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saqarTvelos axalgazrda konstitucionalistTa asociacia saqarTvelos axalgazrda sociologTa asociacia

umaRlesi ganaTlebis politika studenturi xedva

gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi 2013

broSura/kvleva momzadda `saqarTvelos axalgazrda konstitucionalistTa asociaciisa~ da `saqarTvelos axalgazrda sociologTa asociaciis~ mier aRmosavleTdasavleTis marTvis institutis (EWMI) programis `saqarTveloSi sajaro politikis, advokatirebisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTareba(GPAC)farglebSi. broSuris gamocema/kvlevis Catareba SesaZlebeli gaxda amerikeli xalxis gulisxmieri mxardaWeris Sedegad, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos (USAID) dafinasebiT. broSuris Sinaarsze mTlianad pasuxismgebelia avtori. is SesaZloa ar gamoxatavdesUSAIDis, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobis an EWMI Sexedulebebs.

broSuris eleqtronuli versia ganTavsebulia veb-gverdebze: www.gyca.ge www.youngsociologist.com

saredaqcio jgufi: Tornike WeiSvili rati baxtaZe nino qaSakaSvili giorgi CifCiuri

gamomcemloba `universali~, 2013


Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30 E-mail: universal@internet.ge

ISBN 978-9941-22-177-4

Sesavali saqarTvelosTvis, rogorc demokratiuli tranziciis etapze myofi saxelmwifosTvis, saxasiaTo da bunebrivia sxvadasxva sferoSi reformaTa intensiuri gatareba. Tumca, rig SemTxvevebSi kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgeba maTi efeqturoba. amasTan, SeiniSneba arasaxarbielo tendencia, rodesac konkretuli warumatebeli reformis Sedegebis kompensirebas mavani axali, Sesabamisi gaTvlebis gareSe momzadebuli cvlilebaTa paketiT cdilobs da, amdenad, kidev ufro amZimebs situacias. am kuTxiT gamonakliss arc umaRlesi ganaTlebis sfero warmoadgens, romlis optimizaciazec ukanaskneli wlebis ganmavlobaSi sakmaod didi Zalisxmeva daixarja. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, dResac erTerT umwvaves problemad saxelmwifoSi swored umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi Seqmnili situacia rCeba. bevri SeiZleba vikamaToT im mizezebze, romlis gamoc dRes-dReobiT kvlavac dgas dRis wesrigSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemuri reformirebis sakiTxi. sazogadoebis garkveuli nawili amas konkretul politikur ZalTa mxridan gatarebuli araswori kursis Sedegad miiCnevs. agreTve, musirebs mosazreba, romelic Sesabamisi kvalifikaciis mqone kadrebis deficitze apelirebs. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, ra mizezic ar unda davasaxeloT, situacia uwindeburad krizisulia da warsulSi daSvebuli Secdomebis gaanalizebis fonze, dauyovnebliv saWiroebs qmediTi nabijebis gadadgmas. Tuki damkvidrebul praqtikas gadavavlebT Tvals, Zalian mkafiod SevniSnavT, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi aqamde ganxorcielebuli reformebis, Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis absoluturi umravlesoba centraluri xelisuflebidan iyo inicirebuli. samwuxaroa, rom zemoTqmul cvlilebaTa upirvelesi adresatebi - umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebi, faqtobrivad uapelaciod iRebdnen xelisuflebis mier SeTavazebul kombinaciebs, romlebic Seexeboda rogorc sauniversiteto dafinansebasTan, ise, umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis iuridiul statusTan, qone3

bis marTvasTan, universitetebis struqturasTan dakavSirbul sakiTxebs. Tumca, yvelaze samwuxaro am procesebSi is aris, rom cvlilebebi umaRlesi ganaTlebis ganviTarebis koncefciisgan abstrahirebis, ufro sworad, misi ararsebobis fonze mimdinareobda. kerZod, saxelmwifoSi ar iyo momzadebuli umaRlesi ganaTlebis sasurveli modelis parametrebis mareglamentirebeli dokumenti, romlis msgavsi sistemis Camoyalibebac iqneboda umaRlesi ganaTlebis reformis ZiriTadi mizani. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, erTi mxriv, universitetebSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis optimizaciasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis aqtualizaciisa da, meore mxriv, studentebisgan, profesor-maswavleblebisgan konkretuli problemebis identificirebisa, xolo momdevno etapze maTi gadaWris gzebis dasaxvis mizniT, ganxorcielda proeqti `umaRlesi ganaTlebis politika - studenturi xedva~. winamdebare dokumenti swored aRniSnuli proeqtis farglebSi ganxorcielebuli aqtivobebis - sajaro Sexvedrebis, sociologiuri kvlevis, saxelmwifo struqturebis warmomadgenlebTan gamarTuli Sedegebis erTgvari Sejamebaa da, Sesabamisad, or nawilad iyofa - umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi arsebuli ZiriTadi gamowvevebi da sociologiuri kvlevis angariSi. proeqtis ganmaxorcielebeli jgufis azriT, romelic dakompleqtebuli iyo `saqarTvelos axalgazrda konstitucionalistTa asociaciisa~ da `saqarTvelos axalgazrda sociologTa asociaciis~ wevrebiT, warmodgenili naSromi samomavlod daxmarebas gauwevs saxelmwifo insitutciebs, upirvelesad, saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministrosa da saqarTvelos parlamentis ganaTlebis, mecnierebisa da kulturis komitets umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis efeqturi reformirebis saqmeSi. amasTan, aRniSvnis Rirsia is garemoeba, rom proeqti `umaRlesi ganaTlebis politika - studenturi xedva~ ganxorcielda rogorc TbilisSi, aseve, saqarTvelos 4 qalaqSi mdebare universitetebSi. saerTo jamSi proeqtma moicva 8 universiteti da 300-mde beneficiari. Tbilisi, 2013 wlis noemberi 4

saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba - umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis iuridiuli statusi da dafinansebis sistema 2011 wlamde saqarTveloSi umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis iuridiuli statusis sakiTxi iSviaTad Tu gamxdara sajarod gansjis sagani. Tumca, mas Semdeg, rac 2011 wlis sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebiT `umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonSi, Seiqmna samarTlebrivi safuZveli, xolo 2011-2012 wlebSi saqarTvelos mTavrobis dadgenilebebiT saxelmwifos mier dafuZnebuli umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis umravlesoba ssip-dan (sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri) a(a)ip-ad (arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli) iuridiuli piri) gardaiqmna, aRniSnul Temaze aqtiuri disputi daiwyo. kerZod, gaCnda kiTxvaTa mTeli kaskadi, Tu ratom miiRo imdroindelma xelisuflebam zemoxsenebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi da, miuxedavad imisa, rom procesi formalurad nebayoflobiTi iyo, ratom airCia saxelmwifo usd-ebis umravlesobam swored kerZo samarTlis iuridiul pirad - a(a)ip-d funqcionirebis gagrZelebis perspeqtiva. iuristebma bevri SeiZleba ikamaTon erTi mxriv, ssip-s, xolo, meore mxriv, a(a)ip-s dadebiT Tu uaryofiT mxareebze. Tumca, proeqtis farglebSi ZiriTad mizans saqarTveloSi Seqmnili realobis analizis safuZvelze saxelmwifos mier dafuZnebuli umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebisTvis metad misaRebi iuridiuli formis Sesaxeb msjeloba warmoadgenda. miT umetes, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom axali saxelisufleblo gundis mosvlis Semdeg, SeiZleba iTqvas, 2011 wlis dasawyisSi arsebuli status-kvo aRdga - sakanonmdeblo cvlilebaTa morigi talRis Sedegad, saxelmwifos mier dafuZnebuli usd-ebis umravlesoba kvlav sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piria. sakiTxiT dainteresebul pirTa garkveuli nawili miiCnevs, rom usd-s samarTlebrivi statusi Cveulebrivi 5

formalobaa da arsebiT zegavlenas ver moaxdens universitetis, saswavlo universitetisa Tu kolejis samomavlo ganviTarebaze da am SemTxvevaSi primati saxelmwifos mier gamovlenil politikur nebas eniWeba. meore mxriv, zemoaRniSnuli poziciis mowinaaRmdegeebi swored samarTlebrivi statusis gansazRvraSi xedaven saxelmwifos damokidebulebas imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad mzadaa xelisufleba valdebulebaTa asaRebad umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis winaSe. Tuki saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuli scenariT vimsjelebT, zemoxsenebulTagan meore pozicia gacilebiT ufro legitimuria. kerZod, 2011 wlis sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis Semdeg aSkara gaxda, rom saxelmwifo, aZlevda ra Tavisuflebis gacilebiT farTo farglebs umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebs, aRar apirebda Tundac im mcireodeni finansuri valdebulebebis Sesrulebas, romlebic xsenebul cvlilebebamde hqonda nakisri. saxelmwifos mier dafuZnebul a(a)ip universitetebs gadaecaT garkveuli qoneba sakuTrebaSi da samomavlod savaraudod swored es qoneba unda gamxdariyo usd-ebis ganviTarebis fondis Sevsebis umTavresi wyaro. amasTan, dafiqsirda SemTxveva, saxelmwifos mier dafuZnebuli a(a)ip universitetis privatizaciisa da didi albaTobiT es gamocdileba sxva SemTxvevebSic iqneboda gaziarebuli. rodesac proeqtis farglebSi imarTeboda msjeloba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra zegavlena iqonia samarTlebrivi statusis Secvlam sauniversiteto cxovrebaze, pasuxi xSir SemTxvevaSi identuri iyo - studentTa, profesormaswavlebelTa umravlesoba aRniSnavda, rom arsebiTi zegavlena erTi samarTlebrivi statusis meoreTi Canacvlebas universitetis yoveldRiur cxovrebaze ar mouxdenia. ufro metic, proeqtis beneficiarTa nawili ar flobda informacias statusis Secvlis Sesaxeb. Tumca, amavdroulad, proeqtSi monawileTa absoluturi umravlesoba miuTiTebda saxelmwifos mxridan universitetebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi pozitiurad Carevis aucileblobaze, rac, upirevelsad, finansuri valdebulebebis aRebiT unda iyos gamoxatuli. 6

sainteresoa, am kuTxiT, ramdenad SeiZleba miviCnioT xelisuflebis mier gadadgmuli nabiji saxelmwifos mier dafuZnebuli umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebisTvis ssip statusis aRdgenis Taobaze, samomavlod umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis ganviTarebaSi saxelmwifos aqtiur monawiled dafiqsirebis demonstraciad. amaze jer-jerobiT calsaxa pasuxi ar arsebobs, radgan, miuxedavad garkveuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebisa, diametralurad saxelmwifos valdebulebebi usdebTan mimarTebiT ar gazrdila. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare usd-ebis samarTlebrivi statusis sakiTxze msjelobisas saxelmwifos mier damatebiTi valdebulebebis aRebis WrilSi, proeqtis beneficiarTa umravlesoba upiratesobas ssip iuridiul formas aniWebs, Tumca, amavdroulad samarTlebrivi statusis paralelurad xelisuflebas usd-ebis damatebiTi finansuri subsidirebisken miuTiTebs, rac qvemore abzacebSi ufro detalurad iqneba mimoxiluli. rac Seexeba, umaRlesi ganaTlebis saxelmwifos mxirdan finansur subsidirebas, am nawilSi visaubrebT saqarTveloSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis dafinansebis rogorc warsulSi arsebul, ise amJamindel politikaze, mimovixilavT ucxour praqtikas da, ra Tqma unda, saubari gveqneba im Sexedulebebze, romlebic Tbilissa Tu regionebSi gamoiTqva Cven mier saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi organizebul Sexvedrebze. umaRlesi ganaTlebis dafinanseba yovelTvis iyo da iqneba im saxelmwifoTa prioriteti, sadac socialur uflebebs pativs scemen (aseTi qveynebi ki Tanamedrove msoflioSi, ZiriTadad, koncentrirebulia kontinenturi evropis teritoriaze). rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, qveynis ZiriTadi kanonis 35-e muxlis Tanaxmad: yvelas aqvs ganaTlebis miRebisa da misi formis arCevis ufleba. saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs qveynis saganmanaTleblo sistemis harmonizacias saerTaSoriso saganmanaTleblo sivrceSi. 7

