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Book ....................................................................................................................................

9
Pages 19-22 ..................................................................................................................... 9
Congregate .................................................................................................................. 9
Hive ........................................................................................................................... 10
Mound ....................................................................................................................... 10
herd ........................................................................................................................... 11
prey ........................................................................................................................... 12
predator ..................................................................................................................... 12
opaque ....................................................................................................................... 13
Virulent ..................................................................................................................... 13
measles ...................................................................................................................... 14
smallpox .................................................................................................................... 14
pneumonia ................................................................................................................. 14
Devastate ................................................................................................................... 15
outbreak..................................................................................................................... 15
Prominent .................................................................................................................. 16
Slum .......................................................................................................................... 17
Pawn.......................................................................................................................... 18
CD ..................................................................................................................................... 21
Reading skills-vocabulary and reference-passage 1 ..................................................... 21
favor .......................................................................................................................... 21
archeology ................................................................................................................. 21
shelter ........................................................................................................................ 22
preservation ............................................................................................................... 23
swamp ....................................................................................................................... 25
marsh ......................................................................................................................... 26
bog............................................................................................................................. 27
Foster......................................................................................................................... 27
excavation ................................................................................................................. 29
basketry ..................................................................................................................... 30
deteriorate ................................................................................................................. 31
swelling ..................................................................................................................... 31
Descendant ................................................................................................................ 34
cedarwood ................................................................................................................. 35

carve .......................................................................................................................... 35
hearth......................................................................................................................... 37
mat............................................................................................................................. 37
loom .......................................................................................................................... 40
spindle ....................................................................................................................... 41
bow............................................................................................................................ 42
harpoon ..................................................................................................................... 44
rake ............................................................................................................................ 44
bailer ......................................................................................................................... 47
dorsal fin ................................................................................................................... 47
figurine ...................................................................................................................... 48
Reading skills-vocabulary and reference-passage 2 ..................................................... 49
Crust.......................................................................................................................... 49
Intrusion .................................................................................................................... 49
remnant ..................................................................................................................... 49
Erupt .......................................................................................................................... 50
Eon ............................................................................................................................ 52
Weathering ................................................................................................................ 53
Book .................................................................................................................................. 56
Pages 23-25 ................................................................................................................... 56
coral........................................................................................................................... 56
colony........................................................................................................................ 56
Intricate (iiintrikate) .................................................................................................. 58
reef ............................................................................................................................ 58
Delicate (Deeelicate) ................................................................................................. 60
Qqqq Thrive (thraiv) ................................................................................................. 61
Jellyfish ..................................................................................................................... 62
sea anemone(annnemoni).......................................................................................... 62
Tentacle ..................................................................................................................... 62
fringe ......................................................................................................................... 62
Aging = once living .................................................................................................. 63
hardy ......................................................................................................................... 66
Algae(alji) ................................................................................................................. 66
clam ........................................................................................................................... 66

Boring=Powerdy remnent ......................................................................................... 66


Pages 26 ........................................................................................................................ 69
Qqq Juxtapose(jakstapooos) ..................................................................................... 69
Dwarf ........................................................................................................................ 69
Tint ............................................................................................................................ 69
Camouflage(keemoflaa ).......................................................................................... 69
microsphere ............................................................................................................... 70
Pages 33 ........................................................................................................................ 70
Depict ........................................................................................................................ 70
Evoke ........................................................................................................................ 70
CD ..................................................................................................................................... 70
Reading skills-sentences-passage 1 .............................................................................. 71
Astound ..................................................................................................................... 71
Leap........................................................................................................................... 71
Visionary (ADJ & N) ................................................................................................ 72
Grasp ......................................................................................................................... 72
Arena ......................................................................................................................... 73
Threaten .................................................................................................................... 74
off-putting ................................................................................................................. 74
Encase ....................................................................................................................... 74
Peripheral .................................................................................................................. 75
Soar ........................................................................................................................... 75
Inspire ....................................................................................................................... 75
venture capital ........................................................................................................... 76
Outstanding ............................................................................................................... 76
Reading skills-sentences-passage 2 .............................................................................. 77
Predecessor (preee-desesor) ...................................................................................... 77
Inauguration (in-aeration) ...................................................................................... 77
Swampy..................................................................................................................... 78
Ambassador............................................................................................................... 78
Wealth ....................................................................................................................... 78
Poverty ...................................................................................................................... 79
Pursuit ....................................................................................................................... 79
Squalid ...................................................................................................................... 79

Toil ............................................................................................................................ 80
Rural .......................................................................................................................... 80
Pessimistic (pezi-miistik) .......................................................................................... 81
Imminent ((adjective)) .............................................................................................. 81
Agrarian .................................................................................................................... 81
Tremendously (tri-meeendesly) ................................................................................ 82
Book .................................................................................................................................. 82
Pages 37 ........................................................................................................................ 82
Pop ............................................................................................................................ 82
Skewer(N&V) ........................................................................................................... 82
Roast ......................................................................................................................... 82
Legendary (leeeendery) .......................................................................................... 82
Pages 38 ........................................................................................................................ 83
Spot ........................................................................................................................... 83
pilgrim ....................................................................................................................... 83
Conceal ..................................................................................................................... 83
Pages 39 ........................................................................................................................ 84
Leotard ...................................................................................................................... 84
Popsicle ..................................................................................................................... 85
Prospect ..................................................................................................................... 85
Costume .................................................................................................................... 85
Stir up ........................................................................................................................ 85
Porch ......................................................................................................................... 85
Treat .......................................................................................................................... 86
Pages 41 ........................................................................................................................ 86
Profound .................................................................................................................... 86
Fictional .................................................................................................................... 86
Genre ......................................................................................................................... 87
Fortune ...................................................................................................................... 87
Thrust ........................................................................................................................ 87
Yearn ......................................................................................................................... 88
Glamour .................................................................................................................... 88
Seamy........................................................................................................................ 88
Befall ......................................................................................................................... 88

Depict ........................................................................................................................ 89
Manipulate ................................................................................................................ 89
Dismal ....................................................................................................................... 90
Stricken ..................................................................................................................... 90
Suicide....................................................................................................................... 90
sanitarium .................................................................................................................. 90
Peril ........................................................................................................................... 90
urban ......................................................................................................................... 91
Lust (lst) ................................................................................................................... 91
Stardom (Q no.6) ...................................................................................................... 91
Stark (Q no. 7)........................................................................................................... 91
Scandalous ................................................................................................................ 92
Page 47 .......................................................................................................................... 93
Emanate..................................................................................................................... 93
Celestial(elachal) ................................................................................................ 93
Engage....................................................................................................................... 93
dwarf ......................................................................................................................... 94
Listening ........................................................................................................................... 95
Book .................................................................................................................................. 95
Page 128 ........................................................................................................................ 95
meteorology .............................................................................................................. 95
centripetal .................................................................................................................. 95
Page 129 ........................................................................................................................ 95
comet ......................................................................................................................... 95
Page 130 ........................................................................................................................ 95
sticker ........................................................................................................................ 95
Page 132 ........................................................................................................................ 96
custom ....................................................................................................................... 96
prop ........................................................................................................................... 96
Humorous .................................................................................................................. 97
Page 135 ........................................................................................................................ 97
anthropology ............................................................................................................. 97
Archer ....................................................................................................................... 97
Constellation ............................................................................................................. 97

Big dipper.................................................................................................................. 97
Speaking ............................................................................................................................ 97
Book .................................................................................................................................. 97
Page 180 ........................................................................................................................ 97
Enroll......................................................................................................................... 97
unanimous (unanimus) ........................................................................................... 98
Supplement ............................................................................................................... 98
Listening ........................................................................................................................... 99
Book .................................................................................................................................. 99
Page 141 ........................................................................................................................ 99
Transcript .................................................................................................................. 99
CD ..................................................................................................................................... 99
listening skills-(vocabulary and reference-passage 1) .................................................. 99
fort ............................................................................................................................. 99
Notorious................................................................................................................... 99
Traitor ....................................................................................................................... 99
Fortification............................................................................................................... 99
Treason .................................................................................................................... 100
Book ................................................................................................................................ 100
Page 239 ...................................................................................................................... 100
Millennium.............................................................................................................. 100
Gender ..................................................................................................................... 100
Cannibal .................................................................................................................. 100
Submissive .............................................................................................................. 100
Page 242 ...................................................................................................................... 101
Ice skate .................................................................................................................. 101
Drift ......................................................................................................................... 101
Page 584 ...................................................................................................................... 101
Pat ........................................................................................................................... 101
Neat ......................................................................................................................... 101
Hippopotamus ......................................................................................................... 101
Speaking-page 207 ...................................................................................................... 101
Villain ..................................................................................................................... 101
Tally ........................................................................................................................ 101

Attribute .................................................................................................................. 101


Speaking page 578 ................................................................................................... 102
Polling ..................................................................................................................... 102
Guise ....................................................................................................................... 102
Pollster .................................................................................................................... 102
Surreptitious (ADJ) ................................................................................................. 102
S-page 214 .................................................................................................................. 102
Content ( N & V & ADJ ) ....................................................................................... 102
Anguish ................................................................................................................... 102
CD ................................................................................................................................... 102
MINITEST 2 ............................................................................................................... 102
reading......................................................................................................................... 102
Patronize (REP) ...................................................................................................... 102
Augmentation (REP) ............................................................................................... 102
Ostentatious (REP).................................................................................................. 102
Intellectual............................................................................................................... 103
Intellect ................................................................................................................... 103
Unheralded .............................................................................................................. 103
Herald ...................................................................................................................... 103
Moneyed ................................................................................................................. 103
Grandiose ................................................................................................................ 103
Arbiter [countable] (N) ........................................................................................... 103
Acclaim ................................................................................................................... 103
Listening 2 .................................................................................................................. 103
Upbringing .............................................................................................................. 103
Unprecedented ........................................................................................................ 103
Immense .................................................................................................................. 104
Wistful..................................................................................................................... 104
Reticent ................................................................................................................... 104
Reading 3 .................................................................................................................... 104
Nonetheless ............................................................................................................. 104
Designation ............................................................................................................. 104
Commodity ............................................................................................................. 104
Hierarchical ............................................................................................................. 104

Era ........................................................................................................................... 104


Eternity.................................................................................................................... 104
Scepter..................................................................................................................... 104
Crown ...................................................................................................................... 104
Attribute (REP)(V).................................................................................................. 105
Zeal ......................................................................................................................... 105
Writing minitest3 ........................................................................................................ 105
Anonymity .............................................................................................................. 105
Vandalism ............................................................................................................... 105
Petty ........................................................................................................................ 105
fed up ...................................................................................................................... 105
Mandate (REP)........................................................................................................ 105
Litter ........................................................................................................................ 105
band together ........................................................................................................... 105
Underdog................................................................................................................. 105
Bully........................................................................................................................ 105
MINITEST 5 Reading................................................................................................. 105
Enterprise ................................................................................................................ 106
Barter....................................................................................................................... 106
Conglomerate .......................................................................................................... 106
Agrarian (REP) ....................................................................................................... 106
Medieval (REP) ...................................................................................................... 106
Exploratory ............................................................................................................. 107
Expedition ............................................................................................................... 107
Ensue ....................................................................................................................... 107
Myriad (N&ADJ) .................................................................................................... 107
Manorial .................................................................................................................. 107
Lease (N&V) ........................................................................................................... 107
Peasantry ................................................................................................................. 107
Charter..................................................................................................................... 108
Monopolistic ........................................................................................................... 108
Grant ....................................................................................................................... 108
Incur ........................................................................................................................ 108
Recur ....................................................................................................................... 108

Occur ....................................................................................................................... 108


Inaugurate ............................................................................................................... 108
Mini test 6 ................................................................................................................... 108
Fade ......................................................................................................................... 108
Decree ..................................................................................................................... 109
Rite .......................................................................................................................... 109
Bestow..................................................................................................................... 109
Complete test 1-R1 ..................................................................................................... 109
Inclement................................................................................................................. 109
Imminent ................................................................................................................. 109
Roost ....................................................................................................................... 109
Porpoise................................................................................................................... 109
Frenzied................................................................................................................... 110
Scurry ...................................................................................................................... 110
Frantically ............................................................................................................... 110
Burrow .................................................................................................................... 110
Incessantly............................................................................................................... 110
Harbinger ................................................................................................................ 110
Bray ......................................................................................................................... 110
R2 ................................................................................................................................ 110
Extant ...................................................................................................................... 110
Glean ....................................................................................................................... 110
R3 ................................................................................................................................ 110
Donate ..................................................................................................................... 110
Detract ..................................................................................................................... 110
Latitude ................................................................................................................... 110

Book
Pages 19-22
Congregate
Bees congregate in hives

congregate
verb gather into a crowd or mass.
congregate
verb ASSEMBLE, gather, collect, come together, convene, rally, rendezvous, muster, meet,
cluster, group.
disperse.
congregate
Verb
1. come together, usually for a purpose; "The crowds congregated in front of the Vatican on
Christmas Eve"
(hypernym) meet, gather, assemble, forgather, foregather
(derivation) congregation
Adjective
1. brought together into a group or crowd; "the accumulated letters in my office"
(synonym) accumulated, amassed, assembled, collected, massed
(similar) concentrated

Hive
.) (

hive
noun
a beehive.
a very busy place: a hive of activity.
verb
place (bees) in a hive.
(hive something off) chiefly Brit. separate something from a larger group or
organization.

Mound
Ants gather in mounds

mound1
noun
a raised mass of earth or other compacted material, especially one created for defence or
burial. Baseball a slight elevation from which the pitcher delivers the ball.
a small hill.

a large pile or quantity of something.


verb
heap up into a mound.
archaic enclose or fortify with an embankment.
C16 (in the sense 'boundary hedge or fence'): of obscure origin.
x
mound2
noun archaic a golden globe surmounted by a cross, used as part of royal regalia; an orb.
ME: from OFr. monde, from L. mundus 'world'.
mound
noun

a mound of leaves: HEAP, pile, stack, mountain; mass, accumulation, assemblage.


high on the mound: HILLOCK, hill, knoll, rise, hummock, hump, embankment, bank, ridge,
elevation, acclivity; Scottish brae; Geology drumlin.
a burial mound: BARROW, tumulus; motte.
verb mound up the rice on a serving plate: PILE (UP), heap (up).

herd

herd
noun
a large group of animals, especially hoofed mammals, that live or are kept together.
derogatory a large group or class of people.
verb
move in a large group.
keep or look after (livestock).
herder noun
herd
noun

a herd of cows: drove, flock, pack, fold; group, collection.


a herd of actors: CROWD, group, bunch, horde, mob, host, pack, multitude, throng, swarm,

company.

they consider themselves above the herd: THE COMMON PEOPLE, the masses, the rank and
file, the crowd, the commonality, the commonalty, the plebeians; the hoi polloi, the mob, the
proletariat, the rabble, the riff-raff, the great unwashed; informal the proles, the plebs.
verb

we herded the sheep into the pen: DRIVE, shepherd, guide; round up, gather, collect.

we all herded into the room: CROWD, pack, flock; cluster, huddle.
they herd reindeer: TEND, look after, keep, watch (over), mind, guard.

prey

:
noun an animal hunted and killed by another for food. a victim or quarry. archaic plunder
or (in biblical use) a prize.
verb (prey on/upon)
hunt and kill for food.
exploit or injure. cause constant distress to: the problem had begun to prey on my mind.
preyer noun
ME: the noun from OFr. preie, from L. praeda 'booty', the verb from OFr. preier, based on L.
praedari 'seize as plunder', from praeda.
prey
noun

the lions killed their prey: QUARRY, kill.


she was easy prey: VICTIM, target, dupe, gull; informal sucker, soft touch, pushover; N.
Amer. informal patsy, sap, schlemiel; Austral./NZ informal dill.
predator.

prey on

hoverfly larvae prey on aphids: HUNT, catch; eat, feed on, live on/off.
they prey on the elderly: EXPLOIT, victimize, pick on, take advantage of; trick, swindle,
cheat, hoodwink, fleece; informal con.
the problem preyed on his mind: OPPRESS, weigh (heavily) on, lie heavy on, gnaw at;
trouble, worry, beset, disturb, distress, haunt, nag, torment, plague, obsess.

predator
predatorial()=predatory
:

predator

noun
an animal that preys on others.
a person who exploits others. a company that tries to take over another.

opaque

:
:
:
:
:
opaque
adjective (opaquer, opaquest)
not able to be seen through; not transparent.
difficult or impossible to understand.
noun an opaque thing. Photography a substance for producing opaque areas on negatives.
opaquely adverb
opaqueness noun
ME opake, from L. opacus 'darkened'.
opaque
adjective

opaque glass: NON-TRANSPARENT, cloudy, filmy, blurred, smeared, smeary, misty, dirty,
muddy, muddied, grimy.
the technical jargon was opaque to her: OBSCURE, unclear, mysterious, puzzling,
perplexing, baffling, mystifying, confusing, unfathomable, incomprehensible, unintelligible,
impenetrable, hazy, foggy; informal as clear as mud.
transparent, clear.

