# Hlock 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer

Entropy - A Basic Understanding Module 2.15

Entropy - A Basic Understanding
What is entropy?
In some ways, it is easier to say what it is not! It is not a physical property of steam like pressure or temperature or mass. A sensor cannot detect it, and it does not show on a gauge. Rather, it must be calculated from things that can be measured. Entropy values can then be listed and used in calculations; in particular, calculations to do with steam flow, and the production of power using turbines or reciprocating engines. It is, in some ways, a measure of the lack of quality or availability of energy, and of how energy tends always to spread out from a high temperature source to a wider area at a lower temperature level. This compulsion to spread out has led some observers to label entropy as 'time's arrow'. If the entropy of a system is calculated at two different conditions, then the condition at which the entropy is greater occurs at a later time. The increase of entropy in the overall system always takes place in the same direction as time flows. That may be of some philosophical interest, but does not help very much in the calculation of actual values. A more practical approach is to define entropy as energy added to or removed from a system, divided by the mean absolute temperature over which the change takes place. To see how this works, perhaps it is best to start off with a diagram showing how the enthalpy content of a kilogram of water increases as it is heated to different pressures and evaporated into steam. Since the temperature and pressure at which water boils are in a fixed relationship to each other, Figure 2.15.1 could equally be drawn to show enthalpy against temperature, and then turned so that temperature became the vertical ordinates against a base of enthalpy, as in Figure 2.15.2.
Enthalpy of saturated steam

Enthalpy

Enthalpy of evaporation

Enthalpy of water

Pressure
Fig. 2.15.1 The enthalpy/pressure diagram

2.15.2

The Steam and Condensate Loop

Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer

Entropy - A Basic Understanding Module 2.15

Critical 400

point

Evaporation lines 300

Lines of constant pressure

Temperature t in °C

200

Saturated water line

Dryness fraction lines

Superheated steam region
100 Dry saturated steam line

0 0 500 1000 1500 Enthalpy h in kJ/kg Fig. 2.15.2 The temperature/enthalpy diagram 2000 2500 3000

Lines of constant pressure originate on the saturated water line. The horizontal distance between the saturated water line and the dry saturated steam line represents the amount of latent heat or enthalpy of evaporation, and is called the evaporation line; (enthalpy of evaporation decreases with rising pressure). The area to the right of the dry saturated steam line is the superheated steam region, and lines of constant pressure now curve upwards as soon as they cross the dry saturated steam line. A variation of the diagram in Figure 2.15.2, that can be extremely useful, is one in which the horizontal axis is not enthalpy but instead is enthalpy divided by the mean temperature at which the enthalpy is added or removed. To produce such a diagram, the entropy values can be calculated. By starting at the origin of the graph at a temperature of 0°C at atmospheric pressure, and by adding enthalpy in small amounts, the graph can be built. As entropy is measured in terms of absolute temperature, the origin temperature of 0°C is taken as 273.15 K. The specific heat of saturated water at this temperature is 4.228 kJ/kg K. For the purpose of constructing the diagram in Figure 2.15.3 the base temperature is taken as 273 K not 273.15 K.

The Steam and Condensate Loop

2.15.3

228/273.047891 kJ kg K 373.228 273.15.14 K (99. the state point starts to move horizontally across the diagram to the right. and by adding 4. This process can be continued by adding another 4. As more heat is added. If this incremental process were continuously repeated by adding more heat. curves gently upwards. the temperature would rise from 274 K to 275 K. The mean temperature during this operation is 273. 4. At atmospheric pressure. At this position. This value represents the change in enthalpy per degree of temperature rise for one kilogram of water and is termed the change in specific entropy. At 373.228 kJ of energy to produce a series of these points on a state point line.990C).5 Change in enthalpy = ! H Mean temperature T (m ean) Fig. as the temperature increases. the change in entropy for each equal increment of enthalpy reduces slightly.14 K.15. the water temperature would rise by 1 K from 273 K to 274 K. In the next increment. The change in specific entropy from the water saturation line to the steam saturation line is therefore: 2 256.5 273 K 4. this added heat is referred to as enthalpy of evaporation. 275 K Temperature 274 K 4. and the mean temperature is 274.3. the boiling point of water is reached at atmospheric pressure.A Basic Understanding Module 2.5 K.3 The cumulative addition of 4. see Figure 2. steam tables state that the amount of heat added to evaporate 1 kg of water into steam is 2256.4 by the horizontal evaporation line stretching from the saturated water line to the dry saturated steam line.228/274. 2. As this takes place at a constant temperature of 373.15 By assuming a kilogram of water at atmospheric pressure. and further additions of heat begin to boil off some of the water at this constant temperature.5 = 0.4 The Steam and Condensate Loop .228 The width of this element representing the added enthalpy = _______ = 0.228 kJ of energy. The metric units for specific entropy are therefore kJ/kg K.71 = 6.015459 kJ kg K. This is due to each additional increment of heat raising the temperature and so reducing the width of the elemental strip representing it. the mean temperature of the evaporation line is also 373. so the state point line.15.5 K.14 2. Because this is an evaporation process.14 K.5 It can be seen from these simple calculations that.228 W of energy to water from 0°C The width of the element representing the added enthalpy = 4.15.71 kJ. and is represented on Figure 2. in this case the saturated water line.Hlock 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .015 403 kJ kg K. it would be noticed that the change in entropy would continue to decrease. 274.

