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France

France (UK /frns/; US i/frns/; French: ( listen)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise ), is a sovereign country in Western Europe that [note 12] includes overseas regions and territories. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of only three countries (besides Morocco and Spain) to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Due to its shape, it is often referred to in French as lHexagone ("The Hexagon"). France is the largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the third-largest in Europe as a whole. With a total population of around 66 million, it is the third most-populous European country. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the nation's largest city and the main cultural and commercial centre. The current Constitution of France, adopted by referendum on 4 October 1958, establishes the country as secular and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people. The nation's ideals are expressed in the foundational Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, one of the world's earliest documents on human rights, which was formulated during the seminal French Revolution of the late 18th century. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, reaching the height of its influence and prestige during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the secondlargest colonial empire of the time, and one of the largest in history. This legacy is reflected in the prevalence of French language, culture, and jurisprudence worldwide. France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global centre of culture. Subsequently, its hosts the world's fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites, drawing around 83 million foreign tourists annually, the most of any country in the world.[7] France remains a major power with significant cultural, economic, military, and political influence in Europe and around the world.[8] It has the world's sixth-largest military budget[9] and third-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons,[10] with a diplomatic corps that is second only to the United States.[11] France is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by purchasing power parity.[12] In terms of total household wealth, France is the wealthiest nation in Europe and fourth in the world.[13] French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, with the country performing well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, civil liberties, and human development.[14][15] France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. It is a member of numerous international institutions, including Francophonie, the G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, and the Latin Union. France is a founding and leading member state of the European Union.[16]