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PAK-US RELATIONS IN 21ST CENTURY: CHALENGES AND

OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN


After the September 11 attacks on United States the whole scenario of world politics has been changed. US had to suffer a large number of casualties of its people. The Al-Qaida was blamed for those attacks and US wanted to take revenge and to punish Al-Qaeda for this offence. President ush declares war against terrorism and decided to attack Afghanistan where !sama in "aden and his companions were hiding. #n this entire scenario$ Pakistan got the pivotal importance because Afghanistan is a land lock countr% and without help from Pakistani side no countr% could attack and capture it. So it &oined US in war against terrorism and has suffered a lot of damages as a US all% in this war. The war on terrorism is still going on$ and Pakistan stands in the middle but without its support US could not control the whole situation. US has been demanding from Pakistan all kind of support. 'irst (usharraf agreed to provide it and now President )ardari is also following his path. This war against terrorism brought ma&or shift in US polic% towards Pakistan. All the sanctions were promised to be lifted$ economic and militar% aid also given to Pakistan continuousl%. *istor% repeats itself$ and once again Pakistan became a closer all% of US. Presentl% the Afghanistan has become the centre of the great game$ so the future of Afghanistan poses a threat to Pakistan. #t is feared that after US withdrawal from Afghanistan none will be there to control the government. #t is a big +uestion to answer that what will be the nature of relationship between Pakistan and US after this withdrawal. Terrorism is an illegal act of aggression against an% innocent individual or people at large. The main ob&ect of the person that commits an act of terror is to frighten other$ and tries to get the desire result from that fear. ,arious organisations and states are also involved in this brutal act. The main reason of terrorism is also that the world communit% failed to formulate an% concrete and final definition of terrorism that is accepted b% all communities of the world. #n that scenario it is a chance that the hero of one nation might be foe for other. The US department of state and -#A defines terrorism as. /Premeditated$ politicall% motivated violence perpetrated against non combatants targets b% subnational groups or clandestine agents$ usuall% intended to influence an audience0 The terrorism in the real sense means an% kind of threat or act of aggression against the people who did not do this to counter it and the% were innocent people.

The 9/11 attack :


#t was a bright sunn% morning in the American cit% of 1ew 2ork. The people were bus% in their routine work. Previous to that da%$ September 11 was not a special da% for the citi3en of US 4hile in future that da% would become the most important da% for the people of America. 4hen the clocks were at 5. 67 am$ an American airline which named as oeing 898 tore into the north tower of the 4orld Trade -entre :4T-;. That tower was a s%mbol of American giant econom%. After the first crash nobod% knows that$ this was onl% the begging. Shortl% after first plane hit the 1orth tower another oeing 898 of United Airlines flight no 187 crashed into the South tower of 4orld Trade -entre. The fire broke up and a large number of people in those towers and also on the streets were killed. The third plane which named flight 88 crashed into the Pentagon building$ which is a s%mbol of American militar% power. That third plane crashed killed 96 people on board and 1<7 inside the building. The forth and last plane crashed in Penns%lvania$ 66 people which were in the plane were killed$ and also the crew members of the plane and hi&ackers. #t was confirmed later that the passengers fought with the hi&ackers in the plane$ that=s wh% the hi&ackers could not succeeded to destro% their perceived target that was the 4hite *ouse uilding

THE US RESPONSE O!ER 9/11 ATTACKS:


#t was the most tragic event in the histor% of US According to few people$ that incident was compared with the Pearl *arbour incident :>apan attacked over pearl harbour$ and killed a large number of people. that heap on the 4orld 4ar <.; that shocking and ver% sad incident of ?@11 killed more than ABBB people and economic loses reaches to a hundred billion dollars. That sad news spread ver% fast into the whole world and especiall% in US The Americans were wanted to take revenge of that incident #mmediatel% after the incident of ?@11$ the US media and the polic% makers in the countr% pointed fingers on to the Al- Qaeda. The% believed with certaint% without an% investigation$ that onl% Al C Qaeda could do this to them. So the Americans wanted to punish the Al- Qaeda and its members for the attack over its people. #t was stated with confidence$ that because Al-Qaeda was involved in bombing of US embassies in Den%a and Tan3ania$ and also had its hand in a small attack over world trade centre before September 11. President Eeorge 4 September 17$ <BB1 President ush stated. /# am going to describe to our leadership what # sawF the wreckage of 1ew 2ork -it%$ the signs of the first battle of war. 4e are going to meet and deliberate and discuss.... but there is no +uestion about it$ ush was also ver% tense and in grief situation at the sad incident of ?@11. The world communit% looking towards ush$ that what he will decided to do. !n

this act will not standF we will find those who did itF we will smoke them out of their holesF we will not onl% deal with those who dare attack America$ we will deal those who harbour them and feed them and house them0 After the ?@11 incident US wanted to get the world communit% support to attack over Al-Qaeda. All the countries of the world believed that being a Super Power US could initiated an attack over militants unilaterall%. #t seems final that US decided to take revenge from terrorist$ but in spite of abilit% to b%pass all other countries of the world and take an action$ US wanted a combine effort in war against terror.

THE U"N # $ORLD CO%%UNITY RESPONSE:


All the members of United 1ation were stunned at the sad incident of ?@11 which killed large number of people. All members of U.1 condemned these terrorist acts and supported the US action against them. The Securit% -ouncil passed three resolutions on different da%s. &" The resolution 1A95 passed on September 1<$ <BB1. &&" The resolution 1A8A was passed b% the Securit% -ouncil on September <5$<BB1. &&&" The third resolution came in on September <5$ <BB1 that numbered as1A88. The U.1 ask for global cooperation on terrorism b% all its member states and also stresses on free3ing of assets b% the terrorist groups involved in the ?@11 :Gi3vi$ <BB7; All the countries of the world supported US in an% kind of effort to punish Al-Qaeda. Afghanistan$ the countr% where it was assumed that masterminds of the ?@11 terrorist attacks$ were hiding had not been with the United States. The Taliban government controlling the Afghanistan had different views. The countries like United Dingdom$ Eerman%$ >apan$ 'rance$ and Australia all are willing to support US on that sad moment. #n South Asia region$ where Afghanistan located$ was also with the US$ #ndia the biggest power in that region was willing to give all kind of support to the coalition forces. 'or the first time in histor% of 1AT!$ it invoked article 7. According to that article of 1AT! an attack on one member state considered as attack on all. Australia also invoked the article 6 of A1)US Treat% :which is a securit% treat% among Australia$ 1ew )eeland and United States; to support the threat that has comeF >apan also gave support to US and deplo%ed naval worships.

PAKISTAN'S ROLE IN (%ISSION END URING FREED O%):


#n a &oint session of congress and to people of US President ush gave a historical statement. /Hver% 1ation$ in ever% region now has a decision to make. Hither %ou are with us$ or %ou are with the