15.15. where the final velocity remains high. 3800 3600 3400 Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 6.S diagram.4. To follow these different types of processes.75 " = 0.15. the constant total heat lines shown in a T .95 " = 0. or H . 0 4 are constant pressure lines in the superheat region.entropy diagram (or T . 2. Unfortunately.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .5 The H . the overall process occurs with constant enthalpy (isenthalpic).2 bar 0.90 " = 0.5 8. In the case of a nozzle.0 650 ° C 600 ° C 550 ° C 500°C 450°C 400 ° C 350°C 300°C 250°C 200°C 50 ° C 100°C 1 bar 0.S diagram .A Basic Understanding Module 2. 473 K 1 2 Temperature (T) 4 373 K 3 273 K Entropy (S) Fig. 3 are constant dryness fraction lines in the wet steam region.70 6.S diagram are curved. the overall process occurs with constant entropy. and is called an enthalpy .entropy diagram What use is the temperature .1 bar 150°C 0.04 bar 0. showing entropy on the horizontal axis.80 " = 0. 2 is the dry saturated steam line.4 The temperature .5 bar 0.5 10 bar 5 bar 9. Such processes are termed Isentropic (constant entropy). where: 0 0 0 1 is the saturated water line.01 bar " = 0. where the velocities in the connecting upstream and downstream pipes are near enough the same. Figure 2.15 The diagram produced showing temperature against entropy would look something like that in Figure 2.S diagram is to follow changes in the steam condition during processes occurring with no change in entropy between the initial and final state of the process.5. which makes it difficult to follow changes in such free and unrestricted expansions as those when steam is allowed to flow through and expand after a control valve.15. and enthalpy on the vertical axis.entropy diagram. a new diagram can be drawn complete with pressures and temperatures.85 " = 0. 2.0 7.S diagram)? One potential use of the T .5 7.0 20 bar 8.0 2 bar 400 bar 200 bar 100 bar 50 bar Specific entropy (kJ/kg K) Fig. In the case of a control valve.

The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.5 .15.

0 8.2 bar 0.0 8.Hlock 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy . and the isentropic expansion of steam through a nozzle is simply a line from the initial state falling vertically to the lower final pressure.2 bar 0.0 7.80 X = 0.0 2 0 0 °C 50°C 100°C 300°C 250 °C 150°C 4 0 0 °C 350°C 450°C 600° 550 C °C 500°C 20 bar 10 bar 5 bar 650 °C 2 bar 1 bar 0.5 8. the isenthalpic expansion of steam through a control valve is simply represented by a straight horizontal line from the initial state to the final lower pressure to the right of the graph.5 9. as through a nozzle 2.7.15.04 bar 0.S diagram is also called the Mollier diagram or Mollier chart.90 6.1 bar 0.0 7. named after Dr. Richard Mollier of Dresden who first devised the idea of such a diagram in 1904.75 X = 0.70 = 0.15. see Figure 2.90 6.6 The Steam and Condensate Loop .5 bar 0.0 2 0 0 °C 50°C 100°C 300°C 250 °C 4 0 °C 0 3 5 0 ° C 450°C 550° C500°C 20 bar 10 bar 5 bar 650 °C 600°C 2 bar 1 bar 0.95 X X = 0.7 Isentropic expansion.15.15.6 Isenthalpic expansion.0 Specific entropy (kJ/kg K) Fig.01 bar X = 0.5 bar 0. as through a control valve 400 bar 200 bar 100 bar 50 bar 3800 3600 3400 3200 3000 2800 2600 S p e c i f e n t h a l p y ( k J / g ) 2400 2200 2000 1800 6.75 X = 0.5 8. 400 bar 200 bar 100 bar 50 bar 3800 3600 3400 3200 3000 2800 2600 S p e c i f e n t h a l p y ( k J / g ) 2400 2200 2000 1800 6. 2.5 7. Now. 2.01 bar X = 0.85 X = 0.70 = 0.80 X = 0.A Basic Understanding Module 2.0 Specific entropy (kJ/kg K) Fig.1 bar 150°C 0.85 X = 0.15.15 The H .5 9.5 7.95 X X = 0.6. see Figure 2.04 bar 0.

The path of the state point is to be seen in Figure 2.01 bar " = 0. the state point moves vertically down to the lower pressure. In this example. This fall in velocity requires a reduction in kinetic energy which is mostly re-converted back into heat and re-absorbed by the steam. As a point of interest.6 kJ/kg K. although there was no overall change in enthalpy (ignoring the small effects of friction).15.A Basic Understanding Module 2. The heat drop that caused the initial increase in kinetic energy is reclaimed (except for a small portion lost due to the effects of friction).75 = 0. In fact. 2.15. and on the H . be drier than its initial condition.15.8. the final condition of the steam will. the entropy increased from about 6.0 8.0 7.95 " " = 0. and this is referred to as the 'heat drop' (H) between the initial and final condition.S chart.80 " = 0. the steam expands into the lower pressure region in the valve outlet. where pressure is reduced from 5 bar at saturation temperature to 1 bar via.04 bar 0.5 Specific entropy (kJ/kg K) 8. Having passed through the narrow restriction. This incurs a heat drop. it does not do so directly. a pressure reducing valve. Steam's enthalpy at the upstream condition of 5 bar is 2748 kJ/kg.8 kJ/kg K to about 7. for example. The H values can be simply read at the initial and final points on the Mollier chart. in most cases.0 Fig.0 2 0 0 °C 50°C 100°C 300°C 250 °C 150°C 0 3 5 0 ° C 450°C 4 0 °C 20 bar 10 bar 5 bar 650°C 600°C 550 °C 500°C 2 bar 1 bar 0.1 bar 0. Whenever such a process (commonly called a throttling process) takes place.6. depending on the respective positions of the initial and final state points.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .15.5 7.15 An isentropic expansion of steam is always accompanied by a decrease in enthalpy. 400 bar 200 bar 100 bar 50 bar 3800 3600 3400 Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 6. it is assumed that the state point moves directly to the right. as depicted in Figure 2. This part of the process is isentropic. This will either produce drier saturated steam or superheated steam. For the steam to squeeze through the narrow restriction it has to accelerate to a higher speed. the state point moves up the constant pressure line until it arrives at the same enthalpy value as the initial condition. .5 bar 0. and the difference gives the heat drop. It does so by borrowing energy from its enthalpy and converting it to kinetic energy.85 " = 0.2 bar 0.8. as the expansion through a control valve orifice is an isenthalpic process. the final condition of the steam is above the saturation line and is therefore superheated.8 The actual path of the state point in a control valve expansion It is interesting to note that.5 9.90 6. and eventually decelerates as the volume of the valve body increases to connect to the downstream pipe. in the example dicussed above and shown in Figure 2.70 " = 0. The accuracy of the chart is sufficient for most practical purposes. The horizontal distance between the initial and final state points represents the change in entropy.