skolamdel aRzrdas saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs kanoniT dadgenili wesiT. dawyebiTi da sabazo ganaTleba savaldebuloa. zogad ganaTlebas kanoniT dadgenili wesiT srulad afinansebs saxelmwifo. moqalaqeebs ufleba aqvT kanoniT dadgenili wesiT, saxelmwifos dafinansebiT miiRon profesiuli da umaRlesi ganaTleba. saxelmwifo mxars uWers saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebs kanoniT dadgenili wesiT. mocemuli muxlis Tanaxmad, miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelo konstituciur doneze ar aRiarebs socialuri uflebebis dacvis valdebulebas, saqarTveloSi myofi TiToeuli piris mier ganaTlebis miRebis uflebis ganxorcielebis mimarT kisrulobs garkveul valdebulebas, rac mis nawilobriv dafinansebaSic gamoixateba. kerZod, 35-e muxlis me-3 punqtis Tanaxmad `zogad ganaTlebas ... srulad afinansebs saxelmwifo~, `moqalaqeebs ufleba aqvT kanoniT dadgenili wesiT, saxelmwifos dafinansebiT miiRon profesiuli da umaRlesi ganaTleba~. miuxedavad im uamravi siZnelisa, romelic saqarTvelom damoukideblobis aRdgenidan dRemde gamoiara, qveynis biujetSi ment-naklebad yovelTvis iyo gamoyofili garkveuli saxsrebi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis mxardasaWerad, Tumca, umaRlesi ganaTlebis dafinansebis kuTxiT am Tanxebis gankargvis sistema yovelTvis erTnairi ar yofila. 2004 wlamde, sanam umaRlesi ganaTlebis sagranto dafinansebis sistema damkvidrdeboda, Cvens qveyanaSi universitetebi pirdapir finansdebodnen saxelmwofosgan, rac sazogadoebis SefasebiT korufciis wyaros warmoadgenda da sabolood gaxda kidec sagranto dafinansebis sistemis SemoRebis safuZveli. saxelmwifos mxridan sagranto dafinansebis sistemisTvis prioritetis miniWbam umaRlesi ganaTlebis dafinanseba studentze orientirebuli gaxada, ris farglebSic garkveulwilad SeizRuda akademiuri personalis mxardaWera. garda amisa, sagrZnoblad gaizarda swavlis gadasaxadi, rac yvelaze mZimed im studentebis fi8

nansur mdgomareobaze aisaxa, romlebic saxelmwifos mxridan dafinansebul pirTa wreSi ver moxvdnen. garda amisa, bunebrivia, sagranto dafinansebis sistemas aqvs Tavisi dadebiT mxareebi. misi wyalobiT, idealur pirobebSi unda gaizardos umaRles saganmamaTleblo dawesebulebebs Soris konkurencia, rac sabolood maT gaZlierebasa da ganviTarebaze unda aisaxos. msoflioSi arsebul praqtikas Tu gadavxedavT, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saxelmwifo saxsrebis gankargvis kuTxiT umaRlesi ganaTlebis mxardaWeris sferoSi, gansxvavebuli midgoma arsebobs kontitnenturi evropasa da e.w. anglo-amerikul qveynebSi. Tu kontinenturi evropis, gansakuTrebiT ki germanuli dafinansebis sistema gulisxmobs umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis saxelmwifos mxridan uSualo dafinansebas, inglisuramerikuli midgomiT dafinansebis ZiriTadi saxsrebi mimarTuli unda iyos ara saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis, aramed studentisken da am kuTxiT gamoyofili fuli iribad unda moxvdes universitetebSi. Sexvedrebze Cven vcdilobdiT maqsimalurad Tanabar pirobebSi migvewodebina informacia studentebisTvis umaRlesi ganaTlebis dafinansebis orive modelis Sesaxeb, gvesaubra saqarTveloSi wlebis manZilze arsebul praqtikasa da dRes arsebul tendenciebze. aqve unda aRiniSnos, miuxedavad imisa, rom TiToeul students es uSualod exeba, universitetebSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis politikis gansazRvrasTan dakavSirebiT Cven mier gamarTuli diskusiebi, rig SemTxvevebSi pirveli iyo da rac yvelaze cudia, studentebs ar hqondaT informacia umaRlesi ganaTlebis dafinansebis sistemis Sesaxeb. sabolood, Cven mier informaciis miwodebisa da umaRlesi ganaTlebis dafinansebasTan dakavSirebiT msjelobis ganviTarebis Sedegad studentebis ZiriTadma nawilma mxari ar dauWira sagranto dafinansebis arsebul sistemas da upiratesoba mianiWa universitetebis dafinansebis Sereul models, romelic sagranto dafinansebis paralelurad, umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebaTa sabaziso dafinansebasac gulisxmobs. 9

amasTan, sociologiuri kvlevis Sedegebi TvalsaCinos xdis vauCeruli dafinanasebis sistemis bevr naklovanebas. rogorc aRmoCnda, sauniversiteto doneze studentebi awydebian rig problemebs, romelTa gamomwvev umTavres mizezs swored dafinansebis arsebuli sistema warmoadgens. kvlevis analizis nawilSi ufro vrclad gaecnobiT aRniSnul problemas.

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tenuaris sistemis qarTuli perspeqtivebi

tenuaris sistemis mniSvneloba proeqtis ganmaxorcielebelma jgufma sajaro Sexvedrebis formatis farglebSi gadawyvita win wamoewia akademiuri Tavisuflebis sakiTxi qarTuli realobisTvis erT-erTi yvelaze aqtualuri Tema. akademiuri Tavisufleba Tanamedrove universitetis mowyobis erT erTi umTavresi principia. igi moicavs Semdeg komponentebs: (a) vin aswavlis; (b) ras aswavlis; (g) rogor aswavlis; (d) vis eqneba swavlis SesaZlebloba. akademiuri Tavisufleba aris maRali samecnero da saganmanaTleblo xarisxis winapiroba. aRniSnuli miznebis miRwevis relevantur gzebze imsjela ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis reformebis saxelmwifo komisiam gia dvalis xelmZRvanelobiT, romelmac gamoaqveyna komunike `umaRlesi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis reformis koncefciis proeqti~. koncefciaSi akademiuri Tavisuflebis Temas mniSvnelovani adgili daeTmo. dokumentma Semoitana qarTuli relobisTvis ucnobi instituti tenuaris sistema. saorganizacio jgufis mier miRebul iqna gadawyvetileba, erT erTi ZiriTadi gansaxilveli sakiTxi sajaro Sexvedrebisas yofiliyo swored tenuaris sistemis danergvis peqspeqtiva saqarTveloSi. Sexvedrebi iZleoda unikalur SesaZleblobas, am sakiTxis analizi moexdina im Taobas, romelsac profesor maswavleblebTan intensiuri urTierTobis safuZvelze Camouyalibda Tavisi Sexeduleba da pozicia. sruliad realuri iyo, rom Sesabamisi formatis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi moxdeboda saintereso azrebis dafiqsireba, monawileTa mxridan rekomendaciebisa da winadadebebis SeTavazeba. swored am ukanasknelTa gaTvaliswineba, maTi win wamoweva da Sesabamisi kompetenciis organoebTan misi lobireba warmoadgenda proeqtis erT-erT umTavres mizans. 11

sakiTxis ganxilvis formati. saorganizacio jgufi Seecada sajaro Sexvedrebis monawileebisaTvis SeeTavazebina ganxilvis formati, romelic monawileebs miscemda saSualebas, aqtiurad daefiqsirebinaT azri zemoxsenebul sistemasTan mimarTebiT. Sexvedrebi iyo (a) informatiuli (am sistemis mokle istoria, saerTaSoriso praqtika), (b) axdenda gansxvavebuli poziciebis gamamyarebeli argumentebis identificirebas. am etapze mniSvnelovani iyo SexvedraSi monawileTa pozicia da diskusia, rac, rogorc wesi, yoveli sajaro Sexvedris ganuyofel nawils warmoadgenda. saqarTvelos masStabiT Sexvedrebisas saqarTvelos axalgazrdobam gamokveTa bevri aqtualuri sakiTxi. mniSvnelovania, rom monawileebi ara marto problemas warmoaCendnen, aramed xdeboda misi gadaWris sxvadasxva alternatiul gzaze msjeloba, razec qvemoT gveqneba saubari. saerTaSoriso gamocdileba. proeqtis saorganizacio jgufs kargad esmoda, rom tenuaris sistemaze msjelobisas unda gaviazroT saerTaSoriso gamocdileba da movaxdinoT maTi qarTul realobaSi gaTvaliswineba. sainteresoa, tenuaris sistemis efeqturobasTan mimarTebiT gakaTebuli Sefaseba. tenuaris sistema, Camoyalibda amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi. univeristetis profesorebis amerikulma asociaciam gansaxilveli institutis amoqmedebidan dRemde arsebuli gamocdilebis analizis safuZvelze, es sistema miiCnia akademiuri Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofis aucilebel da saWiro elementad. saganmanaTleblo sistema, ra Tqma unda, kompleqsuri dargia, rac Sesabamisad sxvadasxva elementebis kumulaciuri moqmedebis Sedegad qmnis erT mTlianobas. sajaro diskusiebSi monawileebis mxridan dasmuli iyo sakiTxi, rom marTalia, garkveuli sistemis warmateba, mxolod erTi elementiT ar iyo ganpirobebuli, Tumca, aka12

demiuri Tavisufleba iyo Zireuli komponenti, ramac, maTi azriT, safuZveli Seuqmna amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis, kanadis, Tu sxva ganviTarebuli qveynebis efeqtur, Sedegze orientirebul ganaTlebis sistemas. gamocdileba gvkarnaxobs, rom tenuaris sistema aris efeqturi meqanizmi, imisaTvis, rom profesor-maswavlebelebi daculi iyvnen wnexisagan maTi politikuri Tu samecniero Sexedulebebis gamo. Tumca, sakiTxisadmi idealisturi midgoma ar dafiqsirebula da samizne jgufis mier gaazrebuli iyo, aseve, SesaZlo uaryofiTi mxareebic, romlebsac qvemoT ufro detalurad SevexebiT.