terrorists. After that statement from President ush$ Pakistan faces an immense challenge. US decided to punish the Al-Qaeda and its terrorist who the% think might be involved in attack on 4orld Trade -entre and Pentagon. Pakistan being a neighbouring countr% of Afghanistan had to make some tough decision in the da%s coming ahead. Afghanistan is a land lock countr%F it does not has a link to the sea. #t was ver% difficult to attack Afghanistan without the help from Pakistan. The US after ?@11 incident demanded Al-Qaeda members from Afghanistan. President ush in his address to the nation gave five demands to Taliban. 1. *anded over all Al-Qaeda leaders and members to US <. The US stresses to close all terrorist camps in Afghanistan. A. Eive access to US authorities to verif% the elimination of training camps. 6. Taliban should release all foreigners. 7. Taliban should protect foreign aid workers . The Taliban re&ected those demands. The% are not willing to give !sama to U$S authorities. #n that situation Pakistan=s role becomes ver% crucial. Pakistan sent few people to talk with the Taliban leaders and tries to convince them on demands of US but all went unsuccessful. Taliban re&ected the demands of Pakistan and also the US demands. The Taliban were not willing to hand over !sama in "aden to US. After that US decided to wage a war with Taliban and to punish them. #n that situation US gives a list of demands to Pakistan to cooperate with US. 1. Stop Al-Qaeda operatives at its borders$ stop the arms transfer through Pakistan and also end logistical support to !sama. <. Pakistan should allow the blanket over flight rights to conduct air operations. A. Provide territorial access to the United States. That included the use of naval ports$ air bases$ and strategic location and borders. 6. Pakistan should provide the intelligence support to the US authorities$ about the Taliban and AlQaeda. 7. -ontinue to condemn publicall% the terrorist attacks of 11 September and also an% other act of terror against the US and its coalition partners. 9. -ut off all shipments of fuel and an% other items to the Taliban. 8. Pakistan should cut off all diplomatic ties with the Taliban. The Pakistani President Eeneral Perve3 (usharraf was in Darachi$ when that tragic event of ?@11 happened. *e came back to #slamabad and called the meeting. (usharraf also invited people from various walks of life and consulted with them. The religious leaders were not in favour of acceptance of

those seven demands b% Pakistan. 4hile the people from militar% and civil bureaucrac% insisted on president to accept the demands and to support the US in war against terrorism. (usharraf after consultation with all the people in the countr% and friends outside the countr% decided to support US in war against Al-Qaeda and Taliban and accepted all seven demands. #t was surprising for the Americans$ because the% were eIpecting that Pakistan will not do that ver% easil% and (usharraf will accept one or two demands and can be convinced for one or two later. That=s wh% the US authorities back in United States were not thinking that (usharraf will compromise on one or two ver% serious demands from US. President of Pakistan Eeneral Perve3 (usharraf supported the US coalition partners in 4ar against Terror that decision creates great problems for him. The religious leaders and people in 'ATA and also in other parts of countr% turned against him. The% all stresses that Pakistan should not supported US in that war against a (uslim countr%. (usharraf was targeted more than once b% the militants after taking the decision to support US led coalition forces in 4ar against Terrorism. #n fact the decision from (usharraf=s decision to support US makes more enemies than few friends inside the countr% as well as in the outside world. Eeneral (usharraf in his speech of 1? September <BB1 declared. /Some scholars and religious leaders are inclined towards making emotional decisions.... The% are poised to create dissensions and damage the countr%. There is no reason wh% this minorit% should be allowed to hold the ma&orit% as a hostage0.

PAKISTAN'S $EAKNESS IN NEGOTIATIONS


Pakistan decided to support US and coalition partners in war against terror. 'ew people think that$ the hast% decision from Pakistan to agree upon all seven demands of US shows weakness of Pakistan in negotiation$ these people believed that Pakistan should deal the whole process with easeF it should gain more time to consult with people inside the countr% and round the world. 4hile gaining some time Pakistan could devise its polic% in a more sophisticated wa%. (usharraf should talk to US authorities on nuclear issue and especiall% the Dashmir issue. Through that tactic he might be successful on putting eItra pressure over #ndia to give right of self-determination to the Dashmiri people. #t was stated that after ?@11 US was not in position to confront with Pakistan$ so ultimatel% it had to accept the Pakistani demands. 4ithout help from Pakistan US will never know eIactl% about the Al- Qaeda and Taliban hideouts. So the air operation might not be as successful as it was after the Pakistani support A former US ambassador Tereshita Schaffer is of the view that Pakistan and US have few different goals and agendas concerning the South Asian region. Pakistan and US agreed on the safet% and securit% of Pakistan$ but there are few divergent points in these two countries agendas.

