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Internet Banking: A Case Study of the Factors influencing its Adoption in Mauritius

Dinesh RAMDHONY* and Deerajen RAMASAWMY


Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence bank customers in Mauritius to adopt Internet Banking (IB). Methodology An online survey was conducted with a response rate of 73%. Findings Around 54% of the respondents were IB users. The commonly used services were for information inquiry and transfer of funds. Factor Analysis reveals that from a users point of view availability of infrastructure and perceived ease of use are the most important factors in determining adoption of IB. In contrast, for non-users of IB, it was trust and security issues. Based on Logistic Regression analysis, household income group and age group were found to be the most significant demographic variables that determine adoption of IB. Practical implications The results can be used by banks to devise strategies in increasing their customer base by catering for the needs of actual users and taking on board non-users. Research limitation The use of convenience sampling weakens the objectivity of this research. Originality This study considers the factors leading to actual usage or non-usage of IB unlike other studies which investigate the intention to use IB. Keywords: Internet Banking, Internet Banking Adoption, Technological Acceptance Model, Mauritius Introduction Advances in information technology have significantly changed the way banks deliver services to their customers and the way the latter undertake their regular banking transactions. Pressured by rising costs, ever more demanding customers, and the need to preserve profitability while standing out from the competition, banks found themselves forced to invest in new customer service channels such as internet banking (IB) (Hernandez and Mazon, 2007:72). The trend is evident in several developing countries such as Malaysia (Hway-Boon and Yu, 2003) and Thailand (Rotchanakitumnuai and Speece, 2003). Mauritian banks have joined the bandwagon and offer a multiplechannel strategy to meet the needs of their clients. Internet banking offers a multitude of benefits to both the user and the provider. Studies in Spain and Italy have found a positive correlation between provision of online services and financial performance (Hernando and Nieto, 2007, Hasan et al., 2005). Other benefits include cost savings, increased customer base, delivery of services in an innovative manner, increased marketing and communication possibilities, mass customisation and development of noncore businesses (Jayawardhena and Foley, 2000). From a users perspective the decision to adopt internet banking is mainly motivated by convenience and efficiency (Bruno, 2003). Customers can access their bank account and effect transactions anywhere at any time. Internet banking has been found to be the cheapest delivery channel for standardised banking transactions such as account services and transfer of funds (Polatoglu and Ekin, 2001). A study on the adoption of internet banking in Mauritius was carried out by Padachi, Seetanah and Rojid (2006). However, the study lacked theoretical underpinning. The last five years witnessed several cuts in the rates of internet access coupled with various initiatives by the local and central government to provide internet access in public places which justifies a new study on the adoption of internet banking. The paper sets out to investigate the factors influencing the use of internet banking in Mauritius and tries to draw the profile of the Mauritian Internet banking user. The findings are expected to be of great use to policy makers, financial institutions willing to launch IB services and more particularly to commercial banks already offering IB facilities in devising strategies towards greater customer satisfaction and increasing their customer base. The paper is organised as follows. The next part contains a discussion of the theoretical models used to explain technology acceptance and findings of other studies regarding the adoption of internet banking. Then, the paper outlines the research methodology and presents the findings from the data analysis. From the findings, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are provided for assisting banks in devising strategies to increase their customer base. Theoretical framework Several theories have been used to explain the determinants of IT adoption for individuals; the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) and the Technological Acceptance Model (TAM). Yousafzai et al. (2010) compared the three previously named theories in predicting IB behaviour. They concluded that TAM is superior to other models. Chang and Hamid (2010) and Eriksson (1995) have also used the TAM for explaining IB adoption. This paper uses to a large extent the constructs of the TAM to explain IB adoption / nonadoption in Mauritius. TAM involves two primary predictors for the potential adopter, namely Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use. Perceived Usefulness is defined as the degree to which a technology is able to provide a means-end relationship, that is, the given technology as a means to a desired end (Doll et al., 1998). The work of Wai-Ching Poon (2008) emphasised on the degree of convenience that customers can