15.The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.1 .

It is worth considering this in more detail. The second law of thermodynamics says that whenever energy is exchanged or converted from one form to another. What are the changes in the entropy values for the overall process? For the teapot: Initial enthalpy in the teapot = 200 kJ Initial teapot temperature = 373 K ( 100 °C) Final teapot temperature (the air temperature) = 293 K ( 20 °C) Mean teapot temperature T( Mean teapot temperatu ( ) re T mean mean )= 373 K + 293 K2 = 333 K ( 60°C ) Final enthalpy in the teapot = 40 kJ Enthalpy delivered by the teapot to its surroundings = 200 . convention states that its change in entropy is negative. the potential for energy to do work gets less. The ultimate truth of this is that it is nature's duty for all processes in the Universe to end up at the same temperature. and once that energy has been exchanged or converted. it will always increase.8 The Steam and Condensate Loop . This really is what entropy is all about. The second law of thermodynamics also states that heat will always flow from a hot body to a colder body.1 Consider a teapot on a kitchen table that has just been filled with a certain quantity of water containing 200 kJ of heat energy at 100°C (373 K) from an electric kettle. the same cannot be said about entropy.48 kJ K Because the heat is lost from the teapot. however.546 kJ/K The overall change in entropy of the teapot and surroundings = + 0.546 kJ K Because the heat is received by the air. so the entropy of the Universe is always increasing. the air temperature would not have changed because of its large volume. the water in the teapot would have lost 160 kJ and the air would have gained 160 kJ.15 Entropy always increases in a closed system In any closed system. It is a measure of the lack of potential or quality of energy. and that the amount of heat in the teapot water would be 40 kJ at the end of the process.066 kJ/K 2. Example 2. For the air: Initial air temperature = 293 K (20°C) At the end of the process. and in this example.48 + 0. if left for sufficient time. it is certain that.0.0. it cannot revert back to a higher state. that is.A Basic Understanding Module 2. the overall change in entropy is always positive. convention states that its change in enthalpy is positive. therefore: T (mean ) for the air = 293 K ( 20 ° C ) 160 kJ Entropy received by the air = 293 K Entropy received by the air = + 0.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .15.15. Therefore: The overall change in entropy of the teapot and surroundings = . the teapot will cool to the same temperature as the air that surrounds it.40 kJ Enthalpy delivered by the teapot to its surroundings = 160 k Entropy delivered by the teapot to its surroundings = Enthalpy change (mean) 160 kJ Entropy delivered by the teapot to its surroundings = 333 K Entropy delivered by the teapot to its surroundings = . Consider next that the temperature of the air surrounding the mug is at 20°C. as it is fundamental to the concept of entropy. Whereas energy is always conserved (the first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed).

2.9 that. the water. 400 bar 200 bar 100 bar 50 bar 3800 3600 3400 Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 6.95 " " = 0.0 Specific entropy (kJ/kg K) Fig.15.1 bar 0. the steam will condense as it gives up its heat.8 kJ/kg.80 " = 0.9 The initial path of the state point for condensing steam It can be seen from Figure 2.0 2 0 0 °C 50°C 100°C 300°C 250 °C 150°C 0 3 5 0 ° C 450°C 4 0 °C 20 bar 10 bar 5 bar 650 °C 600°C 550 °C 500°C 2 bar 1 bar 0. It must be remembered that any total system includes its surroundings.A Basic Understanding Module 2. this decrease in entropy only reflects what is happening in one part of the system.0 7.1.5 8.Heat exchangers In a heat exchanger using saturated steam in the primary side to heat water from 20°C to 60°C in the secondary side.15. but does so at a lower temperature than the steam. The Steam and Condensate Loop 2. 7 0 = 0. in Example 2. which receives the heat imparted by the steam. and an enthalpy of about 2 700 kJ/kg.53 kJ/kg K and an enthalpy of 504.15.15.75 " = 0 . dividing the same quantity of heat by a lower temperature means a greater gain in entropy by the water than is lost by the steam. the water receives exactly the same amount of heat as the steam imparts (it is assumed there are no heat losses). There is therefore an overall gain in the system entropy. in any overall system.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy . Example 2. if it were. It can be seen thatthe state point moves from right to left.13 kJ/kg K. and an overall spreading out of energy. 2. dry saturated steam condenses at constant pressure. when steam condenses. as entropy is given by enthalpy/temperature. the entropy must increase.9 . For steady state conditions.15.2 This example considers steam condensing from saturation at 2 bar at 120°C with an entropy of 7.85 " = 0.9.04 bar 0. the state point moves down the evaporation line and the entropy is lowered.15.15.5 9.01 bar " = 0.5 7. at 2 bar and 120°C on the saturated water line. so how can this decrease in entropy be explained? As for the teapot in the Example 2.15. otherwise the second law of thermodynamics is violated. it would show that the steam's final state point would rest with an entropy of 1.15 Practical applications . but by following the constant 2 bar pressure line. This is depicted on the Mollier chart by the state point moving to the left of its initial position.5 bar 0. In Example 2. The chart is not big enough to show the whole condensing process but.0 8. not horizontally.2 bar 0. so. However.90 6.2. and the steam state point moves down the constant pressure line as shown in Figure 2.