saqarTveloSi tenuaris sistemis danergvis ZiriTad mimarTulebebi. qarTuli reformis koncefciis proeqtis detaluri analizi ar warmoadgens am naSromis ideas da mizans, Tumca, Sexvedrebis ZiriTadi tendenciebis gasaazreblad, mniSvnelovania yuradReba gamaxvildes Semdeg sakiTxebze: (1) koncefciis Tanaxmad, universitetis TviTmmarTvel birTvs warmoadgens mudmivi Tanamdebobis mqone profesorTa kontingenti (tenuirebuli profesorebi (tenured faculty)) da aseve is profesorebi, romlebic tenuaris statusis miRebis kandidatebi arian (tenuaris gzaze (tenuretrack) myofi profesorebi). tenuirebuli da tenuaris gzaze myofi profesorebi Seadgenen akademiuri personalis yvelaze warCinebul nawils, amavdroulad isini qmnian mTeli akademiuri sistemis stabilurobisa da efeqturobis garantias. tenuari gulisxmobs gansakuTrebul statuss, romelic mTeli universitetis sayrdenia. (2) tenuirebul poziciaze profesoris ayvana SeiZleba moxdes rogorc pirdapir, aseve garkveuli sacdeli vadis Semdeg. 13

(3) tenuaris poziciaze pirdapiri ayvana xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mocemuli profesoris profesiuli da pedagogiuri xarisxis da damsaxurebis Sesabamisoba aseT statusTan eWvgareSea da dadasturebulia Sesabamisi wesiT; (4) orive SemTxvevaSi (pirdapir tenuirebuli an tenuaris gzaze myofi) profesoris Tanamdebobaze miReba uaRresad frTxili da kritikuli SerCevis Sedegad xdeba. kandidatebis SerCevas awarmoebs amisTvis specialurad Seqmnili miukerZoebeli komiteti, romelic kandidatebis SefasebaSi eyrdnoba rogorc sakuTar eqspertizas, aseve, gare referirebis sistemas. es ukanaskneli gulisxmobs, msoflio masStabiT SerCeuli, konkretul samecniero dargSi moRvawe da warCinebul mecnierTa garkveuli raodenobis konfidencialur gamokiTxvas. sajaro SexvedrebSi monawileTa poziciebi da argumentebi. sajaro Sexvedrebisas zemoaRniSnuli sakiTxi beneficiarTa seriozuli dainteresebiT sargeblobda. proeqtis monawileTa garkveuli nawili qarTuli realobisa da Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT uaryofiTad afasebda am sistemis warmatebis perspeqtivas. amasTan, sajaro Sexvedrebisas Sekrebilebi cdilobdnen yovelmxriv da sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT moexdinaT sakiTxis ganxilva. Sedegad, gamoikveTa tenuaris sistemis danergvis sasargeblod ramdenime ZiriTadi argumenti: (a) akademiuri tenuari pirvel rigSi danaxuli iyo, rogorc akademiuri Tavisuflebis garanti, radgan igi icavs am statusis mqone leqtorebsa Tu mkvlevarebs, rodesac isini gamoxataven gabatonebuli azrisgan gansxvavebul azrs, Riad ar eTanxmebian xelisuflebis sxvadasxva ganStoebas an yuradRebas ar amaxvileben `modur Te14

mebze~. amrigad, tenuaris sistema gare wnexisagan akademiuri personalis dacvis saSualebad iqna aRiarebuli. (b) samsaxureobrivi dacvisgan ar arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, akademiurma personalma SeiZleba `usafrTxo~ gziT siaruli arCios, rac TavisTavad Semgdomi ganviTarebisTvis ar Seqmnis relevantur niadags. (g) amasTan, erTad axalgazrdebi amaxvilebdnen yuradRebas imazec, rom tenuaris sistema originalur da xSir SemTxevaSi utopiur ideebs miscemda warmoSobis saSualebas, rac Semdgomi samecniero-SemoqmedebiTi procesis inspirirebis winapiroba gaxdeboda. meore mxriv, proeqtis monawileTa nawili Tvlida, rom qarTuli saganmanaTleblo sistema ar aris mzad tenuaris sistemis efeqturad gamoyenebisTvis. Tuki es sistema qarTul realobaSi amoqmeddeboda, aucilebeli iyo Semdegi sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba: (a) finansuri komponenti. tenuaris sistema da statusi Sesabamisad arsebulTan SedarebiT did TanxebTan aris dakavSirebulli - amdenad, beneficiarebi mis ZviradRirebulebaze amaxvilebdnen yuradRebas. sakiTxi Semdegnairad ganisazRvra - umaRles saswavleblebs ramdenad gaaCniaT imis fufuneba, rom tenuaris sistemis pirobebSi efeqturad ifunqcioniron; (b) tenuirebuli profesorebis produqtiuloba. sajaro diskusiebSi monawileebi gansakuTrebul safrTxes xedavdnen im mimarTulebiT, rom maRali albaTobiT, tenuirebul profesorTa produqtiuloba moiklebda da moxdeboda am profesorebis `gazarmaceba~, gansakuTrebiT - swavlebis mimarTulebiT, rac negatiurad aisaxeba umaRlesi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis ganviTarebaze;

15

(g) TaobaTa cvla. gamoiTqva varaudi, rom tenuirebuli profesorebi xels SeuSlidnen axalgazrda kadrebis mecnierebaSi mosvlas. es problema gansakuTrebuli simZafriT dadgeboda, Tuki zRvruli asakobrivi moTxovna ar iarsebebda. problemuri sakiTxebis gadaWris meqanizmebze msjelobisas monawileebis nawili Tvlida, rom tenuirebuli profesoris Sefasebis sistema unda SemoRebuliyo. amaSi isini gulisxmobdnen studentebis permanentul gamokiTxvas profesoris saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT. maTi azriT, es Sefaseba mxolod sarekomendacio xasiaTiT ar unda Semoifarglos da Sesabamis Sedegebs unda iwvevdes. sajaro Sexvedrebis dros tenuirebul poziciaze profesoris ayvanis procedurebze xSir SemTxvevaSi iyo msjeloba. Sevedrebis monawileTa azri am mimarTulebiT gayofili iyo, zogierTi maTgani efeqtur gzad, qarTuli realobis gaTvaliswinebiT, asaxelebda profesorTa gamosacdeli vadiT ayvanas. sociologiuri kvlevis Sedegebi aCvenebs, rom akademiuri Tavisuflebis sakiTxs studentebi marTlac aqtiurad ganixilaven da mwvave problemad aRiqvamen. studentTa garkveuli nawili saubrobs tenuaris sistemaze, rogorc universitetebSi akademiuri Tavisuflebis garantze. rogorc aRmoCnda, mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens universitetebSi leqtoris poziciis dakavebis wesi, mas studentebi ararelevanturad da araobieqturad miiCneven. aseve, isini saubroben universitetis politizaciis problemaze. studentebi aRniSnaven, rom rig SemTxvevebSi, universitetebSi profesorebs irCeven ara profesionalizmis, aramed politikuri, socialuri an sxva msgavsi niSniT. aRniSnuli problemis gadaWris gzad studentTa nawili swored gare referirebas moiazrebs. saboloo jamSi, saorganizacio jgufi darwmunda, rom akademiuri Tavisuflebis sakiTxi qarTuli saganmanaTleblo sivrcis gamowvevaa.

16

daskvnis magier sabolood, yvelani vTanxmdebiT, rom qveynis ganviTarebisaTvis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovania ganaTlebis maRali done da mecnierebis xelSewyoba. saxelmwifom nebismier pirobebSi unda gaagrZelos ganaTlebis sistemis reformis farglebSi dawyebuli RonisZiebebi rogorc saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis saTanado kadrebiTa da Sesabamisi infrastruqturiT uzrunvelyofis, ise disciplinisa da marTvis efeqtiani sistemis danergvis kuTxiT. axalgazrdebisTvis naTelia, rom maRali xarisxis ganaTlebis gareSe SeuZlebelia Rirseuli da maRalanazRaurebadi samuSao adgilebis Seqmna. saxelmwifom aqtiurad unda ganagrZos muSaoba umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis saerTaSoriso standartebTan maqsimalurad miaxloebis kuTxiT, ris Sedegadac saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis kursdamTavrebulebs SesaZlebloba eqnebaT, Rirseuli konkurentebi gaxdnen dasaqmebis msoflio bazarze. saxelmwifom xeli unda Seuwyos sxvadasxva teqnikuri da samecniero dargiT axalgazrdebis dainteresebas, maT Soris, saxelmwifo saswavlo grantis mniSvnelovani nawilis am kuTxiT mimarTvis gziT, rac, Tavis mxriv, xels Seuwyobs qveyanaSi maRalteqnologiuri dargebis ganviTarebasa da msoflio masStabiT saqarTvelos am kuTxiT warmoCinebas. bevria gasakeTebeli umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo sistemis daxvewis TvalsazrisiT. kerZod, unda ganxorcieldes mTeli rigi RonisZiebebi saqarTvelos axalgazrdobis globaluri konkurentunarianobis donis asawevad rogorc bakalavriatis, ise magistraturis doneze. boloniis procesis farglebSi, unda moxdes qarTveli studentebis evropul da msoflio akademiur sistemebSi integracia. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda davuTmoT im disciplinebs, romlebic dResdReobiT, SesaZloa, arsebuli sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi, dasaqmebis kuTxiT, naklebaqtualuri gveCvenos, Tumca samomavlod aseT sferoSi specialistebis arseboba saqarTvelosTvis sasicocxlod aucilebeli gaxdes. Sexvedrebze damswre studentebis TvalTaxedviT, saxelmwifoSi wlebis Sem17

deg mniSvnelovani problema iqneba sainJinro da soflis meurneobis sferoSi saTanado ganaTlebis mqone specialistis moZieba, risi mizezebic umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo sistemis dRes arsebul xarvezebSi unda veZioT. garda zemoT CamoTvilisa, saxelmwifom unda ganagrZos da gaaZlieros zrunva eTnikuri umciresobebisa da sxvadasxva socialuri fenis warmomadgeneli axalgazrdebisaTvis umaRlesi ganaTlebis Tanabari xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelsayofad. agreTve, didi yuradReba unda daeTmos xelovnebisa da kulturis dargSi ganaTlebis miRebis SesaZleblobebis mxardaWerasa da am sferoSi dasaqmebulTa mudmivi profesiuli zrdis mizniT Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebas. ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis sferoSi unda arsebobdes erTiani saxelmwifo politika da unda xdebodes am sferoSi arsebuli yoveli rgolis saqmianobis koordinacia da kontroli. amasTanave, saqarTvelos TiToeuli moqalaqisaTvis umaRlesi ganaTlebis miReba nebismier dros unda iyos SesaZlebeli da am mxriv, qveynis yoveli moqalaqe Tanabar pirobebSi unda imyofebodes. CvenTvis - proeqtis organizatorebisTvis calsaxad naTelia, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi miRweva im miznebisa, romelTa Sesaxebac studentebma proeqt "umaRlesi ganaTlebis politika - studenturi xedvis" farglebSi isaubres, sakmaod rTul da Sromatevad process warmoadgens. Cveni TvalTaxedviT, es SesaZlebeli iqneba sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevris mier, saxelmwifo struqturebsa da umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebTan erTad ganaTlebis xarisxze mudmivi zrunvis, misi gaumjobesebisa da daxvewis, erovnuli saganamanaTleblo sistemis Camoyalibebis pirobebSi. imeds gamovTqvamT, rom uaxloes momavalSi im TiToeuli piris mier, romelic monawileobas iRebs an/da miiRebs umaRlesi ganaTlebis politikis gansazRvraSi, gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba studenturi neba, romelic saqarTvelos masStabiT "saqarTvelos axalgazrda konstitucionalistTa asociaciisa" da "saqarTvelos axalgazrda sociologTa asociaciis" mier organizebul Sexved18

rebsa Tu kvlevaSi monawile studentebma daafiqsires da umaRles saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi aRar iarsebebs is problemebi, romlebic wlebis manZilze ase Warbad dagrovda da dResac gamoirCeva simwvaviT. Cven ki, pasuxismgeblobis sruli gaazrebis pirobebSi vacxadebT, rom mzad varT, nebismier asparezze, vibrZoloT axalgazrdebis, kerZod studentebis mier proeqtis farglebSi gamoTqmuli progresuli azrebisa da Sexedulebebis dasacavad.

