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PART III MAINTENANCE

OF THE

HUMAN BODY

11
HUMAN

ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER REVIEW
Human tissues are categorized into four groups. Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its cavities. The different types of epithelial tissue (squamous, cuboidal, and columnar) can be stratified and have cilia or microvilli. Also, columnar cells can be pseudostratified. Epithelial cells sometimes form glands that secrete either into ducts or into blood. Connective tissues in which cells are separated by a matrix often bind body parts together. Loose connective tissue has both white and yellow fibers and may also have fat (adipose) cells. Fibrous connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, contains closely packed white fibers. Both cartilage and bone have cells within lacunae, but the matrix for cartilage is more flexible than that for bone, which contains calcium salts. In bone, the lacunae lie in concentric circles within an osteon, or Haversian system, about a central canal. Blood is a connective tissue in which the matrix is a liquid called plasma. Muscular tissue is of three types. Both skeletal and cardiac muscle are striated; both cardiac and smooth muscle are involuntary. Skeletal muscle is found in muscles attached to bones, and smooth is found in internal organs. Cardiac muscle makes up the heart. Nervous tissue has one main type of cell, the neuron. Each neuron has dendrites, a cell body, and an axon. The brain and spinal cord contain complete neurons, while the nerves contain only fibers. Neurons and their fibers are specialized to conduct nerve impulses. Tissues are joined together to form organs, each one having a specific function. Skin is a two-layered organ that waterproofs and protects the body. The epidermis contains a germinal layer that produces new epithelial cells that become keratinized as they move toward the surface. The dermis, a largely fibrous connective tissue, contains epidermally derived glands and hair follicles, nerve endings and blood vessels. Receptors for touch, pressure, temperature, and pain are present. Sweat glands and blood vessels help control body temperature. A subcutaneous layer, which is made up of loose connective tissue containing adipose cells, lies beneath the skin. Organs are grouped into organ systems. In the dorsal cavity, the brain is in the cranial cavity, and the spinal cord is in the vertebral canal. Other internal organs are located in the ventral cavity, where the thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. Homeostasis is the relative constancy of the internal environment. All organ systems contribute to the constancy of tissue fluid and blood. Special contributions are made by the liver, which keeps blood glucose constant, and the kidneys, which regulate the pH. The nervous and hormonal systems regulate the other systems. Both of these are controlled by a feedback mechanism, which results in fluctuation above and below the desired levels illustrated by body temperature.

S T U DY E X E R C I S E S
Study the text section by section as you answer the questions that follow.

11.1 TYPES

OF

TISSUES (P . 194)

Animal tissues can be categorized into four major types: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. Epithelial tissues line body cavities and cover surfaces. Connective tissues protect, support, and bind other tissues. Muscular tissues make body parts move. Nervous tissues coordinate the activities of the other tissues and body parts.

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1. Draw a diagram of squamous epithelium. a.

Name one place in the human body where squamous epithelium can be found. What is the function of this tissue?
c.

b.

When this tissue is found in layers, it is called

d.__________________

squamous epithelium.

2. Epithelium is classified by the a.________________ of its cells. b.________________ epithelium has cube-shaped cells, while c.________________ epithelium has elongated, cylindrical cells. 3. The windpipe is lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Describe this tissue.

4.

a._______________

junctions allow for materials and information to be exchanged between cells. b._______________

junctions are a means of reinforcement in which cytoskeleton filaments are woven together. c._________________ junctions are similar to spot welds as they bind cells firmly together. 5. Loose fibrous connective tissue has cells called a._______________, plus fibers made from b._______________ and
c.

________________. It binds the skin to underlying organs.

6. Tendons and ligaments are made up of a.________________ tissue. Tendons join b._______________ to bone and ligaments join c._______________ to bone. 7. a.________________ cartilage can be found at the ends of bones and makes up the fetal skeleton. In it, cells lie within
b.

________________, surrounded by a gel-like c._______________.

8. The type of cartilage found in the ear, called a._______________ cartilage, has many b._______________ fibers to add flexibility. c.________________, found in the intervertebral disks, aids in cushioning against jolts. 9. Draw a sketch of bone tissue. Label the lacunae, the matrix, and the osteons (Haversian systems).

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10. Blood is considered a connective tissue because its cells are separated by a fluid matrix called a.________________.
b. c.

_________________ blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body in association with molecules of hemoglobin.

________________ blood cells are responsible for immunity, and cell fragments called d.________________ aid in

blood clotting. 11. Complete this table.


Fiber Appearance Skeletal Smooth Cardiac a. b. c. Location Control

12. The brain and spinal cord are made up of cells called The function of a neuron is to This type of cell provides

a. _________________________.

Outside the central

nervous system, connective tissue binds the long fibers of these cells to form
c. _________________________. d. _________________________

b. _________________________.

The other type of cells in nervous tissue are Neuroglial cells outnumber neurons
g. _________________________

cells.

e. _________________________

to neurons and keeps tissue free of debris. to one and take up more than

f. _________________________

the volume of the brain.