00 1.75 8.59 4.15.46 0.83 2.93 8.90 0.Hlock 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .50 0.54 0.38 0.80 .2.71 0. wood filler Bakelite.08 .62 0.3.00 0.10 .80 2.79 0.64 .54 0.80 1. stone Concrete.1 Relative densities/specific heat capacities of various solids Material Aluminium Andalusite Antimony Apatite Asbestos Augite Bakelite.66 0.92 1.80 1.80 0. powder Charcoal Chalcopyrite Chromium Clay Coal Cobalt Concrete.15. asbestos filler Barite Barium Basalt rock Beryl Bismuth Borax Boron Cadmium Calcite 0 .1.83 0.100 0.8.37 1.58 1.2.10 1.25 0.95 0.50 3.37°C Calcite 0 .2.37 2.15 Table 2.70 .83 0. dry Cement.83 1.80 .93 0.50 2.32 8.83 0.20 0.1.29 0.60 0.54 7.12 1.92 0.A Basic Understanding Module 2.65 0.70 .79 0. cinder Copper Relative density Specific heat capacity kJ/kg °C 2.83 4.2.80 .71 0.0.100°C Calcium Carbon Carborundum Cassiterite Cement.10 The Steam and Condensate Loop .46 2.55 .79 1.20 9.

24 7.15 Material Corundum Diamond Dolomite rock Fluorite Fluorspar Galena Proxylin plastics Quartz.2.37 The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.46 0.87 0. hollow Titanium Topaz Tungsten Vanadium Vulcanite Wood Wool Zinc blend Zinc Relative density Specific heat capacity kJ/kg °C 0.99 1.35 .2.2.1.20 1.92 2.70 .00 .71 0.20 0.60 0.2.22 5.20 0.00 .50 1.100°C Quartz.08 1.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .50 .59 2.80 0.0.62 0.41 3.25 0.50 4.87 0.20 .90 0.20 6.80 10.20 6.7.33 .97 7.8 .87 1.92 0.7.00 2.83 0.40 .60 2.90 .50 0.60 .38 0.42 .32 3.79 0.92 0.46 0.80 0.58 0.11 .62 0.50 19.6.A Basic Understanding Module 2.00 1.20 0.51 2.10.79 2.2.92 1.25 1.15.80 1.38 0.90 . 12. 0°C Rock salt Rubber Sandstone Serpentine Silk Silver Sodium Steel Stone Stoneware Talc Tar Tellurium Tin Tile.16 0.96 0.4.38 1.

68 3.88 2.1900 1. 15 . ethyl.50 1. methyl.05 1.39 6.7900 0.60 4.0235 1.84 1.50 1.30 2.71 1.21°C Ammonia 0°C Ammonia 40°C Ammonia 80°C Ammonia 100°C Ammonia 114°C Anilin Benzol Calcium chloride Castor oil Citron oil Diphenylamine Ethyl ether Ethylene glycol Fuel oil Fuel oil Fuel oil Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Kerosene Mercury Naphthalene Nitrobenzole Olive oil Petroleum Potassium hydrate Sea water Sesame oil Sodium chloride Sodium hydrate Soybean oil Toluol Turpentine Water Xylene Relative density Specific heat capacitiy kJ/kg °C 0.67 1.85 5.8700 1.6000 1.10°C Alcohol.92 2.96 2.73 1. 40°C Alcohol.2000 2.21 1.17 1.8600 0.7890 0.21 2.63 3.71 2.93 1.75 3.0.2 Relative densities/specific heat capacities of various liquids Liquid Acetone Alcohol.9400 1.9100 0.00 1.91 .0. methyl.8660 0.2400 1.15.51 4.A Basic Understanding Module 2.2600 19.72 2.0200 1.13 3.6200 2.30 3.38 1.2700 0.7960 0. ethyl.13 2.7960 0.1400 0.Hlock 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .8810 1.71 4.861 .0000 0.09 2.9600 0.18 1.21 2. 0°C Alcohol.93 1.42 2.84 1.8100 1.7890 0.1600 0.96 1.46 2.12 The Steam and Condensate Loop .15.19 6. 4 .15 Table 2.79 1.

dry.66 1.5 bar a saturated Steam.5 bar a 150°C Steam.76 0. 200°C Air.54 1.71 0.00 0. 0.59 0. 2 bar a saturated Steam.13 2.3 Specific heat capacities of gases and vapours Gas or vapour Acetone Air.49 The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.15 Table 2.53 1.55 3.65 1.56 10. 500°C Alcohol. C2 H5 OH Alcohol.21 0.79 1.71 0.99 2. 10 bar a saturated Steam.01 1.05 1.56 1. 100°C Air.13 . dry. 0°C Air.19 0. dry.86 0.95 2. dry.15. 400°C Air. C6 H6 Bromine Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Carbon disulphide Chlorine Chloroform Ether Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen Hydrogen sulphide Methane Nitrogen Nitric oxide Nitrogen tetroxide Nitrous oxide Oxygen Steam.98 0.15. 2 bar a 200°C Steam.69 4.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .30 0.31 1.01 2.07 1.09 1.62 0. dry. 300°C Air.00 1.A Basic Understanding Module 2.95 0.69 0. 0.03 1. dry.43 0. CH3 OH Ammonia Argon Benzene. 10 bar a 250°C Sulphur dioxide Specific heat capacity kJ/kg °C (constant pressure) 1.