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kvlevis angariSi

umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi arsebuli problemebi - studenturi xedva


kvlevis angariSi ar warmoadgens ~saqarTvelos axalgazrda sociologTa asociaciis wevrebis mosazrebebs Tu Sexedulebebs. is moicavs kvlevis procesSi miRebuli informaciis analizs.

kvlevis xelmZRvaneli: Tekla jamruliZe, salome qajaia. mkvlevarTa jgufi: Tamar laferaZe, Tamar margvelaSili, luka xunwaria, natalia mWedliSvili, lizi sreseli, aleqsandre qeSelaSvili. stilis redaqtori/koreqtori: nino gogiaSvili kvlevis ganxorcielebaSi gaweuli daxmarebisTvis madlobas vuxdiT ~saqarTvelos axalgazrda sociologTa asociaciis moxalise wevrebs.

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problemis aRwera dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi mudmivi diskusiebisa da sajaro ganxilvebis Temad iqca umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistema. amgvari mocemuloba gansxvavdeba gasuli wlebisagan, rodesac umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi gadawyvetilebis mimRebi organoebis mier igegmeboda da xorcieldeboda cvlilebebi sazogadoebrivi ganxilvis, studentur da akademiur cxovrebaSi CarTul subieqtTa azris gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. sazogadoebis mniSvnelovani nawili Tanxmdeba, rom es sfero saWiroebs Zireul reformebs, vinaidan qarTul umaRles saswavleblebSi da, zogadad, saganmanaTleblo sivrceSi uamravi gadauWreli problema iCens Tavs. umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi arsebuli problemebi kritikulad aisaxeba qveynisa da momavali Taobebis ganviTarebaze. rodesac saubaria arajansaR saganmanaTleblo sivrceze, amis pirdapiri Sedegia aTasobiT dazaralebuli studenti, romlebic swavloben universitetebSi, umravles SemTxvevaSi, ixdian swavlis safasurs, Tumca ver iReben xarisxian ganaTlebas, ver aRweven saTanado kvalifikacias sakuTar profesiaSi, ar arian konkurentunarianebi qarTul Tu saerTaSoriso SromiT bazarze. uaxloesi ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi gaxSirda studentebis saprotesto gamosvlebi, isini iTxoven xarisxian ganaTlebas, aprotesteben gaumarTav sauniversiteto sistemas, surT hqondeT ukeTesi ganaTlebis miRebis saSualeba. 2012 wlis oqtomberSi, mTavrobis cvlilebis Sedegad moxda umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis relevanturi sakiTxebis win wamoweva. dRis wesrigSi dadga sistemis reformaciis gzebis dasaxva. gatarda iseTi sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi, rogoricaa saqarTveloSi akreditebuli umaRlesi saxelmwifo saswavleblebis statusis cvlileba. Seiqmna `umaRlesi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis reformis saxelmwifo komisia~, romlis mier SemuSavebuli strategia, sistemis reformaciasTan dakavSirebiT, farTo ganxilvis sagani gaxda akademiur da ara mxolod akademiur wreebSi. komisiis mier Seqmnil dokuments bevri mxardamWeri da bevri kritikosi gamouCnda. dRemde Riaa sakiTxi ko21

misiis mier Seqmnili samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb. moqalaqeebi, iseve, rogorc qveynis mmarTvelobiTi organoebis warmomadgenlebi, xedaven umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis gaumarTaobas da reformebis saWiroebas. Tumca sistemuri problemebi uSualod aisaxeba studentebze da maT saswavlo procesze umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi. studentebi yoveldRiurad sakuTar Tavze scdian am problemebis simwvaves. swored amitom, aucilebelia, siRrmiseulad SeviswavloT studentebis xedva da maTi damokidebuleba ganaTlebis sferoSi arsebuli problemebis Sesaxeb. aseve, Camoyalibdes am problemaTa gadaWris saukeTeso variantebi. studentebisgan informaciis miReba, generireba da am informaciis gaanalizeba unda gaxdes umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis reformaciis swori da efeqturi gzis arCevis safuZveli. winamdebare kvelvis mizania: studentebis SexedulebiT, qarTul saxelmwifo umaRles saswavleblebsa da, zogadad, umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi arsebuli problemebis Seswavla. kvlevis miznis Sesasruleblad, kvleviTi jgufi axorcielebs Semdeg amocanebs: studentebis problemebis indentificireba saxelmwifo umaRles saswavleblebSi; studentebis azris Seswavla saswavlo-samecniero saqmianobis Sesaxeb; studentebis azris Seswavla sauniversiteto mmarTvelobis Sesaxeb; studentebis azris Seswavla studenturi dasaqmebis Sesaxeb; studentebis azris Seswavla umaRlesi saswavleblebis dafinansebis sqemis Sesaxeb; problemebis gadaWris studentiseuli xedvis Seswavla.

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kvlevis meTodologia Tvisebrivi kvlevis meTodad SeirCa fokus-jgufebis meTodi. fokus-jgufebma saSualeba mogvca, skrupulozurad Segveswavla wamoWrili problemebi. jgufis wevrebi arian Tbilisisa da saqarTvelos oTxi regionis saxelmwifo umaRlesi saswavleblebis studentebi. fokus-jgufis msvlelobisas, Sedga diskusia umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi arsebuli problematuri Temebis Sesaxeb. fokus-jgufebSi monawileobas iRebdnen saqarTvelos 8 universitetis studentebi. es universitetebia: ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti; Tbilisis saxelmwifo samedicino universiteti; saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti; ilias saxelmwifo universiteti; Telavis i. gogebaSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti; quTaisis ak. wereTlis saxelobis saxelmwifo universiteti; goris saxelmwifo saswavlo universiteti; baTumis SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universiteti. TiToeul fokus-jgufSi monawileobda 7-9 studenti. fokus-jgufebSi monawileobis misaRebad SeirCnen zemoaRniSnuli 8 universitetis aqtiuri studentebi, romelic dainteresebulni da met-naklebad CarTulni arian sauniversiteto da saganmanaTleblo cxovrebaSi. 23

TiToeul fokus-jgufSi wamodgenilni iyvnen II, III da IV kursis studentebi (monawileobas ar iRebdnen pirveli kursis studentebi, radgan, sasurvelia, jgufis warmomadgenlebi metad iyvnen gacnobierebulni umaRlesi ganaTlebis sakiTxebSi, hqondeT sakuTari gamocdileba da SeeZloT sakiTxebis SedarebiT siRrmiseuli analizi). respondentTa moZieba moxda `Tovlis gundis~ meTodiT.

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kvlevis ZiriTadi aRmoCenebi

studentebis SexedulebiT, qarTul saxelmwifo umaRles saswavleblebsa da, zogadad, umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi arsebuli problemebis kvlevis procesSi gamoikveTa sakiTxebi, romlTa Sesaxebac CvenTvis, mkvlevarTa jgufisTvis, cnobili iyo. Tumca, aRmoCnda iseTi sakiTxebic, romlebic erTgvar aRmoCenas warmoadgenda. monacemTa Sejamebisas gamoikveTa ramdenime tendencia, romelic aRniSvnas saWiroebs: universitetis funqciebze saubrisas respondentTa mosazrebebi metwilad erTgvarovania. msjelobebidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia, davaskvnaT, rom universitetis arsis studentebiseuli gageba TanxvedraSia mis sazogadod miRebul ganmartebasTan, - rom esaa umaRlesi kvleviT-saganmamanTleblo dawesebuleba. Tumca, ar aris gaazrebuli universitetis umTavresi arsi - axali codnis warmoeba. mcirea informirebulobis done samecniero muSaobis mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT. universitetis umTavres funqciebad studentebi ZiriTadad asaxeleben profesiuli codnis gadacemas, studentis pirovnebad da moqalaqed formirebas, sakomunikacio sivrcis gafarToebas da, Sesabamisad, sazogadoebasa da sxvadasxva socialur jgufebSi (profesiul, akademiur wreebSi) integrirebas. universitets ganixilaven, rogorc saxelmwifosa da zogadad, sazogadoebisTvis fundamenturi mniSvnelobis mqone dawesebulebas. diskusiebis procesSi yvelaze didi dro daeTmo sauniversiteto problemebs. aSkaraa respondentebSi ukmayofileba universitetebis dRevandeli mdgomareobiT. farTo ganxilvis sagani iyo rogorc Sidasauniversiteto, ise zogadi, sazogadoebrivi problemebi, romlebic studentTa yofaze aisaxeba. respondentebma isaubres problemebze 25

da msjelobisas, ganixiles sauniversiteto cxovrebis, faqtobrivad, yvela sfero (akademiuri, administraciuli, infrastruqturuli, socialuri, yofiTi da a.S.). SeTanxmebuli azri arsebobs universitetebis dafinansebis wesis gaumarTaobasa da misgan gamowveul mraval problemaze. problemebis gamomwvev mizezebs, studentebi, ufro metad, saxelmwifo politikas ukavSireben, vidre lokalur organoebs. ZiriTad aqcents respondentebi saxelmwifos ganaTlebis sistemasa da, sakuTriv, umaRles ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebul pasuxismgeblobaze akeTeben. Tumca, amasTan erTad, ar gamoricxaven da did mniSvnelobas aniWeben sakuTar - studentebis, valdebulebebs. studentebi ar arian gulgrilebi arsebuli problemebis mimarT. isini fiqroben da aqtiurad msjeloben problemebis gadaWris gzebze. xSirad aRniSnaven, rom, SesaZleblobebis farglebSi, cdiloben, Tavad Seitanon wvlili arsebuli viTarebis gamosworebis saqmeSi.

zemoT CamoTvlili tendenciebi mxolod ganzogadebuli saxea im rigi sakiTxebisa, romlebic ganixileboda kvlevis procesSi studentebTan.

