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GALLIAN JOSEPH

Weird

Dice

a person with ho Consequently, tels on the orange property St. James a per ordinary pair of dice. Well, there are five possibilities for the two faces:

you are in the middle of Imagine a game of and some monopoly one substitutes a pair of dice la with beled 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4 and 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 for the standard dice. Does this change the game in any way? The first thing that comes tomind is that the probabilities for the vari ous sums might be different. Supris ingly, this is not the case. Figure 1 re

off. In fact, this small change in the probabilities for certain doubles us ing weird dice causes St. James Place tomove up from the 10th most fre quently landed space to the 6th most landed on space whereas Virginia

with the weird dice! Moreover, son that owns the maroon property

Next, we consider the product of the two polynomials created by using the ordinary dice labels as exponents:

Observe that using the distribu tive property we pick up the term _ x6 in this produce in precisely the follow

JU , JU _,,_.._, I**

veals that the frequencies of the pos sible sums are exactly the same for either pair of dice (1 way to roll a sum of 2; 2 ways to roll a sum of 3, etc.) of Because this

JU , Ju x5. Notice

Ju ,

dice does not effect the game. But recall that one of the rules is that of monopoly if a player is in jail he/she rolls doubles then the player advances the number of spaces shown on

4 5

p?, I?J

HI

l ?IU ?1

* * I

x1

that

4567

5 6 7 8

[~T| |yjj

_ 1**1_

2

4

3

5

3

5

445

6

7 8

~

6

7 8

~

7

8 9

~

_ dence sums

6

^~ 7

7

8

8

9

9

10

5

6

6

7

6

7

is one-to-one, and all dice?

[X] _^_

8

_I_I_I_I

10 11

12

1-'?

10 11

9 10 ff7*] U ! I_I_I_

[TT]

8

10

10

and it is valid for all including our weird dice and any other

_I_I_I

the the dice. With standard dice each of the sums 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 has a 1/36 chance of occurring as the re sult of a double. With the weird dice the sums 2 and 8 have a 1/36 chance of occurring; the sums 4, 10 and 12 have a 0 chance; and the sum 6 has a 1/18 chance.

JOSEPH GALLIAN is professor of math ematics at the University of Minnesota Duluth. He recendy won one of the MAA's Distinguished Teaching Awards.

in the rankings. These weird dice raise two inter esting mathematical questions: How were the labels derived and are there other weird labels consisting of posi tive integers? It is possible to answer these questions with a simple analy sis. To do so we begin by finding a way tomodel summing the faces of a pair of dice. First, let us ask ourselves how we may obtain a sum of 6, say, with an

desired probabil - ities. So, letai, a2, 03, 04, a5, a$ and 6i, 62, 63* &4> &5> &6 be any two lists of positive inte ger labels for a pair of cubes with the property that the probability of sum with these rolling any particular dice is the same as the probability of rolling that sum with ordinary dice labeled 1 through 6. Using our ob of polyno

30

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Illustration byGregNemec t=

That +

is, lae = 6

When

1,

x(xbl + x62 + x63 + xb4 + xb5 + xbe). Now all we have to do is solve this equation for the a's and 6's. How can we solve one equation in 8 un knowns? You didn't learn this in high school but you did spend much of your efforts factoring. So, let's fac tor the left-hand side of the equa tion. The polynomial x6 + x5 + x4 + x3 + x2 + x factors uniquely into ir reducibles as

so the die labels are 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1? an ordinary die. When t = 2,

l?2r3'l*.

that r = 1 and Clearly, this means 5 = 1. What about q? Evaluating in two ways just as we did for P(0)

P(x)

= x8 + x6+ x5 + x4 + x3+ x,

P(l)

so that the left-hand side of the equa tion has the irreducible factorization

2, the smallest pos could roll with the labels for dice would corresponding be 3 since q is the smallest of the a's and the smallest permissible b is 1. Because the sum of 2 is possi ble with ordinary dice this violates our assumption about the dice hav = 2 ing equal probabilities. Thus, q is not permissible. We have now re duced our list of possibilities for q9 r, 5, and t to q = 1, r = 1, s = 1, and t= 0,1,2. Let's consider each of these possibilities for t in turn. When t = 0,

so the die labels are 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 1? the other weird die. Thus we have derived the weird dice labels and proved that they are the only other pair of dice that have this property. We invite the reader to investigate the analogous questions for the tetra hedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron dice. For the an swers see [1] and [2].

This means that these factors are the irreducible factors of only possible = xai + xa2 + xa3 4- xa4 + xa* + P(x) xae. Thus, P(x) has the form

where 0 < g, r, s, t < 2. To further restrict the possibilities in for q, r, s, and twe evaluate P(l)

P(x)

Duane. (1979). "Re the faces of Mathe dice," numbering vol. 52, 312-315. maticsMagazine, 2. Gallian, Joseph A. and David Rusin. (1979). "Cyclotomic polyno mials and nonstandard dice," Discrete Mathematics, vol. 27, 245-259.

References 1. Broline,

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