IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP-33, NO. 6 , JUNE 1985
Abstract-The printed dipole or slotantenna on a semi-infinite substrate and infinite phased arrays of these elements are investigated. The solution i s based on the moment method in the Fourier transform domain. The generalized impedance or admittance matrix can be expressed in rapidly converging infinite-integral or infinite-summation forms, allowing the accnrate determination of the current distributions. Using the present formulation, the input impedance, resonant length, and radiation pattern for the isolated antennas, and the reflection coefficient forinfinite phased arrays, are calculated.
I. INTRODUCTION
impedance and radiation patterns of dipole and slot antenna elements printed on a semi-infinite dielectric substrate, and for infinite phased arrays of these elements on semi-infinite substrates. The semi-infinite substrate is of practical interest because a number of millimeter wave imaging or phased arrays are being proposed [ l ] , [2] where the elements (e.g., dipoles, microstrip patches, slots) are printed on the planar surface of a dielectric lens. The lens then forms a substrate for the antenna elements as well as active microwave devices (e.g., field-effect transistor (FET) amplifiers., mixers, phase shifters, etc.). Since the lens is electrically large, the antenna elements act as if they are at the interface of an air-dielectric half-space. The fields at the curved side of the lens locally form a plane wave, and matching layers can be used to minimize reflections back to the antenna. Some of the radiation goes into the air side of the interface but, as will be shown, more of the power is delivered to the dielectric side. Printed antennas seem to be a likely choice for such monolithic, or active aperture antennas, and printed dipoles [3], [4], [5] and microstrip patches [ 6 ] , [7] on grounded dielectric substrates havereceived significant attention. Printed slots [8] have received somewhat less attention, but are ofinterest for monolithic applications because the ground plane facilitates the integration of active devices. The problem of an antenna at the interface of two different dielectric half-spaces is of course closely related to the classic Sommerfeld problem ofan antenna on the surface of a lossy earth. ,More recently, the patterns of resonant dipoles and loops over a lossless dielectric half-space havealso been studied [ 9 ] , [101* Presented here is a moment method solution for printed dipoles or slots on semi-infmite substrates. This amroach &. uses Galerkins method applied in the Fourier transform domain. The solution is similar in principle to the previously treated case
Manuscriptreceived October26, 1984;revised Jaw 11, 1984. This work was s~pp0rte-d bytheNational Science FoundationunderGrantECS-8206420, andtheNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration,Langley Research Center, under Grant NAG-1-163. M. Kominami was with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA 01033, on leave from the University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka, Japan. D. M. Pozar and D. H. Schaubert are witli the Departmentof Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01033.
of printed dipoles [3] , [4] and microstrip patches [l1 1 on grounded dielectric substates. A solution for an infinite array of printed dipoles or slots on semi-inffite substrates is also presented here. The momentmethod solution is used to calculate the active impedance versusscanangle, and is an extension of previous solutions for an infinite array of printed dipoles [5] and microstrip patches [ 71 . Section I1 describes the basic theory and equations for the Fourier transform domain momentmethod and modifications for the case of an i n f i t e phased m a y of printed antennas on semi-infinite substrates. Section 111 presents numerical results for input impedance, resonant length and resistance, and radiationpatterns for isolated elements. This section also presents results for the reflection coefficient magnitude variation of an infiite phased array with angle for E-plane, H-plane, and diagonal plane scan. Two dielectric constants were selected: E, = 2.55 forpolytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) andDuroid-type materials and e, = 12.8 for Alumina and GaAs-type materials.