1. The first main point of divergence between Pakistan and US is Dashmir issue$ both countries have their own views on Dashmir$ Pakistan wanted to resolve the Dashmir issue in favour of itself$ while US could not do this because of #ndian pressure. <. Pakistan wanted a clear cut differentiation between the campaign launched inside Afghanistan b% US and its coalition partners and the freedom struggle in Dashmir b% Dashmiri people. The US has its own agenda$ concerning that issue. A. The third main goal of Pakistan is that$ it wanted to establish a friendl% government in Afghanistan after the fall of Taliban regime$ while US &ust wanted to install a stable government after the earl% crisis US Pressure to /Jo (ore0 K Afghan blame game over Pakistan. Pakistan &oined the coalition forces in war against terrorism$ it suffers more than an%bod% else participating in this war. #n spite of all effort from Pakistani side US consistentl% pressurising to /Jo (ore0. The situation for Pakistan is not as simple as the western countries leadership thinks$ Pakistan never sent its militar% inside the tribal areas before. #t was first time in histor% of Pakistan that the tribal elders allow the militar% to come in their areas$ for that reason Pakistan must consider the customs and traditions of tribal people. These tribal areas alwa%s have uni+ue histor%$ the% never bear an% outside pressure$ so it was ver% difficult for Pakistani Arm% and other law enforcement agencies to fulfil the US demand of do more .US alwa%s demanded more troops on the border$ but the realit% is that US itself has a deficienc% of arm% in Afghanistan to control the situation. The other fact is that$ the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan is ver% porous$ there are ver% large mountains$ and it is ver% difficult to secure the border between the two countries. #n fact Pakistan is also suffering$ because Taliban and other terrorist from Afghanistan come into Pakistan and create internal securit% problems for Pakistan. Pakistan alwa%s stresses on Afghanistan to stop the blame game over Pakistan$ and work with coordination to each other to resolve the common problem of terrorism. Pakistan=s President (usharraf categoricall% re&ected the Afghan allegation and urges that Afghanistan must stop the blame game over Pakistan. *e stresses in his address to the communit% and political leaders in his two da%s visit to Afghanistan /-ertainl%$ # completel% agreed that Al - Qaeda and the Taliban are operating both in Afghanistan and Pakistan$ -ertainl% there are some who are crossing from Pakistan to Afghanistan$ it was not sponsored b% his government$ this blame game has to stop. 4e have to stop this blame game on both sides.... and trust each other0

O*A%A'S NE$ STRATEGY AND PAK + US RELATIONS


Since taking charge !bama administration has to face a worsen securit% situation in Afghanistan which include the enlarge militant Presence in some areas$ growing dissatisfaction and resentment toward the Afghan Eovernment under president *amid Dar3ai$ Penetration of Taliban and militant from the Safe havens in Pakistan and the growing number of civilian and militar% deaths. So !bama administration has to adopt a clear strateg% toward Afghanistan to handle these core issues. >oint -hief of Staff chairman Admiral (ike (ullen stated in this regard that /# am not sure we are winning. in Afghanistan . !bama adopted a new strateg% named /Strategic Geview0 which was announced on (arch <8$ <BB? in advance of April A-6 <BB? in 1AT! summit. The ke% goals of this new strateg% are. 1. Jestro% the Terrorist networks in Afghanistan and Pakistan and reduce their aptitude to launch international terrorist attack. <. Hstablish and maintain a strong capable government in Afghanistan. A. Provide training to Afghan securit% forces and make them able to conduct counter insurgenc% with the minimum US assistance. 6. Sought help from international communit% to fulfil these ob&ectives in practical terms. 7. 18$BBB additional combat forces are to be sent to Afghanistan to insure securit% in the region. 9. Promote reconciliation with the Taliban leaders who accept the Afghanistan=s constitution and la% down their arms. 8. #ncrease cooperation on bilateral bases between Afghanistan$ Pakistan and US Provide militar% assistance to Pakistan=s arm% to destro% militant networks in their countr% and provide 1.7 billion per %ear economic assistance for the neIt five %ears. US would support /Geconstruction opportunit% 3ones0 areas of Afghanistan Pakistan and US for cooperation in economic field. 5. US sought to establish a /-ontact group0 which would be consist of all states whose securit% is highl% linked with the Afghanistan e.g. 1AT! allies$ US=s other partners$ central Asian States$ #ran$ Pakistan$ Gussia$ #ndia -hina etc. !bama=s new strateg% toward Afghanistan and Pakistan is slightl% different from the ush administration. !bama did not mainl% focus on the adding of more militar% troops in Afghanistan but also adopted a reconciliation strateg% toward Taliban and militants and give importance to the reconstruction of Afghanistan rather than onl% targeting Taliban networks. The new strateg% provides a more close relationship with Pakistan in developing its econom% as well as helping in destro%ing terrorist networks in Pakistan. Pak-Afghan=s bilateral relationship is not so good for decades$ US would help to establish a friendl% relationship between both countries because both Pakistan and Afghanistan