What always accompanies an isentropic expansion of steam? a An increase in entropy b An increase in enthalpy c A decrease in entropy d A decrease in enthalpy 4.14 The Steam and Condensate Loop .01 bar.15.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy . the final state point was at 0. What is true about steam as it condenses? a It does so at constant entropy and temperature b It does so at constant enthalpy and reducing temperature c Both enthalpy and entropy reduce and temperature remains constant d Both enthalpy and entropy increase 6.A Basic Understanding Module 2. if the initial state point was saturated steam at 2 bar. What is true of entropy? a It is not a physical property of steam b It reflects the quality of energy during a process c It is energy change divided by the mean temperature of the change d It is all of the above 2. and the expansion was isentropic. what is the approximate heat drop in one kilogram of steam? a None b 1. From the Mollier diagram in Figure 2.8. What always accompanies an isenthalpic expansion of steam? a An increase in entropy b An increase in enthalpy c A decrease in entropy d A decrease in enthalpy 5. what is the approximate heat drop in one kilogram of steam? a 2 000 kJ b 2 700 kJ c 700 kJ d 1 000 kJ 3.01 bar.8. the final state point was at 0.15.5 kJ c 700 kJ d 2 000 kJ Answer 2.15 Questions 1.15. and the expansion was isenthalpic. if the initial state point was saturated steam at 2 bar. From the Mollier diagram in Figure 2.

Its Practical Use .Its Practical Use Module 2.16 Entropy .16 Module 2.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy.

1 .16.The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.

1413 kJ/kg K: Specific entropy of evaporation present = 6. and saturated steam.S chart is applied. steam tables state that for dry saturated steam: Specific entropy of saturated water (sf) = 2.Its Practical Use Module 2.9: Specific entropy of evaporation present = 0. It must still be 6. Example 2.15.2 The Steam and Condensate Loop . that is.9316 = 4. At 10 bar a. sfg and s g respectively.15 that entropy can be calculated.1413 .8285 g ut. The T .0024 Specific entropy of the inlet steam = 2.S) and Enthalpy Entropy (H .1389 Specific entropy of evaporation of dry saturated steam (sfs) = 4.S chart is often used to determine the properties of steam during its expansion through a nozzle or an orifice. and both Temperature . reading these from the steam tables.Its Practical Use Practical use of entropy It can be seen from Module 2.2097 Dryness fraction = _______ 4.1413 kJ1k g K at the very moment it passes the throat of the nozzle.209 7 4. At the outlet condition of 6 bar a.0024 Specific entropy of the inlet steam = 6.1.4471 = 4. the entropy does not change.1389 + 4.9316 Specific entropy of evaporation of dry saturated steam (sf ) = 4. The seat of a control valve would be a typical example. the process is described as being adiabatic and isentropic. Each chart has particular use in specific circumstances. This would be laborious in practice.9 x 4.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy . steam tables state that: Specific entropy of saturated water (sf) = 1. it is worth sketching such a chart and plotting the steam properties at the start condition. consequently steam tables usually carry entropy values. and no heat is removed or supplied during this expansion process. These values may equally be found in charts.16. as mentioned in Module 2. as the dryness fraction is 0. Specific entropy is designated the letter's' and usually appears in columns signifying specific values for saturated liquid.9 to 6 bar a through a nozzle. since the total entropy is fixed at 6.1413 As no heat is added or removed duringthe expansion. To understand how a T .16.828 5 Dryness fraction = 0.16 Entropy .4471 At the inlet condition. Calculate the final condition of the steam at the nozzle outlet? Specific entropy values quoted are in units of kJ1k g °C.Entropy (T . sf.1 Steam is expanded from 10 bar a and a dryness fraction of 0.871 8 Therefore: 2. evaporation. in this example. based on such calculations.S) charts are to be found.

0024 = 6. #\$%µ &'()µ ')*+(&.8718 dry 2.(&& 1\$)3'-%.4471 = 6.'.1413 0.586 1.56 7%')+ &/(3-1-3 (. )' '.95 kJ1kg.1389 + 4. -& 0.)+/4 %1 '.2097 = 6.Its Practical Use Module 2.: Specific enthalpy of evaporation present = 0.S diagram for Example 2.16 By knowing that this process is isentropic. consequently it has gained kinetic energy.83 = 1813.+(' /\$(&&0\$( %1 10 *)\$ ): Specific enthalpy of saturated water (hf) = 762.'.1 The T .16.3 . a heat drop of 86. T (°C) 10 bar a 180°C 6 bar a 159 ° C 2.30 kJ1kg.35 2/(3-1-3 (.1389 1.16.5-'-%.8718 x 2085.1 can be plotted on a T .8285 = 6.( 5\$4.16.74 + 1818.9316 + 4.1413 S (kJ/kg °C) Fig.9 + 1813.1413 0.5-'-%.9 at the inlet condition: Specific enthalpy of evaporation present = 0.98 60' )& '. it has been possible to calculate the dryness fraction at the outlet condition.( -.9 Specific enthalpy of evaporation of dry saturated steam (hfg) = 2014.25 to 2489. that is.9 x 2014.1 The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy. 2.15.1.S diagram.98 = 1818. )' '.9316 2.74 Specific enthalpy of evaporation of dry saturated steam (hfg) = 2085.16.9316 + 4.83 As the dryness fraction is 0. which stipulates that no energy is removed from the process.8718 )' '.( %0'+(' 3%.30 It can be seen that the specific enthalpy of the steam has dropped in passing through the nozzle from 2 576.( %0'+(' 3%. see Figure 2. as seen in Module 2.16. The above entropy values in Example 2.( -.)+/4 %1 '.9 dry 1.1389 + 4.25 #\$%µ &'()µ ')*+(&.+(' &'()µ = 2576.76 6. It is now possible to consider the outlet condition in terms of specific enthalpy (units are in kJ1kg). This seems to contradict the adiabatic principle.56 Total specific enthalpy of the outlet steam = 670. %1 6 *)\$ ): Specific enthalpy of saturated water (hf) = 670. As energy cannot be created or destroyed.35 Specific enthalpy of the inlet steam = 762. But. the explanation is that the steam at 6 bar a has just passed through the nozzle throat at high velocity.( %0'+(' &'()µ = 2489. the gain in kinetic energy in the steam is at the expense of its own heat drop.