Virulent
Virulent epidemic diseases .

virulent
adjective
(of a disease or poison) extremely severe or harmful in its effects. (of a pathogen,
especially a virus) highly infective.
bitterly hostile.

virulence noun
virulently adverb
ME (orig. describing a poisoned wound): from L. virulentus, from virus (see virus).
virulent
adjective

virulent herbicides: POISONOUS, toxic, venomous, noxious, deadly, lethal, fatal, mortal,
dangerous, harmful, injurious, pernicious, damaging, destructive; poetic/literary deathly,
nocuous.
a virulent epidemic: INFECTIOUS, infective, contagious, communicable, transmittable,
transmissible, spreading, pestilential; informal catching.
a virulent attack on morals: VITRIOLIC, malicious, malevolent, hostile, spiteful, venomous,
vicious, vindictive, bitter, rancorous, acrimonious, scathing, caustic, withering, nasty, savage,
harsh.
harmless, amicable.

measles
rubeola) (morbili
:

measles
plural noun [treated as sing.]
an infectious viral disease causing fever and a red rash, typically occurring in childhood.
a disease of pigs caused by encysted larvae of the human tapeworm.
ME maseles, prob. from MDu. masel 'pustule'.

smallpox
( )

smallpox
noun an acute contagious viral disease, with fever and pustules that usually leave permanent
scars.

pneumonia
( )
pneumonia
noun a lung infection in which the air sacs fill with pus.

pneumonic adjective
C17: via L. from Gk, from pneumn 'lung'.

Devastate
A devastating outbreak of disease that strikes for the first time against a completely
unprotected population is known as a virgin soil epidemic

devastate
verb
destroy or ruin.
cause (someone) severe and overwhelming shock or grief.
devastation noun
devastator noun
C17 (earlier (ME) as devastation): from L. devastat-, devastare, from de- 'thoroughly' + vastare
'lay waste'.
devastate
verb

the city was devastated by an earthquake: DESTROY, ruin, wreck, lay waste, ravage,

demolish, raze (to the ground), level, flatten.


he was devastated by the news: SHATTER, shock, stun, daze, dumbfound, traumatize,
crush, overwhelm, overcome, distress; informal knock sideways; Brit. informal knock for six.
devastate
Verb
1. devastate or ravage; "The enemy lay waste to the countryside after the invasion"
(synonym) lay waste to, waste, desolate, ravage, scourge
(hypernym) destroy, ruin
(hyponym) ruin
(derivation) devastation, desolation
2. overwhelm or overpower; "He was devastated by his grief when his son died"
(hypernym) overwhelm, overpower, sweep over, whelm, overcome, overtake
(derivation) devastation

outbreak


:
outbreak
noun a sudden occurrence of war, disease, etc.
outbreak
noun

a fresh outbreak of killings: ERUPTION, flare-up, upsurge, outburst, rash, wave, spate,
flood, explosion, burst, flurry; formal boutade.
on the outbreak of war: START, beginning, commencement, onset, outset.
outbreak
Noun
1. a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition); "the
outbreak of hostilities"
(synonym) eruption, irruption
(hypernym) happening, occurrence, natural event
(hyponym) epidemic

Prominent
Alger came from a prominent family

:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

prominent
adjective
important or famous.
projecting; protuberant.
particularly noticeable.
noun (also prominent moth) a drab-coloured moth with tufts on the forewings which stick
up while it is at rest. [Family Notodontidae: many species.]
prominency noun
prominently adverb
ME: from L. prominent-, prominere 'jut out'; cf. eminent.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

prominent
adjective

a prominent surgeon: IMPORTANT, well known, leading, eminent, distinguished, notable,


noteworthy, noted, illustrious, celebrated, famous, renowned, acclaimed, famed, influential; N.
Amer. major-league.
prominent cheekbones: PROTUBERANT, protruding, projecting, jutting (out), standing out,
sticking out, proud, bulging, bulbous.
a prominent feature of the landscape: CONSPICUOUS, noticeable, easily seen, obvious,
unmistakable, eye-catching, pronounced, salient, striking, dominant; obtrusive.
unimportant, unknown, inconspicuous.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

prominent
Adjective
1. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention; "an outstanding fact of our time is that
nations poisoned by anti semitism proved less fortunate in regard to their own freedom"; "a new
theory is the most prominent feature of the book"; "salient traits"; "a spectacular rise in prices";
"a striking thing about Picadilly Circus is the statue of Eros in the center"; "a striking resemblance
between parent and child"
(synonym) outstanding, salient, spectacular, striking
(similar) conspicuous, obvious
2. conspicuous in position or importance; "a big figure in the movement"; "big man on campus";
"he's very large in financial circles"; "a prominent citizen"
(synonym) big, large
(similar) conspicuous, obvious

Slum
He wrote about the poor and homeless children of the slums of New York city

:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

slum
noun a squalid and overcrowded urban area inhabited by very poor people. a house in such
an area.
verb (slums, slumming, slummed) (often slum it) informal voluntarily spend time in

uncomfortable conditions or at a lower social level than one's own.


slummer noun
slumminess noun
slummy adjective
C19 (orig. sl., in the sense 'room'): of unknown origin.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

slum
noun HOVEL; (slums) ghetto, shanty town.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

slum
Noun
1. a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions
(synonym) slum area
(hypernym) city district
(hyponym) shantytown
Verb
1. visit slums for entertainment or out of curiosity
(hypernym) visit, see
(derivation) slum area

Pawn
. Seeing them as unfortunate pawns of society.

:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

pawn1
noun
a chess piece of the smallest size and value.
a person used by others for their own purposes.

ME: from Anglo-Norman Fr. poun, from med. L. pedo, pedon- 'foot soldier', from L. pes, ped'foot'.
x
pawn2
verb deposit (an object) with a pawnbroker as security for money lent.
noun (usu. in pawn) the state of being pawned.
C15: from OFr. pan 'pledge, security'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

pawn1
verb he pawned his watch: PLEDGE, put in pawn, give as security, use as collateral; informal
hock, put in hock.
x
pawn2
noun a pawn in the battle for the throne: PUPPET, dupe, hostage, tool, cat's paw, instrument.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

pawn
Noun
1. an article deposited as security
(hypernym) pledge
(derivation) soak, hock
2. a person used by another to gain an end
(synonym) instrument, cat's-paw
(hypernym) assistant, helper, help, supporter
3. (chess) the least powerful piece; moves only forward and captures only to the side; it can be
promoted to a more powerful piece if it reaches the 8th rank
(hypernym) chessman, chess piece
(classification) chess, chess game
4. borrowing and leaving an article as security for repayment of the loan
(hypernym) borrowing
(derivation) soak, hock
Verb
1. leave as a guarantee in return for money; "pawn your grandfather's gold watch"
(synonym) soak, hock

(hypernym) consign, charge


(classification) commerce, commercialism, mercantilism

CD

Reading skills-vocabulary and reference-passage 1


archeology

favor
)favour (
Concise Oxford English
Dictionary

favour
(US favor)
noun
approval or liking. unfair preferential treatment. archaic a thing such as a badge that is
given or worn as a mark of favour or support.
an act of kindness beyond what is due or usual. (one's favours) dated a woman's
consent to a man having sexual intercourse with her.
(also party favor) N. Amer. a small inexpensive gift given to party guests.
verb
regard or treat with favour. give unfairly preferential treatment to. work to the
advantage of.
(favour someone with) give someone (something desired).
informal resemble (a relative) in facial features.
in favour of
to be replaced by.
in support or to the advantage of.
favourer noun
ME: via OFr. from L. favor, from favere 'show kindness to'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

shelter


:
:
Concise Oxford English
Dictionary

shelter
noun
a place giving protection from bad weather or danger.
a place providing food and accommodation for the homeless.
an animal sanctuary.
a shielded condition; protection.
verb
provide with shelter. find refuge or take cover.
[often as adjective sheltered] prevent from having to do or face something difficult.
protect (income) from taxation.
shelterer noun
shelterless adjective
C16: perh. an alt. of obs. sheld, an old spelling of shield, + -ure.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

shelter
noun

the trees provide shelter for animals: PROTECTION, cover, screening, shade; safety,
security, refuge, sanctuary, asylum.
a shelter for abandoned cats: SANCTUARY, refuge, home, haven, safe house; harbour, port
in a storm.
exposure.
verb

the hut sheltered him from the wind: PROTECT, shield, screen, cover, shade, save,
safeguard, preserve, defend, cushion, guard, insulate.
the anchorage where the convoy sheltered: TAKE SHELTER, take refuge, seek sanctuary,
take cover; informal hole up.

expose.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

shelter
Noun
1. a structure that provides privacy and protection from danger
(hypernym) structure, construction
(hyponym) cookhouse
2. protective covering that provides protection from the weather
(hypernym) protective covering, protective cover, protection
(hyponym) bell cote, bell cot
3. the condition of being protected; "they were huddled together for protection"; "he enjoyed a
sense of peace and protection in his new home"
(synonym) protection
(hypernym) security
(hyponym) indemnity, insurance
4. a way of organizing business to reduce the taxes it must pay on current earnings
(synonym) tax shelter
(hypernym) decrease, diminution, reduction, step-down
5. temporary housing for homeless or displaced persons
(hypernym) housing, lodging, living accommodations
(hyponym) camp, refugee camp
Verb
1. provide shelter for; "After the earthquake, the government could not provide shelter for the
thousands of homeless people"
(hypernym) supply, provide, render, furnish
(hyponym) house, put up, domiciliate
(derivation) tax shelter
2. invest (money) so that it is not taxable
(hypernym) invest, put, commit, place

preservation

:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

preserve

verb
maintain in its original or existing state. keep alive (a memory or quality).
keep safe from harm or injury.
treat (food) to prevent its decomposition. prepare (fruit) for long-term storage by boiling
it with sugar.
noun
a foodstuff made with fruit preserved in sugar.
something regarded as reserved for a particular person or group.
chiefly N. Amer. a place where game is protected and kept for private hunting or shooting.
preservable adjective
preservation noun
preserver noun
ME: from OFr. preserver, from late L. praeservare, from prae- 'before, in advance' + servare 'to
keep'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

preservation
noun

wood preservation: CONSERVATION, protection, care.


the preservation of the status quo: CONTINUATION, conservation, maintenance, upholding,

sustaining, perpetuation.

the preservation of food: CONSERVING, bottling, canning, freezing, drying; curing, smoking,

pickling.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

preservation
Noun
1. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger
(synonym) saving
(hypernym) protection
(hyponym) environmentalism
(derivation) keep, preserve
2. the condition of being (well or ill) preserved
(hypernym) condition, status
(derivation) continue, uphold, carry on, bear on, preserve
3. a process that saves organic substances from decay
(hypernym) process
(hyponym) fixation, fixing

4. an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change


(synonym) conservation
(hypernym) improvement, betterment, advance

swamp
) (

:
:
:
:
:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

swamp
noun an area of waterlogged ground; a bog or marsh.
verb
overwhelm or flood with water.
overwhelm with too much of something; inundate.
swampish adjective
swampy adjective
C17: prob. from a Gmc base meaning 'sponge'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

swamp
noun his horse got stuck in a swamp: MARSH, bog, quagmire, mire, morass, fen; quicksand;
N. Amer. bayou; archaic quag.
verb

the rain was swamping the dry roads: FLOOD, inundate, deluge, immerse; soak, drench,

saturate.

he was swamped by media attention: OVERWHELM, inundate, flood, deluge, engulf, snow
under, overload, overpower, weigh down, besiege, beset.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

swamp
Noun
1. low land that is seasonally flooded; has more woody plants than a marsh and better drainage
than a bog
(synonym) swampland
(hypernym) wetland
(hyponym) Everglades
(derivation) drench
2. a situation fraught with difficulties and imponderables; "he was trapped in a medical swamp"
(hypernym) situation
Verb
1. drench or submerge or be drenched or submerged; "The tsunami swamped every boat in the
harbor"
(synonym) drench
(hypernym) flood
(derivation) swampland
2. fill quickly beyond capacity; as with a liquid; "the basement was inundated after the storm";
"The images flooded his mind"
(synonym) deluge, flood, inundate
(hypernym) fill, fill up, make full

marsh

:
:
:
Concise Oxford English
Dictionary

marsh
noun an area of low-lying land which is flooded in wet seasons or at high tide, and typically
remains waterlogged at all times.
marshiness noun
marshy adjective (marshier, marshiest).
OE mer(i)sc, of W. Gmc origin.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

marsh
noun SWAMP, marshland, bog, peat bog, swampland, morass, mire, quagmire, slough, fen,
fenland, wetland; N. Amer. bayou; Scottish & N. English moss; archaic quag.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

Marsh
Noun
1. United States painter (1898-1954)
(synonym) Reginald Marsh
(hypernym) painter
2. New Zealand writer of detective stories (1899-1982)
(synonym) Ngaio Marsh
(hypernym) writer, author
x
marsh
Noun
1. low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation; usually is a transition zone between land and water;
"thousands of acres of marshland"; "the fens of eastern England"
(synonym) marshland, fen, fenland
(hypernym) wetland

bog

:
:
:
:

Foster
In these wetland archeological sites, organic materials are effectively sealed in an
environment that is airless and wet and that therefore tends to foster preservation

:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

foster
verb
promote the development of.

bring up (a child that is not one's own by birth). Brit. assign (a child) to be fostered.
fosterage noun
fosterer noun
OE fstrian 'feed, nourish', from fster 'food, nourishment', of Gmc origin; related to food.
x
foster combining form denoting someone having a specified family connection through fostering:
foster-parent. concerned with fostering: foster care.
OE.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

foster
verb

he fostered the arts: ENCOURAGE, promote, further, stimulate, advance, forward, cultivate,
nurture, strengthen, enrich; help, aid, abet, assist, contribute to, support, back.
they started fostering children: BRING UP, rear, raise, care for, take care of, look after,
nurture, provide for; mother, parent.
neglect, suppress.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

Foster
Noun
1. United States songwriter whose songs embody the sentiment of the South before the
American Civil War (1826-1864)
(synonym) Stephen Foster, Stephen Collins Foster
(hypernym) songwriter, songster, ballad maker
x
foster
Verb
1. promote the growth of; "Foster our children's well-being and education"
(synonym) further

(hypernym) promote, advance, boost, further, encourage


(derivation) fostering, fosterage
2. bring up under fosterage; of children
(hypernym) rear, raise, bring up, nurture, parent
3. help develop, help grow; "nurture his talents"
(synonym) nurture
(hypernym) encourage
(hyponym) patronize, patronise, patronage, support, keep going
(derivation) breeding, bringing up, fostering, fosterage, nurture, raising, rearing, upbringing
Adjective
1. providing or receiving nurture or parental care though not related by blood or legal ties;
"foster parent"; "foster child"; "foster home"; "surrogate father"
(synonym) surrogate
(similar) adoptive

excavation

:
:
:
common excavation of structure
depth of excavation
excavation in river bed
to fill up an excavation

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

excavate
verb
make (a hole or channel) by digging. dig out (material) from the ground.
carefully remove earth from (an area) in order to find buried remains.
excavation noun
excavator noun
C16: from L. excavat-, excavare 'hollow out'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

excavation
noun

the excavation of a grave: UNEARTHING, digging up; disinterment, exhumation.


the excavation of a moat: DIGGING, hollowing out, boring, channelling.
implements found in the excavations: HOLE, pit, trench, trough; archaeological site.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

excavation
Noun
1. the act of digging; "there's an interesting excavation going on near Princeton"
(synonym) digging, dig
(hypernym) creating by removal
(derivation) excavate, unearth
2. the site of an archeological exploration; "they set up camp next to the dig"
(synonym) dig, archeological site
(hypernym) site, land site
(hyponym) Byblos
(derivation) excavate, unearth
(classification) archeology, archaeology
3. a hole in the ground made by excavating
(synonym) hole in the ground
(hypernym) artifact, artefact
(hyponym) bore, bore-hole, drill hole
(derivation) excavate, unearth
4. the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth
(synonym) mining
(hypernym) production
(hyponym) placer mining
(derivation) excavate, dig, hollow
(class) opencast, opencut

basketry
)( )( )(

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

basketry
noun
the craft of basket-making.
baskets collectively.
Oxford University Press, 2004

