# INTRODUCTION

CONVERSION OF UNITS Problem : An SO2 concentration is given as 830µg/m3 at 25°C and 1 atm. Express this concentration in parts per million (ppm). Solution : Step 1

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Concentration of SO2 is 830 µg/m3 AT STP conditions (25°C and 1 atm), one mole of gas occupies 24.5 L (V=nRT/P).

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**Molecular Weight of SO2 is 64g/mol
**

concentration(10 µg/m3) x 24.5 L/mol ppm = molecular weight(g/mol) x 1000 (µL/m3*g)

Step 2

Step 3

830 (µg/m3) x 24.5 L/mol ppm = 64 (g/1 mol SO2) x 1000 (µL/m *g)

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= 0.32 ppm

Exercise: Carbon Monoxide concentration at 90°C and 6 atm is 90 µg/m3. Express this concentration in ppm. (0.016 ppm) Problem : The exhaust from a 1981 Honda contains 1.5% by volume of carbon monoxide. Compute the concentration of CO in milligrams/m3 at 25°C and 1 atm of pressure. Solution : Step 1

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1 percent by volume = 104 ppm. 1.5 percent by volume = 1.5*104 ppm. Molecular Weight of CO is 28 g/mol

B. Therefore density of methanol is 0.5 x 104 ppm x 28(g/mol) x 1000 (µg*L/m3*g) concentration (µg/m3) = = 1.5 (L/mol)
Step 3
1.71 x 10 mg/m3
4
Exercise: An exhaust gas containing 3. and Average Molecular Weight BASIC EQUATIONS :
• Density mass : volume
•
Specific gravity
density of a given substance : density of water =
density of a given substance 1 g/cm3
For example Specific gravity of methanol is given as 0.71 x 10 ug/m
7 3
24. Mole Fraction. weight fraction and average molecular weight of all the components in a mixture.36 x 104 mg/m3)
Weight Fraction. of A ) / ( Total Wt.Step 2
ppm x molecular weight(g/mol) x 1000 (µg*L/m3*g) concentration (µg/m3) = 24.91. Problem : Determine the mole fraction. Supposing a mixture has A. 30 lbs of NO2 and 10 lbs of SO2. Wt of A ) Total Wt = Wt(A) + Wt(B) + Wt(C). ) Mole fraction of A = ( Moles of A ) / ( Total moles ) Number of moles of A = ( Wt.) of each gas.
. Total moles = molesA + molesB + molesC.91 multiplied by density of water = 1 g/cm3. Then. if contains 20 lbs of O2. Solution : Step 1 Find the molecular weight(mol. (8.2 percent by volume SO2 is released at 25°C and 1 atm. Weight fraction of A = ( Wt.wt. and C as its components.5 (L/mol) = 1. Compute the concentration in mg/m3. of A ) / ( Mol.

O2 = 20/(20+30+10) = 2/6. 0.. Exercise: For a mixture equal weights of O2 and SO2. of NO2 = 46g/mole.4 moles.wt of B * mole fraction of B) + (mol.436.5 weigh frac. = 32*0. NO2 = 30/60.mol...5 = 0.0 / 651. moles of SO2 = 10 lbs / (64g * 10-3kg/g * 2.1 / 651.
. SO2: 0. moles of NO2 = 30 lbs / (46g * 10-3kg/g * 2.109. Wt.4 + 71 = 651.109 = 41..67 mol frac.2 lb/kg) = 284.5. Wt. Total moles = 284. Step 2 Determine the number of moles of each gas.436 + 46*0. mol. fraction. = 0. = (mol. Step 4 Determine the weight fractions.455. SO2 = 10/60 = 1/6 Step5 Determine the average mol.wt. (O2: 0. = 0.5 weigh frac. mole fraction SO2 = 71. Avg.1. = 1/2 Wt. of mixture.4 / 651. wt. Step 3 Determine mole fractions. average molecular weight: 42. determine the mole fractions and weight fraction of each component and the average molecular weight of the mixture.wt. moles of O2 = 20 lbs / (32g * 10-3kg/g * 2. fraction. fraction. mol.455+64 *0.wt of C * mole fraction of C). Average mol.2 lb/kg) = 296.2 lb/kg) = 71 moles. mole fraction NO2 = 296.3 KPa absolute (760mm of mercury or 2116 lbf/ft2).wt.33 mol frac. It is equal to 101.6 g/mol)
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE Definition Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the liquid surface.858 g/mole.1 + 296. mole fraction O2 = 284. of O2 = 32g/mole. 0.wt. of SO2 = 64g/mole.1 moles.wt of A * mole fraction of A) + (mol.wt.5. mol.