faced terrorist attacks at a large scale which posed danger to their securit% as well as sovereignt%.

D RONE ATTACKS.
US militar% used unmanned airborne vessels :UA,;$ or popular named as drones$ first time in Dosovo and osnia for onl% surveillance purposes$ but this new technolog% got importance in Afghanistan and #ra+ war$ especiall% in Pakistani tribal areas. -.#.A using the Jrone technolog% in Pakistan from <BB6$ after the arrival of arack !bama in 4hite *ouse the use of Jrones on Pakistani areas is increased. Pakistani public stated against the Jrone Attack on Pakistani soil in which man% innocent people were killed. US has no loss in that technolog%$ because in that plane there is no pilot. United States could not give an% legal reason over the use of drone on a independent countr%$ because US alwa%s violates the sovergnit% of Pakistan. !n the other hand it was reali3ed b% few American polic% makers and also Pakistani government$ that Jrone Attacks are counterproductive for US$ because when a drone killed an innocent person$ the famil% member of that person &oined the militant organi3ations to take a revenge of their loved ones. #n that wa% militants have man% suicide bombers$ who are willing to sacrifice their lives for sake of revenge. US launched Predator Jrone Attacks within the Tribal areas of Pakistan to destro% the terrorist network of Taliban and militants. These Jrone Attacks achieved considerable success in targeting the Taliban and other terrorist networks. According to some US officialsF /Jrone strike have paved the wa% for a complete /Al-Qaeda0 Jefeat0 US wanted to launch free action against the militant in Pakistani federal administrative Tribal Area :'ATA;$ where it perceived that these militants were hiding. The best wa% to destro% their networks is to attack b% using the instrument of *ellfire missile$ "iftoff from Predator and reaper unmanned Arial vehicle :UA,s;F which also commonl% known as Jrones. These drones are based on automatic or remote control technolog% which conducted accurate attacks in suspected area in 'ATA$ without the need of ground forces in Pakistan. These drone attacks are directl% the violation of Pakistan=s sovereignt%$ Pakistani government protested on this polic%. US administration showed its intention that US would respected Pakistan=s sovergnit% but there is no evidence to follow this commitment in practical terms. These drone attacks got little success in targeting Taliban and other terrorist but the innocent civilian deaths are at large scale which resulted in counterproductive in terms of losing Pakistan=s public support to cooperate US in this war further more. Public polls show that between 87-?BL Pakistani bitterl% opposed the drone attacks. The Pakistani press$ Pak government and public bitterl% condemned these attacks. Hven US counter insurgenc% eIperts also condemned them as counterproductive efforts because that destabili3es Pakistan. #n spite