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attribute to the service and accordingly, 82% of the respondents agreed that e-banking is time saving and 53% strongly agreed that no queuing at the banks branches is advantageous. Sayar and Wolfe (2007) stated that customers find IB attractive as it is possible to conduct transactions anytime and anywhere, faster and lower fees are incurred compared to using traditional bank branches. Perceived Ease of Use refers to the extent to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort (Davis et al., 1989). Rogers (1962) theorised that perceived ease of use demonstrates the degree to which an invention is seen as being not too difficult to understand, learn or operate. One of the attributes of Perceived Ease of Use as suggested by Taylor and Todd (1995) is the complexity associated with the innovation, and in their study the latter was found to have the most significant relationship with adoption across a broad range of innovation types. Several other factors apart from Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use, have been identified as influencing the decision to adopt IB. Davies (1989) refers to them as external variables. Some examples are: security or safety, the level of consumer trust, the risks associated with online banking, the infrastructure available, and eventually technological knowledge or awareness. Security or Safety The banking industry has declared information privacy and security to be major obstacles in the development of consumer related electronic commerce (Thomas et al., 2002). Fear and anguish among the consumers psychological state that may bar them from using the system may be intensified if there exists any lapse of security in internet usage. Customers will not be willing to use the service if it is perceived as being easily susceptible to fraud (Al-Somali et al., 2009). This point was corroborated in a research conducted by Al-Hajri and Tatnall (2007). Most respondents were concerned about the problem of internet security as bank customers cannot put their full trust in internet technology due to possible fraud and privacy violation problems. In addition, feeling secure in doing transactions on the Web is often cited by users as a major factor that removes their concerns about the effective use of the Internet for making online transactions (Salisbury et al., 2001). Trust The existence of a great deal of scepticism about the security of online transactions makes the element of trust a crucial factor when it comes to deciding upon the use of ebanking. Wai-Ching Poon (2008) confirmed that 69% respondents agreed that trust is affecting their demand for ebanking services. There could be a limitation of the opportunities from web technology if there is a dearth of trust by the consumers in the system (Rotchanakitumnuai and Speece, 2003). Customers usually do not have faith in internet based technology for reasons like security of the system, distrust of service providers, and anxiety regarding the dependability and consistency of the internet services (Rotchanakitumnuai and Speece, 2003). Finally, in a research by Fassnacht and Kose (2007), the customers level

of trust in e-banking was confirmed to have a considerable effect on the consumers choice of adopting this technology and for its continued usage. Awareness of the Service In general, customers will seek out those financial products which offer the best value for money and about which they are educated. Once customers become aware of the integrated and secure services available somewhere, they are likely to switch to the providers of such services (Kalakota and Frei, 1998). El-Nawawy and Ismail (1999) in their study of e-commerce adoption by SMEs in Egypt reported that the main factors revolve around awareness and education. An innovative product will not achieve great heights if consumers are not aware of its existence and the potential benefits it presents. An Australian study by Sathye (1999) highlighted awareness as one of the main factors hindering the migration of consumers to IB. Availability of Infrastructure OConnell (1996) identified lack of access to computers or internet as one of the possible reasons for slow adoption of IB. The study by Wai-Ching Poon (2008) divulged that a majority of the respondents (81%) agreed that internet accessibility is an advantage for users satisfaction in adopting e-banking services. Likewise, through observations and narrative analysis of IB customers, Broderick and Vachirapornpuk (2002) identified issues like slowness, poor navigational possibilities, poor interactivity and critical incidents such as lack of help by the providers of IB service to be capable of deterring customers from adopting the service. Other Factors Many studies have investigated the effects of the customers demographic characteristics; age (Czaja et al., 2001), gender (Venkatesh and Morris, 2000, Burke, 2002), financial income (Venkatesh and Morris, 2000), and education level (Burke, 2002). For example, it was found that older customers generally have negative attitudes towards technology and innovations; younger adults on the other hand were seen to be more interested in using new technologies (Czaja et al., 2001). Income was found by Venkatesh and Morris, (2000) to potentially exert a strong effect on the adoption and diffusion of technology. Similarly, gender and education level also played a significant role with regards to attitude towards technology use (Burke, 2002). Internet Banking in Mauritius The banking sector is a major component of the financial system in Mauritius. The sector is constantly growing and has attracted new players in the last five years. Presently the banking industry comprises of 20 banks holding a banking licence from the Bank of Mauritius, of which 7 are local banks, 8 are foreign owned subsidiaries, 1 is a joint venture and 4 are branches of foreign banks. The sector has been at the forefront of technological innovations offering several banking channels via telephone / PC / terminal / Internet. The Mauritius Commercial Bank was the first bank to launch internet banking services in 1998 followed by the State Bank of Mauritius in 1999. As evidenced by Table I, Page 11