due to gravity *height of liquid column. where.Absolute pressure : Gage pressure + Atmospheric pressure.06. Pabsolute = 101.
Absolute temperatures ( Rankine or Kelvin) are used in the ideal gas law. with 1m height and with a density of 1200 Kg/m3.3 + 11. with 11 meters high and with a density of 1 Kg/m3. Temperature in C + 273 = Temperature in Kelvin. = 1200 Kg/m3 * 9. Problem : Determine the pressure.107 kPa. (Pgauge = 0. T : Absolute temperature. = 1. Exercise: Determine the absolute and gauge pressure exerted at the bottom of the column of liquid.407 kPa) GAS LAW Formula : PV=nRT where.8 m/s2 * 1 m = 11.KPa.wt. Density = P*mol. n = number of moles = (P*V ) / ( R*T). Rewriting ideal gas law in terms of density. we get { q * P / T } a = { q * P / T} s where. exerted at the bottom of the column of liquid.760 = 113.wt. both absolute and gauge.986 cal/gmole-K. Density = mass/volume = n * mol. Solution : Pgage = Density*accel.760 N/m2 Pabsolute = 101.
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q :Volumetric flow rate
. / ( R * T) By combining Boyle's law and Charles law. of gas / Volume. Temperature in F + 460 = Temperature in Rankine.
• • • • •
P: Absolute Pressure V : Volume occupied. n : Number of moles R : Gas law constant.

Solution: Step 1 :
n = 22000 kg x 1000 g x g-mol
. Temperatureact = 700 F = 1160 R.86 L/hr)
Problem : For an SO2 emission of 22000 kg/day and an exhaust gas flow rate of 5. The standard conditions are 70 F and 3000 cfm.absolute and 80°F. (3268.
Problem : Calculate the density of a gas whose molecular weight is 29 at 1 atm.1773 lb/ft3)
Problem : Determine the actual volumetric flow rate in acfm assuming that pressure is constant. Exercise: Calculate the density of the same gas at 3 atm and 212°F (0. density = 1*29/0. qact = qstd*(Tempact / Tempstd).0735 lb/ft3. = 3000*(1160 / 530). Solution : Temperaturestd = 70 F = 530 R. Exercise: Determine the actual volumetric flow rate of the above furnace's releases at 1 atm and 65°F.0 million m3/hr (after the scrubber) measured at 150°C and 1 atm of pressure.wt/RT R = 0. when the actual temperature is 700 F. s : Standard conditions a : Actual conditions. calculate the concentration (ppm) of SO2 in the exhaust gases.• • • •
P : Absolute pressure. Solution : 80 F = 80 + 460 = 560 R density = P * mol. T :Absolute temperature.73*540 = 0. = 6566.73 atm-ft3 /lb mol-R.03 acfm.

0 x 106 m3/hour x 1000L/m3 x 24 hours/1 day) = 1.2 x 1011 L/day
Step 4: For 1 day.day g-mol = 343750 day
kg
64 g
Step 2:
nRT VSO2 = P = 11932037 L/day = 1 atm 343750 (g*mol/day) x 0.1932037 x 107 L
VSO2 Concentration SO2 = Vexhaust gases = 99 ppm = 1. Pstd/Pact is usually equal to 1 as the gas is discharged into the atmosphere. (63 ppm) STACK DISCHARGE VELOCITY Definition : Stack discharge velocity is the velocity at which the exhaust gas from the process is discharged to the atmosphere. Step 1 : Calculate the qactual Formula : qact = qstd * {Tact*Tstd} at constant pressure.1932037 x 107 L x 106 ppm
Exercise: Calculate the concentration of SO2 if the above measurements were made at 400°C and 2. Problem : Determine the stack discharge velocity at 320°F if the standard conditions for the exhaust are 2000 scfm.2 x 1011 L volume of SO2 = 1. Solution: Actual volumetric flow rates are always used to calculate stack discharge velocity. Tact = 320 + 460 = 780 R Tstd = 60 + 460 = 520 R
.2 x 10 L
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1.5 atm. 60°F and 1 atm.2 ft. The diameter of the stack is found to be 1.08206 (L*atm/gmol*°K) x (150+273)°K
Step 3:
Vexhaust gases = (5.
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total volume = 1.

