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Differences Between Debate and Seminar DEBATE

Begins with the assumption of right and wrong positions; important to defend the rightness of a position. ombative in nature! ob"ective to win.

No assumption of absolute right and wrong; each participant may have some element of truth that collectively contributes to everyones understanding. ooperative in nature! ob"ective to wor# together to understand and e$plore material. %isten critically to develop understanding and meaning; loo# for insight in others ideas; e$amine both strengths and wea#nesses. &ncourage everyones participation; draw out reluctant participants. &$plore assumptions. Support and build upon others ideas; loo#ing for strengths in others ideas can advance your own. &$plore many different facets of the material; new ideas and perspectives are desirable. See#s to have everyone see things differently than before.

%isten to find flaws in opponents arguments; focus only on wea#nesses and flaws in opponents position; never ac#nowledge strengths. Silence others with the strength of your arguments and personality. Defend assumptions. 'ttac# others ideas; e$ploit wea#nesses

onceal information which does not fit your position; ignore ideas which do not support your position. See#s a conclusion that is e$actly the same as your original position.

(his class re)uires students to discuss ideas formally in seminars and informally in class discussions and presentations. *ne of the advantages of advance classes is having the opportunity of meaningful interactions with your peers and teachers. onversation is a s#ill! and li#e any s#ill! has various components that need to be practiced. +nderstand )uestions by e$amining the premises upon which the idea is based. Empirical questions , issues of fact. (hese )uestions are based upon premises that are factual in nature and can be resolved as either right or wrong by e$amination of the actual facts of the matter. -or e$ample! the following statement is based upon an empirical premise , Capital punishment should exist because it deters crime Do places without capital punishment have more crime than places that do. areful scientific research could /theoretical0 resolve this )uestion as either true or false. !alue questions " issues of fundamental belief. (hese )uestions are based upon premises that are sub"ective not ob"ective. 1hile value premises can not be proven right or wrong! they can be e$amined! )uestioned! and weighed against other values. -or e$ample! the following statement is based upon a value premise , The atomic bomb should not have been dropped on #apan in $%&' because innocent lives (ere lost 1hat e$actly defines innocent lives. Do you accept that as a valid premise. 're there other values of e)ual or greater importance that could lead someone to another conclusion. -hrases to Avoid. )inds o* Reasonin+ &veryone has their own opinion 3t doesnt matter2people will do what they want to anyway 2 Be aware of your thin#ing process. 3 dont #now why! 3 "ust #now that it is true 2 Deductive , specific to general. 7ow would you feel if it was you . . . 2 3nductive , general to specific. E**ective Classroom Discussions -or most of your life you will be e$pected to articulate your ideas! far more often than you will be e$pected to write or be tested on your ideas. Debates e$pect participants to win! seminars and discussions are designed to e$plore and develop ideas. Some Basic ,round Rules and Su++estions 4 onsider class discussions important. 4 5repare for seminars li#e you would a test. 4 (a#e notes during discussions and seminars. 4 %isten to others! as# clarification )uestions. 4 +se peoples names and tal# to everyone! not "ust the teacher. 4 Do not ta#e disagreement personally. 4 Be prepared to disagree with people but critici6e the idea not the person 4 7ave an open mind! be prepared to see an idea in a new light. 4 Spea# loudly and clearly! avoid slang and bad grammar. 4 Be as interested in what others have to say as you are in your own ideas.
8a#e the distinction of what should be true! and what actually is true9

Seminar Notes
'll answers should be as specific as possible! and unless otherwise stated! given from the point of view from the author. -ull credit will be awarded for direct use of the primary source. +S& D3:& ( ;+*(&S -:*8 (7& 5:38':< 8'(&:3'%.
$$ A Model o* Christian Charit/ =ohn 1inthrop

'. Select > )uotes from the reading and in a paragraph for each! e$plain
why these )uotes capture the essence of this document. B. Select ? of the below. &ach should be e$plained and supported with the ideas of the author. @. 1hat does 1inthrop say about the ine)uality of man#ind. 1hat are the conse)uences. >. 1hat role do "ustice and mercy play in society. A. 1hat is the double law and how does it apply to New &ngland. ?. 1hat is the responsibility of the individual to the community. 1hat is the responsibility of the community to Bod. 5. 1hat is the covenant. C. 1hat does 1inthrop mean when he describes the ity on the 7ill. 7. 1hat principle/s0 do all three documents have in common.

