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HES5340 Fluid Mechanics 2

Faculty of Engineering, Computing & Science


Swinburne University of Technology
Sarawak Campus
Surface Resistance
Examples

From
Roberson, J .A., Crowe, C.T., Engineering Fluid
Mechanics, 9th Edn., J ohn Wiley
Example 1
An aluminum cube of density 2,700 kg/m
3
slides with
a constant speed of 20 cm/s down a plate that is at an
angle of 30 with respect to the horizontal. The plate is
covered with a stationary layer of 0.1-mm-thick oil of
dynamic viscosity 0.008 N-s/m
2
. The cube has a
dimensions of L x L x L. Find L.
Example 1
3 3
Weight of cube is
Al Al
W L L g = =
3
Force balance in x-direction
30 30
shear Al
F W sin L sin = =
2
3 2
Shear Force is also written as
Therefore,
30 and
shear
Al
F L
V
L sin L
h


=
= =
3 2
Hence,
30
30
Al
Al
V V
L sin L L
h h sin

= =

( )
02
0008 119 mm
000012700 981 30
.
L . .
. . sin
= =

Example 1
Example 2
Air with a kinematic viscosity of 15.1 x 10
-6
m
2
/s, a
density of 1.2 kg/m
3
and a free stream velocity of 30
m/s flows over a 0.8-m-long by 0.2-m wide flat plate.
Find the wall shear stress at a horizontal distance of
0.5 m. Also, find the shear force on the top side of the
plate.
Example 2
6 2
What is the local Reynold's number?
30 m/s 05 m
993400
151 10 m/s
x
Vx .
Re ,
v .

= = =

Laminar or turbulent?
993400 500000 Turbulent at this location
x
Re , , =
Example 2
( ) [ [
( )
( )
2
2
05 m
3 2 2 2
Therefore, the local shear stress coefficient is
0455
0003763
006
The local shear stress is calculated as
1
2
12 kg/m 30 m/s
0003763
2
203 Pa
f
x
x . f
.
c .
ln . Re
c V
.
.
.

=
= =
=

=
=
Example 2
6 2
How to find shear force of the top side?
We are now interested in the averaged shear stress
NOT local values
30 m/s 08 m
1589000
151 10 m/s
Laminar & Turbulent for the whole plate
Therefo
L
VL .
Re , ,
v .

=
=

= = =

( ) [ [
2
re, the average shear stress coefficient is
0523 1520
0003022
006
f
L
L
.
C .
Re
ln . Re
= =
Example 2
( )
( )
( )
2
3 2 2 2
The average shear stress on the top is calculated as
1
2
12 kg/m 30 m/s
0003022 08 m 02 m
2
0261 N
Top
shear L f
F Lw C V Lw
.
. . .
.
= =

=
=
Example 3
Assuming that drag is entirely due to skin-friction drag,
find the drag force and power for a person swimming.
Assume that the human body can be represented as a
submerged, thin, flat plate of dimension (30 cm) x
(180 cm) with drag occurring on both sides of the
plate. Use a swimming speed of 1.5 m/s, a water
density of 1000 kg/m
3
and a dynamic viscosity of
0.00131 N-s/m
2
.
Example 3
( )
2
6 2
The total shear force acting on body
(or skin-friction drag) is
1
2 2
2
Reynold's number for the body is
1.5 m/s 08 m
2061000
131 10 m/s
Top Bottom
D shear L f
L
F F Lw C V Lw
VL .
Re , ,
v .

= = =

= = =

Example 3
( ) [ [
( )
( )
( )
2
2
3 2 2 2
2061000 Laminar & Turbulent
Therefore, the average shear stress coefficient is
0523 1520
000307
006
Drag is then calculated as
1
2
2
1000 kg/m 15 m/s
2 000307 18 m 03 m
2
L
f
L
L
D f
Re , ,
.
C .
Re
ln . Re
F C V Lw
.
. . .

=
= =
=

=
373 N . =
Example 3
( ) ( )
Power is
373 N 15 m/s 560 W
D
P F V . . . = = =
Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)
An airplane wing of 2 m chord length (leading edge to
trailing edge distance) and 11 m span flies at 200
km/hr in air at 30C. Assume that the resistance of
the wing surfaces is like that of a flat plate.

a. What is the friction drag on the wing?
b. What power is required to overcome this?
c. How much of the chord is laminar?
d. What will be the change in drag if a turbulent
boundary layer is tripped at the leading edge?
Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)
( ) ( )
( )
5 2 3
0
0
6
5
At 30 C, 16 10 m/s, 117 kg/m
Velocity in [m/s] is
200 km/hr 1000 m/km
5556 m/s
3600 s/hr
Reynolds number is
5556 2
69 10
16 10
v . .
,
U .
,
U L
.
Re .
v .

= =

= =

= = =

Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)


( )
( )
2
2
0
0
Shear Force
0523 1520
000290
006
1
2 surfaces 230 N (a)
2
Power is then
1278 kW (b)
f
L L
s f
s
.
C .
ln . Re Re
F C BL U
P FU .

= =
= =
= =
Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)
0
5
5
0
Laminar part of the chord
5 10
5 10 014 m
Percentage of laminar = 100
014
100 7 (c)
2
cr
cr
cr
cr
U x
Re
v
v
x .
U
x
%
L
.
% %
= =
= =

= =
Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)
1 5
If boundary layer is tripped
0074
000317
000317
1093 or 9.3% increase (d)
000290
f
/
tripped
normal
.
C .
Re
F
.
.
F .
= =
= =
Example 5
A bearing uses SAE 30 oil
with a viscosity of 0.1 N-
s/m
2
. The bearing is 30
mm in diameter, and the
gap between the shaft and
the casing is 1 mm. The
bearing has a length of 1
cm. The shaft turns at =
200 rad/s. Assuming that
the flow between the shaft
and the casing is a
Couette flow, find the
torque required to turn the
bearing.
Example 5
( )
( )
( )
2
For Couette flow we can write
0
Torque is then given as
2
2
What is velocity?
V
du
dr
T A r rL r
V
T r L
V r

= =
= =
=
=
Example 5
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 3
2
3
3
2 2
01 N-s/m
2 200 rad/s 0014 m 001 m
0001 m
345 10 N-m
r
T r L r L
.
. .
.
.

= =
=
=
Example 6
An engineer is designing a very thin, horizontal
channel for cooling electronic circuitry. The channel is 2
cm wide and 5 cm long. The distance between the
plates is 0.2 mm. The average velocity is 5 cm/s. The
fluid used has a viscosity of 1.2x10
-3
N-s/m
2
and a
density of 800 kg/m
3
. Assuming no change in viscosity
or density, find the pressure drop in the channel and
the power required to move the flow through the
channel.
Example 6
( )
( )
( )
( )( )( )
3
3 2
2
2
Discharge per unit width
12
12
12 12 10 N-s/m 005 m/s
00002 m
18000 Pa/m
Power to move the fluid is
00002 m 002 m 18000 Pa/m 005 m 005
avg
avg
avg avg avg
dp
B
q V B
ds
V
dp
. .
ds B
.
,
dp
P F V A p V A s V
ds
. . , . .

= =

= =
=
= = =
= ( )
4
m/s
18 10 W .

=