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Mastras 1 Kassie Mastras Ms. Sparrow History 12 December 2013 Bibliography Primary Sources: Anonymous.

"American Indian Movement Siege of Wounded Knee." Government, Politics, and Protest: Essential Primary Sources. Gale, 2006. World History In Context. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. This is a source that tells how the siege at Wounded Knee started, and the significance of the event. It also tells about the important people who were against the movement, (Richard Wilson & the GOONSs) and how their actions contributed the the start of the battle at Wounded Knee. It also has a primary source image showing four Indians holding guns, either getting ready for battle or watching for the enemy. This is a reliable source because it comes from a CWA database. Brokaw, Chet. 20 Years Later, Legacy of Second Wounded Knee Clash Remains Unclear. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 28 Feb.1993. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.This is a primary source, and describes the important events before, during, and after the battle and gives the exact dates of when it occurred. It also has quotes from important people on each side of the movement, like Russell Means, an Indian, Bill Janklow, the former Governor of South Dakota, where the battle took place, Jim Abourezk, then a Democratic U.S. senator, and John Yellow Bird Steele, president of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. I know this is a good and reliable source because it comes from the Los Angeles Times, a reputable newspaper. Giago, Tim. Signing Off After More Than 30 Tears. The Huffington Post. The Huffington Post, 12 Feb. 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. This is a primary source that Tim Giago wrote to explain his last thirty years of being a Native American writer. He explains how

Mastras 2 he has written about good news and bad news about Native Americans in America, including Wounded Knee, and although some of his articles have been criticized by the American public, it has never discouraged him from writing. This is important because he grew up on the Pine Ridge Reservation, so he witnessed the events that occurred there. This is a reliable source because it is from a reputable newspaper. Giago, Tim. Who Were the Real Victims of Wounded Knee 1973? Native American Journalists Foundation, Inc., 2 Mar. 2009. Email. 12 Dec. 2013. This is an article that Tim Giago sent me after I emailed him some questions. He wrote it after the siege, and it explains his view on the Siege at Wounded Knee. He explains who he thinks are the villains, and the victims during this siege. According to Giago, the inhabitants at Wounded Knee were the victims. He explains that their homes were destroyed and they were left homeless because of the siege. This is a reliable source because it is directly from Tim Giago himself. Hubbard, Jim. Behind the lens: Remembering Wounded Knee. Los Angeles TimesPhotography. Los Angeles Times, 27 Feb. 2013. Web. 23 Nov. 2013. This is a primary source that describes Jim Hubbards experience during the siege. It was published exactly forty years after the siege started. Hubbard was sent to the area as a photographer, and stayed there during most of the battles. In this source, he explains in great detail about how he was treated by the US government officials, as well as the Indians. He also explains what is was like to live there, with no electricity or food supplies. Most importantly, this source includes some of the photos he took, which made a huge impact around the world. Malcolm, Andrew. Occupation of Wounded Knee is Ended. The New York Times. The New York Times, 8 May 1973. Web. 21 Oct. 2013. This is a very

Mastras 3 detailed source that was published in the New York Times newspaper right after the siege ended. I know it is reliable because it comes from a very well known newspaper, and because it was published right after the battle ended, it has exact information about the battle and quotes from the important people in the battle. It also explains how the battle ended and gives the exact times of day when everything occurred.This is also a primary source. Means, Russell. "The Siege of Wounded Knee." The Native American Experience. Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. World History In Context. Web. 2 Sept. 2013. This is a detailed primary source that explains the Battle at Wounded Knee from an Indians perspective that fought in the battle for the American Indian Movement. It is important because it provides a firsthand account of one journey through the battle. It is very personal and shows one mans struggle for civil rights. This is a reliable source because it is also from a Charles Wright database. Wicks, Mike AIM Statement on Wounded Knee November 1973. AIM and Wounded Knee Documents. Michigan State University Library, 1999. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. This source comes from the Michigan State University Library, so it is a reliable source. It is a primary source that has the statement that the Indians gave after the siege at Wounded Knee ended. It explains why the Indians felt the siege was necessary. It also explains that AIM felt the US government had a responsibility to the Indian people. This is important because it is important to know why the Indians started this siege in the first place. Wicks, Mike The Aftermath-Harassment. AIM and Wounded Knee Documents. Michigan State University Library, 1999. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. This is a source that contains links to primary source documents about Wounded Knee. This document explains the aftermath of Wounded Knee. It explains how Wilson and his GOONs beat, harassed, and killed many Indians as part of a revenge plan after the Indians had