the equation can be written as shown by Equation 2.16.2 u2=2EgJ u = 2 2 x E x 9. it is possible to predict the steam velocity and therefore the mass flow of steam through control valves and nozzles.16.8718 equals 0. Kinetic energy is proportional to mass and the square of the velocity.2751 m 3 1k g. the velocity of steam can be calculated at various points along its path.4 The Steam and Condensate Loop .72 h Where: h = Heat drop in kJ1kg By calculating the adiabatic heat drop from the initial to the final condition. Calculate the maximum flow of steam under these conditions.2 For each kilogram of steam.1 with steam passing through a control valve with an orifice area of 1 cm2.Its Practical Use Module 2.16.972 m k g1kJ) By transposing Equation 2.16.16.16.16.16.806 65 x 101.972 u = 2 000 2 xE u = 2 000 x E u = 44.8718 which equates to 0.1 2EgJ m Equation 2.16.16.3156 m 3 1k g x 0. 2.16.2 Consider the steam conditions in Example 2. This could be used to calculate the orifice area required to pass a given amount of steam through a control valve. The pass area will be greatest when the valve is fully open. Specific volume of saturated steam at 6 bar a and a dryness fraction of 0. It can be further shown that. kinetic energy can be written as Equation 2.16.806 65 m1s 2 ) J = Joule's mechanical equivalent of heat (101.16 Further investigation of kinetic energy in steam What is the significance of being able to calculate the kinetic energy of steam? By knowing this value. with a dryness fraction of 0.8718.1: mu Kinetic energy (E)= ___ 2gJ Where: E = Kinetic energy (kJ) m = Mass of the fluid (k g) u = Velocity of the fluid (m1s) g = Acceleration due to gravity (9. especially at the throat or point of minimum pass area between the plug and seat in a control valve.16. the maximum flowrate through the valve can be determined at the stipulated pressure drop.3 for more details.2 and 2. Equation 2. Likewise. and by using Equation 2. when incorporating Joule's mechanical equivalent of heat.3 Example 2.2: u= 2 Equation 2.3: u = 44.315 6 m31k g.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy . Specific volume of dry saturated steam at 6 bar a (sg) equals 0. See Examples 2.1 it is possible to find velocity as shown by Equation 2.72 E As the gain in kinetic energy equals the heat drop. The downstream steam is at 6 bar a. given the valve orifice area.

16. CPD will occur at just below 55% of the absolute upstream pressure). and the user is free to practise either equation according to preference.000 1 The mass flow = __________ kg s 0. and.95 u = 44.16.4: Velocity m/s x Orifice area m2 The mass flow = ____________________________ kg s Specific volume m kg 3 Equation 2.5: u = 2 h Equation 2.72 x 9.0001 m 2 417 x 0.16.16.2 could be carried out for a whole series of reduced pressures.16.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy.16. these increases actually become zero when the downstream pressure is 58% of the absolute upstream pressure.3: Heat drop ( h) = 86.32 u = 417 m s The mass flow is calculated using Equation 2. consequently the velocity can be calculated using Equation 2.5 . any further reduction of downstream pressure will not give any further increase in mass flow through the opening. Considering the conditions in Example 2.72 h Equation 2.16.4 An orifice area of 1 cm 2 equals 0.3 u = 44.16 The heat drop in Example 2. The increases in flow become progressively smaller with equal increments of pressure drops and.16. The above calculations in Example 2.152 kg s ( 547 kg h) Point of interest Thermodynamic textbooks will usually quote Equation 2. (If the steam is initially superheated. with saturated steam. if done. The Steam and Condensate Loop 2. would reveal that the flow of saturated steam through a fixed opening increases quite quickly at first as the downstream pressure is lowered.16.16.1 was 86.72 86.5 Where: u = Velocity of the fluid in m1s h = Heat drop in J1kg 2 = Constant of proportionality incorporating the gravitational constant 'g'.95 kJ kg Heat drop ( h) = 86 950 J kg u = 2 h u = 2 x 86950 u = 417 m s This velocity is exactly the same as that calculated from Equation 2.3: u = 44.2751 The mass flow = 0. After this point has been reached.16.16. This is known as the 'critical flow' condition and the pressure drop at this point is referred to as critical pressure drop (CPD).95 kJ1k g.Its Practical Use Module 2.3.3 in a slightly different way as shown in Equation 2.

