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IMPORTANT WARRANTY INFORMATION!

PLEASE READ
Return Policy on Kits When Not Purchased Directly From Vectronics: Before continuing any further with your VEC kit check with your Dealer about their return policy. If your Dealer allows returns, your kit must be returned before you begin construction. Return Policy on Kits When Purchased Directly From Vectronics: Your VEC kit may be returned to the factory in its pre-assembled condition only. The reason for this stipulation is, once you begin installing and soldering parts, you essentially take over the role of the device's manufacturer. From this point on, neither Vectronics nor its dealers can reasonably be held accountable for the quality or the outcome of your work. Because of this, Vectronics cannot accept return of any kit-in-progress or completed work as a warranty item for any reason whatsoever. If you are a new or inexperienced kit builder, we urge you to read the manual carefully and determine whether or not you're ready to take on the job. If you wish to change your mind and return your kit, you may--but you must do it before you begin construction, and within ten (10) working days of the time it arrives. Vectronics Warrants: Your kit contains each item specified in the parts list. Missing Parts: If you determine, during your pre-construction inventory, that any part is missing, please contact Vectronics and we'll send the missing item to you free of charge. However, before you contact Vectronics, please look carefully to confirm you haven't misread the marking on one of the other items provided with the kit. Also, make certain an alternative part hasn't been substituted for the item you're missing. If a specific part is no longer available, or if Engineering has determined that an alternative component is more suitable, Vectronics reserves the right to make substitutions at any time. In most cases, these changes will be clearly noted in an addendum to the manual. Defective Parts: Today's electronic parts are physically and electrically resilient, and defective components are rare. However, if you discover an item during your pre-construction inventory that's obviously broken or unserviceable, we'll replace it. Just return the part to Vectronics at the address below accompanied with an explanation. Upon receipt, we'll test it. If it's defective and appears unused, we'll ship you a new one right away at no charge. Missing or Defective Parts After You Begin Assembly: Parts and materials lost or damaged after construction begins are not covered under the terms of this warranty. However, most parts supplied with VEC kits are relatively inexpensive and Vectronics can replace them for a reasonable charge. Simply contact the factory with a complete description. We'll process your order quickly and get you back on track. Factory Repair After You Begin Assembly: Kits-in progress and completed kits are specifically excluded from coverage by the Vectronics warranty. However, as a service to customers, technicians are available to evaluate and repair malfunctioning kits for a minimum service fee of $18.00 ( hour rate) plus $7.00 shipping and handling (prices subject to change). To qualify for repair service, your kit must be fully completed, unmodified, and the printed circuit board assembled using rosin-core solder. In the event your repair will require more than an hour to fix (or $36.00, subject to change), our technicians will contact you in advance by telephone before performing the work. Defective units should be shipped prepaid to: Vectronics 1007 HWY 25 South Starkville, MS 39759

When shipping, pack your kit well and include the minimum payment plus shipping and handling charges ($25.00 total). No work can be performed without pre-payment. Also, provide a valid UPS return address and a day time phone number where you may be reached.

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual

2 Meter FM Transmitter

INTRODUCTION
Transmit voice, data, and more with this powerful 5-watt 2-meter transmitter! The versatile VEC-1202K 2-meter transmitter accepts microphone input, AFSK data (up to 1200 baud) and FSK data (up to 9600 baud). With both reactance and "direct FM" modulators on board, you can jumper-select the best modulator for your particular application. A reliability-proven Motorola NBFM transmitter IC and PA transistor are at the heart of this crystal-controlled project. Using low-cost 12-MHz fundamental-mode crystals and x 8 frequency multiplication, the VEC-1202K is inexpensive to "crystal up", and rock-steady on its appointed channel. Standard 5-pin DIN mic connections match most CB type microphones--including PTT function. Power output is typically 5-6 watts, with spurs and harmonics at -60 dBc. Construction and tuning are simple with the help of a carefully written step-by-step manual. Runs on 12-14 volts dc at 1.5 amps.

TOOLS AND SUPPLIES


Construction Area: Kit construction requires a clean, smooth, and well-lighted area where you can easily organize and handle small parts without losing them. An inexpensive sheet of white poster board makes an excellent construction surface, while providing protection for the underlying table or desk. Welldiffused overhead lighting is a plus, and a supplemental high-intensity desk lamp will prove especially helpful for close-up work. Safety is an important consideration. Be sure to use a suitable high-temperature stand for your soldering iron, and keep the work area free of combustible clutter. Universal Kit-building Tools: Although your particular kit may require additional items to complete, virtually all construction projects require a work area outfitted with the following tools and supplies: 30 to 60 Watt Soldering Iron High-temperature Iron Holder with Moist Cleaning Sponge Rosin-core Solder (thin wire-size preferred) Needle Nose Pliers or Surgical Hemostats Diagonal Cutters or "Nippy Cutters" Solder Sucker, Vacuum Pump, or Desoldering Braid Bright Desk Lamp Magnifying Glass Special Tools for This Kit: Two-meter receiver 1

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual VHF power meter, 10-watt scale at 145 MHz 50-ohm dummy load Insulated tuning wand kit Deviation meter (optional)

2 Meter FM Transmitter

Audio source (microphone, AF signal generator, packet modem). Power source (13.8-V @ 1.5 Amps) 5-pin DIN plug with cable

BEFORE YOU START BUILDING


Experience shows there are four common mistakes builders make. Avoid these, and your kit will probably work on the first try! Here's what they are: 1. Installing the Wrong Part: It always pays to double-check each step. A 1K and a 10K resistor may look almost the same, but they may act very differently in an electronic circuit! Same for capacitors--a device marked 102 (or .001 uF) may have very different operating characteristics from one marked 103 (or .01uF). 2. Installing Parts Backwards: Always check the polarity of electrolytic capacitors to make sure the positive (+) lead goes in the (+) hole on the circuit board. Transistors have a flat side or emitter tab to help you identify the correct mounting position. ICs have a notch or dot at one end indicating the correct direction of insertion. Diodes have a banded end indicating correct polarity. Always double-check--especially before applying power to the circuit! 3. Faulty Solder Connections: Inspect for cold solder joints and solder bridges. Cold solder joints happen when you don't fully heat the connection-or when metallic corrosion and oxide contaminate a component lead or pad. Solder bridges form when a trail of excess solder shorts pads or tracks together (see Soldering Tips below). 4. Omitting or Misreading a Part: This is easier to do than you might think! Always double-check to make sure you completed each step in an assembly sequence.