A Model o* Christian Charit/

=ohn 1inthrop @CAD

' 8*D&% 7&:&*Bod 'lmighty in 7is most holy and wise providence! hath so disposed of the condition of man#ind! as in all times some must be rich! some poor! some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in sub"ection. (7& :&'S*N 7&:&*-irst! to hold conformity with the rest of 7is wor#s! being delighted to show forth the glory of 7is wisdom in the variety and difference of the creatures; and the glory of 7is power! in ordering all these differences for the preservation and good of the whole; and the glory of 7is greatness! that as it is the glory of princes to have many officers! so this great Eing will have many stewards! counting 7imself more honored in dispensing 7is gifts to man by man than if 7e did it by 7is own immediate hands. Secondly! that 7e might have the more occasion to manifest the wor# of 7is Spirit first upon the wic#ed in moderating and restraining them! so that the rich and mighty should not eat up the poor! nor the poor and despised rise up against their superiors and sha#e off their yo#e; secondly in the regenerate! in e$ercising 7is graces! in them! as in the great ones! their love! mercy! gentleness! temperance! etc.! in the poor and interior sort! their faith! patience! obedience! etc. (hirdly! that every man might have need of other! and from hence they might be all #nit more nearly together in the bonds of brotherly affection. -rom hence it appears plainly that no man is made more honorable than another or more wealthy! etc.! out of any particular and singular respect to himself! but for the glory of his creator and the common good of the creature! man. (here are two rules whereby we are to wal# one towards anotherF "ustice and mercy. (hese are always distinguished in their act and in their ob"ect! yet may they both concur in the same sub"ect in each respect; as sometimes there may be an occasion of showing mercy to a rich man in some sudden danger of distress! and also doing of mere "ustice to a poor man in regard of some particular contract! etc. (here is li#ewise a double law by which we are regulated in our conversation one towards another in both the former respectsF the law of nature and the law of grace! or the moral law or the law of the Bospel. By the first of these laws man as he was enabled so withal GisH commanded to love his neighbor as himself. +pon this ground stands all the precepts of the moral law which concerns our dealings with men. (o apply this to the wor#s of mercy! this law re)uires two thingsF first! that every man afford his help to another in every want or distress; secondly! that he performed this out of the same affection which ma#es him careful of his own goods! according to that of our Savior. Do good to all! especially to the household of faithF +pon this ground the 3sraelites were to put a difference between the brethren of such as were strangers though not of anaanites. (hird! the law of nature could give no rules for dealing with enemies! for all are to be considered as friends in the state of innocence! but the Bospel commands love to an enemy. (his law of the Bospel propounds li#ewise a difference of seasons and occasions. (here is a time when a hristian must sell all and give to the poor! as they did in the 'postles times. (here is a time also when a hristian /though they give not all yet0 must

give beyond their ability. %i#ewise community of perils calls for e$traordinary liberality! and so doth community in some special service for the hurch. %astly! when there is no other means whereby our hristian brother may be relieved in his distress! we must help him beyond our ability! rather than tempt Bod in pulling him upon help by miraculous or e$traordinary means. (his duty of mercy is e$ercised in the #inds! giving! lending and forgiving. 1hen Bod gives a special commission 7e loo#s to have it strictly observed in every article. 1hen 7e gave Saul a commission to destroy 'malec#! 7e indented with him upon certain articles! and because he failed in one of the least! and that upon a fair pretense! it lost him the #ingdom which should have been his reward if he had observed his commission. (hus stands the cause between Bod and us. 1e are entered into covenant with 7im for this wor#. 1e have ta#en out a commission! the %ord hath given us leave to draw our own articles. 1e have professed to enterprise these actions! upon these and those ends! we have hereupon besought 7im of favorer and blessing. Now if the %ord shall please to hear us! and bring us in peace to the place we desire! then hath 7e ratified this covenant and scaled our commission! GandH will e$pect a strict performance of the articles contained in it; but if we shall neglect the observation of these articles which are the ends we have propounded! and! dissembling with our Bod! shall fail to embrace this present world and prosecute our carnal intentions! see#ing great things for ourselves and our posterity! the %ord will surely brea# out in wrath against us; be revenged of such a per"ured people and ma#e us #now the price of the breach of such a covenant. Now the only way to avoid this shipwrec#! and to provide for our posterity! is to follow the counsel of 8icah! to do "ustly! to love mercy! to wal# humbly with our Bod. -or this end! we must be #nit together in this wor# as one man. 1e must entertain each other in brotherly affection! we must be willing to abridge ourselves of our superfluities! for the supply of others necessities. 1e must uphold a familiar commerce together in all mee#ness! gentleness! patience and liberality. 1e must delight in each other! ma#e others conditions our own! re"oice together! mourn together! labor and suffer together! always having before our eyes our commission and community in the wor#! our community as members of the same body. So shall we #eep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. (he %ord will be our Bod! and delight to dwell among us as 7is own people! and will command a blessing upon us in all our ways! so that we shall see much more of 7is wisdom! power! goodness and truth! than formerly we have been ac)uainted with. 1e shall find that the Bod of 3srael is among us! when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when 7e shall ma#e us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations! the lord ma#e it li#e that of N&1 &NB%'ND. -or we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. (he eyes of all people are upon us! so that if we shall deal falsely with our Bod in this wor# we have underta#en! and so cause 7im to withdraw 7is present help from us! we shall be made a story and a by2word through the world. 1e shall open the months of enemies to spea# evil of the ways of Bod! and all professors for Bods sa#e. 1e shall shame the faces of many of Bods worthy servants! and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us Itil we be consumed out of the good land whether we are agoing.

1e are commanded this day to love the %ord our Bod! and to love one another! to wal# in 7is ways and to #eep his commandments! that we may live and be multiplied! and that our %ord our Bod may bless us in the land whither we go to possess it But if our hearts shall turn away! so that we will not obey! but shall be seduced! and worship other gods! our pleasures and profits! and serve them; it is propounded onto us this day! we shall surely perish out of the good land whether we pass over this vast sea to possess it.