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kvlevis ZiriTadi daskvnebi

1. umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis arsi da funqciebi: diskusiebisas, erT-erT pirvel Temas universitetis arsisa da funqciebis gansazRvra warmoadgenda. studentebi aRniSnaven, rom universiteti samecniero kvleviTi da saswavlo dawesebulebaa, romlis roli saxelmwifos warmatebuli arsebobisTvis fundamenturia. `realurad, universiteti Tavisi pirveli ideiT da CanasaxiT aris samecniero-kvleviTi dawesebuleba, sadac, Tu ar arsebobs mecniereba, Tu ar viTardeba xelovneba, maSin es ar aris universiteti~.1 misi umTavresi funqciaa, studentis uzrunvelyofa profesiuli codniT. kvalificiur specialistad Camoyalibebis Semdeg, aqtualuria dasaqmebis sakiTxi. am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi studentTa azri orad gaiyo; nawili miiCnevs, rom studentis dasaqmeba universitetis uSualo funqcia ar aris, Tumca, aucilebelia, Camoayalibos kursdamTavrebuli konkurentunarian kadrad, romelsac TavisTavad eqneba dasaqmebis SesaZlebloba swavlis damTavrebis Semdeg. aseve, gaiJRera mosazrebam, rom universiteti valdebulia, kursdamTavrebuli daasaqmos. garda zemoxsenebuli funqciebisa, studentTa azriT, universiteti unda uzrunvelyofdes pirovnul zrda-ganviTarebas, rac moiazrebs kritikuli azrovnebis Camoyalibebas, RirebulebiTi sistemis formirebasa da cxovrebiseuli unar-Cvevebis gamomuSavebas. gamoiTqva calkeuli mosazrebac, rom aRniSnuli funqciis mniSvnelovani aqtorebi profesor-maswavleblebi arian. aqve gamoikveTa adamianis moqalaqed Camoyalibebis dinamikis erT-erTi umTavresi ganmsazRvreli faqtoric: respon1

kvlevis angariSSi brWyalebSi mocemulia citatebi fokusjgufebidan.

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dentebi adamianis moqalaqed formirebis process mniSvnelovnad ukavSireben universitets da aq mimdinare procesebs. universiteti uzrunvelyofs, erTi mxriv, aqtiuri moqalaqis Camoyalibebas, CarTuls social-politikur procesebSi da, meore mxriv, samoqalaqo cnobierebis amaRlebas. diskusiebisas, universiteti Sefasda, rogorc sxvadasxva socialur jgufebSi integraciis garanti. bevri saubrobs studentobis ganmavlobaSi SeZenil, gafarToebul sanacnobo wreze - studentebisTvis gansakuTrebuli datvirTvis matarebelia megobrebis SeZena, momavali saqmiani partniorebis gacnoba, potenciur mokavSireebTan kontaqtis damyareba. amasTan, studentebi integrirdebian profesiul da akademiur wreebSi, rac karieruli cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawilia. rogorc wesi, respondentebi cdilobdnen, universitetis idealuri modeli CamoeyalibebinaT, Tumca, iqve aRniSnavdnen, rom universitets aucilebeli funqciebic ki xSirad dakarguli aqvs. `maxsendeba foto, sadac saswavleblidan gamodian studentebi da pirdapir nagavsayrelze aRmoaCenen Tavs, aseT situaciaSi varT~. respondentTa ZiriTadi nawili ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamda swavlis xarisxTan dakavSirebiT, Tumca, aRmoCndnen iseTi studentebic, romlebsac swavlis xarisxi akmayofilebdaT. aRsaniSnavia, rom swavlis xarisxiT kmayofili respondentebic saubroben sauniversiteto sivcreSi arsebul Zireul, metad masStabur xarvezebze.

2. sauniversiteto problemebi kvlevis erT-erT ZiriTad mizans sauniversiteto da, zogadad, umaRles ganaTlebaSi arsebuli problemebis identificireba warmoadgenda. fokus-jgufebis mimdinareobisas, ZiriTadi yuradReba swored problemebs da maT ganxilvas daeTmo. dasawyisSi, rodesac universitetis arsisa da ZiriTadi daniSnulebis ganxilva xdebo28

da, respondentebi aRniSnavdnen, rom umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebi dasaxelebul funqciebs ar asruleben. ZiriTadad, gamoikveTa sauniversiteto problemaTa ramdenime zogadi kategoria, romlebic iyofa gansaxilvel sakiTxebad. yoveli sakiTxi umniSvnelovanesia, saWiroa maTi ara mxolod aRniSvna, aramed im mizezSedegobrivi kavSirebis aRwera, romlebsac studentebi ganixilaven. ganvixiloT ZiriTadi Temebi da masSi gaerTianebuli sakiTxebi:

2.1. akademiur personalTan (profesor-maswavleblebTan) dakavSirebuli problemebi studentebis mosazrebiT, akademiur personalTan dakavSirebuli problemebi iwyeba jer kidev maSin, rodesac isini ikaveben akademiur Tanamdebobas universitetSi. is gzebi, romlebic arsebobs profesoris Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad, Sefasebulia, rogorc ararelevanturi. aRmoCnda, rom nepotisturi ganwyobebi da damokidebulebebi gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa Tbilisis saxelmwifo samedicino universitetsa da quTaisis saxelmwifo universitetebSi. `CvenTan mefobs nepotizmi, CvenTan yvelaferi politizebulia~. rogorc studentebi amboben, - `arian leqtorebi, romlebic maRal akademiur Tanamdebobaze imyofebTan naTesavuri kavSirebis gamo da kiTxuloben maTTvis ucxo sagnebs~; `CemTvis miuRebelia, rogor moxvdnen am Tanamdebobaze profesorTa arsebuli kategoriebi~. studentebi amis Sesaxeb sakmaod bevrs saubroben, mohyavT konkretuli magaliTebi, es problema maTTvis Zalian mwvaved dgas, radgan leqciebi da praqtikuli mecadineobebi, maTTvis, SeiZleba iTqvas, fuWad gacdenili droa. `me mgonia , bevri leqtoria Cvens universitetSi imis gamo, rom mamamisi odesRac iyo leqtori da isic miiRes ubralod~. 29

imis paralelurad, rom universitetebSi sxvadasxva akademiuri Tu administraciuli Tanamdebobebis dakaveba xdeba nacnobobiT, naTesaobiT, memkvidreobiT, viwro koniunqturiT, universitetis gareT, studentebis TqmiT, rCeba bevri kvalifikaciuri leqtori. dominanturia mosazreba, rom universiteti politizebulia da profesorebis SerCeva/ar SerCeva xdeba misi politikuri Tu ideologiuri mikuTvnebulobis da ara profesionalizmis niSniT. erT-erTi respondenti amave sakiTxze: `mTavari, rac dResaa, aris is, rom univeristetSi aris akademiuri personalis nakleboba. amis mizezia zogadad akademiuri personalis mTliani krizisi saqarTveloSi, aseve is absurduli sistemebi, ris mixedviTac xdeba profesorebis SerCeva, radgan universitetis miRma rCebian rigi sakmaod kargi kvalificiuri profesorebi~. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom Cveni respondentebi, aRniSnul problemasTan mimarTebaSi, mniSvnelovnad ganasxvaveben 2012 wlis saparlamento arCevnebamde da mis Semdeg periodebs da aRniSnaven mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas. profesoris Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad adeqvatur gzad respondentebis garkveuli nawili gare-referirebas miiCnevs. `[leqtorebs] unda afasebdnen msoflio donis mecnierebi, rasac qvia gare referireba~ azri gaziarebulia, Tumca, fokus-jgufis yvela monawile ar flobs informacias gare-referirebis Sesaxeb. sawinaaRmdego azri ar gaJRerda kvlevis mimdinareobisas. yvelaze mwvave problemad, rac, upirveles yovlisa, aisaxeba swavlis xarisxze, studentebi asaxelebdnen profesor-maswavleblebis arakompetenturobas, araprofesionalizms. TiToeul fokus-jgufSi gamoiTqva ukmayofileba imis gamo, rom studentebi ganicdian kvalificiuri profesor-maswavleblebis deficits. studentebi iqve aRniSnavdnen, rom zogierTi maTgani maRali profesionalizmiT xasiaTdeba. iseTi leqtorebis nawilsac ki, romlebsac miaweren codnis da kompetenciis maRal dones, axasiaTeben, rogorc moZvelebuli meTodebis mqones. `leqtorebi, rigi problemebis gamo, fexs ver uwyoben Tanamedrove samecniero tendenciebs . `leqtorebi ar 30

muSaoben sakuTar profesiul ganviTarebasa da saswavlo kursebis ganviTarebaze, rac aferxebs mecnierebis ganviTarebis processa da studentebisTvis Tanamedrove codnis gadacemas.~ leqtorebis aseT damokidebulebas studentebi akavSireben maT dabal anazRaurebasTan da xSirad saubroben am problemis simwvaveze. erT-erTi respondenti ase ganmartavs aRniSnuli problemis mizezs: `leqtorebi gaWirvebisa da, Sesabamisad, finansuri sargeblis miRebis gamo, cdiloben, aiRon rac SeiZleba meti samuSao saaTi. amis gamo, maTi Sroma xdeba rutinuli, Sesabamisad, aRar arian produqtiulebi da veRar axerxeben sakuTar profesiul ganviTarebaze zrunvas, kvlevebisa da proeqtebis ganxorcielebas.~ rogorc aRiniSna, profesorebi TiTqmis yovelTvis mzad arian students daexmaron sxvadasxva sauniversiteto samuSaoSi, isini amaze uars ar amboben, Tu sakmaris dros gamonaxaven (rac yovelTvis ar xerxdeba). Tumca, studentebi asaxeleben komunikaciis problemas profesorebTan. savaraudoa, rom es problema konkretulad saleqcio/saseminaro process ukavSirdeba da ara konferenciebsa Tu sxva aqtivobebSi monawileobisTvis mzadebis process, rodesac studenti profesoris daxmarebas saWiroebs. akademiuri personalis kompetenciis sakiTxi gacilebiT mwvaved dgas im studentebisTvis, romlebic Sedarebis axal an swrafad ganviTarebad dargebs swavloben da awydebian Semdeg problemebs: 1. SedarebiT axal, Tanamedrove specialobebze, profesionalebi, zogadad, qveynis masStabiT ar arseboboben, an maT urCevniaT, imuSaon TavianTi specialobiT da miiRon ufro maRali xelfasi, vidre gadauxdian universitetSi, da 2. arsebuli leqtorebis dabali kompetencia, araprofesionalizmi, rig SemTxvevebSi - saleqcio procesisadmi upasuxismgeblo damokidebuleba. `Cemma leqtorebma ar ician sagani. erT sagans, magaliTad, me leqtorTan erTad vswavlob~. aseT radikalur Sefasebebs, rogorc aRvniSneT, adgili aqvs im studentebSi, romlebic SedarebiT axal an swrafad ganviTarebad dargebs swavloben. 31

aRsaniSnavia, rom respondentebi leqtorebs calsaxad ar adanaSauleben da eZeben im mizezebs, rac iwvevs akademiuri personalis mimarT arsebul ukmayofilebas. erT-erT aseT garemoebad dasaxelebulia dabali anazRaureba da maTi Sromis arasaTanado dafaseba, rogorc leqtorebis motivaciaze uaryofiTad moqmedi faqtori. aqve, gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom profesorebi Tavisuflad ver afiqsireben sakuTar azrs, radgan grZnoben samuSaos dakargvisa da studentTa raodenobis Semcirebis safrTxes (rac universitetis finansur mdgomareobasa da, Semdeg, profesorebze uaryofiTad imoqmedebs). imis gamo, rom leqtoris anazRaureba pirdapir ukavSirdeba studentis gadasaxads, leqtorebi danteresebulni arian, rom studentebis didi raodenoba SenarCundes universitetSi. Sesabamisad, rogorc studentebi amboben, `[leqtorebi] maqsimalurad advils xdian swavlebas, rom yvelam aiRos krediti . calsaxaa, rom am faqts mravalmxriv problemebamde da damaxinjebul saswavlo procesamde mivyavarT. leqtorebis aseTi midgoma, pirdapir aisaxeba studentebis motivaciaze. maT ekargebaT survili, imuSaon ufro meti, rodesac minimaluri mondomebiTac advilad miiReben Sefasebas. aseve, studentebi, romelTaTvis mTavari mizania kreditis miReba da ara swavla, rCebian universitetSi da aferxeben saswavlo process, ufasurdeba swavlisa da muSaobis procesi da rezultati. studentebi fiqroben, rom leqtori ufro momTxovni unda iyos da unda xdebodes studentis ufro mkacri kontroli. savaraudod, leqtorebis arasakmaris Semosavals ukavSirdeba kidev erTi sakiTxi, romelic did diskomforts uqmnis studentebs. samedicino universitetis studentebi saubroben im faqtze, rom leqtorebi maT sTavazoben sakuTari saavtoro wignebis yidvas saswavlo kursis farglebSi. rogorc aRmoCnda, studentebi iZulebulni arian miiRon es SemoTavazeba da SeiZinon konkretuli wigni, radgan, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, leqtorebi am faqts asaxaven studentis Sefasebaze.