Soldering Tips: Cleanliness and good heat distribution are the two secrets of professional soldering. Before you install and solder each part, inspect leads or pins for oxidation. If the metal surface is dull, sand with fine emery paper until shiny. Also, clean the oxidation and excess solder from the soldering iron tip to ensure maximum heat transfer. Allow the tip of your iron to contact both the 2

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter lead and pad for about one second (count "one-thousand-one") before feeding solder to the connection. Surfaces must become hot enough for solder to flow smoothly. Feed solder to the opposite side of the lead from your iron tip--solder will wick around the lead toward the tip, wetting all exposed surfaces. Apply solder sparingly, and do not touch solder directly to the hot iron tip to promote rapid melting. Desoldering Tips: If you make a mistake and need to remove a part, follow these instructions carefully! First, grasp the component with hemostats or needle-nose pliers. Heat the pad beneath the lead you intend to extract, and pull gently. The lead should come out. Repeat for the other lead. Solder may fill in behind the lead as you extract it--especially if you are working on a double-sided board with plate-through holes. Should this happen, try heating the pad again and inserting a common pin into the hole. Solder won't stick to the pin's chromium plating. When the pad cools, remove the pin and insert the correct component. For ICs or multi-pin parts, use desoldering braid to remove excess solder before attempting to extract the part. Alternatively, a low-cost vacuumbulb or spring-loaded solder sucker may be used. Parts damaged or severely overheated during extraction should be replaced rather than reinstalled. Work Habits: Kit construction requires the ability to follow detailed instructions and, in many cases, to perform new and unfamiliar tasks. To avoid making needless mistakes, work for short periods when you're fresh and alert. Recreational construction projects are more informative and more fun when you take your time. Enjoy! Sorting and Reading Resistors: The electrical value of resistors is indicated by a color code (as shown). You don't have to memorize this code to work with resistors, but you do need to understand how it works:

Resistor Color Code


1st Digit 2nd Digit Multiplier Tolerence (gold or silver) Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green = 0 (tens) = 1 (hundreds) = 2 (K) = 3 (10K) = 4 (100K) = 5 (1Meg) Blue Violet Gray White Silver Gold = 6 = 7 = 8 = 9 = 10% = 5%

When you look at a resistor, check its multiplier code first. Any resistor with a black multiplier band falls between 10 and 99 ohms in value. Brown designates a value between 100 and 999 ohms. Red indicates a value from 1000 to 9999 ohms, which is also expressed as 1.0K to 9.9K. An orange multiplier band designates 10K to 99K, etc. To sort and inventory resistors, first separate them into groups by multiplier band (make a pile of 10s, 100s, Ks, 10Ks, etc.). Next, sort each group by specific value (1K, 2.2K, 4.7K, etc.). This procedure makes 3

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter the inventory easier, and also makes locating specific parts more convenient later on during construction. Some builders find it especially helpful to arrange resistors in ascending order along a strip of double-sided tape. Some VEC kits may contain molded chokes which appear, at first glance, similar to resistors in both shape and band marking. However, a closer look will enable you to differentiate between the two--chokes are generally larger in diameter and fatter at the ends than resistors. When doing your inventory, separate out any chokes and consult the parts list for specific color-code information. Reading Capacitors: Unlike resistors, capacitors no longer use a color code for value identification. Instead, the value, or a 3-number code, is printed on the body.
Value Code 10 pF = 100 Multilayer 100 pF = 101 (270 pF) 1000 pF = 102 271 .001 uF = 102* .01 uF = 103 .1 uF = 104 Ceramic Discs (.001 uF) (.1 uF) 102 104 Electrolytic 1 uF | 1uF | 35V +

As with resistors, it's helpful to sort capacitors by type, and then to arrange them in ascending order of value. Small-value capacitors are characterized in pF (or pico-Farads), while larger values are labeled in uF (or micro-Farads). The transition from pF to uF occurs at 1000 pF (or .001 uF)*. Today, most monolithic and disc-ceramic capacitors are marked with a three-number code. The first two digits indicate a numerical value, while the last digit indicates a multiplier (same as resistors). Electrolytic capacitors are always marked in uF. Electrolytic are polarized devices and must be oriented correctly during installation. If you become confused by markings on the case, remember the uncut negative lead is slightly shorter than the positive lead. Diodes: Diodes are also polarized devices that must be installed correctly. Always look for the banded--or cathode--end when installing, and follow instructions carefully.
Cathode (shorter Lead) Diode LED

Transistors: If transistors are installed incorrectly, damage may result when power is applied. Transistors in metal cases have a small tab near the emitter lead to identify correct positioning. Semiconductors housed in small plastic 4

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter cases (TO-92) have an easily-identified flat side to identify mounting orientation. Many specialized diodes and low-current voltage regulators also use this type packaging. Larger plastic transistors and voltage regulators use a case backed with a prominent metal tab to dissipate heat (T-220). Here, orientation is indicated by the positioning of the cooling tab.
Metal Can Device Emitter Plastic Device Tab-cooled Device Metal Tab

Flat Side

Integrated Circuits: Proper IC positioning is indicated by a dot or square marking located on one end of the device. A corresponding mark will be silkscreened on the PC board and printed on the kit's parts-placement diagram. To identify specific IC pin numbers for testing purposes, see the following diagram. Pin numbers always start at the keyed end of the case and progress counterclockwise around the device, as shown:
8 Installation Key 7 6 5

Installation Key 1 2 3 4 Pin Numbers

PARTS LIST
Before you start to build, it is important to identify and inventory all of the parts. If anything is missing or damaged, refer to the manual's warranty section for replacement instructions. If you can't positively identify an unfamiliar component on the basis of the information given, set it aside until all other items are checked off. You may then be able to identify it by process of elimination. Finally, your kit will go together more smoothly if parts are organized by type and arranged by value ahead of time. Use this inventory as an opportunity to sort and arrange each group of components so you can identify and find them quickly. Qty Part Description Designation

Capacitors: 5

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 1 4.7 pF disc ceramic (4.7 or 479) 2 470 pF disc ceramic (471) 12 .001 uF disc ceramic (102) 2 2 6 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 .005 uF disc ceramic (502) .01uF disc ceramic (103) .1 uF disc ceramic (104) 10 pF multilayer (10 or 100) 22 pF multilayer (22 or 220) 33 pF multilayer (33 or 330) 47 pF multilayer (47 or 470) 68 pF multilayer (68 or 680) 100 pF multilayer (101) 220 pF multilayer (221) 1 uF electrolytic 10 uF electrolytic 470 uF electrolytic 6-50 pF trimmer

2 Meter FM Transmitter C21 C18,C29 C1,C3,C5,C14,C16,C20,C22, C25,C27,C41,C47,C48 C7,C8 C34,C39 C30,C42,C43,C44,C45,C46 C4,C17,C26 C12,C35,C38 C9,C10,C15 C11,C36,C37 C32 C13 C23,C28 C6 C2 C40 C19,C24,C31,C33

Resistors: (1/4-watt, fourth gold band indicates 5% tolerance) 1 3.3 ohm (orange-orange-gold) 2 10 ohm (brown-black-black) 1 100 ohm (brown-black-brown) 2 150 ohm (brown-green-brown) 1 220 ohm (red-red-brown) 1 470 ohm (yellow-violet-brown) 2 1K (brown-black-red) Resistors cont. 1 1.5K (brown-green-red) 1 2.2K (red-red-red) 1 4.7K (yellow-violet-red) 2 10K (brown-black-orange) 1 22K (red-red-orange) 2 47K (yellow-violet-orange) 2 100K (brown-black-yellow) 1 220K (red-red-yellow) 1 330K (orange-orange-yellow) 1 100K 6-mm trimpot (104) R19 R15,R22 R16 R9,R12 R18 R8 R4,R13 R21 R20 R17 R3,R23 R14 R1,R2 R5,R7 R10 R11 R6