11. THEORY
A. Isolated Elements The geometries of theprinted dipole and slot elements are shown in Figs. l(a) and l(b), respectively. Two s e m i - i n f ~ t e regions (1 and 2), have the common boundary z = 0. The upper region (l), z > 0, is air and characterized by the parameters el = eo and p1 = p o : the lower region (2), z < 0, is a homogeneous and isotropic medium characterized by the parameters e2 = E ~ E = , eOerO (1 - j tan 6) and p2 = p o , where tan 6 is the loss tangent. Both elements are of length L and width W,and are center-fed by an ideal delta-gap generator as shown in Figs. l(a) and l(b). The delta gap generator is known to yield good numerih i n wire antennas cal results for radiation and impedance of t fed by balanced lines or coaxial lines with appropriate baluns. Coaxial and microstrip line feeds for slots can also be approximated by a delta gap generator. The agreement between measured and calculated results in [5] substantiatesthe use of t h i s source model forprinted elements. The electromagnetic fields in each homogeneous region (1 = 1, 2) are described by two scalar potential functions \ k l and @I that satisfy the Helmholtz equation and boundary conditions atthe interface. The field components are related to \ k l and aZ by
(1)
(2)
where ;is a U n i t vector in the Z-direction. For an eXp (jut) time dependence, the scalar potentials can be expressed in the forms
*dX,
y>
=7
A,@,, ky)e-j(k,,+kyY+711zl)
47i
- dk, cik,
60 1
fields E, and the HI in boundary conditions (5a) and (5b) the for dipole and (6a) and (6b) for the slot. The functions are
Y1 A1 =--A2
72
E ,
(a)
for dipole
(7)
-kyfix
(b)
printed dipole.
r1w: + k;)
for slot
'
k Y
for dipole
and 71 k the
where quantities with a tilde are Fourier transforms or corresponding quantities without a tilde. The Fourier transform is defined as
"
k t - k;
( I m(
~ l )
< 0 , k l = 0fi1).
&kx, k,) =//
At the air-dielectric interface (z = 0), the continuity conditions for the tangential electric and magnetic field components have to be satisfied as follows. (Because of the similarity of the dipole and slot solutions, both are treatedhere in parallel.) Dipole case:
iX(Hl -H2)=
-m
$(x7y)e-i(kxX+kry) dx dy.
(9)
The remaining boundary conditions (5C) and (6C) are enforced to yield the following set of equations:
J,
0,
(El
+ E,) X i =
M, 0,
(on dipole)
Eo X 2,
(elsewhere)
Elxi=
slot) (on
(on conductor)
(6b)
(E,
E2) X
i =0
J,,
Jo, (an slot) (on conductor)
;X ( H ,
H2) =
where J electric current density on the printed dipole E, source electric field for the dipole Eo electric field on the interface except dipole M magnetic current density in the slot J, source electric current for the slot JO electric current on the conductor. It is assumed that the dipole or slot width W is very small compared to the wavelength in free space and in the dielectric, and therefore we consider only the axial component of the current and field distributions. The unknown functions appearing inthe scalar potentials can be determined by substituting the
and Hence, (10) and_(ll) contain four unknowns?,,fix, goox, J o x . However, Eo, and J o x w i l be eliminated later in the solution process based on the momentmethod procedure. These spectral domain algebraic equations correspond to Pocklington's integral equations in the space domain. The moment method solution used here is a Galerkin method applied in theFourier transform domain [ 121. The unknown current densities J,(x, y ) on the printed dipoles and M,(x, y ) in the slot are expanded in a set of N basis functions:
N
MAX,VI
=
j= 1
q A ( X ,
r)
(13)
where f i ( x , y ) is the f t h basis function and I? and Vi" are its unknown amplitude forthe dipole and slot, respectively. Two types of expansion modes are considered: entire domain basis (EDB) and piecewise sinusoidal (PWS). The expansion function
602
can be written as
TRANSACTIONS IEEE
(24) The integral in (19) is obtainedthroughnumerical integration. To improve the computational efficiency of the solution, we use the method of rewriting the Green's function as a sum of aclosed-formexpressionanda fast converging integral [ 131. The Green's function in a homogeneous medium of relative permittivity E , can be writtenas
where
or