WordNet 2.0

basketry
Noun
1. the craft of basket making
(hypernym) trade, craft

deteriorate

:
deteriorate
verb become progressively worse.
deterioration noun
deteriorative adjective
deteriorate
verb

his health deteriorated: WORSEN, decline, degenerate; fail, slump, slip, go downhill, go
backwards, wane, ebb; informal go to pot.
these materials deteriorate if stored wrongly: DECAY, degrade, degenerate, break down,
decompose, rot, go off, spoil, perish; break up, disintegrate, crumble, fall apart.
improve.
deteriorate
Verb
1. become worse or disintegrate; "His mind deteriorated"
(hypernym) decay, crumble, delapidate
(hyponym) go to pot, go to the dogs
(derivation) deterioration, impairment
2. grow worse; "Her condition deteriorated"; "Conditions in the slums degenerated"; "The
discussion devolved into a shouting match"
(synonym) devolve, drop, degenerate
(antonym) recuperate, recover, convalesce
(hypernym) worsen, decline
(hyponym) tire, pall, weary, fatigue, jade
(derivation) deterioration, impairment

swelling

:

glandular swelling
swelling pressure
swelling-resistant

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

swelling
noun an abnormal enlargement of a part of the body as a result of an accumulation of fluid.
a natural rounded protuberance.
x
swell
verb (swells, swelling, swelled; past participle swollen or swelled)
become larger or rounder in size, especially as a result of an accumulation of fluid.
become or make greater in intensity, amount, or volume.
noun
a full or gently rounded form.
a gradual increase in sound, amount, or intensity. a welling up of a feeling.
a slow, regular movement of the sea in rolling waves that do not break.
a mechanism for producing a crescendo or diminuendo in an organ or harmonium.
informal, dated a fashionable or stylish person of wealth or high social position.
adjective N. Amer. informal, dated
excellent; very good.
archaic smart; fashionable.
adverb N. Amer. informal, dated excellently; very well.
one's head swells one becomes conceited.
OE swellan, of Gmc origin.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

swelling
noun BUMP, lump, bulge, protuberance, enlargement, distension, prominence, protrusion,
node, nodule, tumescence; boil, blister, bunion, carbuncle.
x
swell
verb

her lip swelled up: EXPAND, bulge, distend, inflate, dilate, bloat, puff up, balloon, fatten, fill
out, tumefy; rare intumesce.

the population swelled: GROW, enlarge, increase, expand, rise, escalate, multiply,
proliferate, snowball, mushroom.
she swelled with pride: BE FILLED, be bursting, brim, overflow.
the graduate scheme swelled entry numbers: INCREASE, enlarge, augment, boost, top up,
step up, multiply.
the music swelled to fill the house: GROW LOUD, grow louder, amplify, intensify, heighten.
shrink, decrease, quieten.
noun

a brief swell in the volume: INCREASE, rise, escalation, surge, boost.


a heavy swell on the sea: SURGE, wave, undulation, roll.
(informal, dated) he was an elegant swell: DANDY, fop, beau, poseur; informal trendsetter;
Brit. informal toff; dated popinjay; archaic coxcomb.
decrease, dip.
adjective (N. Amer. informal, dated) a swell idea: EXCELLENT, marvellous, wonderful,
splendid, magnificent, superb; informal super, great, fantastic.
bad.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

swelling
Noun
1. abnormal protuberance or localized enlargement
(synonym) puffiness, lump
(hypernym) symptom
(hyponym) spermatocele
(derivation) swell, swell up, intumesce, tumefy, tumesce
2. the swelling of certain substances when they are heated (often accompanied by release of
water)
(synonym) intumescence, intumescency
(hypernym) chemical process, chemical change, chemical action
Adjective
1. becoming puffy as from internal bleeding or accumulation of other fluids; "put ice on the
swelling ankle"
(similar) injured
x
swell

Noun
1. the undulating movement of the surface of the open sea
(synonym) crestless wave
(hypernym) wave, moving ridge
(hyponym) ground swell, heavy swell
2. a rounded elevation (especially one on an ocean floor)
(hypernym) natural elevation, elevation
3. a crescendo followed by a decrescendo
(hypernym) crescendo
4. a man who is much concerned with his dress and appearance
(synonym) dandy, dude, fop, gallant, sheik, beau, fashion plate, clotheshorse
(hypernym) man, adult male
(hyponym) coxcomb, cockscomb
Verb
1. increase in size, magnitude, number, or intensity; "The music swelled to a crescendo"
(hypernym) increase
2. become filled with pride, arrogance, or anger; "The mother was swelling with importance
when she spoke of her son"
(synonym) puff up
(hypernym) act, behave, do
3. expand abnormally; "The bellies of the starving children are swelling"
(synonym) swell up, intumesce, tumefy, tumesce
(hypernym) expand
(hyponym) distend
(derivation) swelling, puffiness, lump
4. as of feelings and thoughts, or other ephemeral things; "Strong emotions welled up"; "Smoke
swelled from it"
(synonym) well up
(hypernym) originate, arise, rise, develop, uprise, spring up, grow
5. come up; "Tears well in her eyes"
(synonym) well
(hypernym) surface, come up, rise up, rise
6. cause to become swollen; "The water swells the wood"
(hypernym) grow
(hyponym) bulge, bulk
(cause) swell up, intumesce, tumefy, tumesce
Adjective
1. very good; "he did a bully job"; "a neat sports car"; "had a great time at the party"; "you look
simply smashing"
(synonym) bang-up, bully, corking, cracking, dandy, great, groovy, keen, neat, nifty, not bad(p),
peachy, slap-up, smashing
(similar) good
(classification) colloquialism

Descendant
Memories of the village were kept alive by descendant of surviving inhabitants
( )
:

a male descendant of the prophet

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

descendant
noun a person, animal, etc. that is descended from a particular ancestor.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

descendant
noun SUCCESSOR, scion; heir; (descendants) offspring, progeny, family, lineage; Law issue;
archaic seed, fruit of one's loins.
ancestor.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

cedarwood
Noun
1. durable aromatic wood of any of numerous cedar trees; especially wood of the red cedar often
used for cedar chests
(synonym) cedar
(hypernym) wood
(hyponym) red cedar
(substance-holonym) cedar, cedar tree, true cedar

carve

:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

carve

verb
cut into or shape (a hard material) in order to produce an object or design. produce (an
object or design) by carving.
cut (cooked meat) into slices for eating.
(carve something out) develop a career, reputation, etc. through painstaking effort.
(carve something up) cut into or divide up something ruthlessly. (carve someone up)
informal aggressively overtake another driver.
Skiing make (a turn) by tilting one's skis on to their edges and using one's weight to bend
them so that they slide into an arc.
carving noun
OE ceorfan 'cut, carve', of W. Gmc origin.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

carve
verb

he carved horn handles: SCULPT, sculpture; cut, hew, whittle; form, shape, fashion.
I carved my initials on the tree: ENGRAVE, etch, incise, score.
he carved the roast chicken: SLICE, cut up, chop.

carve something up DIVIDE, partition, apportion, subdivide, split up, break up; share out,
dole out; informal divvy up.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

carve
Verb
1. form by carving; "Carve a flower from the ice"
(hypernym) cut
(hyponym) hew, hew out
(derivation) sculptor, sculpturer, carver, statue maker
2. engrave or cut by chipping away at a surface; "carve one's name into the bark"
(synonym) chip at
(hypernym) cut
(hyponym) engrave, grave, inscribe
(derivation) woodcarver, carver
3. cut to pieces; "Father carved the ham"
(synonym) cut up
(hypernym) cut

(hyponym) shave
(see-also) divide, split, split up, separate, dissever, carve up
(derivation) cutter, carver

hearth
.) (
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

hearth
noun
the floor or surround of a fireplace (sometimes used as a symbol of home).
the base or lower part of a furnace, where molten metal collects.
OE heorth, of W. Gmc origin.
Oxford University Press, 2004

WordNet 2.0

hearth
Noun
1. an open recess in a wall at the base of a chimney where a fire can be built; "the fireplace was
so large you could walk inside it"; "he laid a fire in the hearth and lit it"; "the hearth was black
with the charcoal of many fires"
(synonym) fireplace, open fireplace
(hypernym) recess, niche
(hyponym) fire
(part-holonym) chimney
(part-meronym) fire iron
2. home symbolized as a part of the fireplace; "driven from hearth and home"; "fighting in
defense of their firesides"
(synonym) fireside
(hypernym) dwelling, home, domicile, abode, habitation, dwelling house
(part-holonym) fireplace, open fireplace
(classification) synecdoche
3. an area near a fireplace (usually paved and extending out into a room); "they sat on the
hearth and warmed themselves before the fire"
(synonym) fireside
(hypernym) area, country

mat
Woven material such as basket and mats




:
:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

mat1
noun
a thick piece of material placed on the floor and used as protection from dirt, for wiping the
feet on, or as a decorative rug. a piece of resilient material for landing on in gymnastics,
wrestling, or similar sports.
a small piece of cork, card, or similar material placed on a surface to protect it from the
heat or moisture of an object placed on it. (also mouse mat) Brit. a small piece of rigid or
resilient material on which a computer mouse is moved.
a thick, untidy layer of hairy or woolly material.
verb (mats, matting, matted) [usu. as adjective matted] tangle in a thick mass: matted
hair.
on the mat informal being reprimanded by someone in authority. [with military reference, in
which an accused would stand on the orderly room mat.]
OE m(e)att(e), of W. Gmc origin.
x
mat2
noun short for matrix (in sense 2).
x
mat3
noun US spelling of matt.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

mat
noun
mat.

the hall mat: DOORMAT, welcome mat; N. Amer. floorcloth. See list at carpet.
he placed his glass on the mat: COASTER, beer mat, doily; table mat, place mat; Brit. drip
a thick mat of hair: MASS, tangle, knot, mop, thatch, shock, mane.

verb his hair was matted with blood: TANGLE, entangle, knot, ravel, snarl up.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

MAT
Noun
1. a master's degree in teaching
(synonym) Master of Arts in Teaching
(hypernym) master's degree
x
mat
Noun
1. a thick flat pad used as a floor covering
(hypernym) floor cover, floor covering
(hyponym) doormat, welcome mat
2. mounting consisting of a border or background for a picture
(synonym) matting
(hypernym) mounting
3. sports equipment consisting of a piece of thick padding on the floor for gymnastic sports
(synonym) gym mat
(hypernym) sports equipment, sporting goods
(hyponym) canvas, canvass
4. the property of having little or no contrast; lacking highlights or gloss
(synonym) flatness, lusterlessness, lustrelessness, matt, matte
(hypernym) dullness, dulness
(derivation) felt, felt up, mat up, matt-up, matte up, matte
5. a small pad of material that is used to protect surface from an object placed on it
(hypernym) pad
(hyponym) drip mat
Verb
1. twist together or entwine into a confusing mass; "The child entangled the cord"
(synonym) entangle, tangle, snarl
(hypernym) twist, twine, distort
(hyponym) felt
2. change texture so as to become matted and felt-like; "The fabric felted up after several
washes"
(synonym) felt, felt up, mat up, matt-up, matte up, matte
(hypernym) change
(derivation) flatness, lusterlessness, lustrelessness, matt, matte
Adjective
1. not reflecting light; not glossy; "flat wall paint"; "a photograph with a matte finish"
(synonym) flat, matt, matte, matted
(similar) dull

Equipment for weaving such as looms and spindles

loom
) (

:
:
:
circular loom
hand-loom

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

loom1
noun an apparatus for making fabric by weaving yarn or thread.
OE gelma 'tool', shortened to lome in ME.
x
loom2
verb appear as a vague form, especially one that is threatening. (of an event regarded as
threatening) seem about to happen.
noun a vague first appearance of an object seen in darkness or fog, especially at sea.
C16: prob. from Low Ger. or Du.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

loom
verb

ghostly shapes loomed out of the fog: EMERGE, appear, come into view, take shape,

materialize, reveal itself.

the church loomed above him: SOAR, tower, rise, rear up; overhang, overshadow,

dominate.

without reforms, disaster looms: BE IMMINENT, be on the horizon, impend, threaten, brew,

be just around the corner.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

loom
Noun
1. a textile machine for weaving yarn into a textile
(hypernym) textile machine
(hyponym) carpet loom
Verb
1. come into view indistinctly, often threateningly; "Another air plane loomed into the sky"
(hypernym) look, appear, seem
2. appear very large or occupy a commanding position; "The huge sculpture predominates over
the fountain"; "Large shadows loomed on the canyon wall"
(synonym) tower, predominate, hulk
(hypernym) rise, lift, rear
3. hang over, as of something threatening, dark, or menacing; "The terrible vision brooded over
her all day long"
(synonym) brood, hover, bulk large
(hypernym) hang

spindle


:
:
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

spindle
noun
a slender rounded rod with tapered ends used in hand spinning to twist and wind thread
from a mass of wool or flax held on a distaff. a pin bearing the bobbin of a spinning machine.
a rod or pin serving as an axis that revolves or on which something revolves.
a turned piece of wood used as a banister or chair leg.
Biology a slender mass of microtubules formed when a cell divides.
a measure of length for yarn, equal to 15,120 yards (13,826 metres) for cotton or 14,400
yards (13,167 metres) for linen.
N. Amer. a spike for filing papers.
OE spinel, from the base of spin.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

spindle
noun pivot, pin, rod, axle, capstan; axis.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet
2.0

spindle
Noun
1. (biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division; the fibers radiate from two poles and meet at
the equator in the middle; "chromosomes are distributed by spindles in mitosis and meiosis"
(hypernym) fiber, fibre
(classification) biology, biological science
2. any of various rotating shafts that serve as axes for larger rotating parts
(synonym) mandrel, mandril, arbor
(hypernym) rotating shaft, shaft
(part-holonym) drive
3. a stick or pin used to twist the yarn in spinning
(hypernym) stick
(part-holonym) spinning wheel

Hunting equipment such as bows and harpoons

bow
) ( down

:
:
:

:
:
Concise Oxford English
Dictionary

bow1
noun
a knot tied with two loops and two loose ends.
a weapon for shooting arrows, made of a curved piece of wood joined at both ends by a
taut string.
a partially curved rod with horsehair stretched along its length, used for playing some
stringed instruments.
a curved stroke forming part of a letter (e.g. b, p).
a metal ring forming the handle of a key or pair of scissors.
N. Amer. a side piece or lens frame of a pair of glasses.
verb play (a stringed instrument) using a bow.

have (or add) another string to one's bow Brit. have a further resource available.
OE boga 'bend, bow, arch', of Gmc origin; related to bow2.
x
bow2
verb
bend the head or upper body as a sign of respect, greeting, or shame.
bend or cause to bend with age or under a heavy weight.
submit to pressure or demands.
(bow out) withdraw or retire from something.
noun an act of bowing.
bow and scrape behave obsequiously.
make one's bow make one's first formal appearance in a particular role.
take a bow acknowledge applause by bowing.
gan 'bend, stoop', of Gmc origin; related to bow1.

