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Doppler Principles

Rachel Lin GI-US-CAS

Optimization of Color
By Angela Spink

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What is Sensitivity?

Sensitivity
Defined as the sampling rate per scan line Also called Ensemble length High sensitivity provides better color fill and edge detection in small vessels However, frame rate decreases

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Sensitivity
Temporal resolution Spatial resolution Uniformity

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Sensitivity Relationships

Temporal resolution Spatial resolution

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Temporal Resolution
Frame rate determined by number of lines per frame Number of lines per frame determined by ensemble length Compromise between accurate color estimation and frame rate

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Spatial resolution
Axial
Defined by sampling time interval Compromise with velocity estimate accuracy

Lateral
Defined by beam width and line density

Spatial filtering diminishes random color variations Pixels only coded if neighboring pixels were previously coded

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TRADE OFFs
SPATIAL RESOLUTION TEMPORAL RESOLUTION

Decrease PRF Increase Color Sensitivity Increase Color Line density

Decrease Frame Rate Decrease Frame Rate Decrease Frame Rate

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Methods to Increase Sensitivity

Reduce the field depth Decrease color filter Decrease PRF Increase color gain Increase color line density Increase system power Use higher frequency transducer
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Methods to Increase Frame Rate

Reduced Doppler frequency Increase PRF Decrease color Box size Change transducer position to minimize depth Decrease sensitivity Decrease persistence

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Initial Adjustments
Select appropriate probe for application Frame rate and sensitivity is a compromise Need to consider lower frequency if scanning at depth Sector probe better penetration than curvilinear Select appropriate TSI Sensitivities are set for fast/slow flow and depth

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Initial Adjustments
Optimize the color box Narrow the sector width to improve frame rate Steer box to obtain optimal Doppler angle
Straight angle can improve sensitivity at depth, e.g vertebral artery

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Color Doppler Imaging


Steer

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Adjustment of main Settings


COLOR GAIN Set as high as possible without displaying random speckle If set too low: under-estimation of large flow disturbances Level of gain will vary when other parameters are changed

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Adjustment of main Settings


VELOCITY RANGE Scale or PRF controls range of velocities displayed Low velocity range will delineate stenotic jets Increasing range changes point at which aliasing occurs PRF can be reduced below a diagnostic level causing loss of sensitivity and slow frame rates

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Adjustment of main settings


ALIASING occurs the color wraps to the opposite color this aids in placement of sample volume

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Color Doppler Imaging


Echo Write Priority

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Color Power Angio


CPA

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Color Power Angio


Directional CPA (DCPA)

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Color Power Angio


DCPA Mode

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Chris Sanchez, Boulder CO, USA

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Optimizing the Doppler

Phillip Medical System Rachael Lin

Basic Doppler Principles

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What is the Doppler Effect?

Based on work by Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler

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What is the Doppler Effect?

Apparent change in received frequency due to relative motion between a sound source and sound receiver
Source moving TOWARD receiver = Source moving AWAY from receiver = frequency frequency

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Still Sound Source

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Still Sound Source

Both hear same frequency carrier frequency

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Moving Sound Source

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The Doppler Effect


Decreased Frequency

Source moving AWAY


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The Doppler Effect


Increased Frequency

Source moving TOWARDS


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The Doppler Equation


TheDoppler shift (frequency) is equal to twice the velocity of the moving object, multiplied by cos of the angle at which it is moving relative to the observer, divided by the speed of the carrier wave (light/sound, etc)
Doppler Shift = 2 v f cos C

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Doppler Equation
The velocity of the moving object can be calculated from the Doppler frequency! But remember that cos

This is why angle correction is so important! cos 60 = 0.5

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Spectral Doppler
Angle Correct

Angle Correction

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Spectral Doppler
Steer
Steer

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Spectral Doppler
Steer

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Spectral Doppler
Screen Information

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Spectral Doppler
Sample Volume Size

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Doppler Display
The spectral waveform represents the audible signal and provides information about the direction of the flow how fast the flow is traveling (velocity) the quality of the flow (normal vs. abnormal)

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The Direction of Flow


Flow coming TOWARD the scanhead is represented above the baseline Flow traveling AWAY from the scanhead is represented below the baseline

Zero Baseline

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The Direction of Flow

< 90 towards
the transducer = positive flow

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The Direction of Flow

Cos 90 = 0 = no Doppler shift

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The Direction of Flow

< 90 degrees away


from the transducer = negative flow

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Spectral Doppler
Flow Direction
Flow towards the transducer

Flow away from the transducer

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Velocity of Flow
Measuring the spectral trace provides information about velocity of flow

Freq/Velocity Time

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Velocity of Flow

cm/s

cm/s

Faster Flow

Slower Flow

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What if the velocity is too high to display?


This effect is called ALIASING The Doppler sample rate (PRF) is not adequate for high frequency shifts

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What if the velocity is too high to display?


The peaks are cut off and displayed below baseline from the bottom up

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Quality of Flow
Other more complex measurements of the trace provide values such as Resistive Index (RI) Pulsatility Index (PI) Systolic/Diastolic Ratio (S/D ratio) Acceleration and Deceleration Times

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Spectral Analysis
Each of these measurements has a normal range of values for specific clinical applications The amount of disease present is based on these calculated values Also, the ENVELOPE or WINDOW provides information about the quality of flow

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Spectral Analysis

Low Resistance Waveform


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Spectral Analysis

High Resistance Waveform


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Spectral Doppler
High Q

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Clinical Uses of Doppler


Vascular Carotid Artery Stenosis Peripheral Artery and Vein Disease (legs & arms) TCD (Transcranial Doppler) Cardiology Valve Disease Cardiac function

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Clinical Uses of Doppler


Abdominal Renal Artery Stenosis Portal Vein Flow Tumor Flow (RI, PI, etc.) to evaluate benign vs. malignant

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Clinical Uses of Doppler


Small Parts (thyroid, testicle, breast, prostate) Tumor Flow (RI, PI, etc.) to evaluate benign vs. malignant OB/Gyn Ovarian Cancer Screening Placental, Circle of Willis, Umbilical Cord for fetal growth disorders Fetal Heart Abnormalities

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What defines a good Doppler display?


Minimal background noise Clean window/envelope in normal flow states Clear audible signal Accurate display of velocities

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Clinical Challenges with Doppler


Obtaining the appropriate Doppler angle Doppler in deep vessels/large patients Displaying high PRFs found in abnormal flow states without aliasing (PW Doppler)

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