where k, = w d b x . For largevalues o f f l ( = d m j , Q(kx,k,) in (20) and Qh(kx,k,) in (25) behave asymptoticGy as
Q(kx k y 1
9
Note that the edge singularity is enforced in(14). Using Galerkin's method in the spectraldomain, (10) and (11) reduce to the following matrix equations to besolved for the unknowns1; and Vis:
[PI
where
[ID] =
[PI
Therefore, if the relative permittivity of the homogeneous medium is selected as = (1 ~,)/2,then Q(k,, k,,) wiu have the same asymptotic form as Qh(kx,k,). The integralsZf and Y: of (19) are then split into two parts as follows:
I[\
+
[Q(k.xyb)-Q%~, ky)l
(28)
where the second integral converges rapidly since Q(k,, k,) approaches Q h ( k x ,k,) for largevalueof 0. The fust integral is equal to theimpedancematrixelement ofan antenna in a homogeneousmediumand iswell known foi both entire do(22) main and piecewise sinusoidal basis functions. (See, for example, Since fi(x, y), E,,(x, y ) andJ,,(x, y ) are defined on the antenna 1141 .I element and Eox(x, y ) and J o y @ , y ) are defined outside the The expression for the far field can be obtained by evaluateg element, by using Parseval's relation, (21) and (22) can be written the Fourier transform asymptotically by the method of stationary as follows: phase :
,-jkR
E&)
=j
k y ) sin 91 (29)
603
and k, (air:
G r k o (dielectric:
I e I 5 K/Z) I O - n I 6 nJ2).
Fig. 2.
Once the unknown complex coefficients Z y and V;' are determined by solving (17) and (18), the radiation field can be obtained from(29) and (30). The directive properties of an antenna are described in terms of power gain, given as follows:
ten as
m m
(34)
where
c
m
(3 5)
and Pin is the total input power to the elements. The power division in each medium is of particular interest. In order to compare the power radiating intothe dielectric and intothe air, consider the power density ratio for 0 = 0 and 0 = K . Then, 3 0 ) , and (32), we get from (29), ( (33)
2rn k,, =b
+ kov
This indicates that the broadside power density division in each medium varies a E:/' for both printed dipole and slot antennas on semi-infinite substrates. In addition,for the case of a slot antenna, the total power radiated into the two half-spaces also n air vanes as :I2, since the slot antenna pattern is the same i as in the dielectric.
B. Infinite Phased Arrays
In order to evaluate the coefficients, both sides of (34) and (35) are multiplied by exp (jkxmzx+ jk,,a) and then integrated over the cell area shown in Fig. 2. Useis madeof the orthogonality property of the exponentials, and the result is
The structure to be analyzed, shown i n Fig.2, consists of a (37) rectangular array of printed dipole or slot antennas on a semiinfinite substrate. The array is planar and infinite in extent where FX(k,k,,) and i x ( k x k , ) are Fourier transforms of the and the elements are fed in an equi-amplitude, progressive-phase electric current for a single dipole and magnetic currentfora fashion. The active impedance can be determined using the mosingle slot, respectively. ment method in conjunction with theperiodic-structure approach Substituting the Fourier transforms of (34) and (35) together ~51. with (36) and (37) into (10) and (1 I), we obtain the following Because the structure is periodic theantenna element curset of equations: rents can be expanded in a Fourier serieswhose components represent space harmonics, and the set of equations (IO) and (1 1) can be applied to the infinite array problem. Since the array elements are assumed flat, the current distribution on the elements is confined to a single plane. It is further assumed that these currents are unidirectional, flowing only t h 2 length of the elements, as was the case for a single dipole or slot. A Fourier series expansion of the current density can be writ-
604
TRANSACTIONS IEEE
($=12.8)
-- _- --
Printed dipole
W/L = 0 0 2
6 = 0.002
The moment method can now be applied t o these equations. Using the same procedure as for the isolated elements, the matrix elements Z j and Y:. for theinfinite arrays can be expressed as
?(kxrn, k y n ) j j ( k x m , k y n )
(40)
0. I
0.2
0.3
04
0.5
where Q(kx, k,,) is defined in (20). The voltage element and the current element 1 ; are given by (23) and (24), respectively.