Semiconductors: (ICs, regulators, transistors, diodes, LEDs, varactors) 6 1 1 1 1 MC2833 FM transmitter IC 78L08 +8 volt regulator 2N5179 transistor 2N5109 transistor U1 U2 Q1 Q2

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 1 MRF237 RF power transistor 1 2N2907A transistor 1 1N4001 rectifier diode 1 MV2104 varactor 1 5-mm Green LED 1 5-mm Red LED

2 Meter FM Transmitter Q3 Q4 D1 D2 CR1 CR2

Inductors: (slug-tuned coils, chokes, toroid forms, wire) 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 3.2 uH shielded, slug-tuned (5 pins) .211 uH slug-tuned (green) .137 uH shielded, slug-tuned (2 pins) 2.2 uH choke (red-red-gold) .15 uH choke (brown-green-silver) T25-12 toroid core (green, .25" dia) 12" length of #22 red enamel wire 12" length of #24 red enamel wire 12" length of #24 green enamel wire L1 L2 L3 RFC1 RFC2,RFC3 for T1,T2,T3 for L5,L6,L7,L8 for T1,T2,T3 for T1,T2,T3

Miscellaneous Parts: 1 18.432 MHz crystal 2 crystal pin socket 1 DPDT push-button power switch 1 5-pin DIN jack 1 RCA phone jack Miscellaneous Parts cont. 1 2.1-mm coaxial power jack 1 3-pin header 1 2-hole shorting jumper 1 TO-5 clip-on heatsink 1 PC board 1 instruction manual Y1 for Y1 SW1 J1 J2 J3 HD1 for HD1 for Q2

Once again, if any parts are missing, consult the warranty page on the inside cover for specific replacement instructions. If the inventory is complete, you're ready to start building. Remember, once construction begins, you can no longer return your kit.

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual

2 Meter FM Transmitter

PARTS PLACEMENT

STEP-BY-STEP ASSEMBLY
Many builders find it helpful to make copies of the parts-placement and schematic diagrams to post in the work area for reference. A parts-placement layout is also printed on the circuit board to help you locate where to install each part. In these instructions, when you see the term install, this means to locate, identify, and insert the part into its mounting holes on the PC board. This includes prebending or straightening leads as needed so force is not required to seat the part. Once a component is mounted, bend each lead over to hold it in place. Use sharp side-cutters to clip off excess lead length before soldering. Make sure trimmed leads don't touch other pads and tracks, or a short circuit may result: 8

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual Not Good

2 Meter FM Transmitter

Good

The term solder means to solder the part's leads in place, and to inspect your solder connections for flaws or solder bridges. Note that this particular kit uses a high-quality two-sided circuit board with plate-through type solder pads. This means the metal on each solder pad extends down into the component-lead hole, lining it all the way though. When soldering plate-throughs, heat the lead and pad for about 1-second before applying solder. This will heat the entire pad, allowing solder to wick down into the hole and surround the lead for a stronger bond. Nip off excess protruding leads with a sharp pair of side cutters. This kit contains 22 fixed-value 1/4-watt resistors. Begin construction by mounting these first, starting with the smallest value and moving to the largest. When reading color codes, remember the fourth gold band indicates 5% tolerance and has nothing to do with the resistor's value in ohms. Note that the 3.3 ohm resistor has two gold bands. Before installing each one, carefully bend both leads to form right-angles, as shown below:

.4" 1. Find a 3.3 ohm resistor (orange-orange-gold). solder. Install at R19 and

2. Find two (2) 10 ohm resistors (brown-black-black). Install one at R15 and solder. 3. Install the second 10 ohm resistor at R22. Solder the grounded end only to hold R22 in place. The opposite end will be soldered directly to the base lead of Q3 as part of the PA transistor installation sequence later on. 4. Find a 100 ohm resistor (brown-black-brown). Install at R16 and solder. 5. Find two (2) 150 ohm resistors (brown-green-black). Install one at R9 and solder. 6. Install the second 150 ohm resistor at R12 and solder. 7. Find a 220 ohm resistor (red-red-brown). Install at R18 and solder. 8. Find a 470 ohm resistor (yellow-violet-brown). solder. Install at R8 and

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter 9. Find two (2) 1K resistors (brown-black-red). Install one at R4 and solder. 10. Install the second 1K resistor at R13 and solder. 11. Find a 1.5K resistor (brown-green-red). Install at R21 and solder. 12. Find a 2.2K resistor (red-red-red). Install at R20 and solder. 13. Find a 4.7K resistor (yellow-violet-red). Install at R17 and solder. 14. Find two (2) 10K resistors (black-brown-orange). Install one at R3 and solder. 15. Install the second 10K resistor at R23 and solder. 16. Find a 22K resistor (red-red-orange). Install at R14 and solder. 17. Find two (2) 47K resistors (yellow-violet-orange). Install one at R1 and solder. 18. Install the second 47K resistor at R2 and solder. 19. Find two (2) 100K resistor (black-brown-yellow). Install one at R5 and solder. 20. Install the second 100K resistor at R7 and solder. 21. Find a 220K resistor (red-red-yellow). Install at R10 and solder. 22. Find a 330K resistor (orange-orange-yellow). solder. Install at R11 and

This completes installation of the kit's 22 fixed-value resistors. Before moving on, be sure to go back over your work and check for proper placement. In addition to fixed resistors, your kit contains one trim-pot (variable resistor). This is the transmitter's FM-deviation control. 1. Find a 100K 6-mm trimpot (small screwdriver adjustable component with three pins). Install this at R6, making sure that it is seated firmly onto the board. Solder. Next, install the transmitter's 25 disc ceramic capacitors. Make sure each one is seated as closely as possible to the PC board before soldering (by-pass capacitors mounted with long leads may not work properly at VHF frequencies due to excess lead inductance). 1. Find a 4.7 pF disc ceramic cap (4.7). Install at C21 and solder. 2. Find two (2) 470 pF disc ceramics (471). Install one at C18 and solder. 3. Install the second 470 pF at C29 and solder. 10

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter Find all twelve (12) of the .001 disc ceramic caps (102). 4. Install a .001 pF at C1 and solder. 5. Install a .001 pF at C3 and solder. 6. Install .001 pF at C5 and solder. 7. Install a .001 pF at C14 and solder. 8. Install a .001 pF at C16 and solder. 9. Install a .001 pF at C20 and solder. 10. Install a .001 pF at C22 and solder. 11. Install a .001 pF at C25 and solder. 12. Install a .001 pF at C27 and solder. 13. Install a .001 pF at C41 and solder. 14. Install a .001 pF at C47 and solder. 15. Install a .001 pF at C48 and solder. 16. Find two (2) .005uF disc ceramic caps (501). Install one at C7 and solder. 17. Install the second .005 uF cap at C8 and solder. 18. Find two (2) .01 uF disc ceramic caps (103). Install one at C34 and solder. 19. Install the second .01 uF cap at C39 and solder. Find six (6) .1 uF disc ceramic caps (104). 20. Install a .1 uF at C30 and solder. 21. Install a .1 uF at C42 and solder. 22. Install a .1 uF at C43 and solder. 23. Install a .1 uF at C44 and solder. 24. Install a .1 uF at C45 and solder. 25. Install a .1 uF at C46 and solder. There are 16 multilayer capacitors in your kit. A multilayer cap is similar to a surface-mount "chip" capacitor, except that it has a lead spot-welded onto each end of the capacitor body. Each cap is then coated with an epoxy coating. Multilayers have superior radio-frequency operating characteristics, but the lead welds may fail if the leads are placed under stress while being heated during installation or removal. For this reason, never use force to seat a multilayer cap 11

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter into the PC board. If the spacing isn't right, pre-form the leads to the correct spacing before installation!