16. Then the velocity with which a disturbance such as.2. P.8 0. s .5. will be transmitted back through the flowing steam will be s .2 Steam and acoustic velocities through a nozzle The explanation of this. Referring to Figure 2.58 P/P1 throat. let the final pressure P at the nozzle outlet be 0. 2. Pressure drop greater than critical pressure drop It is worth reiterating that. the curves of steam velocity (u) and sonic velocity (s) were drawn for a convergent nozzle (Figure 2. for saturated steam.16 In fact if. is the upstream pressure. UK.u. the critical velocity at the throat can be calculated from the heat drop in the steam from the upstream condition to the critical pressure drop condition.16. s .1912) of Owens College. When the pressure drop across the valve seat is greater than critical pressure drop.Its Practical Use Module 2. as the sonic velocity s is greater than the steam velocity u. . for example.58 P1. first put forward by Professor Osborne Reynolds (1842 . u P S S-u Velocity 1. Any change in the pressure P would produce a change in the rate of mass flow. if the pressure drop across the valve is equal to or greater than critical pressure drop. s being a function of the pressure and density of the steam.8 of its inlet pressure P1.2). as described above.u becomes zero.16. a sudden change of pressure P. For any control valve operating under critical pressure drop conditions. using Equation 2. Control valves The relationship between velocity and mass flow through a restriction such as the orifice in a control valve is sometimes misunderstood. at any reduction in throat area caused by the valve moving closer to its seat. the velocity through the valve opening will depend on the application. and let s be the speed of sound (sonic velocity) in the steam at any given point.0 0. and any further reduction of pressure after the throat has no effect on the pressure at the throat or the rate of mass flow. the mass flow through the throat of the restriction is a maximum and the steam will travel at the speed of sound (sonic velocity) in the throat. it would be found that the curves intersect at the critical pressure.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy . Fig. Here. the critical velocity is equal to the local sonic velocity.16. When the pressure P has been reduced to the critical value of 0. Manchester. In other words. is as follows: Consider steam flowing through a tube or nozzle with a velocity u. Pressure drop less than critical pressure drop For a control valve operating such that the downstream pressure is greater than the critical pressure (critical pressure drop is not reached).u is clearly positive. and P is the pressure at the P . this constant velocity will mean that the mass flow is simultaneously reduced in direct proportion to the size of the valve orifice.

16.2.6 The Steam and Condensate Loop .

a reduction in mass flow is not directly proportional to the valve orifice. critical pressure can be taken as 58% of the absolute upstream pressure.16 Pressure reducing valves If the valve is a pressure reducing valve.58 x 10 bar a = 0.4 shows that.9 dryness fraction = 2 576.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy.1 .58 bar a At the throat condition of 5.14129 .008 Specific enthalpy of evaporation of dry saturated steam (hfg) = 2090. Example 2.8 bar a.918 36 = 4.14129 kJ1kg K For wet steam.16. if velocity and specific volume are constant.222 93 Therefore. Constant upstream steam conditions are assumed.23 The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.16. Thus.8538 But.8701 From steam tables. and assuming the downstream pressure is lowered to 3 bar a. This means that the velocity through the valve opening remains constant whatever the steam load and valve opening. the valve is required to reduce the mass flow as the heat load falls. In this case. 0.(&& 1\$)3'-%.Its Practical Use Module 2.1. 2. under these conditions. in this example. but is also modified by the steam velocity and its specific volume. (its function is to achieve a constant downstream pressure for varying mass flowrates) then. the dryness fraction at the throat at the throat = __________ 4.14129 kJ1k g K: Specific entropy of evaporation present = 6.3 Find the critical velocity of the steam at the throat of the control valve for Example 2. and from steam tables: Specific entropy of saturated water (sf) = 1.4 that. = 0. the mass flowrate through the orifice is directly proportional to the orifice area. velocity m/s x orifice area m 2 The mass flow = ___________________________ kg s Specific volume m kg 3 890)'-%.16.85 38 :\$4.26 kJ1kg Specific entropy at 10 bar a. at the throat condition of 5. the velocity through the valve must increase as the valve closes.16. It can be seen from Equation 2. where the initial condition of the steam is 10 bar a and 90% dry. since the total entropy is fixed at 6. 0.91836 Specific entropy of evaporation of dry saturated steam (sfg) = 4.4 Temperature control valves In the case of a control valve supplying steam to a heat exchanger.16. consequently the pressure drop and heat drop across the valve will increase.2.22293 4.8 bar a: Specific enthalpy of saturated water (hf) = 665.9 dryness fraction = 6. Specific enthalpy at 10 bar a.16. therefore: Pressure of steam at the throat = 0. the heat drop remains constant whatever the steam load. The downstream steam pressure will then fall with the heat load. as the valve closes. Equation 2.

Steam velocities in control valve orifices will reach.8701 at the throat condition: Specific enthalpy of evaporation present = 0.3.16. valves operating at and greater than critical pressure drop will incur sonic and supersonic velocities. In a control valve. As velocity is directly related to heat drop.71 Total specific enthalpy of the outlet steam = 665. these droplets will tend to erode the valve and its seat as they squeeze between the two. the steam velocity will increase after the steam passes the throat of the restriction. As noise is a form of vibration. and the steam expands suddenly.16.72 .2483.71 = 2 483.5 The velocity of the steam through the throat of the valve can be calculated using Equation 2.5: u = 2 x 92 540 u=430ms The critical velocity occurs at the speed of sound. .Its Practical Use Module 2. which will tend to produce noise. typically. is suddenly confronted with a huge increase in space in the valve outlet. the velocity falls to a value similar to that on the upstream side of the valve. and the pressure stabilises in the valve outlet and connecting pipework. It is always sensible to ensure that steam valves are protected from wet steam by fitting separators or by providing adequate line drainage upstream of them.23 = 1818. but may actually cause the valve to fail. but. Reducing noise in control valves There are some practical ways to deal with the effects of noise in control valves.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy .72 Heat drop at critical pressure drop = 92. where there is a need to reduce pressure. Water droplets in the steam will travel at some slightly lower speed through a valve orifice. For instance.8701 x 2 090. and the potential for noise in the pressure reducing station can be reduced considerably.16 But as the dryness fraction is 0. Perhaps the simplest way to overcome this problem is to reduce the working pressure across the valve. For the reasons mentioned above.54 kJ/kg (92 540 J/kg) Equation 2. It can be seen from previous text that the velocity of steam through control valve orifices will depend on the application of the valve and the pressure drop across it at any one time. Another way to reduce the potential for noise is by increasing the size of the valve body (but retaining the correct orifice size) to help ensure that the supersonic velocity will have dissipated by the time the flow impinges upon the valve body wall. the heat drop at critical pressure drop = 2 576. Noise in control valves If the pressure in the outlet of the valve body is lower than the critical pressure.16.008 + 1818. high levels of noise will not only cause environmental problems. This can sometimes have an important bearing when selecting valves that are expected to operate under critical flow conditions. In cases where the potential for noise is extreme.72 Therefore. both valves can share the total heat drop. consequently 430 m1s is the sonic velocity for the Example 2. after exiting the throat. The kinetic energy gained by the steam in passing through the throat is converted back into heat. the heat drop at a point immediately after the throat will be greater than at the throat. valves fitted with a noise attenuator trim may need to be used. steam. being incompressible. by reducing pressure with two valves instead of one. 500 m1s. and supersonic velocities can occur in this region.