OE

x
bow3
(also bows)
noun the front end of a ship.
on the bow Nautical within 45 of the point directly ahead.
a shot across the bows a warning statement or gesture.
ME: from Low Ger. boog, Du. boeg, 'shoulder or ship's bow'; related to bough.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

bow1
verb

the officers bowed: INCLINE THE BODY, incline the head, nod, salaam, curtsy, bob.
the mast quivered and bowed: BEND, buckle, stoop, curve, flex, deform.
the government bowed to foreign pressure : YIELD, submit, give in, surrender, succumb,

capitulate, defer, conform; comply with, accept, heed, observe.


a footman bowed her in: USHER, conduct, show, lead, guide, direct, steer, shepherd.
noun a perfunctory bow: OBEISANCE, salaam, bob, curtsy, nod; archaic reverence.

bow out WITHDRAW, resign, retire, step down, pull out, back out; give up, quit, leave;
informal pack in, chuck (in); Brit. informal jack in.
x
bow2
noun the bow of the tanker: PROW, front, stem, nose, head, cutwater; Brit. humorous sharp
end.
x
bow3
noun

she tied a bow in her hair: LOOP, knot; ribbon.


he bent the rod into a bow: ARC, curve, bend; crescent, half-moon.
an archer's bow: longbow, crossbow; Archery recurve.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

harpoon

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

harpoon
noun a barbed spear-like missile attached to a long rope and thrown by hand or fired from a
gun, used for catching whales and other large sea creatures.
verb spear with a harpoon.
harpooner noun
C17: from Fr. harpon, from harpe 'dog's claw, clamp'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

harpoon
noun SPEAR, trident, dart, barb, gaff, leister.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

rake

Fishing equipment such as hooks and rakes



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Concise Oxford English
Dictionary

rake1
noun
an implement consisting of a pole with a toothed crossbar or fine tines at the end, used for
drawing together cut grass or leaves or smoothing loose soil or gravel.
an act of raking.
verb
draw together or make smooth with a rake.
scratch or scrape with a long sweeping movement. draw or drag (something) through
something with a sweeping movement. sweep with gunfire, a look, or a beam of light.
(rake through) rummage through.
(rake something in) informal make a lot of money.
(rake something up/over) revive the memory of a past time or event that is best
forgotten.
rake over (old) coals (or rake over the ashes) chiefly Brit. revive the memory of a past
event.
rake someone over the coals North American way of saying haul someone over the
coals (see coal).
raker noun
OE raca, racu, of Gmc origin, from a base meaning 'heap up'; the verb is partly from ON raka 'to
scrape, shave'.
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rake2
noun a fashionable or wealthy man of dissolute habits.
a rake's progress a progressive deterioration through self-indulgence. [from the title of a series
of engravings by Hogarth (1735).]
C17: abbrev. of archaic rakehell in the same sense.
x
rake3

verb
set at a sloping angle. (of a ship's mast or funnel) incline from the perpendicular towards
the stern.
(of a ship's bow or stern) project at its upper part beyond the keel.
noun
the angle at which a thing slopes.
the angle of the edge or face of a cutting tool.
raking adjective
C17: prob. related to Ger. ragen 'to project', of unknown ultimate origin; cf. Swed. raka.
x
rake4
noun Brit. a number of railway carriages or wagons coupled together.
early 20th cent. (orig. Scots and north. Engl.): from ON rk 'stripe, streak', from an alt. of rek- 'to
drive'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

rake1
verb

he raked the leaves into a pile: SCRAPE UP, collect, gather.


she raked the gravel: SMOOTH (OUT), level, even out, flatten, comb.
the cat raked his arm with its claws: SCRATCH, lacerate, scrape, rasp, graze, grate;

Medicine excoriate.

she raked a hand through her hair: DRAG, pull, scrape, tug, comb.
I raked through my pockets: RUMMAGE, search, hunt, sift, rifle.
machine-gun fire raked the streets: SWEEP, enfilade, pepper, strafe.

rake something in (informal) EARN, make, get, gain, obtain, acquire, accumulate, bring in,
pull in, pocket, realize, fetch, return, yield, raise, net, gross.
rake something up REMIND PEOPLE OF, recollect, remember, call to mind; drag up, dredge
up.
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rake2
noun he was something of a rake: PLAYBOY, libertine, profligate; degenerate, rou,
debauchee; lecher, seducer, womanizer, philanderer, adulterer, Don Juan, Lothario, Casanova;
informal ladykiller, ladies' man, lech.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

Equipment for water transportation such as canoe paddles and bailer

bailer

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Concise Oxford English Dictionary

bail3
(Brit. also bale)
verb
scoop water out of (a ship or boat).
(bail out) make an emergency parachute descent from an aircraft.
(bail someone/thing out) rescue someone or something from a difficulty.
bailer noun
C17: from obs. bail 'bucket', from Fr. baille, based on L. bajulus 'carrier'.

dorsal fin
:

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

dorsal fin
noun Zoology an unpaired fin on the back of a fish or whale.
Oxford University Press, 2004

WordNet 2.0

dorsal fin
Noun
1. unpaired median fin on the backs of fishes and some other aquatic vertebrates that help to

maintain balance
(hypernym) fin

figurine

:

Reading skills-vocabulary and reference-passage 2


Crust
Natural diamonds are created in the earths mantle, a layer between earths core and
its outer crust.


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Intrusion
Formed of cylindrical intrusions of molten material from deep within the earth,
diamond pipes allow molten material from the earths mantle to penetrate the earths
crust

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Concise Oxford English Dictionary

intrusion
noun the action of intruding. a thing that intrudes.
ME: from med. L. intrusio(n-), from L. intrudere (see intrude).
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

intrusion
noun ENCROACHMENT, obtrusion; invasion, incursion, intervention, disturbance, disruption,
infringement, impingement.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

remnant

)(

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

remnant
noun
a small remaining part, quantity, or trace. a piece of cloth left when the greater part has
been used or sold.
Christian Theology a small minority of people who will remain faithful to God and so be
saved.
adjective remaining.
ME: contr. of obs. remenant from OFr. remenant, from remenoir, remanoir 'remain'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

remnant
noun

the remnants of the picnic: REMAINS, remainder, leftovers, residue, rest; technical

residuum.

remnants of cloth: SCRAP, piece, bit, fragment, shred, offcut, oddment.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

remnant
Noun
1. a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists
(synonym) leftover
(hypernym) remainder, balance, residual, residue, residuum, rest
(derivation) remain
2. a piece of cloth that is left over after the rest has been used or sold
(synonym) end, remainder, oddment
(hypernym) piece of cloth, piece of material
(hyponym) fag end

Erupt
Diamonds pipes are considered to be the remnants of ancient volcanoes that erupted
80 million years ago.

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

erupt
verb
(of a volcano) forcefully eject lava, rocks, ash, or gases.
break out suddenly: fierce fighting erupted.
(often erupt in) give vent to feelings in a sudden and noisy way: they erupted in fits of
laughter.
(of a spot, rash, etc.) suddenly appear on the skin.
(of a tooth) break through the gums.
eruptive adjective
C17: from L. erupt-, erumpere 'break out'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

erupt
verb

the volcano erupted: EMIT LAVA, become active, flare up; explode.
lava was erupted: EMIT, discharge, eject, expel, spew out, pour out, disgorge.
fighting erupted: BREAK OUT, flare up, start suddenly; ensue, arise, happen.
a boil erupted on her temple: APPEAR, break out, flare up, come to a head, emerge.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

erupt
Verb
1. start abruptly; "After 1989, peace broke out in the former East Bloc"
(synonym) break out
(hypernym) begin, start
2. erupt or intensify suddenly; "Unrest erupted in the country"; "Tempers flared at the meeting";
"The crowd irrupted into a burst of patriotism"
(synonym) irrupt, flare up, flare, break open, burst out
(hypernym) intensify, deepen
(derivation) outbreak, eruption, irruption
3. start to burn or burst into flames; "Marsh gases ignited suddenly"; "The oily rags combusted
spontaneously"
(synonym) ignite, catch fire, take fire, combust, conflagrate

(hypernym) change state, turn


(hyponym) blow out
(verb-group) burn, combust
4. as of teeth, for example; "The tooth erupted and had to be extracted"
(synonym) come out, break through, push through
(hypernym) appear
(hyponym) dehisce
(derivation) eruption
5. become active and spew forth lava and rocks; "Vesuvius erupts once in a while"
(synonym) belch, extravasate
(hypernym) explode, burst
(derivation) eruption, eructation, extravasation
6. force out or release suddenly and often violently something pent up; "break into tears"; "erupt
in anger"
(synonym) break, burst
(hypernym) express emotion, express feelings
7. appear on the skin; "A rash erupted on her arms after she had touched the exotic plant"
(hypernym) appear
(verb-group) come out, break through, push through
8. become raw or open; "He broke out in hives"; "My skin breaks out when I eat strawberries";
"Such boils tend to recrudesce"
(synonym) recrudesce, break out
(hypernym) afflict, trouble, ail, pain

Eon
Over the eons of time

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

eon
noun US and technical spelling of aeon.
Oxford University Press, 2004

WordNet 2.0

eon
Noun
1. the longest division of geological time
(synonym) aeon
(hypernym) geological time, geologic time
(part-meronym) era, geological era
2. an immeasurably long period of time
(synonym) aeon

(hypernym) long time, age, years


(hyponym) Phanerozoic, Phanerozoic eon, Phanerozoic aeon
3. (Gnosticism) a divine power or nature emanating from the Supreme Being and playing various
roles in the operation of the universe
(synonym) aeon
(hypernym) spiritual being, supernatural being
(classification) Gnosticism

Weathering
The rock, Kimberlite, has been exposed to weathering.
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chemical weathering
cornice weathering
weathering resistance of concrete

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

weathering
noun Falconry allow (a hawk) to spend a period perched in the open air.
headword
x
weather
noun
the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards temperature, wind, rain, etc.
[as modifier] Nautical windward. Contrasted with lee.
verb
wear away or change in form or appearance by long exposure to the weather. (of rock or
other material) be worn away or altered by such processes.
come safely through.
make (boards or tiles) overlap downwards to keep out rain. (in building) slope or bevel (a
surface) to throw off rain.
Sailing (of a ship) get to the windward of (a cape).
[usu. as noun weathering] Falconry allow (a hawk) to spend a period perched in the open
air.
keep a weather eye on be watchful for developments.
make heavy weather of informal have unnecessary difficulty in dealing with (a task or
problem). [from the naut. phr. make good or bad weather of it, referring to a ship in a storm.]
under the weather informal slightly unwell or depressed.

OE weder, of Gmc origin.


Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

weather
noun what's the weather like?: FORECAST, outlook; meteorological conditions, climate,
atmospheric pressure, temperature; elements. See list.
verb we weathered the recession: SURVIVE, come through, ride out, pull through; withstand,
endure, rise above, surmount, overcome, resist; informal stick out.

under the weather (informal). See ill adjective sense 1.

Atmospheric Phenomena
See also wind.

Occlusion

anticyclone

pressure system

blocking high

Ridge

cold front

shallow depression

cyclone

stationary depression

deep depression

stationary high

depression

temperature inversion

filling depression

Thermal

frontal system

Trough

high pressure

Turbulence

jet stream

warm front

low pressure

warm sector

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

weather
Noun
1. the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation; "they were
hoping for good weather"; "every day we have weather conditions and yesterday was no
exception"
(synonym) weather condition, atmospheric condition
(hypernym) atmospheric phenomenon
(hyponym) cold weather
Verb
1. face or endure with courage; "She braved the elements"

(synonym) endure, brave, brave out


(hypernym) defy, withstand, hold, hold up
2. cause to slope
(hypernym) lean, tilt, tip, slant, angle
3. sail to the windward of
(hypernym) sail
(classification) navigation, pilotage, piloting
4. change under the action or influence of the weather; "A weathered old hut"
(hypernym) decay, crumble, delapidate
(derivation) weather condition, atmospheric condition
Adjective
1. towards the side exposed to wind
(synonym) upwind, weather(a)
(similar) windward

Book
Pages 23-25
coral

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

coral
noun
a hard stony substance secreted by certain colonial marine animals as an external skeleton, typically forming large
reefs. precious red coral, used in jewellery.
the pinkish-red colour of red coral.
an anthozoan of a large group including those that form coral reefs, secreting a calcareous, horny, or soft skeleton.
[Orders Scleractinia or Madreporaria (the reef-forming stony corals), Alcyonacea (soft corals), and Gorgonacea (horny
corals).]
the edible unfertilized roe of a lobster or scallop, reddening when cooked.
coralloid adjective (chiefly Biology & Zoology).
ME: via OFr. from L. corallum, from Gk korallion, kouralion.
Oxford University Press, 2004

WordNet 2.0

coral
Noun
1. a variable color averaging a deep pink
(hypernym) pink
2. the hard stony skeleton of a Mediterranean coral that has a delicate red or pink color and is used for jewelry
(synonym) red coral, precious coral
(hypernym) opaque gem
3. unfertilized lobster roe; reddens in cooking; used as garnish or to color sauces
(hypernym) roe, hard roe
(part-holonym) lobster
4. marine colonial polyp characterized by a calcareous skeleton; masses in a variety of shapes often forming reefs
(hypernym) anthozoan, actinozoan
(hyponym) gorgonian, gorgonian coral
Adjective
1. of a strong pink to yellowish-pink color
(similar) chromatic

colony

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Concise Oxford English Dictionary

colony
noun (plural colonies)
a country or area under the political control of another country and occupied by settlers from that country. (the
colonies) all the foreign places formerly under British political control. (the colonies) the thirteen areas on the east
coast of North America that gained independence and founded the United States of America.
a group of people of one nationality or race living in a foreign place. a place where a group of people with the
same occupation or interest live together: a nudist colony.
Biology a community of animals or plants of one kind living close together or forming a physically connected
structure.
ME: from L. colonia 'settlement, farm', from colonus 'settler, farmer', from colere 'cultivate'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

colony
noun

a French colony: TERRITORY, dependency, protectorate, satellite, settlement, outpost, province.


the British colony in New York: POPULATION, community.
an artists' colony: COMMUNITY, commune; quarter, district, ghetto.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

Colony
Noun
1. one of the 13 British colonies that formed the original states of the United States
(hypernym) geographical area, geographic area, geographical region, geographic region
(hyponym) Connecticut
(part-holonym) United States, United States of America, America, US, U.S., USA, U.S.A.
x
colony
Noun
1. a body of people who settle far from home but maintain ties with their homeland; inhabitants remain nationals of their
home state but are not literally under the home state's system of government
(synonym) settlement
(hypernym) body
(hyponym) frontier settlement, outpost
(member-meronym) colonial
(derivation) colonize, colonise
2. a group of animals of the same type living together
(hypernym) animal group

3. a geographical area politically controlled by a distant country


(synonym) dependency
(hypernym) geographical area, geographic area, geographical region, geographic region
(hyponym) Crown Colony
4. (microbiology) a group of organisms grown from a single parent cell
(hypernym) animal group
(classification) microbiology

Intricate (iiintrikate)

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

intricate
adjective very complicated or detailed.
intricately adverb
ME: from L. intricat-, intricare 'entangle', from in- 'into' + tricae 'tricks, perplexities'.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

intricate
adjective COMPLEX, complicated, convoluted, tangled, entangled, twisted; elaborate, ornate, detailed, involuted; Brit.
informal fiddly.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

intricate
Adjective
1. highly involved or intricate; "the Byzantine tax structure"; "convoluted legal language"; "convoluted reasoning";
"intricate needlework"; "an intricate labyrinth of refined phraseology"; "the plot was too involved"; "a knotty problem";
"got his way by labyrinthine maneuvering"; "Oh, what a tangled web we weave"- Sir Walter Scott; "tortuous legal
procedures"; "tortuous negotiations lasting for months"
(synonym) Byzantine, convoluted, involved, knotty, labyrinthine, tangled, tortuous
(similar) complex

reef
) (
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barrier reef
coral-reef
reef knot
reef-knot
to take in a reef
Concise Oxford English Dictionary

reef1
noun
a ridge of jagged rock, coral, or sand just above or below the surface of the sea.
a vein of gold or other ore.
C16 (earlier as riff): from Mid. Low Ger. and MDu. rif, ref, from ON rif, lit. 'rib'; cf. reef2.
x
reef2 Sailing
noun each of several strips across a sail which can be taken in or rolled up to reduce the area exposed to the wind.
verb take in one or more reefs of (a sail). shorten (a topmast or a bowsprit).
ME: from MDu. reef, rif, from ON rif, lit. 'rib'; cf. reef1.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

reef
noun SHOAL, bar, sandbar, sandbank, spit; Scottish skerry.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

Reef
Noun
1. a rocky region in the southern Transvaal in northeastern South Africa; contains rich gold deposits and coal and
manganese
(synonym) Witwatersrand, Rand
(hypernym) region, part
(part-holonym) Transvaal
x
reef
Noun
1. a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the surface of the water
(hypernym) ridge
(hyponym) coral reef

Verb
1. lower and bring partially inboard; "reef the sailboat's mast"
(hypernym) lower, take down, let down, get down, bring down
2. roll up (a portion of a sail) in order to reduce its area
(hypernym) roll up, furl
3. reduce (a sail) by taking in a reef
(hypernym) shrink, reduce

Delicate (Deeelicate)

Concise Oxford English Dictionary

delicate
adjective
very fine in texture or structure; of intricate workmanship or quality. (of food or drink) subtly and pleasantly
flavoured.
easily broken or damaged; fragile. susceptible to illness or adverse conditions.
requiring sensitive or careful handling. skilful; deft.
noun (delicates) garments made from delicate fabric.
in a delicate condition archaic pregnant.
delicately adverb
delicateness noun
ME (in the sense 'delightful, charming'): from Fr. dlicat or L. delicatus, of unknown origin.
Oxford University Press, 2004

Concise Oxford Thesaurus

delicate
adjective

delicate embroidery: FINE, exquisite, intricate, dainty; flimsy, gauzy, filmy, floaty, diaphanous, wispy, insubstantial.
a delicate shade of blue: SUBTLE, soft, muted; pastel, pale, light.
delicate china cups: FRAGILE, breakable, frail; formal frangible.
his wife is delicate: SICKLY, unhealthy, frail, feeble, weak, debilitated; unwell, infirm; formal valetudinarian.
a delicate issue: DIFFICULT, tricky, sensitive, ticklish, awkward, problematical, touchy, prickly; embarrassing;
informal sticky, dicey.
the matter required delicate handling: CAREFUL, sensitive, tactful, diplomatic, discreet, kid-glove, softly-softly.
his delicate palate: DISCRIMINATING, discerning; FASTIDIOUS, fussy, finicky, dainty; informal picky, choosy,
pernickety.

a delicate mechanism: SENSITIVE, precision, precise.

coarse, lurid, strong, robust, clumsy.

Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

delicate
Adjective
1. exquisitely fine and subtle and pleasing; susceptible to injury; "a delicate violin passage"; "delicate china"; "a delicate
flavor"; "the delicate wing of a butterfly"
(antonym) rugged
(similar) dainty, exquisite
(see-also) breakable
(attribute) strength
2. marked by great skill especially in meticulous technique; "a surgeon's delicate touch"
(similar) skilled
3. easily broken or damaged or destroyed; "a kite too delicate to fly safely"; "fragile porcelain plates"; "fragile old bones";
"a frail craft"
(synonym) fragile, frail
(similar) breakable
4. easily hurt; "soft hands"; "a baby's delicate skin"
(synonym) soft
(similar) tender, untoughened
5. developed with extreme delicacy and subtlety; "the satire touches with finespun ridicule every kind of human pretense"
(synonym) finespun
(similar) refined
6. difficult to handle; requiring great tact; "delicate negotiations with the big powers"; "hesitates to be explicit on so
ticklish a matter"
(synonym) ticklish
(similar) difficult, hard
7. of an instrument or device; capable of registering minute differences or changes precisely; "almost undetectable with
even the most delicate instruments"
(similar) sensitive

Qqqq Thrive (thraiv)


These events involve physical and chemical processes . For local colonies to thrive.

thrive
verb (thrives, thriving, past throve or thrived; past participle thriven or thrived) (of a child, animal, or plant)
grow or develop well or vigorously. prosper; flourish.
thrive
verb FLOURISH, prosper, burgeon, bloom, blossom, do well, advance, make strides, succeed, boom.

decline, wither.
thrive
Verb
1. grow stronger; "The economy was booming"
(synonym) boom, prosper, get ahead, flourish, expand
(hypernym) grow
(hyponym) revive
2. gain in wealth

(synonym) prosper, fly high, flourish


(hypernym) change state, turn

Jellyfish
The basic element of coralline reef . Is closely related to jellyfish and sea anemones.
. .) .(

sea anemone(annnemoni)
.) .(

Tentacle
The mouth at the top of each body is surrounded by rings of tentacles
) ( .) .(
tentacle
noun
a long slender flexible appendage of an animal, used for grasping or moving about, or bearing sense organs.
a tendril or sensitive glandular hair on a plant.
an insidious spread of influence and control: the Party's tentacles reached into every part of people's lives.
tentacled adjective
tentacular adjective
tentaculate adjective
C18: anglicized from mod. L. tentaculum, from L. tentare, temptare 'to feel, try'.
tentacle
Noun
1. something that acts like a tentacle in its ability to grasp; "caught in the tentacles of organized crime"
(hypernym) grip, grasp
2. any of various elongated tactile or prehensile flexible organs that occur on the head or near the mouth in many animals
used for feeling or grasping or locomotion
(hypernym) process, outgrowth, appendage
(hyponym) antenna, feeler

fringe

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fringe
noun
a border of threads, tassels, or twists, used to edge clothing or material.
chiefly Brit. the front part of someone's hair, cut so as to hang over the forehead. a natural border of hair or
fibres in an animal or plant.
the outer or marginal part of something. [as modifier] not part of the mainstream; unconventional: fringe theatre.
a band of contrasting brightness or darkness produced by diffraction or interference of light. a strip of false colour
in an optical image.
US short for fringe benefit.
verb provide with or form a fringe.

fringeless adjective
fringing noun
fringy adjective
fringe
noun

the city's northern fringe: PERIMETER, periphery, border, borderline, margin, rim, outer edge, edge, extremity, limit;
outer limits, limits, borders, bounds, outskirts, marches; poetic/literary marge, bourn.
blue curtains with a yellow fringe: EDGING, edge, border, trimming, frill, flounce, ruffle; tassels; archaic purfle.
middle.
adjective fringe theatre: UNCONVENTIONAL, unorthodox, alternative, avant-garde, experimental, innovative, left-field,
innovatory, radical, extreme; peripheral; off Broadway; informal offbeat, way out.
mainstream.
verb

a robe of gold, fringed with black velvet: TRIM, edge, hem, border, bind, braid; decorate, adorn, ornament,

embellish, finish; archaic purfle.

the lake is fringed by a belt of trees: BORDER, edge, bound, skirt, line, surround, enclose, encircle, circle, girdle,

encompass, ring; poetic/literary gird.


fringe

Noun
1. the outside boundary or surface of something
(synonym) periphery, outer boundary
(hypernym) boundary, edge, bound
2. a part of the city far removed from the center; "they built a factory on the outskirts of the city"
(synonym) outskirt
(hypernym) city district
(part-meronym) suburb, suburbia, suburban area
3. a social group holding marginal or extreme views; "members of the fringe believe we should be armed with guns at all
times"
(hypernym) social group
4. edging consisting of hanging threads or tassels
(hypernym) edging
Verb
1. adorn with a fringe; "The weaver fringed the scarf"
(hypernym) decorate, adorn, grace, ornament, embellish, beautify
(classification) handicraft
2. decorate with or as if with a surrounding fringe; "fur fringed the hem of the dress"
(hypernym) surround, skirt, border

Aging = once living



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aging
adjective &noun variant spelling of ageing (see age).
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age
noun

the length of time that a person or thing has existed. a particular stage in someone's life. old age.
a distinct period of history. a division of geological time that is a subdivision of an epoch. (ages/an age)
informal a very long time.
verb (ages, ageing or aging, aged) grow or cause to appear old or older. (with reference to an alcoholic drink,
cheese, etc.) mature.
act (or be) one's age behave in a manner appropriate to someone of one's age.
come of age reach adult status (in UK law at 18).
of an age
old enough to be able or expected to do something.
(of two or more people or things) of a similar age.
ageing (also aging) noun & adjective
ME: from OFr., based on L. aetas, aetat-, from aevum 'age, era'.
x
-age
suffix forming nouns:
denoting an action or its result: leverage. a function; a sphere of action: homage. a state or condition: bondage.

age

denoting an aggregate or number of: mileage. a set or group of: baggage. fees payable for: postage.
denoting a place: vicarage.

noun

he is 35 years of age: NUMBER OF YEARS, length of life; stage of life, generation, age group.
her hearing had deteriorated with age: ELDERLINESS, old age, oldness, senescence, seniority, maturity; one's
advancing/advanced/declining years; poetic/literary eld; archaic caducity.
the Elizabethan age: ERA, epoch, period, time. See list.
(informal) you haven't been in touch with me for ages: A LONG TIME, days/months/years on end, an eternity;
informal ages and ages, donkey's years, a month of Sundays; Brit. informal yonks.
verb Cabernet Sauvignon ages well | the experience has aged her: MATURE, mellow, ripen; grow/become/make old,
(cause to) decline.

Geological Ages
Archaean/Azoic period

Palaeocene epoch

Cambrian period

Palaeozoic era

Carboniferous period

Permian period

Cenozoic era

Phanerozoic aeon

Cretaceous period

Pleistocene epoch

Devonian period

Pliocene epoch

Eocene epoch

Precambrian era

Holocene epoch

Proterozoic aeon

Jurassic period

Quaternary period

Mesozoic era

Silurian period

Miocene epoch

Tertiary period

Oligocene epoch

Triassic period

Ordovician period
aging
Noun
1. the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age
(synonym) ageing, senescence
(hypernym) organic process, biological process
(hyponym) catabiosis
2. acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
(synonym) ripening, ageing
(hypernym) organic process, biological process
(hyponym) mellowing
Adjective
1. growing old
(synonym) ageing, senescent
(similar) old
x
age
Noun
1. how long something has existed; "it was replaced because of its age"
(hypernym) property
(hyponym) chronological age
(attribute) mature
2. an era of history having some distinctive feature; "we live in a litigious age"
(synonym) historic period
(hypernym) era, epoch
(hyponym) Elizabethan age
(part-holonym) history
3. a time in life (usually defined in years) at which some particular qualification or power arises; "she was now of school
age"; "tall for his eld"
(synonym) eld
(hypernym) time of life
(hyponym) age of consent
(part-holonym) life, lifetime, lifespan
(derivation) senesce, get on, mature, maturate
4. a late time of life; "old age is not for sissies"; "he's showing his years"; "age hasn't slowed him down at all"; "a beard
white with eld"; "on the brink of geezerhood"
(synonym) old age, years, eld, geezerhood
(hypernym) time of life
(hyponym) dotage, second childhood, senility
(part-meronym) sixties, mid-sixties
5. a prolonged period of time; "we've known each other for ages"; "I haven't been there for years and years"
(synonym) long time, years
(hypernym) time period, period of time, period
(hyponym) long
Verb
1. begin to seem older; get older; "The death of his wife caused him to age fast"
(hypernym) develop
2. grow old or older; "She aged gracefully"; "we age every day--what a depressing thought!"; "Young men senesce"
(synonym) senesce, get on, mature, maturate

(hypernym) develop
(hyponym) turn
(derivation) eld
3. make older; "The death of his child aged him tremendously"
(antonym) rejuvenate
(hypernym) change, alter, modify
(cause) senesce, get on, mature, maturate
(derivation) old age, years, eld, geezerhood

hardy

Algae(alji)

:
:

clam
pecten

Boring=Powerdy remnent

:
:
:
:
boring
adjective not interesting; tedious.
boringly adverb
boringness noun
x
bear1
verb (past bore; past participle borne)
carry or convey. have as an attribute or visible mark.
support (a weight).
[with negative] manage to tolerate: I can't bear it.
give birth to (a child). (of a tree or plant) produce (fruit or flowers).
turn and proceed in a specified direction: bear left.
(bear oneself) conduct oneself in a specified manner.
bear someone a grudge nurture a feeling of resentment against someone.
bear in mind remember and take into account.
bear someone malice (or ill will) wish someone harm.
bear witness (or testimony) to testify to.
be borne in upon come to be realized by.
bring to bear
muster and use to effect.
aim (a weapon).
bear down (of a woman in labour) exert downwards pressure in order to push the baby out.
bear down on approach in a purposeful or intimidating manner.
bear off (or away) Sailing change course away from the wind.

bear
bear
bear
bear

on be relevant to.
something out support or confirm something.
up remain cheerful in the face of adversity.
with be patient or tolerant with.

bearable adjective
bearability noun
bearably adverb
OE beran, of Gmc origin.
x
bore1
verb
make (a hole) in something with a drill or other tool. hollow out (a gun barrel or other tube).
(of an athlete or racehorse) push another competitor out of the way.
noun the hollow part inside a gun barrel or other tube. the diameter of this: a small-bore rifle.
OE borian (v.), of Gmc origin.
x
bore2
noun a dull and uninteresting person or activity.
verb cause (someone) to feel weary and uninterested by being dull and tedious.
C18: of unknown origin.
x
bore3
noun a steep-fronted wave caused by the meeting of two tides or by a tide rushing up a narrow estuary.
C17: perh. from ON bra 'wave'.
x
bore4
past of bear1.
boring
adjective TEDIOUS, dull, monotonous, repetitive, unrelieved, unvaried, unimaginative, uneventful; characterless,
featureless, colourless, lifeless, insipid, uninteresting, unexciting, uninspiring, unstimulating, jejune, flat, bland, dry, stale,
tired, banal, lacklustre, stodgy, dreary, humdrum, mundane; mind-numbing, soul-destroying, wearisome, tiring, tiresome,
irksome, trying, frustrating; informal deadly, not up to much; Brit. informal samey; N. Amer. informal dullsville.
x
bore1
verb bore a hole in the ceiling: DRILL, pierce, perforate, puncture, punch, cut; tunnel, burrow, mine, dig, gouge, sink.
noun

a well bore: BOREHOLE, hole, well, shaft, pit.


the canon has a bore of 890 millimetres: CALIBRE, diameter, gauge.

x
bore2

verb the television news bored Philip: STULTIFY, pall on, stupefy, weary, tire, fatigue, send to sleep, leave cold; bore
to death, bore to tears; informal turn off.
interest.
noun you can be such a bore: TEDIOUS PERSON/THING, tiresome person/thing, bother, nuisance, pest, annoyance,
trial, vexation, thorn in one's flesh/side; informal drag, pain (in the neck), headache, hassle; N. Amer. informal nudnik.
boring
Noun
1. the act of drilling
(synonym) drilling
(hypernym) creating by removal
2. the act of drilling a hole in the earth in the hope of producing petroleum
(synonym) drilling, oil production
(hypernym) production
Adjective
1. so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness; "a boring evening with uninteresting people"; "the deadening
effect of some routine tasks"; "a dull play"; "his competent but dull performance"; "a ho-hum speaker who couldn't
capture their attention"; "what an irksome task the writing of long letters is"- Edmund Burke; "tedious days on the train";
"the tiresome chirping of a cricket"- Mark Twain; "other people's dreams are dreadfully wearisome"
(synonym) deadening, dull, ho-hum, irksome, slow, tedious, tiresome, wearisome
(similar) uninteresting
x
bore
Noun
1. a person who evokes boredom
(synonym) dullard
(hypernym) unpleasant person, disagreeable person
(hyponym) fuddy-duddy, stuffed shirt
(derivation) tire
2. a high wave (often dangerous) caused by tidal flow (as by colliding tidal currents or in a narrow estuary)
(synonym) tidal bore, eagre, aegir, eager
(hypernym) tidal flow, tidal current
3. diameter of a tube or gun barrel
(synonym) gauge, caliber, calibre
(hypernym) diameter, diam
(derivation) drill
4. a hole or passage made by a drill; usually made for exploratory purposes
(synonym) bore-hole, drill hole
(hypernym) excavation, hole in the ground
(hyponym) shot hole
(derivation) drill
(classification) mining, excavation
Verb
1. cause to be bored
(synonym) tire
(antonym) interest
(derivation) dullard
2. make a hole with a pointed power or hand tool; "don't drill here, there's a gas pipe"; "drill a hole into the wall"; "drill
for oil"
(synonym) drill

(hypernym) cut
(hyponym) spud
(derivation) gauge, caliber, calibre
\

Pages 26

Qqq Juxtapose(jakstapooos)

Dwarf

:

Tint

:
:
:

tint
noun

a shade or variety of colour. a trace of something.


the process or dye used in artificial colouring of the hair.
Printing an area of faint colour printed as a half-tone. a set of parallel engraved lines giving uniform shading.
verb colour slightly; tinge. dye (hair) with a tint.
tinter noun
tint
noun

the sky was taking on an apricot tint: SHADE, colour, tone, hue, tinge, cast, tincture, flush, blush.
a hair tint: DYE, colourant, colouring, wash; highlights, lowlights.

tint
Noun
1. a quality of a given color that differs slightly from a primary color; "after several trials he mixed the shade of pink that
she wanted"
(synonym) shade, tincture, tone
(hypernym) color, colour, coloring, colouring
(hyponym) undertone, tinge
(derivation) tinct, bepaint, tinge, touch
Verb
1. dye with a color
(synonym) tinct, bepaint, tinge, touch
(hypernym) dye
(hyponym) henna
(derivation) tinter

Camouflage(keemoflaa)

:
her indifference was merely camouflage

microsphere
noun a microscopic hollow sphere, especially of a protein or synthetic polymer.

Pages 33
Depict
) (
depict
verb represent by a drawing, painting, or other art form. portray in words.
depicter noun
depiction noun
depictive adjective
depict
verb

the painting depicts the Last Supper: PORTRAY, represent, picture, illustrate, delineate, reproduce, render; draw,

paint.

the process depicted by Darwin's theory: DESCRIBE, detail, relate; present, set forth, set out, outline, delineate;

represent, portray, characterize.

Evoke
== to produce a strong feeling or memory in someone:
=[ to make someone have a particular feeling]{make have excite arouse evoke generate whip up
reduce somebody}
evoke
verb
bring or recall to the conscious mind.
elicit (a response).
invoke (a spirit or deity).
evocation noun
evoker noun
evoke
verb BRING TO MIND, put one in mind of, conjure up, summon (up), invoke, elicit, induce, kindle, stimulate, stir up,
awaken, arouse; recall, echo, capture.
evoke

CD

Reading skills-sentences-passage 1
Astound
Apple computer made an astounding leap forward over the first few years of its existence

astound
verb shock or greatly surprise.
astounding adjective
astoundingly adverb
ME: from astoned, past participle of obs. astone (see astonish).
astound
verb AMAZE, astonish, stagger, surprise, startle, stun, confound, dumbfound, stupefy, daze, nonplus, take aback,
leave open-mouthed, leave aghast; informal flabbergast, bowl over; Brit. informal knock for six.