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ramdenime fokus-jgufSi gamoikveTa korufciis problema. magaliTad, rodesac leqtori garkveul Tanxas iRebs gamocdis Cabarebis sanacvlod. meore SemTxveva: arCevanis winaSe ayenebs studentebs - gaakeTon prezentacia, an iyidon misi wigni (vinc wigns yidulobs, iRebs qulas, prezentaciis gakeTeba aRar aris saWiro). qulebis sanacvlod, leqtorebi, xandaxan, studentebs sxvadasxva tipis saqmes asrulebineben - aTargmnineben saswavlo, xandaxan - usargeblo masalas, avsebineben anketebs, romelic piradi sargeblisTvis sWirdebaT da a.S. marTalia, bolo wlebSi sagrZnoblad Semcirda korufcia universitetebSi, magram, rogorc Cans, jer kidev arsebobs erTeuli SemTxvevebi, romlebsac studentebi awydebian.

2.2 finansebis ganawileba ZiriTad problemebs, romlebic ganixileboda fokus-jgufebis mimdinareobisas, respondentebi finansebis ukmarisobas, an araswor gadanawilebas ukavSirebdnen. finansebis sauniversiteto doneze ganawilebis Sesaxeb, gamoiTqva ori mosazreba. pirveli mosazrebis mixedviT, romelic ar aris gaziarebuli jgufis sxva wevrebis mier, Tanxebi arasworad nawildeba, Tumca, gamWvirvaled. sxvaTa azriT, finansebi sworad nawildeba, amasTan erTad, procesi aris gamWvirvale. finansebis araswor gadanawilebad, sxva faqtorebTan erTad, miiCneven administraciuli kadrebis Warb raodenobas da aRniSnaven, rom maTi xelfasi xandaxan profesoris anazRaurebas aWarbebs. aseve, aqcents akeTeben studenturi TviTmmarTvelobis mier aramiznobrivad, gaumWvirvaled daxarjul Tanxebze. aucileblad miiCneven, ~fakultetebs Soris samarTlianad gadanawildes finansebi da daxmareba gaewios samecniero-kvleviT procesSi profesors da students. 33

2.3 administraciasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi kvlevis procesSi, mosazrebebi administraciasTan dakavSirebiT, TiTqmis erTgvari aRmoCnda. aRiniSna, rom administraciasa da studentebs Soris komunikaciis da informaciis naklebobis problema arsebobs. xSirad, studenebma arc ician administraciuli rgolebis uflebamosilebebis Sesaxeb. rodesac administraciis warmomadgenels mimarTavs studenti, xandaxan, misi gadamisamarTeba xdeba sxva warmomadgenelTan, romelic igive xerxs mimarTavs, im sababiT, rom konkretuli sakiTxi mis kompetenciaSi ar Sedis. unikaluria samedicino universitetis SemTxveva: administracia dauyovnebliv reagirebs ucxoeli studentebis saCivrebze, maSin, rodesac, xSir SemTxvevaSi, ugulebelyofilia adgilobrivi studentebis interesebi, saCivrebi da moTxovnebi. aseve, arsebobs informaciuli vakuumi, studentebi ar floben saWiro informacias universitetSi mimdinare procesebis Sesaxeb. sainformacio saSualebebi, magaliTad, - veb-gverdi gaumarTavia da Sesabamis funqcias ar asrulebs. rogorc fokus-jgufis wevrebi aRniSnavdnen, administraciul Tanamdebobze dasaqmebulia saWiroze meti adamiani, Sesabamisad, umiznod da araefeqturad ixarjeba universitetis finansebi. amasTan erTad, marTva, menejmenti ar xorcieldeba sworad da efeqturad. "fakultetebzec gvyvavs es administraciebi, rac centralurSia imis ganyofilebebi gvaqvs fakultetze, magram imis funqciebi saerTod ar arsebobs. administracia gvyavs, pirovnebebi arian, magram funqcia ar aqvT" amasTan, studentebi saubroben iseT problemebze, romlebic administraciis gaumarTavi, mouwesrigebeli muSaobiTaa gamowveuli da mniSvnelovnad azaralebs saswavlo process. magaliTad, goris universitetSi aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac saswavlo semestri iwyeba ramdenime kviris dagvianebiT. `ukve eqvsi kviraa, rac swavla daiwyo da marto ori kvira Camitarda leqciebi~, aRniSnavs

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erT-erTi respondenti -goris saxelmwifo saswavlo universitetis studenti. respondentTa garkveuli nawilis azriT, studentTa da leqtorTa sauniversiteto procesebSi CarTuloba unda iyos ufro maRali, administraciis rolis Semcirebis xarjze. amis mizezad isini administraciis saqmianobis teqnikur xasiaTs asaxeleben, rac akademiur sivrceSi naklebi mniSvnelobis mqonea.

2.4 universitetis centralizebuli marTvis problema universitetSi arsebuli rigi biorokratiuli problemis gamo, studentebi Tvlian, rom decentralizacia win gadadgmuli nabiji iqneba efeqturi marTvis saqmeSi. "prioritetizacia [prioritetebis Camoyalibeba] unda moaxdinos fakultetis arCeviTma warmomadgenlobiTma organom, romelSic iqnebian profesorebi, aseve studentebi. fakultetze unda gadaiWras rac SeiZleba meti biurokratiuli sakiTxi~. Tumca, arsebobs gansxvavebuli azric, romliTac absoluturi umciresoba warmoCindeba kvlevis monawileebSi. misi SexedulebiT, Sidasauniveriteto procesebis sirTulidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia, decentralizaciam ~ar imuSaos qarTul realobaSi. respondentebis azriT, universitets unda marTavdes, ZiriTadad, akademiuri personali, studentebTan erTad. saubrisas, gamoyofen mmarTvelobis or dones: safakultetos da centralurs. centraluri mmarTvelobiTi organos kompetenciaa, gadawyvitos universitetTan dakavSirebuli zogadi sakiTxebi da prioritetebi. safakulteto doneze ki, unda mogvardes fakultetze arsebuli mniSvnelovani mimarTulebebis specifikuri sakiTxebi.

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2.5 studenturi TviTmmarTveloba kvlevis dasawyisSi, studenturi TviTmmarTveloba ar Sedioda im sakiTxebis CamonaTvalSi, romelTac unda SevxebodiT fokus-jgufebis mimdinareobisas. rogorc aRmoCnda, es sakiTxi did interess iwvevs studentebSi da mis irgvliv, ZiriTadad, negatiuri damokidebuleba dominirebs. rogorc respondentebma aRniSnes, studenturi TviTmmarTveloba gankargavs studentebisTvis gamoyofil Tanxebs, xSirad, aramiznobrivad da gaumWvirvaled. arsebobs ufro radikaluri pozicia, romlis mixedviTad, studenturi TviTmmarTveloba iyo konkretuli politikuri jgufis (2012 wlis saparlamento arCevnebamde - moqmedi mTavroba) daqvemdebarebuli organo da atarebda mis interesebs. sayuradReboa, rom respondentebisTvis studenturi TviTmmarTveloba ar asrulebs warmomadgenlobiT rols sauniversiteto sabWoebsa da gadawyvetilebis mimReb organoebSi. Tumca, studenturi TviTmarTvelobis umTavres daniSnulebas swored warmomadgenlobiTobas, safakulteto da warmomadgenlobiT sabWoebSi monawileobas ukavSireben, sadac xdeba mniSvnelovan sauniversiteto sakiTxebze msjeloba da problemebis gadawyveta. respondentebis mosazrebiT, studentebis umravlesobis survili, interesi, Sesabamisi aqtivoba - CaerTon universitetis marTvis procesSi - dabalia. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom arseboben studentebi, romlebic gaTviTcnobierebulni arian iseT sakiTxebSi, rogoricaa: marTva, warmomadgenlobiToba, gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesi, finansebis gankargva, dafinansebis sqema, prioritetebi da a.S.

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2.6 saswavlo programebis gaumarTaoba da maTi Seusabamoba Tanamedrove midgomebTan saswavlo programebTan dakavSirebiT gamoiTqva ukmayofileba ramdenime kuTxiT: isini gaumarTavia da, realurad, ar Seesabameba studentebis interesebs; xSirad, moicavs usargeblo saswavlo kursebs, romlebic ar gamoadgeba students (mizezad saxeldeba saWiro sagnebze kvalifikaciuri kadris ararseboba, rac iwvevs maT Canacvlebas usargeblo sagnebiT); saswavlo programebis Seusabamoba Tanamedrove, msoflio donis standartebTan. `es motivaciis arqona da davardna gamowveulia fakultetze cxrilebis araswori SedgeniT. imitom, rom, ai, magaliTad, mesame kursze var da mesame kursze vswavlobT fizikas, iseve, rogorc pirvelsa da meoreze. fizika aranairad ar exeba Cems specialobas... mit umetes, roca is ZiriTadi sagnebi, romlebic Cven gvWirdeba, ar iswavleba... kadrebi ar hyavT kvalificiuri da, Sesabamisad, ver giniSnaven im leqtorebs da im leqciebs, rac Sen gWirdeba da gainteresebs. da amitom, visi leqtorebic hyavT, imas gisvamen, hyavT fizikis~. saswavlo programebTan erTad, aRsaniSnavia, saswavlo ganrigis problema. respondentebis TqmiT, is studentze orientirebuli ar aris, piriqiT, xels uSlis dasaqmebasa da damoukidebel cxovrebaSi, radgan leqciaseminarebi isea ganawilebuli, rom paralelurad muSaoba TiTqmis SeuZlebelia. ~me var erT erTi gamonaklisi studentTagani, romelic cdilobs, rom icxovros damoukideblad. amaSi universiteti xels ki ar miwyobs, yvelanairad xels miSlis ; aRniSnuli problema, gansakuTrebiT, eqmnebaT im studentebs, romlebsac sxva qalaqSi gadasvla uwevT saswavleblad. aseTi studentebis ricxvi ki, sakmaod didia. ~nu kai, ar gvaqvs es saerTo sacxovrebeli, romelic, ase vTqvaT, stipentiis saxiT SeiZleba cota ukeTes studentebs misce da visac Wirdeba, nu kargi, ar maqvs. magram aravin iTvaliswinebs imas, rom me, rogorc student, TveSi vixdi binis qiras, vixdi Cems gadasa-

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xadebs da a.S. da amisTvis miwevs muSaoba. me rom vimuSao, universiteti ar maZlevs imis moqnilobas wamoiWra praqtikis naklebobis problema, romlis mixedviTac, studentebi saerTod ver iReben saWiro praqtikas an, Tu iReben, ukiduresad mcire raodenobiT da dabali xarisxiT. aRmoCnda, rom xSirad, kvleviT laboratoriebTan urTierToba studentebisTvis mxolod maTi daTvalierebiT Semoifargleba. ~auditoriaSi normaluri specialisti ver gaizrdeba, aucilebelia praqtika. universiteti amas yuradRebas ar aqcevs da, Sesabamisad, studentebi Tavisi xarjebiT cdiloben, magaliTad, moinaxulon TavianT specialobebTan dakavSirebuli obieqtebi.