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the number of IB customers have increased almost three fold between 2007 and 2010 while the value of IB transactions have tripled over the same period. The trend is expected to continue with gradual decrease in the costs of internet access and an increase in the number of banks offering this service Methodology According to Internet World Stats1, Mauritius is considered an Intermediately Internet Penetrated Country. For a population size of 1,303,717 (2011) and 340,000 Internet Users, Mauritius has an Internet Penetration 26.7% and has a constantly growing part of its population using IB. As a result, it is very important for this study to investigate the different factors that influence the usage of IB in Mauritius. For the purpose of this study only individual users have been considered. A quantitative study was selected to obtain data regarding the usage of and attitudes towards IB. An online survey methodology approach was adopted. Based on Statistical Tables, a sample size of 398 was required for 95% Confidence Level, +/-5% and 0.5 degree of variability. Since a detailed list of all bank account holders is not available (for obvious confidential reasons), a convenience sampling method was used instead of a probabilistic method (such as simple random sampling). Emails were sent to individuals on the assumption that every working person holds a bank account. A total of 321 responses were obtained out of which 30 were incomplete. Thus, a total of 291 valid responses were obtained with a response rate of 73.1%. Organisation of the Questionnaire The questionnaire was prepared based on various sources of IB and technology acceptance literature (Polatoglu and Ekin, 2001; Wai-Ching Poon, 2008; Yousafzai et al., 2010). The first section of the questionnaire contained biographical information about respondents which was meant for all users. The second part contained information destined for users of IB while the third part was aimed at non-users of IB. A five-point Likert scale was used for questions in parts two and three of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was pretested several times with colleagues and experts in the field of IB to ensure face validity of items included in the data collection instrument. The pilot test also included a random sample of 20 bank account holders to ensure that the questions were clear and easily understandable so as to avoid any confusion and thus not deterring the participation of the bank account holders which is of paramount importance (Wai-Ching Poon, 2008). Following comments from respondents of the pilot test, minor amendments were made to the wordings and sequence of sentences contained in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was then sent online with a cover letter explaining the academic purpose of the study and highlighting the fact that participation was purely voluntary. An online questionnaire was deemed better than a paper based one for the following reasons: there is no need to print questionnaires which saves on cost and contributes to the
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promotion of a sustainable world; responses remain anonymous; respondents can fill the questionnaire at their own convenience; a large number of people can be reached at the click of the mouse. In addition, it saves us time on data input. Data Analysis Data collected was analysed using version 19 of IBM SPSS Statistics. A total of 321 responses were obtained out of which 30 were incomplete. A total of 291 valid responses were obtained. Two sets of factor analyses were performed for both users and non-users. A logistic regression (LR) was also performed to identify the profile of the Mauritian IB user/non-user. Findings The demographic profile of the respondents that participated in the survey are summarised in Table II. We observe that there were more females (60%) than males (40%). In addition, the majority of the respondents (above 80%) were below 35 years of age and (around 75%) possesses at least a Diploma. In terms of household income, about 40% were in the group Rs 10,000 to Rs 25,000. Above 90% have Internet at home and above 80% have it at the work place. However, only around 54% use IB. Among IB users, the frequency of usage of the majority of users is once a week or less. Table III summarises the different activities or tasks performed by IB users. The list was prepared based on decreasing frequency of usage. We observe that the majority use IB for viewing their account details (including account balance), for making transfers (internally, i.e., within accounts of the users or externally, to other users within same banks and other banks) and recharging mobile phones. The findings are in line with Polatoglu and Ekin (2001) who found that the mostly used IB services in Turkey are for information inquiry and transfer of funds. The least used services were found to be Stop lost / stolen cheque and Remove 'stop cheque' request which could be anticipated as bank customers will prefer to go personally to the bank given the urgency of the matter. Factor Analysis Users of IB The aim of this analysis is to group the 19 variables indicating usage of IB into underlying dimensions. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value reached 0.823 which is considered excellent for factor analysis (Kaiser, 1974). The Barlett test of sphericity reached statistical significance (0.000) indicating that factor analysis is appropriate. According to the Kaiser principle, only those factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were maintained for further analysis. Principal Component Analysis revealed the presence of four factors which together explain a variance of 64%. A clear structure emerged after reducing the variables to four factors. A varimax rotation was performed to reorganise the four components. As a general rule factor, loadings less than 0.4 have been suppressed. The variables are listed in the Table IV, in the order of size of their factor loadings. Statements around component one give evidence of perceived ease of use and availability of infrastructure which are in accord with the findings of Davis et al., (1989) and Broderick and Vachirapornpuk (2002). Page 12