Leap
Apple computer made an astounding leap forward over the first few years of its existence

:

leap
verb (past or past participle leaped or leapt)
jump or spring a long way. jump across.

move quickly and suddenly. (leap at) accept (an opportunity) eagerly. (leap out) (especially of writing) be
conspicuous; stand out.
(of a price or figure) increase dramatically.
noun
an instance of leaping; a forceful jump or quick movement.
a sudden abrupt change or transition.
a leap in the dark a daring step or enterprise with unpredictable consequences.
by (or in) leaps and bounds with startlingly rapid progress.
leaper noun
leap
verb

he leapt over the gate: JUMP (OVER), vault (over), spring over, bound over, hop (over), hurdle, clear.
Claudia leapt to her feet: SPRING, jump (up), bound, dart.
we leapt to the rescue: RUSH, hurry, hasten.
she leapt at the chance: ACCEPT EAGERLY, grasp (with both hands), grab, take advantage of, seize (on), jump at.
don't leap to conclusions: FORM HASTILY, reach hurriedly; hurry, hasten, jump, rush.
profits leapt by 55: INCREASE RAPIDLY, soar, rocket, skyrocket, shoot up, escalate.

noun

an easy leap: JUMP, vault, spring, bound, hop, skip.


a leap of 33: SUDDEN RISE, surge, upsurge, upswing, upturn.

in/by leaps and bounds RAPIDLY, swiftly, quickly, speedily.

Visionary (ADJ & N)


A visionary with an amazing grasp of the potential for personal computer

visionary
adjective
thinking about or planning the future with imagination or wisdom.
relating to supernatural apparitions or visions in a dream or trance.
archaic existing only in the imagination. (of a scheme or idea) not practical.
noun (plural visionaries) a visionary person.
visionariness noun
visionary
adjective

a visionary leader: INSPIRED, imaginative, creative, inventive, ingenious, enterprising, innovative; insightful,
perceptive, intuitive, prescient, discerning, shrewd, wise, clever, resourceful; idealistic, romantic, quixotic, dreamy;
informal starry-eyed.
(archaic) a visionary image.: See imaginary.
noun

a visionary pictured him in hell: SEER, mystic, oracle, prophet(ess), soothsayer, augur, diviner, clairvoyant, crystalgazer; Scottish spaewife; poetic/literary sibyl.
a visionary can't run a business effectively: DREAMER, daydreamer, idealist, romantic, fantasist, utopian.
visionary
Noun
1. a person given to fanciful speculations and enthusiasms with little regard for what is actually possible
(hypernym) person, individual, someone, somebody, mortal, human, soul
(hyponym) idealist, dreamer
2. a person with unusual powers of foresight
(synonym) illusionist, seer
(hypernym) intellectual, intellect
(hyponym) anticipator, anticipant
Adjective
1. not practical or realizable; speculative; "airy theories about socioeconomic improvement"; "visionary schemes for
getting rich"
(synonym) airy, impractical, Laputan
(similar) utopian

Grasp
A visionary with an amazing grasp of the potential for personal computer

grasp

)2 ) 1
:
:

verb
seize and hold firmly. take (an opportunity) eagerly.
comprehend fully.
noun
a firm grip. a person's capacity to attain something: success was within his grasp.
a person's understanding.

graspable adjective
grasper noun
ME: perh. related to grope.
x
clutch (or grasp or catch) at straws
resort in desperation to unlikely or inadequate means of salvation. [from the proverb a drowning man will clutch at a
straw.]
headword
grasp
verb

she grasped his hands: GRIP, clutch, clasp, hold, clench; catch, seize, grab, snatch, latch on to.
everybody grasped the important points : UNDERSTAND, comprehend, follow, take in, perceive, see, apprehend,
assimilate, absorb; informal get, catch on to, figure out, get one's head around, take on board; Brit. informal twig, suss
(out).

he grasped the opportunity: TAKE ADVANTAGE OF, act on; seize, leap at, snatch, jump at, pounce on.

release, overlook.
noun

his grasp on her hand: GRIP, hold; clutch, clasp, clench.


his domineering mother's grasp: CONTROL, power, clutches, command, domination, rule, tyranny.
a prize lay within their grasp: REACH, scope, power, limits, range; sights.
your grasp of history: UNDERSTANDING, comprehension, perception, apprehension, awareness, grip, knowledge;

mastery, command.

Arena
)( ) (
:
:
arena
noun
a level area surrounded by seating, in which public events and entertainments are held.
a sphere of activity: he's re-entered the political arena.
C17: from L. harena, arena 'sand, sand-strewn place of combat'.
arena
noun

an ice-hockey arena: STADIUM, amphitheatre, coliseum; ground, field, ring, rink, pitch, court; N. Amer. bowl, park;
historical circus.
the political arena: SCENE, sphere, realm, province, domain, sector, forum, territory, world.
arena
Noun
1. a particular environment or walk of life; "his social sphere is limited"; "it was a closed area of employment"; "he's out
of my orbit"
(synonym) sphere, domain, area, orbit, field
(hypernym) environment
(hyponym) distaff
2. the central area of an ancient Roman amphitheater where contests and spectacles were held; especially a sand-strewn
area
(hypernym) area, country
3. a large structure for open-air sports or entertainments

(synonym) stadium, bowl, sports stadium


(hypernym) structure, construction
(hyponym) amphitheater, amphitheatre, coliseum
(part-meronym) field house
4. a playing field where sports events take place
(synonym) scene of action
(hypernym) playing field, athletic field, playing area, field
(hyponym) circus

Threaten

threaten


:
:

verb
make or express a threat to (someone) or to do (something).
put at risk; endanger. (of a situation or the weather) seem likely to produce an unwelcome result: the air was raw
and threatened rain.
threatener noun
threatening adjective
threateningly adverb
threaten
verb

how dare you threaten me?: MENACE, intimidate, browbeat, bully, terrorize; make/issue threats to.
these events could threaten the stability of Europe : ENDANGER, be a danger/threat to, jeopardize, imperil, put at

risk, put in jeopardy.

the grey skies threatened snow: HERALD, bode, warn of, presage, augur, portend, foreshadow, be a harbinger of,
indicate, point to, be a sign of, signal, spell; poetic/literary foretoken.
as rain threatened, the party moved indoors : SEEM LIKELY, seem imminent, be on the horizon, be brewing, be
gathering, be looming, be on the way, be impending; hang over someone.

off-putting
One that would not be off-putting to their intended market
adjective unpleasant or disconcerting.
off-puttingly adverb
off-putting
adjective

an off-putting aroma: UNPLEASANT, unappealing, uninviting, unattractive, disagreeable, offensive, distasteful,


unsavoury, unpalatable, unappetizing, objectionable, nasty, disgusting, repellent; informal horrid, horrible.
her manner was off-putting: DISCOURAGING, disheartening, demoralizing, dispiriting, daunting, disconcerting,
unnerving, unsettling; formal rebarbative.

Encase
encase
verb enclose or cover in a case or close-fitting surround.
encasement noun

Peripheral

peripheral

.) (
:
:
:

adjective
relating to or situated on the periphery.
marginal.
(of a device) able to be attached to and used with a computer, though not an integral part of it.
Anatomy near the surface of the body.
noun Computing a peripheral device.
peripherality noun
peripheralization or peripheralisation noun
peripheralize or peripheralise verb
peripherally adverb
peripheral
adjective

the city's peripheral housing estates: OUTLYING, outer, on the edge/outskirts, surrounding.
peripheral issues: SECONDARY, subsidiary, incidental, tangential, marginal, minor, unimportant, lesser, inessential,

non-essential, immaterial, ancillary.


central.

Soar

soar
verb
fly or rise high into the air. glide high in the air.
increase rapidly above the usual level.
soarer noun
soaring adjective
soaringly adverb
ME: shortening of OFr. essorer, based on L. ex- 'out of' + aura 'breeze'.
soar
verb

the bird soared into the air: FLY, wing, ascend, climb, rise; take off, take flight.
the gulls soared on the winds: GLIDE, plane, float, drift, wheel, hover.
the cost of living soared: INCREASE, escalate, shoot up, rise, spiral; informal go through the roof, skyrocket.

plummet.

Inspire
inspire

verb
fill with the urge or ability to do or feel something. create (a feeling) in a person. (inspire someone with)
animate someone with (a feeling).
give rise to.
inhale.
inspirer noun
inspiring adjective
inspiringly adverb
inspire
verb

the landscape inspired him to write: STIMULATE, motivate, encourage, influence, rouse, move, stir, energize,
galvanize, incite; animate, fire, inspirit, incentivize.
the film inspired a musical: GIVE RISE TO, lead to, bring about, cause, prompt, spawn, engender; poetic/literary
beget.
Charles inspired awe in her: AROUSE, awaken, prompt, induce, ignite, trigger, kindle, produce, bring out;
poetic/literary enkindle.

venture capital
:
venture capital
noun capital invested in a project in which there is a substantial element of risk.
venture capitalist noun
venture capital
Noun
1. wealth available for investment in new or speculative enterprises
(synonym) risk capital
(hypernym) capital, working capital

Outstanding
)2 ) 1
:
:
:
outstanding
adjective
exceptionally good.
clearly noticeable.
not yet done or paid.
outstandingly adverb
outstanding
adjective

an outstanding painter: EXCELLENT, marvellous, magnificent, superb, fine, wonderful, superlative, exceptional, firstclass, first-rate; informal great, terrific, tremendous, super, amazing, fantastic, sensational, fabulous, ace, crack, A1,
mean, awesome, out of this world; Brit. informal smashing, brilliant; N. Amer. informal neat; Austral. informal bonzer.
an outstanding decorative element: REMARKABLE, extraordinary, exceptional, striking, eye-catching, arresting,
impressive, distinctive, unforgettable, memorable, special, momentous, significant, notable, noteworthy; informal out of
this world.
how much work is still outstanding?: TO BE DONE, undone, unattended to, unfinished, incomplete, remaining,
pending, ongoing.

outstanding debts: UNPAID, unsettled, owing, owed, to be paid, payable, due, overdue, undischarged; N. Amer.

delinquent.

unexceptional.
outstanding
Adjective
1. distinguished from others in excellence; "did outstanding work in human relations"; "an outstanding war record"
(similar) superior
2. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention; "an outstanding fact of our time is that nations poisoned by anti
semitism proved less fortunate in regard to their own freedom"; "a new theory is the most prominent feature of the
book"; "salient traits"; "a spectacular rise in prices"; "a striking thing about Picadilly Circus is the statue of Eros in the
center"; "a striking resemblance between parent and child"
(synonym) prominent, salient, spectacular, striking
(similar) conspicuous, obvious
3. of major significance or importance; "a great work of art"; "Einstein was one of the outstanding figures of the 20th
century"
(synonym) great
(similar) major
4. owed as a debt; "outstanding bills"; "the amount still owed"; "undischarged debts"
(synonym) owed, owing(p), undischarged
(similar) unpaid

Reading skills-sentences-passage 2

Predecessor (preee-desesor)
With a marked difference from that of his two federalist predecessor
( )
predecessor
noun
a person who held a job or office before the current holder.
a thing that has been followed or replaced by another.
ME: from late L. praedecessor, from L. prae 'beforehand' + decessor 'retiring officer'.
predecessor
noun

the Prime Minister's predecessor: FORERUNNER, precursor, antecedent.


our Victorian predecessors: ANCESTOR, forefather, forebear, antecedent.

successor, descendant.

Inauguration (in-aeration)
Choosing to walk to his inauguration trough the swampy street of the new capital
inaugurate
verb
introduce (a new system, period, etc.). mark the opening of (an institution) with a special event.
admit formally to office.

inauguration noun
inaugurator noun
inauguratory adjective
C16: from L. inaugurat- 'interpreted as omens (from the flight of birds)', based on augurare 'to augur'.
inauguration
Noun
1. the act of starting a new operation or practice; "he opposed the inauguration of fluoridation"; "the startup of the new
factory was delayed by strikes"
(synonym) startup
(hypernym) beginning, start, commencement
(derivation) inaugurate
2. the ceremonial induction into a position; "the new president obviously enjoyed his inauguration"
(synonym) inaugural
(hypernym) initiation, induction, installation
(part-meronym) inaugural address, inaugural
(derivation) inaugurate, kick off

Swampy
Choosing to walk to his inauguration trough the swampy street of the new capital

Ambassador
As an ambassador to france

Wealth
He had witnessed a society of wealth and poverty

wealth
noun
an abundance of valuable possessions or money. the state of being rich.
an abundance or profusion of something desirable: a wealth of information.
archaic well-being.
ME welthe, from well1 or weal2, on the pattern of health.
wealth
noun

a gentleman of wealth: AFFLUENCE, prosperity, riches, means, substance, fortune; money, cash, lucre, capital,
treasure, finance; assets, possessions, resources, funds; property, stock, reserves, securities, holdings; informal
wherewithal, dough, bread.
a wealth of information: ABUNDANCE, profusion, plethora, mine, store, treasury, bounty, cornucopia; informal lot,
load, heap, mass, mountain, stack, ton; Brit. informal shedload; formal plenitude.

Poverty
There ,He had witnessed a society of extreme wealth and extreme poverty

poverty

noun
the state of being extremely poor. the renunciation of the right to individual ownership of property as part of a
religious vow.
the state of being insufficient in amount.
poverty
noun

abject poverty: PENURY, destitution, pauperism, pauperdom, indigence, pennilessness, impoverishment, neediness,
need, hardship, impecuniousness.
the poverty of choice: SCARCITY, deficiency, dearth, shortage, paucity, insufficiency, absence, lack.
the poverty of her imagination: INFERIORITY, mediocrity, poorness, sterility.

Pursuit
That society would not be able to offer the bulk of its citizen the life, liberty and pursuit of happiness.

:
:
:
pursuit
noun
the action of pursuing.
a recreational or sporting activity.
a cycling race in which competitors set off from different parts of a track and attempt to overtake one another.
ME: from Anglo-Norman Fr. purseute 'following after', from pursuer (see pursue).
pursuit
noun

the pursuit of profit: STRIVING TOWARDS, quest after/for, search for; aim, goal, objective, dream.
a worthwhile pursuit: ACTIVITY, hobby, pastime, diversion, recreation, relaxation, divertissement, amusement;

occupation, trade, vocation, business, work, job, employment.

Squalid
He was opposed to .., having witnessed the squalid working and living condition

squalid
adjective
extremely dirty and unpleasant.
showing a contemptible lack of moral standards: a squalid attempt to buy votes.
squalidly adverb
squalidness noun
C16: from L. squalidus, from squalere 'be rough or dirty'.
squalid

adjective

a squalid prison: DIRTY, filthy, grubby, grimy, mucky, slummy, foul, vile, poor, sorry, wretched, miserable, mean,
seedy, shabby, sordid, insalubrious; NEGLECTED, uncared-for, broken-down, run down, down at heel, depressed,
dilapidated, ramshackle, tumbledown, gone to rack and ruin, crumbling, decaying; informal scruffy, crummy, shambly,
ratty; Brit. informal grotty; N. Amer. informal shacky.
a squalid deal with the opposition: IMPROPER, sordid, unseemly, unsavoury, sleazy, seedy, seamy, shoddy, cheap,
base, low, corrupt, dishonest, dishonourable, disreputable, despicable, discreditable, disgraceful, contemptible, shameful;
informal sleazoid.
clean, pleasant, smart, upmarket, proper, decent.

Toil
Difficult lives of the masses who toils in factories

toil
verb work extremely hard or incessantly. move slowly and with difficulty.
noun hard physical work.
toiler noun
ME: from Anglo-Norman Fr. toiler 'strive, dispute', toil 'confusion', from L. tudiculare 'stir about', from tudicula 'machine
for crushing olives', related to tundere 'crush'.
toil
verb

she toiled all night: WORK HARD, labour, exert oneself, slave (away), grind away, strive, work one's fingers to the
bone, work like a Trojan/slave, keep one's nose to the grindstone; informal slog away, plug away, peg away, beaver
away, work one's guts out, work one's socks off, sweat blood; Brit. informal graft; poetic/literary travail; archaic moil.
she began to toil up the cliff path: STRUGGLE, trudge, tramp, traipse, slog, plod, trek, footslog, drag oneself; Brit.
informal yomp; N. Amer. informal schlep.
rest, relax.
noun a life of toil: HARD WORK, labour, exertion, slaving, drudgery, effort, industry, {blood, sweat, and tears};
informal slog, elbow grease; Brit. informal graft; poetic/literary travail; archaic moil.

Rural
He pictured a nation of small family farms together in rural communities

rural
adjective in, relating to, or characteristic of the countryside rather than the town.
ruralism noun
ruralist noun
rurality noun
ruralization or ruralisation noun
ruralize or ruralise verb
rurally adverb
rural


:
:

adjective COUNTRY, countryside, bucolic, rustic, pastoral; agricultural, agrarian; poetic/literary sylvan, georgic.
urban.