Incorrect

Ooops!

Correct

Find three (3) 10 pF multilayer capacitors (marked 10 or 100). 1. Install a 10 pF at C4 and solder. 2. Install a 10 pF at C17 and solder. 3. Install a 10 pF at C26 and solder. Find three (3) 22 pF multilayer caps (22 or 220). 4. Install a 22 pF at C12 and solder. 5. Install a 22 pF at C35 and solder. 6. Install a 22 pF at C38 and solder. Find three (3) 33 pF multilayer caps (33 or 330). 7. Install a 33 pF at C9 and solder. 8. Install a 33 pF at C10 and solder. 9. Install a 33 pF at C15 and solder. Find three (3) 47 pF multilayer caps (47 or 470). 10. Install a 47 pF at C11 and solder. 11. Install a 47 pF at C36 and solder. 12. Install a 47 pF at C37 and solder. 13. Find a 68 pF multilayer cap (68 or 680). Install at C32 and solder. 14. Find a 100 pF multilayer cap (101). Install at C13 and solder. 15. Find two 220 pF multilayer caps (221). Install one at C23 and solder. 16. Install the second 220 pF at C28 and solder. This completes installation of the 16 multilayer caps. Take a moment to confirm each one was installed at the correct location. Your kit contains three electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic caps are polarized and must be installed the correct way in order to work. Each capacitor's plus (+) mounting hole is noted on both the circuit board and parts placement

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VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter diagram. If the markings on the capacitor body are unclear, the plus (+) lead is always the longer of the two. 1. Find the 1 uF electrolytic cap. Observing polarity, install at C6 and solder. 2. Find the 10 uF electrolytic cap. Install at C2. 3. Finally, find the 470 uF electrolytic. Install at C40 and solder. The last four capacitors in your kit are 6-50 pF trimcaps. These are used to tune the RF power stages of the transmitter. Note that the trimcap's rotor (adjustable part) is connected to the solder tab on the rounded end. Install C19, C24, and C33 with the rounded end oriented toward the ground or "foil" side of the layout.
Trimcap C19,C24,C33 Install with the "round to ground"

C31 is connected in series and may be oriented either way. Three trimcaps are installed now. The remaining trimcap, C33, will be installed with PA transistor Q3 in a later construction sequence. Find three (3) orange 6-50 pF trimcaps. 1. Install a trimcap at C19. 2. Install a trimcap at C24. 3. Install a trimcap at C31. Install the MRF237 PA transistor next. This device will be mounted "upsidedown" through the hole in circuit board. The land areas on the PC board serve as its heatsink. Refer to the construction detail while installing. Clip and remove emitter lead Install Q3 down through the pc-board mounting hole so leads are sticking upward. Emitter Tab positioned here. Draw a solder bead around the flange E of Q3--bonding it B to the surface of C the pc board.

1. Find the MRF237 transistor. Insert the cap of the device down through the hole in the top of the PC board at Q3 so the leads are sticking straight up in the air. Locate the emitter tab and position it toward the right front corner of the board. The base lead (B) should be aligned with L4's markings on the PC board.

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VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter 2. Support the edges of the PC board so Q3 remains seated during soldering. Press the iron against the edge of the transistor flange, contacting Q3 and the surface of the board simultaneously. Apply solder close to--but not directly on--the iron tip. When solder begins to flow, work your way around the device (1/3 to 1/2 way around). Stop, and let Q3 cool. Repeat this process until a thin bead of solder is drawn all the way around the case.
Important Note: Prolonged heating could damage Q3, so be sure to allow cooling time between applications. Avoid "blobbing" solder onto the joint--make sure it flows evenly around the flange. If your tip won't heat the area sufficiently to permit even flow, use a higher-wattage iron for this particular operation.

3. When Q3 is soldered in place, remove the emitter lead--this is common to the case and not needed. 4. Bend the base lead into a half-tun "hairpin loop", as shown in the construction detail. Insert the end at L4--it should fill the mounting hole, but barely protrude on the opposite side (the entire length is needed to make up L4). Solder in place, making sure solder flows down into the platethrough around the lead. 5. Find the unattached end of R22 and position it against L4 as close as practical to Q3. Trim to length and tack-solder to L4. To make a good "tack solder" joint, tin both leads, then touch the two together and heat. Apply a small amount of additional solder--as needed--to form a strong joint.
R22 tack-soldered to L4 close to Q3 Base lead formed into body RFC3 "hairpin" loop. tack-soldered to collector L4 lead

RFC2

R22 10 ohms

RFC3 .15 uH C33

L4 Q3 Collector

Q3

L5 1.5 turns

6. Bend a loop in the collector lead and insert into the mounting hole next to L5. Pull this loop down tight--so the lead rests just above the surface of Q3. Solder and trim.

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VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter 7. Find a .15 uH molded RF choke (brown-green-silver). Install one lead at RFC3 and solder. The remaining lead will be tack-soldered to the collector lead of Q3 later on--during the transmitter tune-up sequence. Trim the lead to length and tin, but do not connect RFC3 to Q3 at this time. 8. Find and install the remaining 6-50 pF trimcap at C33 (round end to ground). Solder. In this next series of steps, you'll mount the FM-transmitter IC, voltage regulator, and remaining three transistors. Be sure to orient each component correctly when installing. 1. Locate the MC2833 FM-transmitter IC chip (16 pin DIP package). Find the keyed end--this is marked by a notch. Position so the key corresponds with the PC-board marking at U1 (notch toward L1). Install and inspect the leads to confirm all 16 pins protrude through the board. Solder all 16 pins. 2. Find the 78L08 3-lead voltage regulator (looks like a plastic transistor). Orient the flat side according to the PC board pattern at U2, install, and solder. 3. Locate the 2N5179 transistor (small 2N5179 metal can, four leads). Unlike most GND Emitter Tab 3-lead transistors, the 2N5179 has a fourth lead used to ground its case. E C Find the emitter tab and install at Q1-orienting the case to match the PC B board markings. Solder. 4. Find the 2N5109 (larger metal can, three leads). Locate its emitter tab, position, and install at Q2. When installing, note that the bottom surface of Q2 must be elevated approximately .1" above the PC board. If spaced too closely, stray capacitance between Q3 and PC board surface may interfere with tuning later on. 2N5109

.1" spacing

5. Find the 2N2907A transistor (small metal can, 3 leads). Orient the emitter tab and install at Q4. Solder. 15

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter Before moving on, carefully inspect Q1-Q4 and U1,U2 for installation errors. Your kit has two diodes and two LEDs. Like transistors, diodes are polarized devices that must be installed correctly. Always look for the banded end when installing. 1. Find the 1N4001 plastic rectifier diode. Observing the positioning of the banded end, install at D1.