2.16.8 The Steam and Condensate Loop .

shown in Figure 2. and must reappear as heat energy that dries out or superheats the steam depending on the conditions.1389 + 4. If the steam is flowing through a control valve.1413 S (kJ/kg °C) in Example 2. drops in temperature and may condense) providing heat for conversion into kinetic energy. Fig. It can be seen that both the T . in the latter.8718 at 6 bar a) 10 bar a 180°C 6 bar a 159°C 2. the steam is accelerating up to high speed in passing through a restriction. The kinetic energy is destroyed. the steam gets wetter. for example.2097 = 6. (see Figure 2. during an adiabatic expansion. (see Figure 2.1413 0.16 T (°C) Summing up of Modules 2. shows clearly that the steam becomes wetter during an isentropic expansion (0. The point is that.15.0024 = 6. instead of doing such work.S diagram have their uses. In the former. In fact.9 at 10 bar a to 0. The difference is that the steam issuing from a nozzle will next meet a turbine wheel and gladly give up its kinetic energy to turn the turbine. but neither would have been possible had the concept of entropy not been utilised.3. then somewhere downstream of the valve's seat.S diagram is not at all convenient for showing this effect. this seems strange to those who are used to steam getting drier or becoming superheated during an expansion.1. 2.9316 2.1389 1.76 6. as happens when steam passes through. In a control valve. (if superheated.16. but the Mollier diagram (the H S diagram) can do so quite clearly. or a pressure reducing valve. the steam is usually either dried or superheated.9316 + 4.1389 + 4.16. The Mollier diagram can depict both an isenthalpic expansion as experienced by a control valve. To provide this energy. The T .3 A T-S diagram showing wetter steam from an isentropic expansion At first.1.1413 0.Its Practical Use Module 2. and reproduced below in Figure 2. a pressure reducing valve.8285 = 6.16 2. a nozzle could be thought of as a device to convert heat energy into kinetic energy for this very purpose. and gaining kinetic energy.16.8718 dry 2.7) by moving horizontally down to a lower pressure.S diagram and H . 'How does the steam know if it is to behave in an isenthalpic or isentropic fashion?' Clearly. when the kinetic energy appears as heat energy.6) by moving horizontally across the graph to a lower pressure. and an isentropic expansion as experienced by steam passing through a nozzle.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy.9316 + 4.S diagram. . as the steam accelerates and rushes through the narrowest part of the restriction (the throat of a nozzle. the steam is slowed down to something near its initial velocity. the steam simply slows down in the valve outlet passages and its connecting pipework.15 and The T . and unwittingly goes on its way to give up this heat at a lower pressure.9 dry 1. This perhaps begs the question.15. or the adjustable gap between the valve and seat in a control valve) it must behave the same in either case.4471 = 6.16. a little of the steam condenses (if saturated steam).586 1.

9 .The Steam and Condensate Loop 2.16.

)A-.3 m3/kg.( 3 7. had the initial state point been 100% dry saturated steam at 10 bar. 5 40 .1389 .( &)µ( &-D( &()' *0' . =1. '.S diagram shown in Figure 2.74 . What can be done to reduce noise in valves operating under critical conditions? ) C&( '@% A)+A(& -. the orifice area is known to be 50 mm2.( &0/(\$.< 1. From the T .( &)'0\$)'(5 @)'(\$ +-.()'(5 \$(=-%.1.8 µ1& 5 400 µ1& 6. '. = > * 2.( &)'0\$)'(5 &'()µ +-. What is the velocity of steam passing through the valve orifice? ) 416. 5 ?. ) .<1. What is the mass flowrate? ) B\$-'-3)+ 1+%@ * 200. A pressure control valve is set to reduce and maintain pressure from 10 bar g to 7 bar g.<1.= ) +)\$=(\$ *%54 3 C&( ) A)+A( @-'.Block 2 Steam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Entropy . In a steam control valve.76 . the heat drop from the initial condition to that at the valve throat is calculated to be 50 ki/kg.( * C&( ) A)+A( @-'. &(\$-(& -.1D The Steam and Condensate Loop . * ?.16.23 µ1& 3 2%. '\$-µ 5 E. In Question 3.16. The velocity through the valve orifice at full-load is 400 m/s. From the T .%-&( )''(.1413 .Its Practical Use Module 2.16 Questions 1.-3 A(+%3-'4 4. 5. =1.01 . = > 5 6. in which region would the final state point have been? ) 7.( 3.S diagram shown in Figure 2. What is the velocity through the orifice at half-load? ) 200 µ1& * 800 µ1& 3 282.< 1.-3 A(+%3-'4 5 20/(\$&%.= > 2.1. = > 3 6. what would have been its specific entropy? ) 6.( @(' &'()µ \$(=-%. had the initial state point been 100% dry saturated steam at 10 bar.( )*%A( Answers z. '.0)'-%. =1.586 . and the specific volume of steam at the downstream pressure is 0.4 %1 '. 3 189.65 µ1& * 316.16. and the final pressure 6 bar.&'()5 %1 %.