2.7 dasaqmeba da staJireba (universitetis roli) fokus-jgufebis mimdinareobisas ganixileboda studenturi dasaqmebisa da staJirebis sakiTxi. dominirebda azri, rom universitetis pirdapiri valdebuleba ar aris daasaqmos studentebi anazRaurebad samsaxurSi, aramed misi valdebulebaa moamzados kvalificiuri kadri, romelic SeZlebs Tavisi codniTa da universitetSi miRebuli praqtikuli gamocdilebiT dasaqmdes arCeuli profesiis Sesabamisad. amasTan erTad, studentebi Tanxmdebian, rom universitetebma unda daamyaron komunikacia sxvadasxva samTavrobo Tu arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan, da uzrunvelyon studentebis staJireba, gamocdilebis miRebisa da amaRlebis mizniT. respondentebis azriT, universiteti unda iyos damakavSirebeli studentsa da momaval damsaqmebels Soris. maTi TqmiT, ramdenime universitetSi moqmedebs kidec msgavsi programebi da isurvebdnen, rom es iyos ufro qmediTi da masStaburi. erT-erTi respondentis warmodgeniT, universiteti unda awyobdes `dasaqmebis dReebs~, akavSirebdes studentebsa da maTi pro38

fesiebis Sesabamisi profilis mqone dawesebulebebis warmomadgenlebs. aseve, studentebs samarTlianad miaCniaT, rom universitetma proteqcia gauwios maRali akademiuri moswrebis mqone studentebs, uzrunvelyos isini anazRaurebadi staJirebiT an samsaxuriT.

2.8 materialur-teqnikuri bazis gaumarTaoba, resursebis nakleboba studentebisTvis mniSvnelovani problema aRmoCnda arasakmarisi an gaumarTavi material-teqnikuri baza, mouwyobeli da dazianebuli infrastruqtura. cnobilia, rom rig SemTxvevebSi studentebs leqciebze daswreba keTilmouwyobel, maTi raodenobisTvis Seuferebel auditoriebSi uwevT. amas garda, studentebi profesiuli codnis miRebisTvis aucilebeli inventaris naklebobasac uCivian. magaliTad, Tbilisis saxelmwifo samedicino da quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelobis universitetis studentebs, romlebic medicinis sxvadasxva dargebs swavloben, ar gaaCniaT sabaziso codnis miRebisaTvis saWiro elementaruli aRWurviloba. ~Cven ar gagvaCnia gvami. gvamis gakveTa raRac ucxoa CvenTvis, Zalian, Zalian ucxoa. rogor SeiZleba gaxde eqimi, Tu ar ginaxavs namdvili kunTi . seriozul problemas awydebian studentebi saxelmZRvaneloebTan dakavSirebiT, radgan, umetes SemTxvevaSi, universitetis biblioTekaSi ar moipoveba saswavlo masala, an, arasakmarisi raodenobiTaa warmodgenili. garda amisa, ZiriTadi saxelmZRvaneloebi ar aris Targmnili qarTul enaze. Sesabamisad, universiteti ver uzrunvelyofs studentebs aucilebeli saswavlo literaturiT.

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2.9 studentebSi motivaciis nakleboba umaRlesi ganaTlebis miReba individs aniWebs garkveul socialur statuss, rac mis prestiJze dadebiTad aisaxeba. amasTan, arsebobs umaRles saswavlebelSi Cabarebis sxva gavrcelebuli mizezic - samxedro samsaxuris Tavidan acileba. umaRles ganaTlebaze sazogadoebrivi moTxovna ganapirobebs mozardis upirobo swrafvas studentobisken - miuxedavad misi miznebis, interesebisa da saSualebebisa. es tendencia garkveul problemebs warmoSobs. iqidan gamomdinare, rom universitetSi Cabarebis msurvelTa didi raodenoba, nawilobriv, sazogadoebrivi gavlenis Sedegia, xSirad studentTa interesebi da ZiriTadi saqmianoba ar Seesabameba SemecnebiT process. es faqti, gamokiTxulTa azriT, akademiuri procesis SeferxebasTan erTad, sxva dainteresebul studentTa motivaciaze uaryofiTad aisaxeba. bevri iseTi studentia universitetSi, romlebic formalurad abareben umaRles saswavlebelSi da ar arian koncentrirebulebi swavlaze. respondentebis azriT, aseTi studentebi iwveven konkurenciis naklebobas da maRali akademiuri moswrebis studentebSi ganviTarebis stimuls mniSvnelovnad aqveiTeben. am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi ZiriTadi problemaa universitetis politika, radgan saxelmwifo universitetebis dafinansebis vauCeruli sistema damokidebuls xdis universitets studentTa gadasaxadze da is, Tavis mxriv, ar cdilobs daareguliros misaRebi studentebis raodenoba. amitom, ver xerxdeba studentebis simravliT da dabali kompetenciiT gamowveuli problemebis mogvareba. Sedegad, studentebis aramiznobriv Cabarebas da universitetis finansur interesebs, respondentTa azriT, studentebSi motivaciis Semcirebisa da swavlis dabali xarisxis problemasTan mivyavarT. radgan, fokus-jgufebi ZiriTadad aqtiuri studentebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli, gansakuTrebiT gamoikveTa studentTa aqtiurobis, sauniversiteto saqmianobaSi CarTulobis naklebobis problema. `mxolod stu40

dentebis mcire nawilia aqtiurad CarTuli sauniversiteto cxovrebaSi. dabalia interesi konferenciebis, leqciebis an sauniversiteto problemebisadmi~. Tu ratom arsebobs aseTi damokidebuleba studentebSi, Semdegi mizezebi dasaxelda: `Tavs komfortulad grZnoben iseT garemoSi, sadac maTgan swavlas ar iTxoven ; eridebian sakuTari azris dafiqsirebas, SiSis faqtoris gamo. aseve, aRiniSna, rom, studentebSi solidarobis done dabalia, rasac isev interesis naklebobas miaweren. CamoTvlili problemebidan gamomdinare, maRali akademiuri moswrebis studentebi irCeven TviTganviTarebis gzas, Sordebian studentur cxovrebas, sauniversiteto sazogadoebas, iwyeben samsaxurs. Sedegad, cota dro rCebaT universitetisa da akademiuri ganviTarebisTvis. Tumca, am gziT, SedarebiT myar garantiebs iqmnian momavali dasaqmebisa da karieruli winsvlisTvis.

2.10 studentis moumzadebloba universitetisTvis miuxedavad imisa, rom kvleva ar exeboda saskolo swavlebas, mocemuli sakiTxi wamoiWra diskusiis mimdinareobisas. respondentebi Tvlian, rom skola saTanadod ver amzadebs moswavles universitetisTvis. zemoxsenebul momzadebis procesSi ki, or aspeqts moiazreben: 1. momavali studentisTvis saWiro da sakmarisi codnis gadacema, romlis safuZvelzec is SesZlebs sauniversiteto masalebis daZlevas, da sabaziso sakiTxebis xelaxali swavleba ar gaxdeba saWiro 2. misTvis iseTi unar-Cvevebis gadacema, romelic axasiaTebs zrdasrul, Camoyalibebul, bavSvobis asakidan gamosul moqalaqes. `skolebSi samoqalaqo ganaTleba nulzea~ - aRniSnavs erT-erTi respondenti. vinaidan, mocemuli kvlevis sagans ar warmoadgenda skola, studentebis didi interesis miuxedavad, ar moxda Temis ganvrcoba da siRrmiseuli Seswavla. 41

3. samecniero kvleva 3.1 studentebis warmodgenebi samecniero kvlevasTan dakavSirebiT. samecniero kvlevaze saubrisas, respondentTa jgufi sam nawilad gaiyo: aRmoCnda, rom kvlevaSi monawile ramdenime maRali akademiuri moswrebis mqone studenti saerTod ar flobda informacias samecniero kvlevis arsis Sesaxeb. meore nawili flobda informacias, Tumca, arasruls, an araswors. rogorc wesi, isini samecniero kvlevas sazogadoebrivi azris gamokiTxvasTan aigivebdnen. mesame nawils ki, sruliad adekvaturi warmodgena da codna aRmoaCnda. ZiriTadad, isini saubrobdnen samecniero kvlevaze, mis arssa da mniSvnelobaze, arsebul problemebsa da perspeqivebze. samive jgufis warmomadgenlebis azriT, dResdReobiT, samecniero kvleva ar arsebobs, an isini ar floben informacias, radgan ar smeniaT profesorebis mier Catarebuli samecniero samuSaoebis da maTi Sedegebis Sesaxeb. mxolod ramdenime erTeuli respondenti Tvlis, rom samecniero kvlevebi mimdinareobs, Tumca, aseT magaliTs ver asaxelebs. aseve, gaziarebulia mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac, samecniero muSaoba universitetis prioriteti unda iyos. respondentebi, romlebic erkvevian samecniero muSaobis arsSi, miiCneven, rom is an ar mimdinareobs, an mxolod formalur xasiaTs atarebs. smeniaT iseTi SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb, rodesac maRali donis qarTveli mecnierebi sazRvargareT ewevian samecniero muSaobas. rogorc wesi, studentebi ar monawileoben mecnieruli kvlevis procesSi, Tumca, Tu xdeba aseTi SemTxveva, mianiSneben procesis formalur xasiaTsa da dabal dones.

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3.2 ratom ar tardeba samecniero kvlevebi? Tu ratom ar tardeba dResdReobiT samecniero kvlevebi, studentebi ramdenime mizezs asaxeleben. erTni Tvlian, rom ar arsebobs aseTi akademiuri personali, romelic maRal xarisxian samecniero kvlevas Caatarebs. Tumca, arsebobs meore mosazrebac, romlis Tanaxmadac, arseboben maRali kompetenciis mqone mecnierebi, romlebsac rigi pirobebis gamo, ar aqvT saSualeba kvleva awarmoon. Semdeg garemo pirobebze, erTsulovani azri arsebobs respondentebSi. maTi azriT, mecnierebs ar aqvT motivacia, gamomdinare iqidan, rom arasaTanadod fasdeba maTi saqmianoba. amasTan erTad, ver iZieben mecnieruli muSaobisTvis saWiro Tanxebs. sakuTari xelfasiT ki, aseTi samuSaos warmoeba, ubralod, SeuZleblad miaCniaT. aRniSnaven, saxelmwifos mier samecniero fondisTvis gamoyofili Tanxebis sagrZnob Semcirebas da, zogadad, Tvlian, rom biujetidan ar aris gamoyofili sakmarisi Tanxebi mecnierebisTvis. amasTan erTad, mwvaved dgeba politizaciis problema. `Tu iyavi politikuri sistemisgan damoukidebeli profesionali, maSin Sen saxelmwifos interesebSi ar iyavi~. sabolood, mecnieruli muSaobis mniSvnelobis da misi naklebobis aRweris Semdeg, varaudoben, rom es ufro qveyanaSi Seqmnili pirobebis ~damsaxurebaa da ara akademiuri personalis.