2. Find the MV2104 varactor diode VARACTOR DIODE (looks like a plastic transistor with two leads). Orient its flat side to the board pattern at D2 and install. Solder.

MV 2104

The two front-panel LEDs (CR1,CR2) are mounted as shown below. This mounting arrangement aligns the LEDs with their cabinet holes. When orienting CR1 and CR2, note that the shorter of the two leads goes to the grounded pad. Shorter lead Press leads flat to pc board LED LED LED base butted against edge of pc board

3. Find a green 5-mm LED. Install at CR1. 4. Find a red 5-mm LED. Install at CR2. This completes installation of the transmitter's "solid-state" devices. Next you'll install coils, chokes, and inductors. Remember to take frequent breaks! Your kit has three slug-tuned coils. Locate these now. 1. Find the 3.2 uH slug-tuned coil (metal shield-can, screwdriver-type slug, black plastic coil form with five pins). Install at L1 and fold the two mounting tabs over to secure the shield-can in place. Making sure the form remains firmly seated, solder all five pins plus the two mounting tabs. Solder. 2. Find the .211 uH slug-tuned coil (no shield-can, green form, two leads, hex slug). Install at L2 and solder in place. 16

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter 3. Find the .137 uH shielded slug-tuned coil (metal shield-can, green form, hex slug, two leads). Install at L3--solder leads and mounting tabs. There are two molded-epoxy radio-frequency chokes remaining in your kit. When reading choke color codes, note that the 4th color-code band indicates tolerance (gold = 5%, silver = 10%) and has nothing to do with the choke's value. However, if the 3rd band is gold, it indicates a decimal point between the first and second number (as in 2.2 uH). If the 3rd band is silver, it indicates a decimal point before the first number (as in .22 uH). 1. Find the 2.2 uH molded choke (red-red-gold). Install at RFC1 and solder. 2. Find the remaining .15 uH molded choke (brown-green-silver). Install at RFC2 and solder. Coils L6-L8 are air-wound using #22 wire supplied with your kit. You'll also need a 6-32 screw at least 3/4" long to use as a winding form (not supplied). Before winding, draw the wire over a plastic rounded surface such as a screwdriver handle to remove all bends and kinks. Cut three (3) equal lengths-about 4" long each. 1. Take one length of #22 wire and wind five (5) full turns over the screw--as shown below. The wire should conform to the thread grooves. 5-turns #22 enameled wire L6-L8 6-32 screw thread

1/2" leads stripped and tinned with solder 2. Remove the coil by unscrewing it from the 6-32 threads. Shape as shown above, with about 1 wire-width spacing between each turn. 3. Each lead must be tinned prior to installation. The coil wire is coated with enamel insulation formulated to melt at high temperatures. This allows you to strip, clean, and "tin" each coil lead in a single operation. To tin, hold a hot soldering iron against the wire-end for several seconds, then apply a small amount of solder. The enamel insulation should break down and allow solder to coat the wire (it may be easier to perform this operation with the coil threaded onto the screw). If your soldering iron doesn't generate enough heat to start the stripping process, scrape the enamel away with a hobby knife and tin. 17

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter Both coil leads should be clean and brightly tinned all the way around before installation. 4. When the first 5-turn coil is prepared as shown, install at L6 and solder. Check coil shape and turn spacing before moving on. 5. Repeat this operation, installing and soldering the second 5-turn coil at L7. 6. Prepare and install a third 5-turn coil at L8. L5 is prepared similarly to L6-L8. However, this coil requires a shorter length of #22 wire and a 10-32 screw to serve as a winding form (not supplied). 1-1/2 turn #22 enameled wire

L5

10-32 screw thread

1/2" leads stripped and tinned with solder 7. Using #22 wire, wind 1-1/2 turns on a 10-32 screw. Trim and tin the ends. 8. Compress the turns together and install at L5. T1, T2, T3 are bifilar-wound toroid transformers. A bifilar-wound coil is one that uses a pair of wires for each turn rather than a single wire. 1. Locate three (3) T37-12 toroid forms. These are small (.37"), donutshaped, and color-coded green/white. 2. Find the 12" length of green #24 wire and the 12" length of red #24 wire. Cut each wire into 3 equal 4" segments. 3. Place a red and green wire-segment side-by-side to make up a wirepair. Grasp one end of the pair firmly and wind three (3) turns onto a T37-12 form. The number of turns on a toroid coil are counted on the inside of the form, so you'll pass the wire-pair through the form three times, pulling each winding tight after each turn. When wound, arrange the wires as shown. The two green leads exit at one end of the form, and two red leads exit at the other end. Turns are evenly spaced over the form.

18

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual T37-12 A

2 Meter FM Transmitter T2 B

A' A A' B B'

B'

4. Trim each lead and tin with solder. 5. Install at T1, with green leads at one end of the core and red at the other. A pc-trace is provided beneath the PC board to phase the two windings (as shown by a dashed line in previous drawing). Solder. 6. Following the instructions for T1, prepare a second bifilar transformer and install at T2. Solder. 7. Prepare a third bifilar transformer and install at T3. This concludes coil and transformer installation. Your kit is nearly completed-all that remain are a few larger components. 1. Find the DPDT push-button power switch. Install at SW1, making sure the switch body is seated firmly onto the PC board. Solder all six pins. 2. Find the 5-pin DIN jack. Carefully insert at J1. Solder all five pins plus the two front solder tabs. 3. Find the 2.1-mm power jack (black plastic, three solder tabs). Install at J3 and twist each solder tab slightly to hold in place. Solder all three tabs. 4. Find the RCA jack. Install at J2, pressing firmly against the board. Solder the three mounting tabs and center pin. 5. Find the 3-pin header (black plastic, three protruding pins). Install at HD1 with the shorter pins going into the PC board and the longer pins pointing up. Solder. 6. Locate the 2-hole shorting jumper (small, black plastic, square). Install this by slipping it on the center and left-hand pins of HD1. 7. Find the TO-5 slip-on heatsink and install it on Q2. 8a. The last component in your kit is a 18.432 MHz crystal. If you don't have other 2-meter crystals available, this will allow you to generate a 19

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter 147.54 MHz signal for tune-up and test purposes. Note that 147.54 MHz is a repeater-simplex channel that may be used for on-air voice operation without interference to repeaters. The 18.432 crystal has wire leads. If you wish to use this crystal for testing, install it at Y1 now--temporarily soldering in place. Set aside the two socket pins for later use. 8b. If you wish to use a different crystal packaged in a standard HC25/U plug-in holder, install the two socket pins now. To hold the socket pins in position for soldering, slip them both onto a HC25/U holder and insert at Y1. While holding the crystal firmly in place, solder both pins. The crystal may now be removed and others inserted. See the "Operating Instructions" section for complete crystal-ordering information. This completes construction of your VEC-1202K 2-meter FM transmitter.