11.2 BODY CAVITIES

AND BODY

MEMBRANES (P . 201)

The internal organs occur within cavities lined by membranes that also cover the organs themselves. 13. Place a T in front of all organs that are in the thoracic cavity, an A in front of all organs that are in the abdominal cavity, and a P for those that are in the pelvic cavity. a. ___________ small intestine b. ___________ ovaries c. ___________ bladder d. ___________ heart e. ___________ lungs f. ___________ stomach g. ___________ liver h. ___________ kidneys

14. A large, ventral cavity called a(n) a._________________ can be seen during embryological development. It later develops into the b._______________ cavity of the chest and the c._________________ cavity of the lower abdomen. 15. The a._________________ are connective tissue membranes protecting the brain and spinal cord. b._______________ lines the gut and secretes mucus. c._______________ membrane lines joint cavities and secretes lubricating
d.

__________________.

16. Pleural membranes and peritoneum are examples of a._______________ membranes. These secrete b._______________ to keep the membranes moist and prevent sticking.

11.3 ORGAN SYSTEMS (P . 202)


Organs are grouped into organ systems, each of which has specialized functions. 17. The a._______________ system is responsible for reducing food to molecules that can be used by the cells of the body. The b.________________ system allows us to move from one place to another and generates heat. The
c.

________________ system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and receptors. The d.________________ system

sends out hormones to regulate bodily functions. 89

18. Match the organ systems with the correct descriptions a. Breakdown and absorption of food materials b. Gaseous exchange between external environment and blood c. Regulation of all body activities; learning and memory d. Body movement; production of body heat e. External support and protection of body f. Secretion of hormones for chemical regulation g. Production of sperm; transfer of sperm to female reproductive system h. ransport of nutrients to body cells; removal of wastes from cells i. Immunity; absorption of fats; drainage of tissue fluid j. Maintenance of volume and chemical composition of blood k. Internal support and protection; body movement; production of blood cells _____ Integumentary System _____ Respiratory System _____ Lymphatic System _____ Digestive System _____ Skeletal System _____ Nervous System _____ Urinary System _____ Reproductive System _____ Endocrine System _____ Muscular System _____ Cardiovascular System

11.4 SKIN

AS AN

ORGAN SYSTEM (P . 204)

The skin contains various tissues and has accessory organs. It is sometimes called the integumentary system. 19. A(n) a.________________ is made up of two or more tissues, functioning together. The skin is an example. It has an outer layer called the b.________________. The cells of this layer become waterproof once they are filled with the protein c.________________. 20. An accessory organ of the skin, a.________________, forms hair shafts. b.________________ muscles cause goose bumps to appear. c._________________ glands provide sebum to moisturize hairs.

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21. Label the following illustration of the skin, using the alphabetized list of terms. adipose tissue hair shaft arrector pili muscle nerve blood vessels oil gland connective tissue receptors dermis subcutaneous layer epidermis sweat gland hair root

22. What events raise body temperature? What events lower body temperature?

a. _________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

11.5 HOMEOSTASIS (P . 208)


Humans have a marked ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment. All organ systems contribute to homeostasis. 23. What is homeostasis?
a. b. c.

What is the internal environment? Give an example of homeostasis.

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24. How does each of the following systems contribute to homeostasis? digestive system
a. b. c. a.

respiratory system

urinary system (i.e., the kidneys) and


b. ________________________.

25. The two systems of the body that control homeostasis are

________________________

26. Use the following terms to complete the diagram of a negative feedback cycle: effector, regulatory center, response, and sensory receptor.

stimulus

a. _____ cancels

d. ______

b. _______

c. _____

27. Give example of negative feedback control in the body. ________________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER TEST
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Do not refer to the text when taking this test. _____1. Cells of a similar structure working together constitute a(n) a. tissue. b. organ. c. organism. d. organ system. _____2. Epithelial tissues do which of the following? a. secrete b. line body cavities c. protect d. all of these _____3. Which of these pairs is mismatched? a. fatsubcutaneous layer b. receptorsdermis c. keratinizationepidermis d. nerves and blood vesselsepidermis _____4. If epithelial tissue is made up of many layers of cells, what would be true? a. It is called simple. b. It is called stratified. c. It is called striated. d. It is pseudostriated. _____5. Which type of epithelial tissue is composed of flattened cells? a. glandular b. squamous c. columnar d. cuboidal _____6. What type of tissue binds skin to underlying organs? a. fibrous connective tissue b. nervous tissue c. muscular tissue d. loose connective tissue

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_____7. Which type of cell junction is characterized by interwoven cytoskeleton filaments? a. tight junction b. gap junction c. adhesion junction d. intercalated disks _____8. Which of the following tissues has cells residing in lacunae? a. adipose tissue b. fibrous connective tissue c. hyaline cartilage d. loose connective tissue _____9. Osteocytes are residents of ___________ tissue. a. cartilage b. bone c. muscle d. pseudostratified columnar epithelium For questions 1013, match the following blood components to the statements below. a. plasma b. red blood cells c. white blood cells d. platelets ____10. contribute to blood clotting process ____11. carry oxygen to cells ____12. fluid matrix component of the connective tissue called blood ____13. are responsible for immunity For statements 1417, match the following components of skin to the statements below. a. epidermis b. arrector pili c. melanocytes d. oil glands ____14. when these become blocked, a blackhead forms ____15. give rise to skin pigment ____16. muscle attached to a hair follicle ____17. keratinized layer of skin ____18. Cells in the nervous tissue which support and protect neurons are called a. neurons. b. fibers. c. axons. d. neuroglial cells.