of all these conse+uences$ !bama administration is also committed to his former

ush policies and

authori3ed to increase drone strikes in Pakistan. -#A launched do3ens of drone attacks in Pakistani territor% which brought innocent people death at a large scale with minimum number of terrorist deaths. #t is reported b% a Pakistan based newspaper that -#A launched 9B strikes between <BB9- <BB? in which 16 al-Qaeda leaders killed with 958 innocent civilian=s death :S%nnott$ <BB?;. These drone attacks produced anti-American sentiments among Pakistani public and as little number of people favours that Pakistan has to cooperate with the US #nternational Gepublican institute Poll concluded that onl% <L of the Pakistan people were in favour of Pakistan=s good relations with the US. Pakistan government is protesting about this violation of its sovereignt%F but it is a fact that it did not bitterl% protested at this activit%. #t is predicted that opinion in this regard. oth states has a bargaining commitment with each other that US would continues committed to drone strikes and Pakistani government formall% protested to counter the public

E,IT STRATEGY
#n an interview !bama said that /There needs to be an /HIit strateg%0 for Afghanistan so that US polic% does not appear to be perpetual drift0. President !bama announced that US forces would be started to withdraw from Afghanistan in the beginning of <B11 and will completel% withdrew until <B16 .This war has affected bitterl%$ the US econom% and also provoked negative public opinion among US public. #n spite of congress demand to close cooperation$ the 1AT! allies have divergent views over it$ some sa%s that$ for reconstruction and stabili3ation in the Afghanistan$ 1AT! forces should remain there for some time more than <B16. The others have divergent views and wanted to +uit from Afghanistan as soon as possible. #SA' has the number of core mission in Afghanistan before complete withdrawal. 1. Train the Afghan arm%$ police and >udiciar% <. (aintain strong government in Afghanistan which could be able to counter narcotics efforts A. Jevelop market s%stem 6. Suppress Taliban as a whole . These contradictor% polices brings anIiet% among the stakeholders especiall% for Pakistan and -hina. The increase of US partnership with #ndia and its growing influence in Afghanistan is not seen as good for Pakistan and -hina=s strategic interests. All stakeholders eIcept #ndia strongl% favoured the withdrawal of US coalition forces from Afghanistan. The long-term presence of US forces brought

great changes in regional balance of power.

CONCLUSION:
Pak-US relations transformed drasticall% after ?@11 incident. Pakistan became the closer all% of US Asian allies. US is still waging war in Afghanistan and Pakistan=s role in this war is of pivotal importance$ Pak has a role to pla% in the future politics of Afghanistan and also in eIit strateg% of US. Gelation between the two countries were cold after the killing of !sama in "aden. Pakistan also has its reservation on drone attacks on its soil. The need of the time is that both old friends sit together and discuss the matter of common interest and also discuss the eIit strateg% of US$ because as long as US will not withdraw from Afghanistan$ situation could not get better in the region.

REFERENCES
(alik$ *afee3. US Gelations with Afghanistan and Pakistan$ Darachi. !Iford Press$ <BB5. (orells$ ,icent. 1AT! in Afghanistan A test of the transatlantic Alliance$ -GS report to -ongress$ G" AA9<8$ Jecember A$ <BB?. !akle%$ Gobert . And *ammes$ T. 2. /Prioriti3ing strategic interests in South Asia.0 Strategic 'orum$ <7$ >une 9$ <B1B Pape$ Gobert Anthon% and Hldman$ >ames D. cutting the fuse. the eIplosion of Elobal suicide terrorism and how to stop it. -hicago pro&ect on securit% and terrorism$ US. Universit% of-hicago$ <B1B. Gi3vi$ *asan Askari. /Theoretical formulations on terrorism.0 in Elobal terrorism$ genesis$ implications remedial and counterterrorism$ edited b% #nstitute of regional studies$ #slamabad. #nstitute of Gegional Studies$ <BB7. Gahman$ 'a3al Ur /Pakistan and the 4ar on Terrorism0 Strategic Studies$ ,ol. MM### <BBA. Gana$ (uhammad Amir$ Eunaratna$ Gohan. Al-Qaeda fights back inside Pakistani Tribal Areas$ Pakistan institute for peace studies$ #slamabad <BB8.