TESTING AND ALIGNMENT


PC Board Inspection: Before applying power, give your kit a thorough QC (quality control) inspection. This will help you discover any inadvertent assembly errors that might prevent the radio from working or cause damage to parts. Follow this procedure: Compare parts locations against the parts-placement diagram. Was each part installed where it is supposed to be? Was the correct value used? Start at one side of the board and work your way across in an organized pattern. Inspect the solder side of the board for cold-solder joins and solder bridges between tracks or pads. Use a magnifying glass to obtain a clear view of the track area. If you suspect a solder bridge, hold the board in front of a bright light for a better view. All joints should be smooth and shiny, indicating good solder wetting and flow. Resolder any beaded or dull-appearing connections. Finally, check electrolytic capacitor and diodes for correct polarity. Does the plus (+) polarity symbol on the part agree with the pictorial and with the pattern on the PC board? Is the banded end of each diode positioned correctly? Were Q1-Q4 all installed correctly? Be sure to correct all errors before moving on. If a careful inspection revealed that everything is A-OK, you're now ready for the moment of truth! Tools and Materials Required for Testing: Two-meter receiver VHF power meter, 10-watt scale at 145 MHz 20

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 50-ohm dummy load Insulated tuning wand kit Deviation meter (optional)

2 Meter FM Transmitter

Audio source (microphone, AF signal generator, packet modem). Power source (13.8-V @ 1.5 Amps) 5-pin DIN plug with cable

Power Supply: Your transmitter requires a 12-14 volts DC regulated power source capable of delivering up to 1.5 Amps. The supply's power lead should be outfitted with a 5.0-mm OD x 2.1mm ID power plug (plugs available from Radio Shack as part number 274-1567). The plus (+) or red power supply lead connects to the center pin, and the minus (-) or black lead connects to the outer sleeve.
2.1 x 5 mm plug

DC Power Supply + 13.8V @ 1.5A

Test Setup:

For initial testing and tune-up, connect the transmitter as shown. If you don't have a 5-pin DIN plug available, insert a wire-end into the key-line (pin-3 on J1) and use a grounded clip-lead to activate the switching circuit when called for. L1-L3 and the four orange trimcaps will be peaked for maximum signal during the tune-up procedure. The best way to monitor peaking of lower-power stages is with a S-meter equipped 2-meter receiver tuned to the transmit frequency. The lower-power stages will be tuned with the PA disabled. The PA will then be powered and tuned using the power meter to monitor output.

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VEC-1202K Owner's Manual


Power Supply 13.8V @ 5A C31 C33 R6 HD1 C24 PWR C19 L3 L1 Pwr In RF Out

2 Meter FM Transmitter
50-ohm Load Power Meter Front View GND J1 Key Line Line/FSK L2 GND Not Used Mic/AFSK

1. Set a 2-meter receiver near-by and tune it to the transmitter frequency. 2. Connect a short antenna to the monitor receiver for initial tests. 3. Turn on the transmitter's power switch (SW1). The green LED (CR1) should light. If CR1 failed to light, look for problems from SW1 back to the power jack. Check the pc-track fuse next to J3 on the bottom side of board. Also, make sure CR1 was installed correctly. 4. Connect the "key line" (pin-3 of J1) to ground. The red LED (CR2) should light. If CR2 failed to light, check circuitry around Q4 for errors. The collector of Q4 should be "low" during standby and "high" when keyed. In this next test, you'll check to see if the transmitter oscillator is working. 5. Key and listen for the transmit signal, tuning to either side (it may be offfrequency). If no signal is found by tuning 20-30 kHz to either side of center, check U2 for +8 volt output and inspect all circuitry around U1 for errors. Also, make sure the shorting plug for header HD1 is installed on the center and left-hand pins. If you hear the signal, the next step will bring it "on channel". 6. Center receiver tuning on the desired frequency (147.430 MHz for the test crystal). 7. Adjust L1 to bring the transmit oscillator onto frequency. If the oscillator won't tune on channel, check circuitry around L1, and C9/C10 for errors. This is an approximate setting--you may adjust L1 more accurately

22

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter later using a frequency counter. The next adjustments tune U1's multiplier stages for 147 MHz output. 8. Adjust L2 for maximum signal strength. 9. Adjust L3 for maximum signal strength (reduce monitor's antenna length if needed). Tuning L2 and L3 should produce visible peaks in signal strength. If not, check circuitry around pins 8-14 of U1 for construction errors. 10. Adjust the orange trimcaps next. These capacitors have no "end stops" and tune through a full 360-degree range. When each circuit is properly resonated, you should observe two equal peaks with each full turn. If you observe only one peak per full revolution, this may indicate the actual peak is occurring just out-of-range of the control. If this happens, check the associated coil and inter-stage coupling capacitor for errors. If you observe multiple peaks, tune for the strongest. 11. Key and adjust C19/C24 for maximum signal. If either trimcap appears unresponsive, check for construction errors around Q1 and Q2. Also, if the signal begins to overload or "pin" the monitor's signalstrength indicator, reduce or disconnect its antenna to bring the signal back in range. 12. Turn off the transmitter (SW1). 13. Tack-solder RFC3 to the collector lead of Q3 (tin both leads first). 14. Turn the transmitter back on--and key. 15. Tune C31 and C33 for best RF output indication on the power meter. If no measurable output occurs, check circuitry from Q3 to antenna jack J2 for errors. Also, re-check the tuning of C19, C24 and L1, L2, L3. 16. Carefully re-peak C19, C24, C31, and C33 for maximum RF output. When the transmitter is tuned and operating correctly, you should observe 5 watts output into a low-VSWR 50-ohm load. Note that it is normal for this output level to drop off slightly as Q3 heats up. The MRF237 has a built-in temperature-sensitive emitter-ballast resistor that protects it from thermal runaway as heating occurs.
Important Note: The circuit-board heatsink around Q3 is adequate for intermittent transmitter operation only (up to 1 minute, 20% duty cycle). If your application requires prolonged transmissions, supplemental cooling for Q3 and/or reduced transmitter output power may be required (see "Operating Instructions"). Do not detune any of the peaking adjustments to reduce power-this will degrade suppression of spurious signals. Continuous or prolonged operation at full power may damage components.

