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IE 311 Spring 2013 Lab #7 & 8 TIG, MIG, and STICK Welding Section 002 Group H: Tim Kovacs

#33 Ben Messer #40 Kyle Rinda #46 Lisa Washakowski #57

Executive Summary

For almost all multi-component metal structures, different pieces must be welded together to complete the final product. However, there are many different types of welding processes, and knowing which one to use for different situations is very important. Whether the project is to weld metal beams when building the steel structure of a new building, or welding together the different components of bicycle frame, each setting demands a specific process. In this lab, the three welding processes that were examined were GTAW(TIG) welding, GMAW(MIG) welding, and SMAW(Stick) welding. During the first part of the lab, two different types of aluminum (1100 Al and 6061 Al) were welded with another piece of the same base metal using two different types of filler metals (1100 and 4043). Using the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding(GTAW) process, two pieces of the same base metal were welded together. After welding, the hardness of the base metal was recorded using the Rockwell Hardness Test at distances of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 away from the weld. After analyzing the data recorded, it can clearly be seen that for the 1100 Al, the hardness was significantly higher when using the 4043 filler metal at 0.25 from the weld (33.2 HRF vs. 26.5 HRF), and slightly higher at all successive distances when compared to the 1100 filler metal. However, when welding the 6061 Al, the use of the 1100 filler metal resulted in a significantly higher hardness at 0.25 from the weld (28.1 HRF vs. 24.7 HRF), and approximately the same hardness at successive distances away from the weld. The next tests that were performed, were to determine the deposition rates of material during welding for GMAW(MIG) welding and SMAW(Stick) welding processes. The GMAW welding process is one that uses a constant voltage power source when creating the arc as well as a spool of wire that is fed as a consumable electrode. In addition, a shielding gas is needed in this process to prevent the formation of an oxide layer on the surface of the metal, making it difficult to weld. The GMAW process was performed on two pieces of metal each at different current and wire feed settings, the first at 180 Amps and a 110 Wire Feed Speed, and the second at 260 Amps and a 160 Wire Feed Speed. After performing a continuous weld for 1 minute at each of the two settings on two different pieces of steel, the piece was weighed and compared to its initial mass to determine the additional weight from the weld, and what the deposition rate was for each of the specific settings. By looking at the weights and deposition rates for each setting, it is clear that the first setting (180 Amps and a 110 Wire Feed Speed) resulted in the most metal deposited during welding and therefore a higher deposition rate of 20 g/min compared to the 14 g/min when using the second setting. This procedure was then repeated for the SMAW welding process, except the welds were made on two different pieces of metal using two different electrodes (6010 and 7014 electrodes). After completing the process using both electrodes, it can be determined that the deposition rate for the 6010 electrode was higher at 16 g/min when compared to the 7014 electrode at 14 g/min, and therefore resulted in more metal deposited on the base metal during welding. The last portion of this lab was examining the fracture load, fracture stress, and fracture location of the fracture of the weld when put under tensile stresses. Using three types of joints, square-butt, transverse lap, and v-joint, welds were made using the GMAW process each two times under the same conditions as the previous part of this lab; the first at 180 Amps and a 110 Wire Feed Speed, and the second at 260 Amps and a 160 Wire Feed Speed. After welding these three types of joints at both settings, it can be seen that all of the fractures occurred in the fusion zone. In addition, when analyzing the fracture load of square butt joint, the fracture load was significantly higher at the second setting when compared to the first (10966 vs. 6507). Meanwhile the fracture load of the transverse lap joint stayed approximately the same between the two settings (8229 vs. 8277, and the fracture load of the v-joint was significantly higher with the second setting (4079 vs. 1394). In addition, the fracture stress for each of the joints at each setting were proportional to the results from the fracture load, because these two attributes are related when conducting a tensile test.

