-saver and release in studio situations!

Wirelesstriggering of flash by IR ReceivenTrigger

lR by usingthe optional triggering of flashis madepossible Wireless from freesphotog raphers gger.This versati le accessory Receiver-Tri handling of thesynccord. troublesome to the flash,thenthe flashcan be the lR Receiver-Trigger Simplyattach the measuring buttonon the FlashMeterlV. testfiredby pressing