laminar flow transition region turbulent flow Re < 2000 2000 < Re < 4000 Re > 4000
although this varies from case to case
. (8. Note : The velocity calculated in the above problem is average velocity. A = PI* D2/4.e.13 = 2654. Exercise: Determine the stack discharge velocity at 125°F for a 2. i.3 ft/sec) REYNOLDS NUMBER (Re) Definition : Reynolds Number is the ratio of the inertial forces to viscous forces acting on a fluid. It is defined:
D*V*!" Re = µ = # D*V
D = diameter of duct V = average velocity of fluid µ = viscosity of fluid ! = density of fluid # = kinematic viscosity of liquid
In general. = 44.4 ft diameter stack with the same standard exhaust conditions. = 1.qstd = 2000 scfm. =Pi * 1.22/4. = 3000 acfm. qact = 2000 * 780/520. whether the flow is laminar or transitional.86 ft / min. = qact / A = 3000 / 1.2 ft / sec. Discharge vel. It provides information about the flow behavior of the fluid.130 ft2 Step 3 : Calculate discharge velocity. Step 2 : Calculate crossectional area of the stack.

75 x 105 = 1.7 ft diameter duct at a velocity of 25 ft/sec. the rate of heat transfer. Solution: Step 1:
D*V*!" Re = µ = 2.26 Btu/lb-°F x (1000°F-200°F) Q= 1 min = 2. The density of the gas is 0.912 x 10 Btu/min
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Exercise: What would be the heat transferred over a period of one hour and 15 minutes? (2.7 ft x 25 ft/sec x 0.16 x 10-5 lb/ft-s.75 x 105 > 4000 therefore flow is turbulent Exercise: At what velocity would the above gas need to achieve laminar flow through the duct? (0.18 ft/sec) REQUIRED HEAT RATE The amount of heat required to a fluid which undergoes a temperature change can be defined as follows: heat transferred = mCp$T
where. can be defined:
mCp$T Q= t
where. t = time Problem : Determine the rate of heat transfer if the mass flow rate of the gas stream is 1400 lb/min. Q. when the temperature of the gas is raised from 200°F to 1000°F.184 x 107 Btu)
. Solution:
1400 lb x 0. Cp is given as 0.075 lb/ft3 and the viscosity is 1. m = mass of fluid Cp = heat capacity of fluid $T = change in temperature
Furthermore.Problem : Determine the Reynolds number and the flow behavior for a gas flowing through a 1.16 x 10-5 lb/ft*sec 1.075 lb/ft3
Step 2: 2.26 Btu/lb-°F.

0351 x 1920)+(0.55 (BTU/s-ft3)) HENRY'S LAW Definition : Henry's law states that the partial pressure of the solute in equilibrium in solution is proportional to mole fraction
pg = H*xg where.811. CH4 C2H6.0967 x 1700)+(0.0967. xi = mole fraction of ith component HVi = heat value of ith component
Problem : Determine the HVG of a mixture which comprises of N2.0515.35 (Btu/s-ft3) Exercise: Find the HVG for the mixture if there were no nitrogen present.) Henry's las constant (atm/mole fraction) mole fraction of gas in solution
(Note: H is a function of temperature) For and ideal gas. (1129.0515 x 0)+(0.01 atm at 80°F. or
HVG = %(xi)(HVi) where.811 x 1013)+(0. Use the following data
Gas N2 CH4 C2H6 C3H6 C4H10 HVG (Btu/s-ft3) 0 1013 1700 1920 3218
Solution: HVG = %(xi)(HVi) = (0. pg = H= xg = partial pressure of gas (atm.0056. 0.0351. C3H6.
pg = yg*P where. Henry's law constant = 510 atm/mole
.GROSS HEATING VALUE (HVG) Definition : Gross heating value of a mixture is given the sum of the heating value of each component multiplied by that components mole fraction. 0.0056 x 3218) = 1071. and 0. and C4H10 with respective mole fractions of 0. Pg = yg = total pressure mole fraction of gas in gaseous mixture
Problem : Determine the maximum mole fraction of SO2 that can be dissolved in a solution to exert a partial pressure of 0. 0.