www.internetworldstats.com : Usage and Population Statistics

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Non-users of IB For non-users of IB, 16 variables were used in the Factor Analysis so as to reduce the factors into underlying dimensions. The KMO value reached 0.827 while the Barlett test of sphericity reached statistical significance (0.000) indicating that factor analysis is appropriate. The same criteria as mentioned for users of IBS were used. As in the case of users of IB, the PCA revealed the presence of four factors which together explain a variance of 69%. A clear structure emerged after reducing the variables to four factors. The variables are listed in the Table V, in the order of size of their factor loadings. Both univariate and multivariate Logistic Regression were used. The results are summarised in Table VI. For univariate Logistic Regression, out of the four demographic profiles, namely gender, age group, household income and highest education level, only household income (above Rs 10,000) was found to be significant. Moreover with the multivariate LR, it was found that in addition to household income, age group was another significant demographic variable, in particular those in the age group below 45. Discussion Based on the findings, it is observed that users of IB attach high importance to the availability of infrastructure and perceived ease of use. The results show that users value friendly design and availability of help when using IB. These findings are in accord with Gerrard and Cunningham (2003) who found that availability of an innovation to meet users needs using different feature availability on the website is of paramount importance for success in ebanking. The second best factor in determining usage of IB was found to be perceived usefulness. However, these findings are in contradiction with Wu and Kuo (2008) who noted that the respective predicting power of Perceived Use and Perceived Ease of Use on intention is considerably diluted by the addition of habitual usage or past usage. A possible factor explaining the Perceived Use and Perceived Ease of Use as being primary predictors of IB usage is that the IB phenomenon is quite new in Mauritius. Based on figures in Table I, we note that strong growth in the number of IB customers has been recorded from 2009 onwards thus confirming that mass usage of IB is quite new. Surprisingly, security issues rank last among the determinants of IB usage in Mauritius. This could be explained by the fact that with continued and regular usage, people start to trust the system and security becomes a salient issue. In contrast, for non-users of IB, Trust and Security Issues was the most important component extracted among the 5 components as shown in Table V. Even with the advent of secured website and secured login, some people were found not to trust IB. This can be attributed to the fact that there are many users have been fooled by scams and are reluctant to use IB. Availability of infrastructure and awareness of service were the second and third components extracted respectively. There are still people with no access to Internet either because they come from a low-income group or they have Personal Computers but without access to the Internet. The last component extracted is the Perceived Usefulness and Ease of Use. Non-IB users would usually use traditional