LENGTH ( L/X,)
Fig. 3. Input admittance of the printed dipole on a semi-infinite substrate for different basis functions.
c:
-dipole
----- Bookersrelolion
Printed dipole
W/L = 0.02
tan6
= 0.002
0. I
02
0.3
0.4
0.5
LENGTH ( L/X,)
where ee is the effective permitivity discussedin the previous section. Note that Bookers relation should not be expected to be satisfied exactly since the printed dipole is not the strict dual of the printed slot but, as can be seen, Bookers relation is approximately satisfied with the mean permittivity. Similar results have been noted in [ 161. Fig. 5 shows the required length for the first resonance of a printed dipole and a slot element versus substrate dielectric constant e,, for W/L = 0.02. Also shown is the resonant length givenby 0.48 A [17] , where the correction factor A is modified for a flat element of width W (whose equivalent radius is W/4) on a dielectric interface, as
c:
(a)
I
400
I I 01 0 2 03 04 05 As can be seen, agreement i s very good for bothelements, and the LENGTH ( L/X, correction factor (42) should be useful for designing flat elements on semi-mfiite substrates. Fig. 6 shows the resonant resistance cb) of printed dipoles and slots versus dielectric constant, e , . for Fig. 4. Input impedance of antennas on a semi-infinite substrate. (a) printed W/L = 0.02. The limiting values of resonant length and resistance dipole. @) Slot antenna.
605
Length Resonant
E - plane
no
H - plane
02-
-.Printed dipole
900
-.'1
- 0.48A
3
11
1 3
PERMITTIVITY, r
Fig. 5 . Resonant length of antennas on a semi-infinite substrate.
100
500
'\
Resonant Resistance
5
4300
RESONANTPRINTEDDIPOLE
(a) H - plane
E - plane
PERMITTIVITY, r
Fig. 6 . Resonant resistance of antennas on a semi-infinite substrate.
ofvery thin dipoles on a thick grounded substrate asgiven in [ 181 agree quite well with the results in Figs. 5 and 6. In Figs. 7(a) and 7(b), power gain patterns for resonant dipoles and slots with W/L = 0.02 are shown for er = 1.0, 2.55 and 12.8. The resonantlengthsareL,=0.357ho(~,=2.55)and0.177ho(e,= 12.8) for the printed dipole and are L, = 0.361 h0(e, = 2.55) and 0.185 &(E, = 12.8) for the slot. For the dipole theH-plane pattern in the dielectric has a maximum atthe critical angle BC = 71 - s h - l ( f i r - ' ) and the E-plane pattern has aminimum there. Both patterns have a null at the interface except the Hplane pattern for E , = 1.0, asdiscussed by Rutledge et al. [2]. For the slot, the H-plane pattern has a null at the interface but the E-plane pattern has no null there, as noted by Brewitt-Taylor et al. [9]. A maximum and/or minimum at the critical angle does not occur for slot antennas because the conducting plane effectively isolates the two media. In the moment method formulation surface wave fields and space wave fields are easily separated from the Sommerfeld-type integral expression for the total fields of a current source on a grounded dielectric slab [ l I] -the surface waves coming from the residues of the surface wave poles. But this separation does not on semi-infinte substrates, apply for the printed antenna elements since the Sommerfeld-type integral given by (19) has only virtual poles on theimproper Riemann sheet [19] . Thus, the semiM i t e substrate is advantageous when compared to the dielectric slab since no power will be lost to surface waves.
180'
RESONANT SLOT
(b) Fig. 7. Power pattern for resonant element. (a) Printed dipole. (b) slot antenna.
Next, some numerical results for infinite arrays will be shown. The current on the printed antenna elements is no longer symmetric, so the symmetric entire domain modes of(15)are not i n sufficient: andseven PWS expansion modes (16)wereused this calculation. The arrayspacingwasselected so that grating lobeswill not occur withinthe critical angle. To avoidgrating lobes within OC(=n - sin-' f i r - ' ) the spacing should be (43) For
E,
= 2.55, a = b = 0.3851 A,
606
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP-33, NO. 6,JUNE 1985
I I
141 228'
10-
Printed Dlpole
E r = 2.55
J
= b = 0 3851X0
141.228
L = 0365Xo
0 8-
w = o =
NS =
0.O1Xa
b = 0 3851 X.