80°F Solution:
Pg xg = H = 1. (510 atm)
!
CHEMICAL REACTION EQUILIBRIUM A reaction with gaseous reactants.0. C. K for the above reaction is
(pc)c Keq = (pa)a x (pb)b
where p = partial pressure of a given gas.fraction @ 1 atm.0005 atm and 004 atm.12.01 atm
Exercise: Find the pressure exerted by the solution when the mole fraction of SO2 is 1. Solution: Step 1:
(pc)c Keq = (pa)a x (pb)b (pSO3)1 (pSO2)1 x (pO2)0.96 x 10-5 = 510 (atm/mole fraction) 0. A and B. respectively.5 O2 -> SO3 if the partial pressure of SO2 and O2 are 0. can be written aA + bB -> cC The equillibrium constant. denoted by subsript Note that Keq varies with temperature Problem : Find the partial pressure of SO3 in the reaction SO2 + 0. where Keq is 0.5
.5
Keq =
Step 2:
(pSO3) = Keq x (pSO2) x (pO2)0. and gaseous product. The reaction takes place at a temperature of 1900°F.

0005) x (0. c = concentration of the compound in the reaction k = reaction rate constant c = time
The above equation can be written as dc/c = -kdt Intergrating within the limits cO and c. O2=4 x 102 ppm) CHEMICAL KINETICS The kinetic equation for a first order reaction is dc/dt = -kc
where.2 x 10-5 atm = 1 atm = 12 ppm x 106 x 106
Exercise: Find the equilibrium concentration of SO2 and O2 if the above reaction takes place at atmospheric pressure. (SO2=500 ppm. how would the partial pressure of SO3 be exerted? (It would be unchanged)
Problem : Find the concentration of SO3 at equilibrium (ppm) if the above reaction takes place at atmospheric pressure Solution:
(PSO3) concentration of SO3 = P 1.000012 atm
Exercise: If the partial pressure of O2 were quadrupled.12 x (0.Step 3:
(pSO3) = 0.04)0. and the pressure of SO2 halved. we get
.5 = 0.

0001) Step 4: ln (c/cO) = -kt
ln (c/cO) t = -k t = ln (0. A.3 x 1010)e.0001/1)
. Calculate the time required to convert 99. can be obtained from the Arrhenius equation k=Ae. c = concentration at time t = t. A = frequency factor.987 cal/g-mole-K) T = absolute temperature (K)
Problem : A Reaction to convert benzene to toluene has a frequency factor.E/RT
where.12 sec-1
Step 3: concentration of benzene @ t = 0.E/RT = (3. c = (1 .9999) = (0. The reaction rate constant.987 x 1273)) = 4474.99% of a benzene sample at 1000°C. of 3.0.Intergrate (dc/c)ccO = -kt ln (c/cO) = -kt
where cO = concentration at time t = 0. Solution: Step 1: T = 1000°C + 273 = 1273K Step 2:
k = Ae. (unit of time) E = activation energy for the reaction (cal/g-mole) R = gas constant (1.(40000/(1. cO = 1 concentration of benzene @ t = t. k.3 x 1010 sec1 and an activation evergy of 40000 cal/g-mole.

12 sec-1 = 0.002 sec
Exercise: What would the mole fraction of toluene be after 0.-4474.9886)
!
.001 seconds? (0.