banking services available at branches of banks or ATMs which becomes part of their routine and thereby ignoring the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of IB. In terms of profile of users, we have found that household income and age groups are the demographic variables that determine whether or not a person uses IB. People in the age groups 25 35 and 36 45 are keener to use IB. The results confirm the findings of Czaja et al. (2001) who claim that younger adults were more interested in using new technologies and older customers generally have a negative attitude toward technology and innovation. The level of income significantly influences the use of IB. Our results are in line with the findings of Wai-Ching Poon (2008) who found that upper and middle income groups are affluent users of IB. No significant relationship was found between gender and IB use. This finding is contrary to that of Singh (2004) who found that males are more prone to use IB than females. Similarly, education level is not significantly related to the use of IB. The use of IB requires basic computer skills which could be a possible explanation for this result. Conclusions and Managerial implications The study identifies the motivators to use IB as being Availability of infrastructure and perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, Awareness of the service and security issues, according to the degree of importance. The pattern is reversed from the point of view of non users who claim that obstacles to IB adoption according to the degree of importance are: Trust and security issues; Availability of infrastructure; Awareness and Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The findings of this study have several implications for commercial banks offering IB services and potential IB providers. Banks should keep an eye on the design of their IB portal to ensure that they are user friendly and that timely assistance is provided to customers. The present conditions of distrust and insecurity among non-IB users needs to be addressed by educating customers, showing them the different safety measures taken by the bank to ensure privacy and confidentiality of information. Awareness campaigns could be run to that effect and at the same time reminding bank customers of the benefits of using IB and services offered. Banks should upgrade their security system to win the trust of non-IB users. More assistance has to be provided online, to help customers effect their banking transactions. The findings on the demographic variables linked to the adoption of IB are also relevant for banks in devising strategies to increase their customer base. References AJZEN, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179211. AL-HAJRI, S. & TATNALL, A. (2007). Inhibitors and enablers to internet banking in Oman: A comparison with banks in Australia. International Review of Business Research Papers, 3(5), 36-43. AL-SOMALI, S.A., GHOLAMI, R. & CLEGG, B. (2007). Internet banking acceptance in the context of Page 13

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developing countries: An extension of the TAM Model. Operations & Information Management Group, Aston Business School. BANK OF MAURITIUS, Monthly bulletin, May 2011. BRODERICK, A. & VACHIRAPORNPUK, Y. (2002). Service quality in Internet banking: The importance of customer role. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 20, 55-77. BURKE, R.R. (2002). Technology and the customer interface: What consumers want in the physical and virtual store? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 30(4), 411-432. BRUNO, M.A. (2003), BofAs climb to the top of the online world, US Banker 113 (6), 24-25. CHANG, H. & HAMID, M. (2010). An empirical investigation of Internet Banking in Taiwan. Global Journal of Business Research 4 (2), 39-48. CZAJA, S.J., SHARIT, J., OWNBY, R., ROTH, D.L. & NAIR, S. (2001). Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task. Psychology and Aging 16(4), 564-580. DAVIS, F. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly 13, 319340. DOLL, W.J., HENDRICKSON, A. & DENG, X. (1998). Using Daviss perceived usefulness and ease of-use instruments for decision making: a confirmatory and multigroup invariance analysis, Decision Sciences Journal 29(4), 839-69. DAVIS, F.D., BAGOZZI, R.P. & WARSHAW, P.R. (1989). User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models. Management Science 35(8), 982-1003. EL-NAWAWY, M.A. & ISMAIL, M.M. (1999). Overcoming deterrents and impediments to electronic commerce in light of Globalization. Proceedings of the 9th annual conference of the internet society, 22-25 June INET 99, San Jose, USA. FASSNACHT, M. & KOSE, I. (2007). Consequences of web-based service quality: Uncovering a multi-faceted chain of effects. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), 35-54. FISHBEIN, M. & AJZEN, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior. An Introduction to Theory and Research, Addison Wesley, Reading, MA. GERRARD, P. & CUNNINGHAM, J.B. (2003). The diffusion of internet banking among Singapore consumers, International Journal of Bank Marketing 21 (1), 16-28. HASAN, I., ZAZZARA, C. & CICIRETTI, R. (2005). Do internet activities add value? Evidence from the banking industry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, unpublished manuscript. HERNANDEZ, J.M.C. & MAZZON, J.A. (2007). Adoption of internet banking: proposition and implementation of an integrated methodology approach, International Journal of Bank Marketing 25(2), 72-88. HERNANDO, I. & NIETO, M.J. (2007). Is the internet delivery channel changing banks performance? The case of Spanish banks, Journal of Banking and Finance, 31 (4), 1083-99.