Introduction/ Objectives

Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the surface of the material to melt the metal. This process was first developed in the early part of the 20th century and became an important asset in shipbuilding during World War II. [1] Arc welding is still commonly used today for fabrication of steel structures, vehicles, and more. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was used for Lab 7. This arc welding process uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. An inert shielding gas (argon or helium) prevents the formation of oxides in the weld area. GTAW is most often used for produce high quality aluminum welds. The shielding metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes were used for Lab 8, which both use consumable electrodes. SMAW, also known as stick welding, is the most common welding process. It uses a constant current power source using AC or DC current. GMAW, on the other hand, uses a constant voltage power source. The overall purpose for conducting Lab 7 and 8 was to obtain a greater knowledge of these three types of arc welding processes. The purpose of Lab 7 was to analyze the effect of heat on the hardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to the weld. Lab 8s objective was to compare the deposition rates of SMAW and GMAW welding under various parameters. An additional objective of Lab 8 was to examine the three types of GMAW joint design for different parameters and how their tensile strengths differed. Procedures Using the GTAW (TIG welding) process, 2 pieces each of 1100-H14 and 6061-T6 aluminum are used. The Rockwell hardness and tensile strengths of both base metals are measured. The settings for the weld are an Argon flow rate of 25 ft^3/hr and a current of 100 amps AC. Four weldments are performed (joint bead on plate), and 1100 and 4043 filler rods are used for each base metal (4 welds total). After the pieces have cooled, the Rockwell hardness is measured at points 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 inches from the weld. This data is recorded. Using the SMAW (STICK) process, 4 pieces of steel are used. Each base metal is weighed before the weld. A bead is welded onto each piece, using SMAW E6010 and E7014, and two using GMAW (MIG). One is at a current of 260 amps and a 160 wire feed speed, while the other is at a current of 180 amps and a 110 wire feed speed. Each is welded for 1 minute, and the pieces are weighed after the weld. Using the GMAW (MIG) process, 12 pieces of steel are used. They are joined using three different joint types: square butt, transverse lap, and a v-butt joint. Each joint is welded using both the 180 amp/110 feed speed setting and the 260 amp/160 feed speed setting. After the welds have cooled and solidified, they are all put through the tensile test and the fracture location and load are recorded.


The data for the GTAW (TIG) process is shown in Table 1. Table 1: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Lab Data Sheet Aluminum Stock Thickness = 0.125" Argon Flow Rate = 25 ft3/hr Weld "joint" bead on plate Current = 100 Amps DATA 110011006061- 6061Base Metal H14 H14 T6 T6 1100 4043 1100 4043 Filler Wire Type Base Material hardness before Welding 38.3 38.3 100.7 100.7 (HRF) Hardness after welding (HRF) 26.5 33.2 28.1 24.7 a) 0.25" From Weld 25.2 25.4 41.1 40.3 b) 0.5" From Weld 22.9 23.8 38.1 38.1 c) 1.0" From Weld 22.6 22.7 44.2 45.7 d) 1.5" From Weld

Figure 1. 1100-H14 Aluminum Post-Weld and Hardness Tested

Figure 2. 6061-T6 Aluminum Post-Weld and Hardness Tested The data for the SMAW (STICK) and GMAW (MIG) processes are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Deposition Rate Data Deposition Method Base Material weight Weight after Weld Time Rate before welding (g) Welding (g) (min) (g/min) SMAW 233 249 1 16 E6010 SMAW 232 246 1 14 E7014 229 249 1 20 GMAW A 234 248 1 14 GMAW B

Figure 2. Steel Samples Post-Weld

The data for the GMAW (MIG) process on the 3 joint types and tensile test results are shown in Table 3. Table 3: GMAW Joint Design and Weld Parameter Data (See TA) Actual Fracture Fracture Type of Joint Welding Schedule Fracture Load Stress Area A 6507 0.183 35557 Square Butt B 10966 0.183 59923 A 8229 0.183 44967 Transverse Lap B 8277 0.183 45229 A 4079 0.183 22289 V-Joint B 1394 0.183 7617

Fracture Location FZ FZ FZ FZ FZ FZ

Figure 3. Joints Both Pre-Tensile and Post-Tensile Test

Discussion Lab 7 (TIG) Evaluation & Extension Questions Is TIG welding a consumable or non-consumable electrode process? TIG welding is a non-consumable electrode process. What types of metals are commonly welded with TIG? TIG welding is most commonly used to weld steel and aluminum. What shielding gas was used in the TIG lab? What is the purpose of the gas? The shielding gas used in the lab for TIG is 100% Argon. The shielding gas prevents the formation of oxides in the area around the molten weld metal.