23

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter The next test checks the AFSK/mic-level reactance modulator. You'll need a microphone outfitted with a 5-PIN DIN plug (Radio Shack replacement-type CB microphones have the proper plug and pin configuration). Any other 600-ohm dynamic microphone may also be used by connecting one mic-element lead to the Mic/AFSK line (pin-4 of J1) and the other element lead to ground (pin-2). The shorting plug on HD1 must be installed on the center and left-hand pins for this test. 1. Monitor the signal with a FM receiver (or deviation meter). 2. Key the transmitter and speak normally into the microphone. 3. Adjust R6 for best audio quality (do not exceed 5-kHz if using a deviation meter). Note that R6 does not turn the mic-level audio line completely off (this is a padded op-amp feedback control that adjusts deviation for a normal range of mic-level inputs). If no audio is present, check circuitry around pins 4-5 of U1 for errors. When used for AFSK data, the output level of the TNC may need course adjustment to bring the signal within the fine-adjustment range of R6. The FSK/line-level input uses varactor-type modulator (D2). Testing requires an audio or digital-pulse signal in the 100 mV p-p range. Deviation level is controlled by the signal source--there's no deviation control provided on the transmitter board. To test FSK/line-level operation, the shorting plug must be re-installed on the center and right-hand pins of HD1. 4. Key the transmitter while applying a signal to the FSK/Line input of J1. 5. Monitor the transmitted signal with a receiver or FM service monitor. 6. Re-adjust L1 as needed, to bring the signal back on channel. 7. Adjust the level of the modulating signal for 5-kHz FM deviation. If no FM signal comes through, or if audible distortion is noted, check the signal path from pin-5 of J1 to pin 3 of HD1 for errors. Make sure 2-3 volts of bias is present on pin-3 of HD1 when the transmitter is keyed. This completes testing of the VEC-1202K transmitter. If everything passed, you're board is ready to go to work.

OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS
The VEC-1202K is a 2-meter FM transmitter module designed for use in a wide variety of VHF applications including voice beacons, packet, remote telemetry, APRS, low-power repeaters, remote bases, and DF-hunt "foxes". In fact, there are so many potential uses, it is beyond the scope of this manual to outline each one. To assist you, here is a rundown of the unit's basic operating requirements 24

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter and limitation. This will help you to integrate the VEC-1202K into your own unique project. Frequency Control: The VEC-1202K oscillator circuit in U1 requires a 18MHz range fundamental mode crystal. When ordering, specify as follows: Type: .................................... Fundamental Mode Frequency:............................ Operating Frequency /8 (18-MHz region) Tolerance: ............................ Experimenter Grade or .003% Commercial Grade. Temperature:........................ 26-degree C (room temperature) Load: .................................... 32 pF parallel Case: .................................... HC-25U or FM2 If ordering from International Crystal Manufacturing, specify type 4334275 and the actual crystal frequency (18.--- MHz). Frequency Stability: Because the VEC-1202K multiplies its oscillator frequency x8 for two-meter operation, any thermal drift due to ambient temperature change is also multiplied x8. While not a problem at room temperature, the VEC-1202K does not provide a crystal oven and is thereby not designed for operation at unheated or uncooled sites where temperatures may vary over a wide range. T/R Switching: The transmitter is activated when the base of DC switch Q4 sees a path to ground. Keying may be accomplished by driving Q4 with a TNC PTT line, a mic PTT switch, an external relay contact pair, or a logic-low TTL input. No on-board provisions are provided for antenna-line switching. This must be done externally through a relay or PIN diode switch. A logic-high signal is available at the collector of Q4 when the transmitter is keyed (also, +8 volts is available at the output of U2). Either voltage may be sampled and used to activate an external relay driver. Tuning: The transmitter should be re-tuned anytime an operating-frequency change of 1 MHz or greater is made. Load VSWR: The VEC-1202K is designed to work into a 50-ohm load. At VHF frequencies, a VSWR of 2:1 or less is generally considered acceptable for amateur applications (1.5:1 for commercial installations). In all cases, VSWR should be held to a minimum to provide optimum power transfer and best output-filter performance. The VEC-1202K does not provide special VSWRprotection shut-down circuitry, so it is the responsibility of the station operator to provide a reasonable load to the transmitter at all times. Although a brief accidental open or short at the antenna port is unlikely to cause damage to the transmitter, extremely reactive loads may cause spurious oscillation and out-of-

25

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter band emissions in violation of FCC rules. For this reason, never operate your transmitter into a load exceeding 3:1 VSWR--and keep it under 2:1 if you can! Modulation Sources: The VEC-1202K has dual modulators, allowing you to select the best "fit" for your particular application. For AFSK (audio-tone frequency-shift keying) and microphone-level input, U1's built-in reactance modulator performs best. Microphone pre-amplification, a deviation-level control, and pre-emphasis are all built into the system. For FSK (digital frequency-shift keying) and line-level audio sources, the direct-FM varactor modulator works best due to its wider frequency response and lower phase delay. When using this option, input levels must be controlled externally at the source. Modulators are selected via the shorting plug installed on HD1--as shown. The center pin (pin-2) is common to the crystal (Y1) and L1. The left-hand pin (pin1) selects the reactance modulator. The right-hand pin (pin-3) selects the varactor direct-FM modulator. The shorting plug must be installed at one of these two positions for the transmitter to generate RF.

Mic-Level Reactance Modulator Shorting Plug

1 2 HD1

Line-Level Varactor Modulator Always reset L1 for operating frequency after changing modulator selector.

L1

Important Note: Changing modulators normally causes some shift in transmitter frequency. Always check and reset the transmitter operating frequency (via L1) after moving the shorting plug on HD1.

Deviation Level: Deviation for the reactance modulator is by R6. Deviation for the direct-FM varactor modulator is set by adjusting the output level of the source. Packet deviation is normally adjusted for 3 kHz using the TNC's built-in "calibrate" function. Peak deviation for speech or data should never exceed 5 kHz in amateur NBFM applications.
Important Note: The VEC-1202K is not limiter-protected against over-deviation, so you must maintain control over modulating signal levels to prevent adjacentchannel interference. If possible, use a commercial FM service monitor or a suitable amateur-radio deviation meter such as the MFJ-224 FM Analyzer when setting deviation levels.

26

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter Duty Cycle: PA transistor Q3 is cooled by the PC land areas surrounding it. This means the PC board and components around the device will heat up and disperse thermal energy generated by Q3. PC board cooling is adequate for intermittent operation only. If you anticipate prolonged transmissions or periods of continuous operation, supplemental cooling--and possibly a power-output reduction--will be required to maintain adequate heat dispersion. Power reduction is best accomplished by reducing the Vcc voltage to Q3 and/or by decreasing the value of swamping resistor R22 with a second parallel resistance. The application of forced-air--along with the installation of vertical cooling fins on the PC board--will increase cooling capacity substantially. Note that some power reduction normally occurs as Q3's internal ballast resistor heats and increases in value, but this alone will not provide adequate thermal protection during prolonged transmissions. Interference at Commercial Sites: If you install your transmitter at an unattended site where public service or other commercial equipment is operating, you must be prepared to demonstrate that your system will not interfere with other services operating from the same location. Also, note that the VEC-1202K transmitter is not a type accepted by the FCC for use in the Commercial Radio Service and may be used for amateur radio applications only.

