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Original Title: Topic 1 Surface Resistance Examples

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Swinburne University of Technology

Sarawak Campus

Surface Resistance

Examples

From

Roberson, J .A., Crowe, C.T., Engineering Fluid

Mechanics, 9th Edn., J ohn Wiley

Example 1

An aluminum cube of density 2,700 kg/m

3

slides with

a constant speed of 20 cm/s down a plate that is at an

angle of 30 with respect to the horizontal. The plate is

covered with a stationary layer of 0.1-mm-thick oil of

dynamic viscosity 0.008 N-s/m

2

. The cube has a

dimensions of L x L x L. Find L.

Example 1

3 3

Weight of cube is

Al Al

W L L g = =

3

Force balance in x-direction

30 30

shear Al

F W sin L sin = =

2

3 2

Shear Force is also written as

Therefore,

30 and

shear

Al

F L

V

L sin L

h

=

= =

3 2

Hence,

30

30

Al

Al

V V

L sin L L

h h sin

= =

( )

02

0008 119 mm

000012700 981 30

.

L . .

. . sin

= =

Example 1

Example 2

Air with a kinematic viscosity of 15.1 x 10

-6

m

2

/s, a

density of 1.2 kg/m

3

and a free stream velocity of 30

m/s flows over a 0.8-m-long by 0.2-m wide flat plate.

Find the wall shear stress at a horizontal distance of

0.5 m. Also, find the shear force on the top side of the

plate.

Example 2

6 2

What is the local Reynold's number?

30 m/s 05 m

993400

151 10 m/s

x

Vx .

Re ,

v .

= = =

Laminar or turbulent?

993400 500000 Turbulent at this location

x

Re , , =

Example 2

( ) [ [

( )

( )

2

2

05 m

3 2 2 2

Therefore, the local shear stress coefficient is

0455

0003763

006

The local shear stress is calculated as

1

2

12 kg/m 30 m/s

0003763

2

203 Pa

f

x

x . f

.

c .

ln . Re

c V

.

.

.

=

= =

=

=

=

Example 2

6 2

How to find shear force of the top side?

We are now interested in the averaged shear stress

NOT local values

30 m/s 08 m

1589000

151 10 m/s

Laminar & Turbulent for the whole plate

Therefo

L

VL .

Re , ,

v .

=

=

= = =

( ) [ [

2

re, the average shear stress coefficient is

0523 1520

0003022

006

f

L

L

.

C .

Re

ln . Re

= =

Example 2

( )

( )

( )

2

3 2 2 2

The average shear stress on the top is calculated as

1

2

12 kg/m 30 m/s

0003022 08 m 02 m

2

0261 N

Top

shear L f

F Lw C V Lw

.

. . .

.

= =

=

=

Example 3

Assuming that drag is entirely due to skin-friction drag,

find the drag force and power for a person swimming.

Assume that the human body can be represented as a

submerged, thin, flat plate of dimension (30 cm) x

(180 cm) with drag occurring on both sides of the

plate. Use a swimming speed of 1.5 m/s, a water

density of 1000 kg/m

3

and a dynamic viscosity of

0.00131 N-s/m

2

.

Example 3

( )

2

6 2

The total shear force acting on body

(or skin-friction drag) is

1

2 2

2

Reynold's number for the body is

1.5 m/s 08 m

2061000

131 10 m/s

Top Bottom

D shear L f

L

F F Lw C V Lw

VL .

Re , ,

v .

= = =

= = =

Example 3

( ) [ [

( )

( )

( )

2

2

3 2 2 2

2061000 Laminar & Turbulent

Therefore, the average shear stress coefficient is

0523 1520

000307

006

Drag is then calculated as

1

2

2

1000 kg/m 15 m/s

2 000307 18 m 03 m

2

L

f

L

L

D f

Re , ,

.

C .

Re

ln . Re

F C V Lw

.

. . .

=

= =

=

=

373 N . =

Example 3

( ) ( )

Power is

373 N 15 m/s 560 W

D

P F V . . . = = =

Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)

An airplane wing of 2 m chord length (leading edge to

trailing edge distance) and 11 m span flies at 200

km/hr in air at 30C. Assume that the resistance of

the wing surfaces is like that of a flat plate.

a. What is the friction drag on the wing?

b. What power is required to overcome this?

c. How much of the chord is laminar?

d. What will be the change in drag if a turbulent

boundary layer is tripped at the leading edge?

Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)

( ) ( )

( )

5 2 3

0

0

6

5

At 30 C, 16 10 m/s, 117 kg/m

Velocity in [m/s] is

200 km/hr 1000 m/km

5556 m/s

3600 s/hr

Reynolds number is

5556 2

69 10

16 10

v . .

,

U .

,

U L

.

Re .

v .

= =

= =

= = =

( )

( )

2

2

0

0

Shear Force

0523 1520

000290

006

1

2 surfaces 230 N (a)

2

Power is then

1278 kW (b)

f

L L

s f

s

.

C .

ln . Re Re

F C BL U

P FU .

= =

= =

= =

Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)

0

5

5

0

Laminar part of the chord

5 10

5 10 014 m

Percentage of laminar = 100

014

100 7 (c)

2

cr

cr

cr

cr

U x

Re

v

v

x .

U

x

%

L

.

% %

= =

= =

= =

Example 4 (From Tutorial Question 9)

1 5

If boundary layer is tripped

0074

000317

000317

1093 or 9.3% increase (d)

000290

f

/

tripped

normal

.

C .

Re

F

.

.

F .

= =

= =

Example 5

A bearing uses SAE 30 oil

with a viscosity of 0.1 N-

s/m

2

. The bearing is 30

mm in diameter, and the

gap between the shaft and

the casing is 1 mm. The

bearing has a length of 1

cm. The shaft turns at =

200 rad/s. Assuming that

the flow between the shaft

and the casing is a

Couette flow, find the

torque required to turn the

bearing.

Example 5

( )

( )

( )

2

For Couette flow we can write

0

Torque is then given as

2

2

What is velocity?

V

du

dr

T A r rL r

V

T r L

V r

= =

= =

=

=

Example 5

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

2 3

2

3

3

2 2

01 N-s/m

2 200 rad/s 0014 m 001 m

0001 m

345 10 N-m

r

T r L r L

.

. .

.

.

= =

=

=

Example 6

An engineer is designing a very thin, horizontal

channel for cooling electronic circuitry. The channel is 2

cm wide and 5 cm long. The distance between the

plates is 0.2 mm. The average velocity is 5 cm/s. The

fluid used has a viscosity of 1.2x10

-3

N-s/m

2

and a

density of 800 kg/m

3

. Assuming no change in viscosity

or density, find the pressure drop in the channel and

the power required to move the flow through the

channel.

Example 6

( )

( )

( )

( )( )( )

3

3 2

2

2

Discharge per unit width

12

12

12 12 10 N-s/m 005 m/s

00002 m

18000 Pa/m

Power to move the fluid is

00002 m 002 m 18000 Pa/m 005 m 005

avg

avg

avg avg avg

dp

B

q V B

ds

V

dp

. .

ds B

.

,

dp

P F V A p V A s V

ds

. . , . .

= =

= =

=

= = =

= ( )

4

m/s

18 10 W .

=

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