How is the hardness of the material affected in the heat-affected zone? The hardness of the material in the heat-affected zone is reduced from 38.3 HRF before the weld to 26.5 HRF 0.25 from the weld. Any further distance from the weld shows a continued decline in hardness. This is likely caused by the heat from the TIG weld reducing some of the residual stresses in the metal, causing less strength and hardness and more ductility in the heat affected zone. 5) How do the welds compare for the two different base materials and the two different filler materials? Compare the fracture load for each. Fracture load not tested in lab. 6) What makes aluminum a difficult material to weld? What were some difficulties that you encountered when TIG welding? Do you feel as though some of the difficulties you may have encountered in the lab affected your weld quality? Aluminum has a lower melting point than steel and a higher thermal conductivity. It also didnt change colors before it went molten. So it was very easy to melt a hole through the piece of metal. It was difficult to maintain a steady arc distance. 7) Extension Question: What welding supply does TIG typically employ (Constant Current or Constant Voltage)? Explain. (Resource Required) TIG welding requires a constant current power supply which means the current and the heat remain fairly constant. Most TIG welding processes are manual, where an operator holds the torch. So if a constant voltage was used instead it would make it even more complicated because it could cause dramatic heat variations. [1] 8) Extension Question: What is the difference between 1100 H14 and 6061 T6 aluminum? (Resource Required) 1100 H14 is not heat treatable while 6061 T6 aluminum is heat treatable. [2]

9) Extension Question: Explain the difference between DCEN and DCEP TIG welding. When would you want to use DCEN ? When would you want to use DCEP ? (make sure you include a discussion of narrow, deep weld penetration and wide, shallow weld penetration) (Resource Required) DCEN (Direct Current Electrode Negative) and DCEP (Direct Current Electrode Positive) have to be considered during TIG welding. In DCEN, the current flows from the tungsten electrode to the workpiece.[3] However, in DCEP, the current flows in the opposite direction - from the workpiece to the electrode. This helps lift off the oxide layer of the metal, while keeping a wide and shallow weld penetration. Thus, DCEP is typically used for thin metals. On the other hand, DCEN works best with thick metals, allowing for a narrow and deep weld penetration. It assures that most of the heat of the weld goes into the metal itself.[4] 10) Extension Question: Explain why the use of Hydrogen-Argon and Nitrogen-Argon shielding gases is limited for TIG welding. When might you want to use Hydrogen-Argon and Nitrogen-Argon shielding gas (i.e. when welding what materials)? (Resource Required) While Hydrogen-Argon and Nitrogen-Argon shielding gases increases heat input and typically produce cleaner welds, they have a major drawback in that they can lead to the porosity of hydrogen into the metal, hindering from the metals mechanical properties. Additionally, they can lead to cracking of the metal.[5] Hydrogen-Argon is useful for welding materials such as austenitic stainless steels, high-alloy austenitic stainless steels, and nickel alloys. Nitrogen-Argon gas is appropriate for duplex and super duplex stainless steels.[6] 11) Extension Question: Explain pulsed current welding. How can pulsed current welding be advantageous when welding aluminum? (Resource Required) Pulsed current welding is a TIG welding process that alternates the weld between high current and low current. During the high current welding, much heat is produced and a fusion zone is formed the material. During the low current welding, the heat is reduced and the molten pool cools off. However, the low current still maintains the arc. The pulse frequency is typically between 0.5 Hz and 10 Hz. Pulsed current welding can be advantageous when welding aluminum because it allows for thinner material thicknesses and an improved weld seam appearance. [7]