0
IRIo 6 04-
N = M = ?50
IRI
06Ns = 7 N = M =?50
0 4-
150air
4 dielectric
(a)
dlelectric
olr
SCAN ANGLE, e
I
Printed Dipole
~~
1 2 5 . 9 6 ' 1 5 1 . 3 9 ' 1 6 3 . 7 7
'
A -(-I,O)(O,-l) (-l,-l)
1 2 5 . 9 5 '1 5 1 . 3 9 O1 6 3 . 7 9 '
E. = 128 L = 0.182Xa
081
W
0
OOIXo
b = 0 2184Aa
IRI
N 04-
M = f50
0 2-
3 0 '
60
90"
alr
120'
1 5 0 '
oir
4 dielectrlc
4 dielectric
(d)
SCAN ANGLE,
(C)
SCAN ANGLE, 9
Fig. 8. Reflection coefficient magnitude of an infinite array. (a) Resonant printed dipole for E , = 2.55. @) Resonant slot antenna for e, = 2.55. (c) Resonant printed dipole for E, = 12.8. (d) Resonant slot antenna for E , = 12.8.
0.2184 X ., The resonant length L, and resonant resistance in the air region, the reflection coefficient magnitude increased at broadside R,, for printedantenna elements are calculated montonically with scan angle up to 8 = 90". For scanning in the dielectric region, the magnitude variations with scan angleare as more complicated. As discussed for isolated elements, the excita(a) printed dipole: E, = 2.55, L, = 0.3650h0, R, = 60.2 R tion of surface waves on the semi-infinite substrate is negligible (b) slot: E , = 2.55, L , = 0.3636X0, R, = 352.7 R or nonexistent. Thus, in these figures, there is no surface waveinduced blind spot, which is important tothe problem of an (c) printed dipole: E , = 12.8, L, = 0.1820X0, R, = 25.9 R infiite array of printed dipoles and patches on a grounded dielectric substrate [SI, [7]. The unity reflection coefficient (d) slot: e, = 12.8, L, = 0.1777b, R , = 270.8 R. , = 2.55 and 6' = 163.77' magnitude angles 6' = 141.228' for E For these four printed antennaelements, the reflection coefficient for e, = 12.8 correspond to the critical angle for the propagation magnitudes versus scan angle for E-plane, H-plane, and a diagonal from region 2 to 1: and 6' = 125.95' and 151.39' in the Dscan plane are shown in Figs. S(a), 8(b), 8(c) and 8(d), respec- plane of e, = 12.8 correspond to the grating lobe boundary of Floquet modes (-1, -1) and (-1,O) or (0, I), respectively. tively. The reflection coefficient is calculated as Fig. 9 shows the ratio of the power radiating into the dieleci r for an i n f ~ t e array of printed dipoles on tric and into the a (44) a semi-infiite substrate. The ratio is constant in H-plane and decreases monotonically with scan angle in the E- and D-planes. where Z, = Zi, at broadside, and Zi, is the input impedance The result is almost the same for the infinite slot array. As shown of the infinite phased array. AU computations are made using in the figure, the broadside power division in each medium ,t50as upper limits for the series in (34) and (35). For scanning varies as e;/* for the i n f a t e phased array. The ratio is different
607
4
I I
I
REFERENCES
,e
8,= 12.8
Fig. 9. Ratio of the powers radiated into the dielectric and into the air as a function of scan angle.
from the value for the isolated elements, because the array field is given by the sum of radiated fields of each of the elements, and propagateaway from the array as a planewave.