3.3 samecniero muSaobis waxaliseba da dafinanseba samecniero muSaobis waxalisebis da dafinansebis wyarod respondentebi moiazreben saxelmwifos, universitets, kerZo pirebs da samecniero fondebs. maTi azriT, mecniereba saxelmwifos mier unda gamocxaddes prioritetad da dafinansdes Sesabamisad. universitetebi ki, xels unda uwyobdnen profesorebs, rogorc materialu43

rad, aseve aramaterialurad, iZiebdnen Sesabamis fondebs, samecniero grantebs, raTa akademiur personals Seuqmnan samecniero kvlevisTvis saWiro yvela piroba. mniSvnelovania, rom studentebi samecniero muSaobis potenciur damfinanseblad da wamaxaliseblad kerZo pirovnebebs, organizaciebs Tu biznesebs moiazreben.

4.universitetis dafinanseba universitetis dafinansebis arsebul vauCerul wesTan respondentebma daakavSires mTeli rigi problemebi, rogoricaa: finanasebis naklebobis gamo dabali kompetenciis mqone bevri studentis miReba; iseTi studentebisTvis xarisxis miniWeba, romlebic ver akmayofileben standartebs; Sesabamisad, codnis miRebaze orientirebuli studentebisTvis pirobebis gauareseba (radgan studentebis did raodenobaze iqmneba arasakmarisi akademiuri personalis da infrastruqturis problema) da demotivacia. dominanturia azri, rom universitets saxelmwifo unda afinansebdes, radgan qveynisTvis strategiulad mniSvnelovan saqmes asrulebs. Tumca, am pirobebSi, aucilebelia gamkacrdes universitetSi Caricxvis procedura da is studentebi xvdebodnen umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi, romlebisTvisac mizans codnis miReba warmoadgens. aseve, Tvlian, rom erTiani erovnuli gamocdebi ar aris sakmarisi da unda arsebobdes Sidasauniversiteto gamocdebi, gasaubreba studentebTan da iseTi meqanizmebi, romelic saSualebas miscems universitets SearCios saukeTeso kandidatebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom respondentebi ar aigiveben saxelmwifos mier dafinansebas SesaZlo Carevad universitetis saqmianobaSi. xazs usvamen, rom saxelmwifo dafinansebis pirobebSi universitets sruli avtonomia unda mieces, rom Tavad SeZlos Tanxebis sworad ganawileba. 44

vauCeruli dafinanseba, rogorc aRmoCnda, arasasurvelia Semdegi mizeziT: moqmedebs xarisxze uaryofiTad; profesorebi ver iReben droulad xelfasebs (ZiriTad, regionebSi, radgan studentebi gadasaxads ixdian dagvianebiT); ~universiteti gadaiqca komerciul dawesebulebad . daskvnis saxiT, aRiniSna, rom unda moqmedebdes pirdapiri dafinansebis wesi, raTa universitetma ifunqcioniros sakuTari ZiriTadi arsis Sesabamisad da uzrunvelyos maRali xarisxis ganaTlebis gadacema studentebisTvis. universitetis dafinansebis procesSi, garkveul rols aniWeben kerZo pirebs da biznes seqtors. ~universitetSi investiciebi unda idebodes , rogorc sazogadoebrivi da saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis funqciebis matarebel obieqtSi. is kvalificiuri kadri, romelic Camoyalibdeba universitetSi, sasargebloa rogorc bizsesis da sxvadasxva organizaciisTvis, aseve, mTeli qveynisTvis. studentebs, romlebic arian socialurad daucvelebi, an, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, ar aqvT SesaZlebloba, rom uzrunvelyon sakuTari Tavi swavlis gadasaxadiT, respondentebis azriT, unda ufinansebdes swavlas saxelmwifo da universiteti. ra Tqma unda, moiazrebian is studentebi, romlebic orientirebulni arian codnis miRebaze da swavlis SesaZleblobis miRebis SemTxvevaSi, daadastureben kargi akademiuri moswrebiT. rac Seexeba swavlis safasurs, aRiniSna, rom is saSualo SemosavalTan SedarebiT sakmaod maRalia da unda gatardes rigi reformebi mis Sesamcireblad, raTa umaRlesi ganaTlebis miReba xelmisawvdomi gaxdes.

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5. akademiuri Tavisufleba universitetebSi kvlevis procesSi, araerTxel aRiniSna universitetis politizaciis problema da misgan ganTavisuflebis aucilebloba. respondentebSi, mocemul sakiTxze sruli Tanxmobaa. kerZod, aucilebelia universitetebs mieceT avtonomia, ara mxolod formaluri, aramed, realuri - myari dacvis garantiebiT. aRiniSna, rom dauSvebelia profesoris Tanamdebobaze arCeva/ar arCeva politikuri, socialuri Tu sxva msgavsi niSniT. erTaderT relevantur kriteriumad profesionalizmi dasaxelda. profesionalebis SerCevis obieqtur, miukerZoebel gzad - gare referireba. politikuri zewolisgan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg, akademuri Tavisuflebis garantad, studentebi moiazreben tenuaris sistemas.2 yvela zemoT CamoTvlili xarvezi ganapirobebebs swavlebis xarisxis problemas. swavlis done, respondentTa azriT, ar Seesabameba saxelmwifo universitetebSi swavlis safasurs.

6. studentebis xedva problemebis mogvarebis gzebis Sesaxeb rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, studentebi fiqroben da msjeloben umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi da uSualod saswavlo procesSi wamrmoqmnili mravali problemis mogvarebis gzebze, rogorc saxelmwifo, aseve sauniversiteto doneze. am TemasTan dakavSirebulma mosazrebebma, faqtobrivad, yvela arsebuli mimarTuleba moicva. upirveles yovlisa, studentebi gamoTqvamen ukmayofilebas universitetebSi swavlebis xarisxis kontro2

tenuaris sistemaze saubroben studentebi, romlebic siRrmiseulad erkvevian umaRlesi ganaTlebis sakiTxebSi.

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lis meqamizmebis ararsebobasa Tu araefeqturobaze, isini aqcents akeTeben xarisxis kontrolis gamkacrebaze ramdenime kuTxiT: 1. erovnul gamocdebze minimaluri kompetenciis zRvaris aweva da studentTa dafinansebis sqemis gadaxedva. ramdenime mosazrebis Tanaxmad, aucilebelia, erovnuli gamocdebis Sedegad dafinansebuli studenti kontroldebodes universitetSi swavlis periodSic, radgan saxelmwifos materialuri resursebi samarTlianad ganawildes. 2.universitetSi leqtorebis mxridan studentTa Sefasebis gamkacreba. qulebisa da kreditebis miReba unda iyos damsaxurebuli da studentis mier gaweuli Sromis adeqvaturi. 3. aseve, studentebi moiTxoven universitetSi profesor-maswavleblebis kvalifikaciisa da profesionalizmis kontrols. fokusjgufebSi monawileTa didi nawili Tvlis, rom maTi gadamzadeba, Tanamedrove saswavlo Tu samecniero meTodebis aTviseba aucilebelia. mxolod amis Semdeg, saWiroa filtracia, mkacri kriteriumebis dadgena, rasac profesorebisTvis mamotivirebeli mniSvnelobac eqneba mets imuSaveben sakuTar Tavze, daxvewen saswavlo kursebs, danergaven Tanamedrove swavlebis meTodebs da a.S. Tumca, motivaciisTvis anazRaurebis gazrdac aucilebelia. 4. aseve, mkacrad unda kontroldebodes profesorebis mier Sedgenili saswavlo programebi, unda mowmdebodes maTi xarisxi da mimarTulebasTan Sesabamisoba. xolo xarisxis maCveneblebis verdakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi, studentebis azriT, miRebul unda iqnas Sesabamisi zomebi, - arakompetenturi leqtorebi aucileblad unda Canacvldnen maRalkvalifikaciuri akademiuri personaliT (romelTac eqnebaT TavianTi Sromisa da pasuxismgeblobebis Sesabamisi, adeqvaturi anazRaureba) 4. garda amisa, respondentebis mcire nawili saubrobs umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebis akreditaciis kriteriumebis gamkacrebazec. aRiniSna, rom mniSvnelovania saxelmwifom imuSaos prioritetuli specialobebis regulirebaze - moTxovna Seamciros prestiJul mimarTulebebze (iuridiuli, samedicino, ekonomika, biznesi da a.S.) da aqcenti realurad 47

saWiro profesiebze gaakeTos. respondentTa nawilis azriT, es politika mravali problemis gadaWris winapiroba iqneba, vinaidan studentebi ganawildebian profesiul saswavleblebSi, kolejebSi, dabalansdeba sxvadasxva specialobis mqone moqalaqeTa Tanafardoba qveyanaSi da, Sesabamisad, SesaZlebeli iqneba samuSao adgilebis saWiroebisamebr gadanawileba. studentebi Tvlian, rom saxelmwifo universitetebis biujeti unda kontroldebodes specialuri auditis samsaxuris mier. unda gadaixedos da gardaiqmnas aqamde finansebis mmarTveli organoebis, maT Soris studenturi TviTmmarTvelobis3 da reqtoris, uflebamosileba da funqciebi.

citata - ~Sevqmnidi ufro moqnil sistemas rom nebismier studentur gaerTianebas SeZleboda gamoyofili Tanxis xarjva da proeqtebis momzadeba~.

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daskvna kvlevis Sedegebi naTeli dasturia im uamravi problemisa, rac umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi arsebobs da dauyovnebel reagirebas saWiroebs Zireuli, kargad gaanalizebuli reformebis saxiT. vimedovnebT, rom kvlevis procesSi aRmoCenili problemebi saTanadod gaanalizdeba da maT mosagvareblad, universitetebSi jansaRi, samecniero-saswavlo procesis Sesaqmnelad, uaxloes periodSi, gadaidgmeba qmediTi, mizanmimarTuli, nabijebi saxelmwifos, universitetebis mmarTveli organoebis da sazogadoebis mier.

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sarCevi

Sesavali ...................................................................................3 saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba - umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis iuridiuli statusi da dafinansebis sistema ......................................................5 tenuaris sistemis qarTuli perspeqtivebi ..................11 daskvnis magier ......................................................................17 k v l e v i s a n g a r i S i ......................................................20 problemis aRwera .................................................................21 kvlevis meTodologia.........................................................23 kvlevis ZiriTadi aRmoCenebi ............................................25 kvlevis ZiriTadi daskvnebi ...............................................27 1.umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis arsi da funqciebi.....................................................27 2.sauniversiteto problemebi..............................28 3.samecniero kvleva.................................................42 4. universitetis dafinanseba ...............................44 5.akademiuri Tavisufleba universitetebSi.......................................................46 6.studentebis xedva problemebis mogvarebis gzebis Sesaxeb ............................................................46 daskvna......................................................................................4 9

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gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 1, : 2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30 E-mail: universal@internet.ge