Mastras 4 gotten what they wanted. It also explains how this violence was never investigated, even though it was against the law. This source is reliable because it comes from the Michigan State University Library, a reputable source of information. Winchester, Simon. Second Battle of Wounded Knee. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 1 Mar. 1973. Web. 21 Oct. 2013. This source was published in a newspaper the day after the siege started, so it has very detailed information that is reliable. It explains the start of the battle, and what provoked the Indians to attack. This is an important source because it gives an overview of the start of the battle. This is a primary source. Zimmerman, Bill and David Lyman, Stanley. "The American Indian Movement." American Decades Primary Sources. Gale, 2004. World History In Context. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. This is also a primary source from two different perspectives. It shows the perspective of Bill Zimmerman, a white man who decided to participate in the Wounded Knee standoff to gain civil right for Indians, and Stanley David Lyman, who worked for the federal government and was the superintendent of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in 1972. Although he worked against AIM, he was horrified by the fighting. This is an important source because while it gives another perspective of a person fighting for civil rights for Indians, it also gives the perspective of the other side. This source is also from the Charles Wright database.

Secondary Sources AIM occupation of Wounded Knee Begins. The History Channel Website. A&E Television Networks, LLC., 2013. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. This is a detailed source that explains what really happened after the siege ended, and how the treatment of the Indians in America changed. It also explains the trials that occurred after the battle and

Mastras 5 the governments actions toward the Indians. This is a reliable source because it is from the History Channel website, which is a reputable source. Chertoff, Emily. Occupy Wounded Knee: A 71-Day Siege and a Forgotten Civil Rights Movement. The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 23 Oct. 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. This source was published in the magazine The Atlantic, so I know it is a reliable source. It was published the day after Russell Means, one of the main AIM leaders, died. It gives information of the impact he made during the movement. The source also gives information about the aftermath of the battle, and what the area of Wounded Knee is like today. Giago, Tim. Tim Giago. The Huffington Post. The Huffington Post, 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. This is biography about Tim Giago, a now famous Native American writer that grew up on the Pine Ridge Reservation where the siege at Wounded Knee took place. He witnessed the event. He has published many newspaper articles, even some about the siege at Wounded Knee, and he was the founder of the Native American Journalists Association. This is important because it shows that although he was an Indian, he did not let that stand in his way. He grew as a writer during the time of the American Indian Movement, which must have been hard considering he was Native American. This is a reliable source because it is from a reputable newspaper. Gottesman, Ronald and Maxwell Brown, Richard. "Wounded Knee, 1973." Violence in America. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1999. World History In Context. Web. 24 Sept. 2013. This is a good source because it gives an overview of the sequence of events that led up to the Battle at Wounded Knee in 1973 and the events that occurred after the battle. It also gives the dates and the major players (AIM, Pine Ridge Reservation tribal government) during the events. This is a reliable source because it is from World History in Context, which is a Charles Wright database.

Mastras 6 History-Incident at Wounded Knee. U.S. Marshals Service. U.S Federal Government, 2013. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. This is a detailed source that gives information about the actions of the US Marshals and the FBI during the siege. This is an important source because it shows information about the people against the Indians, which most people dont know as much about, but who still had a huge impact on the situation. It is important because it gives a view of the other side. This source also contains a picture of the U.S. Marshals holding up a flag after the occupation ended.This is a reliable source because it is an official US government site. "Russell Means." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Gale, 1998. World History In Context. Web. 9 Oct. 2013. This is a very detailed source that describes the life of Russell Means, one of the main leaders of the siege at Wounded Knee and the American Indian Movement. This is an important source because it explains how most of his life led up to these moments that were not just for him, but for all American Indians. It is important that I know about his life so that I know his motivations for the second battle at Wounded Knee. This is a reliable source because it is from World History in Context. Rzeczkowski, Frank. "Laramie, Fort, Treaty of (1868)." Dictionary of American History. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. World History In Context. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. This source describes the 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty, which was signed between the US government and the Indians. It gave the Indians land in central America and specifically, the Sioux Indians land in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming. According to the treaty, this land was reserved for the Indians and white Americans could not live on the land. The importance of this is how the US violated it which led to the cause of the Indians hatred and the start of the battle at Wounded Knee. This source is reliable because it is from a CWA database. Wounded Knee. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 2013. Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc. Web. 9 Oct. 2013. This source explains how the

Mastras 7 first battle at Wounded Knee in 1890 is related to the Siege at Wounded Knee during the American Indian Movement in 1973. It also explains why one of the leaders, Russell Means, along with the rest of the Indians, vowed to stay on the reservation at Wounded Knee (after taking it over), and the three main points they wanted. This is a reliable source because it is from Encyclopedia Britannica, a Charles Wright database. "Wounded Knee Occupation (1973)." Civil Rights in the United States. Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. This is a source that also describes an event contributing to the battle. It describes a group of Indian activists that went to Washington D.C. to protest at Richard Nixon, the president. After this failed, the article also tells about how that contributed to the start of the battle. The article also explains a little about the trials held against the Indians that happened as a result of the battle. This is a good, reliable source because it comes from Opposing Viewpoints, a Charles Wright database.