____19. Cardiac muscle fibers are characterized by which traits? a. striated; intercalated disks b. smooth; single nucleus c. striated; multiple nuclei; intercalated disks d. smooth; tapered; multinucleate multiple nuclei ____20. Which of these is located in the thoracic cavity? a. small intestine b. urinary bladder c. lungs d. kidneys ____21. The thoracic cavity is lined with a. mucous membrane. b. serous membrane. c. cutaneous membrane. d. synovial membrane. ____22. Which type of membrane lines joint cavities? a. mucous membrane b. serous membrane c. cutaneous membrane d. synovial membrane ____23. Which of these is an example of homeostasis? a. Muscle tissue is specialized to contract. b. The skin sunburns. c. Normal body temperature almost always stays at 37 C. d. All of these ____24. In a negative feedback control system, a. homeostasis is impossible. b. there is a constancy of the internal environment. c. there is a wide fluctuation occurring continuously. d. none of the above is true. ____25. When body temperature rises, sweat glands become a. active, and blood vessels constrict. b. inactive, and blood vessels dilate. c. active, and blood vessels dilate. d. inactive, and blood vessels constrict.

THOUGHT QUESTIONS
Answer in complete sentences. 26. How do the nervous system and endocrine system interact to maintain the homeostasis of the body?

27. How do the blood vessels, the digestive tract, the lungs, and the kidneys work together to maintain homeostasis?

Test Results: _______ number correct 27 = _________ 100 = _______% 93

ANSWER KEY
STUDY EXERCISES
1. a. See Figure 11.1 in the text. b. air sacs of the lungs c. absorption d. stratified 2. a. shape b. cuboidal c. columnar 3. This type of tissue appears to be layered but is not, and cells have small, hairlike projections called cilia. 4. a. gap b. adhesion c. tight 5. a. fibroblast b. collagen c. elastic 6. a. dense fibrous connective b. muscle c. bone 7. a. hyaline b. lacunae c. matrix 8. a. elastic b. elastic c. fibrocartilage 9. See Figure 11.3 d in the text. 10. a. plasma b. red c. white d. platelets 11. a. striated; skeleton; voluntary b. spindleshaped; internal organs; involuntary c. striated; heart; involuntary 12. a. neurons b. nerves c. conduct nerve impulses d. neuroglial cells e. protection f. nine g. onehalf 13. a. A b. P c. P d. T e. T f. A g. A h. A 14. a. coelom b. thoracic c. abdominal 15. a. meninges b. mucous membrane c. synovial d. synovial fluid 16. a. serous b. watery serous fluid 17. a. digestive b. muscular c. nervous d. endocrine 18. e, b, i, a, k, c, j, g, f, d, h 19 a. organ b. epidermis c. keratin 20. a. hair follicle b. arrector pili c. oil 21. a. epidermis b. dermis c. subcutaneous layer d. hair shaft e. arrector pili muscle f. receptors g. oil gland h. hair root i. adipose tissue j. connective tissue k. blood vessels l. sweat gland m. nerve 22. a. Blood vessels constrict, sweat glands are inactive, hair stands on end, and shivering may occur. b. Blood vessels dilate, sweat glands are active, and hair lies next to skin. 23. a. relative constancy of the internal environment b. tissue fluid c. body temperature remains around 37 C 24. a. provides nutrient molecules b. removes carbon dioxide and adds oxygen to the blood c. eliminates wastes and salts 25. a. nervous b. endocrine 26. a. sensory receptor b. regulatory center c. effector d. response 27. Sensory receptors in aortic and carotid sinuses communicate with a regulatory center in the brain when there is a rise in blood pressure. This center sends inhibitory nerve impulses to the arteries and they relax. When the blood pressure falls, the sensory receptors no longer communicate with regulatory center.

CHAPTER TEST
1. a 2. d 3. d 4. b 5. b 6. d 7. c 8. c 9. b 10. d 11. b 12. a 13. c 14. d 15. c 16. b 17. a 18. d 19. a 20. c 21. b 22. d 23. c 24. b 25. c 26. The nervous system is the ultimate source of control over homeostasisit registers changes and decides what action to take. Nervous impulses can be sent to trigger an appropriate response to maintain homeostasis. The endocrine system releases hormones into the bloodstream when needed to maintain homeostasis. Hormones last longer, but nervous impulses can travel faster. The nervous system controls the endocrine system. 27. The digestive tract adds nutrients and the lungs add oxygen to the blood. The blood vessels bring nutrients and oxygen to tissue fluid and take away waste molecules, including carbon dioxide. The kidneys excrete metabolic wastes, and the lungs excrete carbon dioxide.

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