IV. CONCLUSION
Theimpedance and radiation characteristics of dipolesand slots printed on a semi-infiite substrate have been investigated. A solution for an infinite phased array of these printed elements is also presented. The current distributions have been obtained byemployingamomentmethod to solve thespectraldomain algebraic equations corresponding to Pocklingtons integral equations in the space domain. Bookers relation, the resonant length and resistance, and the radiation power pattern for the isolated elements are computed. Further, the reflection coefficients and the broadside power division for infMtephased arraysare calculated. The present method can be easily extended to other printed Masanobu Kominami, fora photograph and biography please see page 792 of geometries on a semi-infinite substrate (bow-ties, ring, twin-slot, the September 1981 issue of this TRANSACTIONS. etc.) and to mutual coupling problems by obtaining the Fourier transforms of the appropriate current distributions. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Professor Yngvesson of the University of Massachusetts for his interest in the implications h i s work, and Professor Jelenski of the University of Massaof t chusetts (visiting) for helpfuldiscussions.
K. S. Yngvesson, T. L. Koneniowski, R. H. Mathews, P. T. Parrish, and T. C. L. G. Sollner, Planar millimeter wave antennas with application to monolithic receivers, Proc. SPIE, vol. 337, (Millimeter Wave Technol.), 1982. D. B. Rutledge and M. S. Muha, Imaging antenna arrays, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-30, pp. 535-540, July 1982. I. E ! . Rana and N. G. Alexopoulos, Current distribution and input impedance of printed dipoles, IEEE Trans. Antendm Propagat., vol. AP-29, pp. 99-105, Jan 1981. N. G. Alexopoulos and I. E. Rana, M u t u a l impedance computation between printed dipoles, IEEE Trans.Antennd Propagat., vol. AP29, pp. 106-111, Jan. 1981. D. M. Pozar and D. H. Schaubert, Scan blindness infinite phased arrays ofprinted dipoles, IEEE Trans.Antenna Propagat., vol. AP32, pp. 602-610, June 1984. R. J. Mailloux, J. F. Mcllvenna, and N. P. Kernweis, Microstrip array technology, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-29, pp. 2537, Jan. 1981. D. M. Porn and D . H. Schaubert, Analysis of an infinite array of rectangular microstrip patches with idealized probe feeas, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-32, pp. 1101-11@7, oct. 1984. Y. Yoshimura, A microstripline slot antenna, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-20, pp. 760-762, Nov. 1972. C. R. Brewitt-Taylor, D. J. Gunton, and H. D. Rees, Planar antennas on a dielectric surface, Electron. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 729-731, Oct. 1, 1981. . G.S. Smith, Directive properties of antennas for transmission into a material half-space, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-32, pp. 232-246, Mar. 1984. D. M. P o r n , Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-30, pp. 1191-1196, NOV.1982. T. Itoh and W. Menzel, A full-wave analysis method for open microstrip structures, IEEE Trans.Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-29, p ~ 63-69, . Jan. 1981. D. M. Pozar, Improved computational efficiency for the moment method solution of printed dipoles and patches, J. Electromagn. SOC., vol. 3 no. 3-4, pp. 299-309, July-Dec. 1983. W.L. Stutzman and G . A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design. New York: Wiley, 1981, pp. 329-332. A. A. Oliner and R. G . Malech, Periodic-structure approach: Large slots and dipoles, in Microwave Scanning Antennas, Vol. ZI, Array Theory and Practice, R. C. Hansen, Ed. New York, London: Academic, 1966, pp. 247-268. D. B. Rutledge, D. P. Neikirk and D. P. Kasilingam, Integrated circuit antennas, i n Infrared and Millimeter Waves, vol. 10, K. I. Button, Ed. New York: Academic, 1983. J. D. Kraus, Antennas. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950. P. B. Katehi and N. G . Alexopoulos, On the effect of substrate thickness and permittivity on printed circuit dipole properties, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-31, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1983. A. Baiios, Dipole Radiation in the Presence of a Conducting HauSpace. New York: Pergamon, 1966, p p . 53-62.
+I
David M. Pozar (S74-M80), for a photograph and biography please see page 4 of the January 1985 issue of this TRANSACTIONS.
Daniel H. Schanbert (S68-M74-SM79), for a photograph and biography please see page 85 of the January 1985 issue of this TRANSACITONS.