Pessimistic (pezi-miistik)
This influential essay was a pessimistic warning of the effect of an imminent population explosion

pessimism
noun
lack of hope or confidence in the future.
Philosophy a belief that this world is as bad as it could be or that evil will ultimately prevail over good.
pessimist noun
pessimistic adjective
pessimistically adverb
C18: from L. pessimus 'worst', on the pattern of optimism.
pessimistic
adjective GLOOMY, negative, defeatist, downbeat, cynical, bleak, fatalistic, dark, black, despairing, despondent,
depressed, hopeless; suspicious, distrustful, doubting.

optimistic.
Oxford University Press 1995, 2002

WordNet 2.0

pessimistic
Adjective
1. expecting the worst in this worst of all possible worlds
(antonym) optimistic
(similar) bearish
(see-also) hopeless

Imminent ((adjective))

:
:

Agrarian
His vision was to institute an expanded agrarian republic composed of self governing..
agrarian
adjective relating to cultivated land or agriculture. relating to landed property.
noun a person who advocates a redistribution of landed property.
C17: from L. agrarius, from ager, agr- 'field'.
agrarian

adjective AGRICULTURAL, rural, rustic, pastoral, countryside, farming; poetic/literary georgic, sylvan, Arcadian,
agrestic.

Tremendously (tri-meeendesly)

tremendous
adjective
very great in amount, scale, or intensity.
informal extremely good or impressive; excellent.
archaic inspiring awe or dread.

Army and navy--------------------------------------------------------------

Book
Pages 37
Pop
One method of popping corn.


:
:

Skewer(N&V)
One method of popping corn involved skewering an ear of corn.

Roast
One method of popping corn involved skewering an ear of corn on a stick and roasting it

:

Legendary (leeeendery)
According to legendary description .

pilgrim
The pilgrims at Plymouth may have been introduced to popcorn

Conceal
It is up to this concealed female to choose the weakest member

:
conceal
verb not allow to be seen; hide. keep secret; prevent from being known.
concealment noun
conceal
verb

clouds concealed the sun: HIDE, screen, cover, obscure, block out, blot out, mask, shroud, secrete.
he concealed his true feelings: HIDE, cover up, disguise, mask, veil; keep secret, keep dark, draw a veil over;
suppress, repress, bottle up; informal keep a/the lid on, keep under one's hat.
reveal, confess.

Pages 38
Spot
When prey is spotted, a group of lionesses advances on the herd .
]"


:
:
:
:
:
spot
noun
a small round or roundish mark, differing in colour or texture from the surface around it. chiefly N. Amer. a pip on
a domino, playing card, or dice. short for penalty spot.
a pimple.
a particular place, point, or position. a small feature or part with a particular quality: his bald spot. a place for an
individual item within a show.
informal, chiefly Brit. a small amount of something: a spot of lunch.
[as modifier] denoting a system of trading in which commodities or currencies are delivered and paid for
immediately after a sale.
(also spot board) a board for working plaster before application.
[in combination] informal, chiefly N. Amer. a banknote of a specified value.
verb (spots, spotting, spotted)
see, notice, or recognize (someone or something difficult to detect or sought-after). Military locate an enemy's

position, typically from the air. (in weight training, gymnastics, etc.) observe (a performer) in order to minimize the risk
of accidents or injuries.
mark or become marked with spots.
(it spots, it is spotting, etc.) rain slightly.
place (a ball) on its designated starting point on a billiard table.
N. Amer. informal give or lend (money) to. allow (an advantage) to (someone) in a game or sport.
hit the spot informal be exactly what is required.
in a spot informal in a difficult situation.
on the spot
immediately.
at the scene of an action or event.
Brit. (of an action) performed without moving from one's original position.
put someone on the spot informal force someone into a situation in which they must respond or act.
spot on Brit. informal completely accurate or accurately.
spotted adjective
spottedness noun
spot
noun

a grease spot on the wall: MARK, patch, dot, fleck, smudge, smear, stain, blotch, blot, splash; informal splotch,

splodge.

a spot on his nose: PIMPLE, pustule, blackhead, boil, swelling, eruption, wen, sty; (spots) acne; technical comedo,
papule; informal zit, whitehead; Scottish informal plook.
a secluded spot: PLACE, location, site, position, point, situation, scene, setting, locale, locality, area, neighbourhood,
region; venue; technical locus.
social policy has a regular spot on the agenda: POSITION, place, slot, space.
a spot to eat or drink: BIT, little, some, small amount, morsel, bite, mouthful; drop, splash; informal smidgen, tad.
(informal) in a tight spot: PREDICAMENT, mess, difficulty, trouble, plight, corner, quandary, dilemma; informal fix,
jam, hole, sticky situation, pickle, scrape, hot water.
verb

she spotted him in his car: NOTICE, see, observe, note, discern, detect, perceive, make out, recognize, identify,
locate; catch sight of, glimpse; Brit. informal clock; poetic/literary behold, espy.
her clothes were spotted with grease: STAIN, mark, fleck, speckle, smudge, streak, splash, spatter; informal splotch,
splodge.
it was spotting with rain: RAIN LIGHTLY, drizzle; Brit. spit; N. English mizzle; N. Amer. sprinkle.

on the spot IMMEDIATELY, at once, straight away, right away, without delay, without hesitation, that instant, directly,
there and then, then and there, forthwith, instantly, summarily; N. Amer. in short order; archaic straightway, instanter.
spot on (Brit. informal) ACCURATE, correct, right, perfect, exact, unerring; Brit. informal bang on; N. Amer. informal
on the money, on the nose.

Pages 39
Leotard
Two possible examples of this concept are the leotard and Popsicle
) (

Popsicle
Two possible examples of this concept are the leotard and Popsicle
noun N. Amer. trademark an ice lolly.

Prospect
Nelson Hower was faced with the prospect of missing his performance because his costume was at the
cleaners.

:
prospect
noun
the possibility or likelihood of some future event occurring. a mental picture of a future or anticipated event.
(prospects) chances or opportunities for success.
a person regarded as a potential customer or as likely to be successful.
an extensive view of landscape.
a place likely to yield mineral deposits.
verb search for mineral deposits, especially by means of drilling and excavation.
prospectless adjective
prospector noun
ME: from L. prospectus 'view', from prospicere 'look forward'.
prospect
noun

there is little prospect of success: LIKELIHOOD, hope, expectation, anticipation, (good/poor) chance, odds,
probability, possibility, promise, lookout; fear, danger.
her job prospects: POSSIBILITIES, potential, promise, expectations, outlook.
a daunting prospect: VISION, thought, idea; task, undertaking.
Jimmy is an exciting prospect: CANDIDATE, possibility; informal catch.
there is a pleasant prospect from the lounge: VIEW, vista, outlook, perspective, panorama, aspect, scene; picture,
spectacle, sight.
verb they are prospecting for oil: SEARCH, look, explore, survey, scout, hunt, reconnoitre, examine, inspect.

in prospect EXPECTED, likely, coming soon, on the way, to come, at hand, near, imminent, in the offing, in store, on
the horizon, just around the corner, in the air, in the wind, brewing, looming; informal on the cards.

Costume
Nelson Hower was faced with the prospect of missing his performance because his costume was at the
cleaners.

Stir up

Porch
He stirred up a drink .. left the drink, with the spoon in it, out on the back porch overnight

:

Treat
.. creating a tasty treat


:

Pages 41

Profound
He introduced a powerful style writing that had a profound influence on the writers that followed him

adjective (profounder, profoundest)
very great or intense: profound social changes. (of a disease or disability) severe.
showing great knowledge or insight. demanding deep study or thought.
archaic very deep.
profoundly adverb
profoundness noun
ME: from OFr. profund, from L. profundus 'deep', from L. pro 'before' + fundus 'bottom'.
profound
adjective

profound relief: HEARTFELT, intense, keen, great, extreme, acute, severe, sincere, earnest, deep, deep-seated,
overpowering, overwhelming, fervent, ardent.
profound silence: COMPLETE, utter, total, absolute.
a profound change: FAR-REACHING, radical, extensive, sweeping, exhaustive, thoroughgoing.
a profound analysis: WISE, learned, clever, intelligent, scholarly, sage, erudite, discerning, penetrating, perceptive,
astute, thoughtful, insightful, percipient, perspicacious; formal sapient.
profound truths: COMPLEX, abstract, deep, weighty, difficult, abstruse, recondite, esoteric.
superficial, mild, slight, simple.

Fictional
Theodore Dreiser created a fictional account that laid bare the harsh reality of life in the big city
)fictive (
fiction
noun
prose literature, especially novels, describing imaginary events and people.
a thing that is invented or untrue. a false belief or statement, accepted as true because it is expedient to do so.
fictional adjective
fictionality noun
fictionalization or fictionalisation noun
fictionalize or fictionalise verb
fictionally adverb

fictionist noun
ME: via OFr. from L. fictio(n-), from fingere 'form, contrive'; cf. feign and figment.
fictional
adjective FICTITIOUS, invented, imaginary, made up, make-believe, unreal, fabricated, mythical.

real.

Genre
and in which Dreiser established himself as the architect of a new genre

Fortune
a large family whose fortunes had in the recent pass taken a dramatic turn for the worse

:
:

Thrust
The family was rather abruptly thrust into poverty
) (

:
:
:
:
:
thrust
verb (past and past participle thrust)
push suddenly or violently in the specified direction.
(of a thing) extend so as to project conspicuously.
(thrust something on/upon) impose something unwelcome on.
noun
a sudden or violent lunge or attack.
the principal purpose or theme of a course of action or line of reasoning: anti-Americanism became the main thrust
of their policy.
the propulsive force of a jet or rocket engine. the lateral pressure exerted by an arch or other support in a
building.
(also thrust fault) Geology a reverse fault of low angle, with older strata displaced horizontally over newer.
ME: from ON thrsta; perh. related to L. trudere 'to thrust'.
thrust
verb

she thrust her hands into her pockets: SHOVE, push, force, plunge, stick, drive, propel, ram, poke.
fame had been thrust on him: FORCE, foist, impose, inflict.
he thrust his way past her: PUSH, shove, force, elbow, shoulder, barge.

noun

a hard thrust: SHOVE, push, lunge, poke.


a thrust by the Third Army: ADVANCE, push, drive, attack, assault, onslaught, offensive, charge, sortie, foray, raid,

sally, invasion, incursion.

only one engine is producing thrust: FORCE, propulsive force, propulsion, power, impetus, momentum.
the thrust of the speech: GIST, substance, drift, burden, meaning, significance, signification, sense, theme,

message, import, tenor.

Yearn
He returned to Chicago yearning for the glamour and excitement that is offered

Glamour
He returned to Chicago yearning for the glamour and excitement that is offered
)glamor (
glamour
(US also glamor)
noun
an attractive and exciting quality, especially sexual allure. [as modifier] denoting or relating to erotic or mildly
pornographic photography or publications.
archaic enchantment; magic.
C18: alt. of grammar, with ref. to the occult practices assoc. with learning in medieval times: see word history
at grammar.
glamour
noun

she had undeniable glamour: BEAUTY, allure, attractiveness; elegance, chic, style; charisma, charm, magnetism,

desirability.

the glamour of show business: ALLURE, attraction, fascination, charm, magic, romance, mystique, exoticism, spell;
excitement, thrill; glitter, the bright lights; informal glitz, glam.

Seamy
In his work as a reporter, he was witness to the seamier side of life

seamy
adjective (seamier, seamiest) sordid and disreputable.
seaminess noun
seamy
adjective SORDID, disreputable, seedy, sleazy, squalid, insalubrious, unwholesome, unsavoury, rough, unpleasant.
SORDID:

Befall
He was responsible for recording events that befell the less fortunate in the city.

befall
verb (past befell; past participle befallen) literary (especially of something bad) happen to.
OE befeallan 'to fall'.
befall
verb (poetic/literary)

the same fate befell him: HAPPEN TO, overtake, come upon, be visited on.

tell us what befell: HAPPEN, occur, take place, come about, transpire, materialize; ensue, follow, result; N. Amer.
informal go down; poetic/literary come to pass, betide; formal eventuate.

Depict
He wrote a novel that would accurately depict the harsh life of the city
) (
depict
verb represent by a drawing, painting, or other art form. portray in words.
depicter noun
depiction noun
depictive adjective
ME: from L. depict-, depingere, from de- 'completely' + pingere 'to paint'.
depict
verb

the painting depicts the Last Supper : PORTRAY, represent, picture, illustrate, delineate, reproduce, render; draw,

paint.

the process depicted by Darwin's theory: DESCRIBE, detail, relate; present, set forth, set out, outline, delineate;

represent, portray, characterize.

Chronicle (kraaanikl)
This novel chronicles the life of Carrie Meeber

Manipulate

:
manipulate
verb
handle or control with dexterity.
examine or treat (a part of the body) by feeling or moving it with the hand.
control or influence cleverly or unscrupulously.
alter or present (data) so as to mislead.
manipulability noun
manipulable adjective
manipulatable adjective
manipulation noun
manipulator noun
manipulatory adjective
C19: back-form. from earlier manipulation (C18), from L. manipulus 'handful'.
manipulate
verb

he manipulated some knobs and levers: OPERATE, work; turn, pull.


she manipulated the muscles of his back: MASSAGE, rub, knead, feel, palpate.

the government tried to manipulate the situation: CONTROL, influence, use/turn to one's advantage, exploit,
manoeuvre, engineer, steer, direct; twist someone round one's little finger.
they accused him of manipulating the data: FALSIFY, rig, distort, alter, change, doctor, massage, juggle, tamper
with, tinker with, interfere with, misrepresent; informal cook, fiddle.

Dismal
The novel was dismal failure

dismal
adjective
causing or showing gloom or depression; dreary.
informal pitifully or disgracefully bad: a dismal performance.
the dismal science humorous economics.
dismally adverb
dismalness noun
ME: from earlier dismals, the two days in each month which in medieval times were believed to be unlucky, from AngloNorman Fr. dis mal, from med. L. dies mali 'evil days'.
dismal
adjective

a dismal look: GLOOMY, glum, melancholy, morose, doleful, woebegone, forlorn, dejected, depressed, dispirited,
downcast, despondent, disconsolate, miserable, sad, unhappy, sorrowful, desolate, wretched; informal blue, fed up, down
in the dumps/mouth; poetic/literary dolorous.
a dismal hall: DINGY, dim, dark, gloomy, dreary, drab, dull, bleak, cheerless, depressing, uninviting, unwelcoming.
(informal) a dismal performance.: See poor sense 2.
cheerful, bright.

Stricken
He was depressed, stricken with severe headaches

Suicide
Having sunk to a point where he was considering suicide, he was sent by his brother..

:
:

sanitarium
=)sanatorium (

Peril
The power of description of the perils of urban life

:

urban

urban


:
:
:
:
:

adjective TOWN, city, municipal, metropolitan, built-up, inner-city, suburban.

rural.

Lust (lst) ( in Q No. 6)



:
:
lust
noun strong sexual desire. a passionate desire for something. chiefly Theology a sensuous appetite regarded as
sinful.
verb (usu. lust for/after) feel lust for someone or something.
OE, of Gmc origin.
lust
noun

his lust for her: SEXUAL DESIRE, sexual appetite, sexual longing, ardour, desire, passion; libido, sex drive, sexuality,
biological urge; lechery, lecherousness, lasciviousness; informal horniness, the hots; Brit. informal randiness.
a lust for power: GREED, desire, craving, covetousness, eagerness, avidity, cupidity, longing, yearning, hunger,
thirst, appetite, hankering.
dread, aversion.
verb

he lusted after his employer's wife: DESIRE, be consumed with desire for, find sexually attractive, crave, covet, ache
for, burn for, pant for; informal have the hots for, lech after/over, fancy, have a thing about/for, drool over, have the
horn for.
she lusted after adventure: CRAVE, desire, covet, want, wish for, long for, yearn for, dream of, hanker for, hanker
after, hunger for, thirst for, ache for.
dread, avoid.

Stardom (Q no.6)
From a low level job to stardom

Stark (Q no. 7)
These changes were intended to tone down some of the starker and more scandalous description
) (

stark
adjective
severe or bare in appearance.
unpleasantly or sharply clear.
complete; sheer: stark terror.
rare naked.
archaic or literary rigid or incapable of movement. physically strong.
stark naked completely naked.
stark raving (or staring) mad informal completely mad.
starkly adverb
starkness noun
OE stearc 'unyielding, severe', of Gmc origin.
stark
adjective

a stark silhouette: SHARP, sharply defined, well focused, crisp, distinct, obvious, evident, clear, clear-cut, graphic,

striking.

a stark landscape: DESOLATE, bare, barren, arid, vacant, empty, forsaken, godforsaken, bleak, sombre, depressing,
cheerless, joyless; poetic/literary drear.
a stark room: AUSTERE, severe, bleak, plain, simple, bare, unadorned, unembellished, undecorated.
stark terror: SHEER, utter, complete, absolute, total, pure, downright, out-and-out, outright; rank, thorough,
consummate, unqualified, unmitigated, unalloyed.
the stark facts: BLUNT, bald, bare, simple, basic, plain, unvarnished, harsh, grim.
fuzzy, indistinct, pleasant, ornate, disguised.

