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common name








tsaang gubat Ehretia microphylla Lam. Carmona retusa Masam. (Boraginacea e)

ulasimang bato Peperomia pellucida Linn. (Piperacea e)

yerba buena Clinopodiu m douglasii Mentha arvensis Linn. (Labiateae)

botanical origin

Cassia alata Linn. (Fabaceae)

Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitacea e)

Allium sativum Linn. (Liliaceae )

Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtacea e)

Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenacea e)

Quisqualis indica Linn. (Combretacea e)

Blumea balsamifera Linn. (Asteracea e)

ontogeni c factors half woody, strongly aromatic shrub, densely and softly hairy, 1 to 4 m high simple, alternate, elliptic- to oblonglanceolate, 7 to 20 cm long, toothed at the margins, pointed or blunt at the tip, narrowing to a short petiole which are often auricled or appendage d up to 2.5 cm in erect, branched, annual herb, shallow rooted; up to 40 cm high, with very succulent stems prostrate, smooth, muchbranched, usually purplish, strongly aromatic herb

overall external features

coarse, erect, branched shrub; 1.5 to 3 meters high

climbing vine

low herb, 30 to 60 cm high

hairy plant; up to 8 m high

erect, branched tree or shrub, 2 to 5 m high

large climbing, woody shrub; up to 2 to 8 m in length; younger parts have brown hairs

erect, very branched shrub growing up to 1 to 4 m high


pinnate and 40 to 60 cm long; each leaf has 16 to 28 leaflets, broad and rounded at the apex, with a small point at the tip

2.5 to 10 cm in diameter, cut nearly to the base into 5 to 7 lobes, oblong-ovate, variously toothed, and heart-shaped at the base

linear and flat

opposite, oblong to elliptic, and 5 to 10 cm long, the apex being pointed, and the base usually rounded

5-foliate, rarely with 3 leaflets only, and palmately arranged; leaflets are lanceolate, entire, 4 to 10 cm long, slightly hairy beneath, and pointed at both ends, the middle leaflets being larger than the others, and distinctly stalked

oblong to elliptic, opposite, 7 to 15 cm long, rounded at the base and pointed at the tip

in clusters on short branches, obovate to oblongobovate, 3 to 6 cm long, entire or somewhat toothed or lobed near the apex and pointed at the base, short stalked and rough on the upper surface

alternate, heartshaped and turgid, as transparent and smooth as candle wax

elliptic to oblongovate, 1.5 to 4 cm long, shortstalked with toothed margins, and rounded or blunt tipped



young branches

round, often ~5 mm

up to 40 cm long,

are 4angled


thick; spikes are green, erect, very slender, 1 to 6 cm long

with ultimate ascending terminal branches



yellow, about 4 cm in diameter, at the axils of bracts; inflorescence s are terminal and at the axils of the leaves, in simple or panicled racemes

male flower is ~12 mm long, peduncled, with a rounded, green, and ~1 cm long bract approx. at the middle; female flower is yellow, ~15 mm long, longstalked with pair of small leaflike bracts at middle or toward base of stalk green, fleshy, oblong, cylindric, 15 to 25 cm long,

(bulb??) bulbs are broadly ovoid, 2 to 4 cm in diameter, consistin g of several, densely crowded, angular and truncated tubers umbels are globose, many flowered; sepals are oblong, greenish white, slightly tinged with purple; stamens are not exerted from the perianth

peduncles are 1- to 3flowered; white, 3 to 3.5 cm across, with incurved petals, coming out solitary or two to three in the leaf axils; numerous stamens inferior ovaries develop into round

numerous, blue to lavender, 6 to 7 mm long; terminal inflorescence (panicles) 10 to 20 cm long; calyx is hairy, and 5toothed; corolla is densely hairy, and the middle lobe of lower lip is longest succulent drupe, globose, black when

fragrant, tubular, showy, first white, then becoming red, reddish-purple or orange, exhibiting the range of colors in clusters, on the same flower stalk

peripheral flowers are tiny, more numerous, with tubular corolla; central flowers are few, large with campanulat e corolla


narrowly ellipsoid, 2.5 to 3 cm long, with 5 sharp,

involucral bracts are green, narrow and

white, small, axillary, solitary, 2 or 4 on a common stalk, borne in inflorescence s shorter than the leaves; calyx are green, somewhat hairy, and linear, ~5 to 6 mm long; corolla is white, 5 mm long, and divided into oblong lobes drupe, rounded, yellow when ripe, 4 to 5

tiny dot-like flowers scattered along solitary and leafopposed stalk

hairy and purplish to bluish, borne in axillary headlike whorls; calyx teeth are triangular or lanceolate and hairy; corolla is hairy

pointed at both ends, ribbed and wrinkled, bursting when mature to release seeds (cultivated); ovoid, ~2 to 4 cm long (wild)

or obovoid green fruits 4 to 9 cm long, turning yellow on ripening; have edible, aromatic, seedy pulp

ripe, about 4 mm in diameter

longitudinal angles or wings

hairy; achenes, dry, 1seeded, 10ribbed, hairy at top

mm in diameter, fleshy, with a 4-seeded stone, fleshy on the outer part, and stony inside


oblong, compressed 10 to 13 mm long, corrugated on the margins leaves, seeds, and flowers leaves, roots, and fruits bulbs leaves, bark, fruit, flowers, and roots leaves, bark, roots, and seeds

pentagonal and black

part/s used

seeds (dried nuts) and leaves

leaves, and young roots before flowering


leaves and stems

leaves and stems