IN CASE OF DIFFICULTY
Your VEC-1202K has been thoroughly field-tested and is known to be reliable and "forgiving" of construction errors. If you have difficulty with your unit, the cause may be something as simple as a broken cable or a defective power source. In most cases, you will be able to find the problem with some organized troubleshooting. Begin your search with this checklist of symptoms and remedies: Does not power up: Check the condition of the power source and connecting cable. Also, check supply polarity, direction of D1, and short circuits on the PC board. Finally, inspect the fuse trace near J3 (bottom side of board). If the fuse trace is "blown", replace with a 2-amp pigtail fuse or a short length of #32 enameled wire. Does not key up: Check circuitry around Q4, U2, CR2. Keys up, no RF output: Check Y1, jumper plug installed at HD1, RFC3. RF output, no modulation: Check level of source, condition of DIN plug. Erratic operation, parasitic: Check VSWR of load, transmitter tuning. Unable to connect/excessive retries: Check deviation level, operating frequency. Weak audio/loud distorted audio: Check deviation level, operating frequency. 27

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter Excessive power-output drop (more than 20%): Check Q3 cooling. Voltage Analysis: One effective way to pinpoint a circuit problem is through voltage analysis. To do this, you'll need a voltmeter with the black (-) lead connected to ground and the red (+) lead used to check the voltage points on the chart below. Readings should be within 10-20% of those listed on the chart.
Important Note: When conducting this test, you must remove the shorting plug from HD1 to disable the crystal oscillator. If you do not, RF energy will be generated--and the presence of strong RF energy could damage or destroy your voltmeter!

All readings are taken in transmit mode with pin-3 of J1 shorted to ground (except for Q4 "stand-by" measurements). Don't forget to remove the shorting plug from HD1 before you begin!

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 U1 - MC2833 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 U1 Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V 7.8 6.0 0.9 1.3 1.3 --0.6 1.4 Pin 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 V 7.5 8.0 8.0 2.1 2.8 6.6 7.3 8.0 Pin E B C

U2 78L08 I G O

Q1, Q2, Q4 E Top B C

Q1 --0.6 13.8

Transistors Q2 Q4 --13.8 0.6 13.2 13.8 13.8 U2 Pin V I 13.8 G --O 8.0

Q4 (standby) (13.8) (---) (---)

On HD1: pin-1 = 7.8 V, pin-3 = 2.45 V.

If you find one or more transistor pins that read significantly different from the chart, this may indicate the device you are checking is bad or that a problem exists in that portion of the circuit. Referring to the schematic diagram may help you to trace down and pinpoint the exact location of the problem. If these checks fail to uncover the problem, repeat the "QC" check one more time. Service records show that, for most malfunctioning kits, outright component failure is relatively rare. In most cases, the culprit is a misplaced 28

VEC-1202K Owner's Manual 2 Meter FM Transmitter part, reverse-polarized capacitor or diode, improperly installed transistor, or faulty solder connection. If, despite your best effort, you cannot solve the problem, kit repair services are available through Vectronics. See the warranty on the inside front cover for complete instructions.

THEORY OF OPERATION AND SPECIFICATIONS


The VEC-1202K 2-meter is a 5-watt intermittent duty FM transmitter designed for custom applications. The exciter is based on Motorola's MC2833 "FMtransmitter chip". Operating frequency is controlled by a 18-MHz crystal oscillator which is multiplied eight times within the IC. Two modulators are provided (header selectable at HD1). AFSK signals--such as 1200-baud packet and mic-level analog speech--are routed through an op-amp which is programmed to provide both gain and NBFM pre-emphasis. From here, signals are fed through level control R6 to a reactance modulator. FSK data signals-such as 9600-baud packet and line-level audio--are sent to a "true-FM" varactor modulator. Voltage regulator U2 maintains the correct operating voltage for U1. The +5 dBm 147 MHz output of U1 is amplified to 5 watts via RF chain Q1-Q3. Q1/Q2 operate in class AB and are Vcc switched from standby to transmit mode by DC gate Q4. PA stage Q3 operates in class C and remains powered at all times. Q3 is matched into 50-ohms via L-network L5/C33 and filtered for harmonic content through a 3-section (270-degree) pi filter. A crowbar circuit (D1) protects components on the transmitter board from damage if power-leads are accidentally reversed. Typical Specifications: Frequency Control: ......................... 18-MHz fundamental mode crystal (Fo/8) AFSK/Mic Input: ............................ 600-ohm unbalanced, mic level. FSK/Line Input: .............................. 600-ohm unbalanced, less than 100 mV. Deviation:........................................ to 5 kHz Keying:............................................ logic-low or ground-path RF Power Output: ........................... 5 watts @13.8 Vcc Duty Cycle: ..................................... 20% without supplemental cooling Harmonic Suppression: ................... 60 dBc or better Power Requirement:........................ 12-14 volts regulated DC at 1.5 Amps.

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VEC-1202K Owner's Manual

2 Meter FM Transmitter

SCHEMATIC

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VEC-1202K Owner's Manual

2 Meter FM Transmitter

ENCLOSURE
Vectronics has designed a matching enclosure just for your VEC-1202K 2 Meter FM Transmitter. The matching enclosure is an all metal box which includes a switch cap, hardware, decals, and rubber feet. Enclosure Model Number: VEC-1202KC.
To install your VEC-1202K 2-Meter FM Transmitter in the VEC-1202KC matching enclosure follow these instructions: Read ALL instructions BEFORE beginning and take your time to ensure the best results. 1. Find the front panel decal and rear panel decal; separate using scissors. Be sure to leave excess decal material around the edges. Put the rear panel decal on first. This is done by: a.) Remove all debris and oil from the chassis. This should be done using a piece of cloth and alcohol. b.) Remove the crack and peel to expose the adhesive. c.) Place the decal on the rear panel without securing it completely. d.) Gently rub the alignment circles with your finger--if the circles are centered in the enclosure holes (also check the corner alignment marks) secure the decal by rubbing and removing all air bubbles. e.) If the alignment circles are not centered, adjust the decal accordingly, then secure. f.) Use a penknife, or small ExactoTM knife, to cut away the unused edges (cut from the adhesive side) and cut out the component holes (cut from the description side). g.) Repeat this procedure for the front panel. 2. Next, install the two L-brackets on the chassis using two of the 3/16" screws. The longer side of the L-bracket must be connected to the chassis using the two holes centered on each edge of the enclosure. Refer to the diagram on the next page for location and orientation. 3. Install the four 1/2" mounting screws next. Insert the screws, from the bottom, through the four holes relatively close to each corner of the chassis. 4. Place the four 3/16" round spacers on the mounting screws. 5. Now insert the PC board. This must be done by: a.) Insert the front of the PC board at an angle so SW1 enters the correct hole. b.) Push down on the rear of the board. Make sure the mounting screws align with the mounting holes in the PC board before pushing. 6. Use the four hex nuts to secure the PC board. Be certain all appropriate components are centered with the enclosure holes before tightening. 7. Find the switch cap. Align the switch cap with SW1 and push it on. If it is difficult to push on, then rotate it 90 and try again. 8. Install the top now. Use the two remaining 3/16" screws for securing the top to the L-brackets. Make sure the L-brackets are aligned properly. 9. Finally, place the four rubber feet on the bottom of the enclosure at the corners.

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VEC-1202K Owner's Manual

2 Meter FM Transmitter

32