Scandalous
These changes were intended to tone down some of the starker and more scandalous description

scandal
noun an action or event regarded as morally or legally wrong and causing general public outrage. outrage, rumour,
or gossip arising from this.
scandalous adjective
scandalously adverb
scandalousness noun
ME (in the sense 'discredit to religion'): from OFr. scandale, from eccles. L. scandalum 'cause of offence', from Gk
skandalon 'snare, stumbling block'.
scandalous
adjective

a scandalous waste of taxpayers' money: DISGRACEFUL, shocking, outrageous, monstrous, criminal, wicked,
shameful, appalling, deplorable, reprehensible, inexcusable, intolerable, insupportable, unforgivable, unpardonable.

a series of scandalous liaisons: DISCREDITABLE, disreputable, dishonourable, improper, unseemly, sordid.


scandalous rumours: SCURRILOUS, malicious, slanderous, libellous, defamatory.

Page 47
Emanate
They are believed in reality to emanate from spinning neutron stars

:
emanate
verb issue or spread out from a source. give out or emit.
C18 (earlier (C16) as emanation): from L. emanat-, emanare 'flow out'.
emanate
verb

warmth emanated from the fireplace: ISSUE, spread, radiate, be sent forth/out.
the proposals emanated from a committee: ORIGINATE, stem, derive, proceed, spring, issue, emerge, flow, come.
he emanated an air of power: EXUDE, emit, radiate, give off/out, send out/forth.

emanate
Verb
1. proceed or issue forth, as from a source; "Water emanates from this hole in the ground"
(hypernym) come, come up
(hyponym) flow out, effuse
(derivation) emanation
2. give out (breath or an odor); "The chimney exhales a thick smoke"
(synonym) exhale, give forth
(hypernym) emit, breathe, pass off
(derivation) emanation

Celestial(elachal)
Unlike other radio signals from celestial object


:
:

Engage
Astronomers engaged in debates over pulsars nature.


:
:
:
engage
verb
attract or involve (someone's interest or attention).
employ or hire. enter into a contract to do.
(engage in/with) participate or become involved in.
(with reference to a part of a machine or engine) move into position so as to come into operation.
enter into combat with. (of fencers or swordsmen) bring (weapons) together preparatory to fighting.

ME (orig. in the sense 'pawn or pledge something'): from Fr. engager, ult. from the base of gage1.
x
engag
adjective (of a writer or artist) morally committed to a particular cause.
Fr., past participle of engager (see engage).
engage
verb

tasks which engage children's interest: CAPTURE, catch, arrest, grab, draw, attract, gain, win, hold, grip, captivate,

engross, absorb, occupy.

he engaged a nursemaid: EMPLOY, hire, recruit, take on, secure the services of, put on the payroll, enrol, appoint.
(dated) she engaged a room in the boarding house: BOOK, reserve; rent, hire; formal bespeak.
he engaged to pay them 10,000: CONTRACT, promise, agree, pledge, vow, covenant, commit oneself, bind

oneself, undertake, enter into an agreement.

the chance to engage in many social activities: PARTICIPATE IN, take part in, join in, become involved in, go in for,
partake in/of, share in, play a part/role in; have a hand in, be a party to, enter into.
infantry units engaged the enemy: FIGHT, do battle with, wage war on/against, attack, take on, set upon, clash
with, skirmish with; encounter, meet.
lose, dismiss.

dwarf

:
dwarf
noun (plural dwarfs or dwarves)
a member of a mythical race of short, stocky human-like creatures, skilled in mining and metalworking.
an abnormally small person. [as modifier] denoting an animal or plant that is much smaller than is usual for its
type or species.
(also dwarf star) Astronomy a star of relatively small size and low luminosity.
verb cause to seem small in comparison. stunt the growth of.
dwarfish adjective
OE dweorg, dweorh, of Gmc origin.
In the sense an a normally small person, dwarf is normally considered offensive. However, there are no accepted
alternatives in the general language, since terms such as person of restricted growth have gained little currency.
dwarf
noun
PERSON OF RESTRICTED GROWTH, small person, short person; midget, pygmy, manikin, homunculus.
the wizard captured the dwarf: GNOME, goblin, hobgoblin, troll, imp, elf, brownie, leprechaun.
adjective dwarf conifers: MINIATURE, small, little, tiny, toy, pocket, diminutive, baby, pygmy, stunted, undersized,
undersize; Scottish wee; informal mini, teeny, teeny-weeny, itsy-bitsy, tiddly, pint-sized; Brit. informal titchy; N. Amer.
informal little-bitty.

giant.
verb

the buildings dwarf the trees: DOMINATE, tower over, loom over, overshadow, overtop.
her progress was dwarfed by her sister's success: OVERSHADOW, outshine, surpass, exceed, outclass, outstrip,

outdo, top, trump, transcend; diminish, minimize.


dwarf
Noun
1. a person who is abnormally small
(synonym) midget, nanus
(hypernym) small person
(hyponym) primordial dwarf, hypoplastic dwarf, true dwarf, normal dwarf
2. a legendary creature resembling a tiny old man; lives in the depths of the earth and guards buried treasure
(synonym) gnome
(hypernym) fairy, faery, faerie, sprite
(hyponym) Nibelung
Verb
1. make appear small by comparison; "This year's debt dwarves that of last year"
(synonym) shadow, overshadow
(hypernym) dominate, command, overlook, overtop
(derivation) midget, nanus
2. check the growth of; "the lack of sunlight dwarfed these pines"
(hypernym) stunt
(derivation) midget, nanus

Listening
Book
Page 128
meteorology

:

centripetal

:
:

Page 129
comet

Page 130
sticker

Page 132
custom
( )
:
:
:

prop
)(
:
:
props
prop1

noun
a pole or beam used as a temporary support.
a major source of support or assistance.
(also prop forward) Rugby a forward at either end of the front row of a scrum.
chiefly Austral. a sudden stop made by a horse moving at speed.
verb (props, propping, propped)
support with or as with a prop. lean against something else.
(prop someone/thing up) support or assist someone or something that would otherwise fail or decline.
chiefly Austral. (of a horse) come to a dead stop with the forelegs rigid.
ME: prob. from MDu. proppe 'support (for vines)'.
x
prop2
noun
a portable object used on the set of a play or film.
(props) [treated as sing.] informal, dated a property man or mistress.
C19: abbrev. of property.
x
prop3
noun informal an aircraft propeller.
x
prop.
abbreviation
proposition.
proprietor.
prop
noun

the roof is held up by props: POLE, post, support, upright, brace, buttress, stay, strut, stanchion, shore, pier, pillar,
pile, piling, bolster, truss, column.
a prop for the economy: MAINSTAY, pillar, anchor, backbone, support, foundation, cornerstone.
verb

he propped his bike against the wall: LEAN, rest, stand, balance, steady.

this post is propping the wall up: HOLD UP, shore up, bolster up, buttress, support, brace, underpin.
they prop up loss-making industries: SUBSIDIZE, underwrite, fund, finance.

Humorous
The rules were considered quite humorous by the techers

Page 135
anthropology

:
:

Archer
If their soldier would fight as foot soldier or as archers


:
:

Constellation

:

Big dipper
The test was to count the stars in constellation, the big dipper

Speaking
Book
Page 180
Enroll
=) enrol (
:

enrol
(US enroll)
verb (enrols, enrolling, enrolled)
officially register as a member or student. recruit.
Law, historical enter (a deed or other document) among the rolls of a court of justice.
enrollee noun
enroller noun

ME: from OFr. enroller, from en- 'in' + rolle 'a roll' (names being orig. written on a roll of parchment).
Oxford University Press, 2004

unanimous (unanimus)

:

Supplement

:
:
:
:
supplement
noun
a thing added to something else to enhance or complete it.
a separate section, especially a colour magazine, added to a newspaper or periodical.
an additional charge payable for an extra service or facility.
Geometry the amount by which a given angle is less than 180.
verb provide a supplement for.
supplemental adjective
supplementally adverb
supplementation noun
ME: from L. supplementum, from supplere (see supply1).
supplement
noun

a mouse is a keyboard supplement: ADDITION, supplementation, supplementary, extra, add-on, accessory, adjunct,
appendage; Computing peripheral.
a single room supplement: SURCHARGE, addition, increase.
a supplement to the essay: APPENDIX, addendum, end matter, tailpiece, codicil, postscript, addition, coda.
a special supplement with today's paper: PULL-OUT, insert, extra section.
verb they supplemented their incomes by spinning : AUGMENT, increase, add to, boost, swell, amplify, enlarge, top up.

Listening
Book
Page 141
Transcript

CD

listening skills-(vocabulary and reference-passage 1)


fort
what is the name of the major fort in area?

:

fort
noun a fortified building or strategic position.

Notorious
Benedikt Arnold in famous, or actually is notorious.

notorious
adjective famous for some bad quality or deed.

Traitor

traitor
noun BETRAYER, back-stabber, double-crosser, double-dealer, renegade, Judas, quisling, fifth columnist; turncoat,
defector, deserter; collaborator, informer, double agent; informal snake in the grass, two-timer.

Fortification
)(
:
fortification
noun a defensive wall or other reinforcement built to fortify a place. the action of fortifying or process of being
fortified.

fortification
noun RAMPART, wall, defence, bulwark, palisade, stockade, redoubt, earthwork, bastion, parapet, barricade.

Treason

:
:

treason

noun
(also high treason) the crime of betraying one's country, especially by attempting to kill or overthrow the
sovereign or government.
(petty treason) historical the crime of murdering a master or husband.
treasonous adjective
ME: from Anglo-Norman Fr. treisoun, from L. traditio(n-), from tradere 'hand over'.
treason
noun TREACHERY, lese-majesty; disloyalty, betrayal, faithlessness; sedition, subversion, mutiny, rebellion; high
treason; poetic/literary perfidy.
allegiance, loyalty.

Book
Page 239
Millennium
noun (plural millennia -n or millenniums)
a period of a thousand years, especially when calculated from the traditional date of the birth of
Christ. (the millennium) Christian Theology the prophesied thousand-year reign of Christ at the
end of the age (Rev. 20:15). a utopian period.
an anniversary of a thousand years.

Gender
.) (

Cannibal

Submissive
==[too willing to do what you are told to do]{submissive yes-man servile subservient slavish compliant
blind obedience lackey}

Page 242
Ice skate
noun a boot with a blade attached to the sole, used for skating on ice.
verb (ice-skate) skate on ice as a sport or pastime.

Drift
..
==snow/sand if snow, sand etc drifts, the wind blows it into large piles

Page 584
Pat
pat2

adjective simple and somewhat glib or unconvincing: a pat answer.


adverb conveniently or opportunely.
==a pat answer or explanation seems too quick and too simple and sounds as if it has been used
before:

There are no pat answers to these questions.

Neat

Hippopotamus
.) .(

Speaking-page 207
Villain

Tally

Attribute

) (

Speaking page 578


Polling

:

Guise

Pollster

Surreptitious (ADJ)

S-page 214
Content ( N & V & ADJ )

Anguish

anguish
noun severe mental or physical pain or suffering.
verb be very distressed.
anguish
noun AGONY, pain, torment, torture, suffering, distress, angst, misery, sorrow, grief, heartache,
desolation, despair; poetic/literary dolour.
happiness.

CD
MINITEST 2
reading
Patronize (REP)
Augmentation (REP)
Ostentatious (REP)
1
something that is ostentatious looks very expensive and is designed to make people think that its owner
must be very rich:

Intellectual

Intellect

Unheralded
adjective not previously announced, expected, or recognized.

Herald

Moneyed

Grandiose

grandiose
adjective
impressive or magnificent, especially pretentiously so.
conceived on a very ambitious scale.

Arbiter [countable] (N)


1 someone who influences society's opinions about what is stylish, socially acceptable etc:
The designer has received rave reviews from such arbiters of taste
as Elle magazine.

Acclaim

Listening 2
Upbringing

Unprecedented

Unprecedented
adjective never done or known before.
unprecedented
adjective UNPARALLELED, unequalled, unmatched, unrivalled, without parallel, without equal, out
of the ordinary, unusual, exceptional, singular, remarkable, unique; unheard of, unknown, new,
ground-breaking, revolutionary, pioneering; formal unexampled.

Immense

Wistful
==thinking sadly about something you would like to have but cannot have, especially something that you used
to have in the past:
a wistful smile

Reticent

Reading 3
Nonetheless

=nevertheless

Designation

designation

noun the action of giving someone or something a specified name, position, or status. an official
title or description.

Commodity

:

Hierarchical
:

Era
(. ).

Eternity

Scepter

Crown


( )

)Attribute (REP)(V
Zeal
Religious zeal

:

Writing minitest3
Anonymity

Vandalism

Petty
petty crime

fed up
informal
annoyed or bored, and wanting something to change:
She felt tired and a bit fed up.
fed up with
I'm really fed up with this constant rain.

)Mandate (REP
Litter

band together
Verb
"1. form a group or unite; "The groups banded together

Underdog

Bully

MINITEST 5 Reading

Enterprise
noun
a project or undertaking, especially a bold one. bold resourcefulness.
a business or company.
enterpriser noun
enterprise
noun

a joint enterprise: UNDERTAKING, endeavour, venture, exercise, activity, operation, task,


business, proceeding; project, scheme, plan, programme, campaign.
a woman with enterprise: INITIATIVE, resourcefulness, entrepreneurialism, imagination,
ingenuity, inventiveness, originality, creativity; quick-wittedness, native wit, cleverness; enthusiasm,
dynamism, drive, ambition, energy; boldness, daring, courage; informal gumption, get-up-and-go,
oomph.
a profit-making enterprise: BUSINESS, company, firm, venture, organization, operation, concern,
corporation, establishment, partnership; informal outfit, set-up.

Barter
) ( for
:
:
barter
verb (often barter for) exchange (goods or services) for other goods or services.
noun the action or system of bartering.
barterer noun
barter
verb

they bartered grain for salt: TRADE, swap, exchange, sell.


you can barter for souvenirs: HAGGLE, bargain, negotiate, discuss terms, deal, dicker; formal

treat.

noun an economy based on barter: TRADING, trade, exchange, business, commerce, buying and
selling, dealing.

Conglomerate

Agrarian (REP)
Medieval (REP)

Exploratory

Expedition

Ensue

:
ensue
verb (ensues, ensuing, ensued) happen or occur afterwards or as a result.
ensue
verb RESULT, follow, be consequent on, develop, proceed, succeed, emerge, stem, arise, derive,
issue; occur, happen, take place, come next/after, transpire, supervene; formal eventuate;
poetic/literary come to pass, befall.

Myriad (N&ADJ)

Manorial

manor
noun Brit.
a large country house with lands.
chiefly historical (especially in England and Wales) a unit of land, originally a feudal lordship,
consisting of a lord's demesne and lands rented to tenants.
informal one's home territory or area of operation.

Lease (N&V)
) ( out
:
lease
noun a 15-year lease: LEASEHOLD, rental/hire agreement, charter; rental,
tenancy, tenure, period of occupancy.

Peasantry
peasant
noun
a poor smallholder or agricultural labourer of low social status.
informal an ignorant, rude, or unsophisticated person.

Charter


:

Monopolistic

Grant



grant
verb

he granted them leave of absence: ALLOW, accord, permit, afford, vouchsafe.


he granted them 20,000: GIVE, award, bestow on, confer on, present with, provide with,

endow with, supply with.

I grant that the difference is not absolute: ADMIT, accept, concede, yield, allow, appreciate,

recognize, acknowledge, confess; agree.


refuse, deny.

Incur
( ) ( )

Recur
Occur
Inaugurate

inaugurate
verb

he inaugurated a new policy: INITIATE, begin, start, institute, launch, start off, get going, get
under way, establish, lay the foundations of; bring in, usher in; informal kick off.
the new President will be inaugurated: ADMIT TO OFFICE, install, instate, swear in; invest,
ordain, crown.

the museum was inaugurated in September: OPEN, declare open, unveil; dedicate, consecrate;
N. Amer. hansel.

Mini test 6
Fade
=decline

Decree

)(

Rite

rite

noun
a religious or other solemn ceremony or act.
a body of customary observances characteristic of a Church or a part of it.
rite
noun CEREMONY, ritual, ceremonial; service, sacrament, liturgy, worship, office; act, practice,
custom, tradition, convention, institution, procedure.

Bestow
upon)on (
:

bestow
verb
confer (an honour, right, or gift).
archaic put (something) in a specified place.
bestow

verb CONFER ON, grant, accord, afford, endow someone with, vest in, present, award, give,
donate, entrust with, vouchsafe.

Complete test 1-R1


Inclement formal
=inclement weather is unpleasantly cold, wet etc

Imminent

A sign of imminent inclement weather

Roost

Porpoise
.) .(

Frenzied

:

Scurry

Ants scurry around more frantically

Frantically

Burrow
( ).
:

Incessantly

Harbinger

Bray

R2
Extant
( ). ( )

Glean

R3
Donate

Detract

Latitude