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ANNEXURE Table I: Internet Banking Trend Year Dec 2007 Dec 2008 Dec 2009 Dec 2010 Number of customers 47, 616 63, 285 108, 414 133,508 Number of transactions (monthly) 164, 038 198, 205 252, 554 171,088 Value of transactions (monthly) (Rs mn) 14, 442 28, 806 37, 607 4 4,038

(Source: Bank of Mauritius (BoM) Monthly Bulletin June 2011) Demographic Profile Gender Age Group Table II: Demographic Profile of Respondents Details Male Female Less than 25 25 35 36 45 More than 45 School Certificate (O Level) Higher School Certificate (A Level) Diploma / Degree Post Graduate < Rs 5,000 Rs 5,000 Rs 10,000 Rs 10,000 < Rs 25,000 Rs 25,000 < Rs 50,000 Rs 50,000 and above Home Workplace Daily 2 3 times a week Once a week 2 3 times a month Once a month Rarely % 40.3 59.7 37.6 47.2 10.0 5.2 1.7 20.3 54.5 23.4 16.2 8.6 40.0 24.5 10.7 92.4 86.4 53.8 6.4 14.0 24.8 14.0 21.0 19.7

Highest Education Level

Monthly Household Income Group

Internet Access Use of IB Frequency of Usage of IB

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Table III: Uses of IB 1 Never 3.2 28.8 33.0 34.9 45.3 53.8 48.1 62.8 60.3 59.4 66.0 70.8 73.6 76.4 75.5 89.6 88.7 2 Rarely 5.1 14.7 20.8 20.8 16.0 8.5 25.5 12.2 18.6 20.8 19.8 15.1 17.0 15.1 17.9 7.5 10.4 3 Sometimes 19.2 28.2 27.4 25.5 21.7 12.3 19.8 11.5 11.5 13.2 10.4 13.2 6.6 6.6 3.8 1.9 0.9 4 Regularly 72.4 28.2 18.9 18.9 17.0 25.5 6.6 13.5 9.6 6.6 3.8 0.9 2.8 1.9 2.8 0.9 0.0

USES OF IB Viewing Account Details Inter Account Funds Transfer Making Online Payments Payment to other personal account Transfer of funds to credit card account Recharging Mobile Phones Payment to other local bank account Loans, Credit Cards Application Standing Order Transactions Downloading Application Forms Request Issue of C/A statement Foreign transfer: Draft or Swift Payment by office cheque Cheque Book Request Apply credit card limit charge Stop lost / stolen cheque Remove 'stop cheque' request

Mean 3.61 2.56 2.32 2.28 2.10 2.09 1.85 1.76 1.71 1.67 1.52 1.44 1.39 1.34 1.34 1.14 1.12

SD .732 1.182 1.126 1.136 1.162 1.299 .964 1.109 1.011 .943 .831 .757 .738 .689 .689 .467 .357

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Table IV : Users of IB

IB Users

Rotated Component Matrix My banks website has a clear, user-friendly design and the bank focuses on interactivity, navigation & security The availability of help simplifies navigation on the banks website The bank provides sufficient training, guides & manuals to support the use on IB IB usage requires no further knowledge apart from simply being acquaintained to use the computer It is easy to learn to use Internet Banking The bank is able to help me quickly in technical and non-technical issues related to IB It is flexible to interact with Internet Banking while utilising online services I prefer internet Banking because online services are available 24 hours a day With IB, accounts can be paid and funds transferred without queues and writing out cheques IB is useful in conducting transactions Banking services are available more handily with IB Various banking services can be accessed at the same time, via Internet Banking I have enough information about how to use Internet Banking I am aware of the benefits and risks involved in Internet Banking I have enough information about Internet Banking I am aware about the different services being provided online I trust in the ability of the bank to protect my confidentiality I use Internet Banking because the bank is able to provide me with the necessary security The use of digital signatures, encryption & authorisation mechanisms provide a more secured IB service

1 .787 .741 .716 .699 .661 .634 .609

Component 2 3

Availability of Infrastructure and Perceived Ease of Use

.424 .796 .760 .683 .672 .652 .838 .787 .776 .765 .812 .735 .725

Perceived Usefulness

Awareness of the Service

Security Issues

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