Lab 8 (MIG) Evaluation & Extension Questions 12) Is MIG welding a consumable or non-consumable electrode process? MIG welding is a consumable electrode welding process in which the electrode is fed from a spool. 13) What types of materials do we commonly weld with MIG? MIG can be used for a great variety of materials, both ferrous and nonferrous. It is commonly used to weld mild steel, aluminum, alloy metals, magnesium and cast iron. It is also an excellent sheet metal welding process.

14) What differences were there in welding the three types of joints for the different parameters? What were the differences in tensile strength for the different welds? Though our lab group was not responsible for welding the joints, there were still surely some differences in the welding of each individual joint. The v-joint weld required the welders to weld over the beveled edges of the metal. The transverse lap weld required to welds, while keeping the metal stable. Finally, the square butt joint was more a typical straight weld across two pieces of metal. The square butt was the strongest weld with an average tensile strength of 47,740 N/m2 (one weld had a tensile strength of 59,923 N/m2). The next strongest weld was the transverse lap weld with an average tensile strength of 45,098 N/m2. The v-joint was the least strong weld with an average tensile strength of 14,953 N/m2. 15) What were some difficulties that you encountered while MIG welding in lab? Do you feel as though some of the difficulties affected your weld quality? While welding with the MIG process, though it is one of the easier processes, we still had some slight difficulties. It was important to keep the electrode a constant distance away, as it was difficult to consistently make the correct dime pattern on the weld. Surely as beginners these difficulties had some negative effect on the weld quality, as the weld was not of perfect quality. 16) Extension Question: What welding supply does MIG typically employ (Constant Current or Constant Voltage)? Explain. (Resource Required) MIG welding typically employs constant voltage. This is important to the MIG welding process as it helps maintain a constant gap size to help metal flow smoothly from the tip of the welding device. With a constant voltage process, changing the arc gap only causes a small change in the current flow. Thus, heat is kept more consistent throughout the weld.[8] 17) Extension Question: What shielding gas was used in the lab? What is the purpose of this gas? Why are argon and carbon dioxide commonly mixed in a 75/25 or 90/10 mixture for MIG welding? (Resource Required) The shielding gas used in the lab was a mixture of argon and carbon dioxide. The purpose of this mixture is to prevent atmospheric contamination into the molten metal of the fusion zone. It also increases the stability of the welding arc. Typically in MIG welding, the shielding gas is 75% argon and 25% carbon dioxide.[9] 18) Extension Question: Weld Quality: Two of the most prevalent quality weld problems in MIG welding are dross and porosity. With respect to aluminum, explain what dross is. Explain where dross typically comes from. Explain how to avoid dross in aluminum welds. With respect to aluminum, explain what porosity is. Explain where porosity typically comes from. Explain how to avoid porosity in aluminum welds. (Resource Required) Aluminum dross is a waste byproduct produced during aluminum melting. It poses a threat to both the health of people and the health of the environment. It releases toxic chemicals into the atmosphere, such as ammonia. It is often caused by oxygen content in the weld.Dross production can be minimized if the surface of the metal is thoroughly cleaned before welding.[10] Porosity is the production of porous gas bubbles during the welding process, typically in the fusion zone of the metal. It is usually caused by hydrogen gas mixing with lubricants on the surface of the metal. It too can be reduced by properly cleaning the metal before welding. Metal can be cleaned with a mild alkaline solution or a hydrocarbon solvent.[11]

Lab 8 (STICK) Evaluation & Extension Questions 19) Is STICK welding a consumable or non-consumable electrode process? STICK welding is a consumable electrode welding process. 20) What types of materials do we commonly weld with STICK? STICK welding can be used for both ferrous and nonferrous metals. While nonferrous material such as aluminum can be welded, STICK welding is typically used on mild steels and stainless steels. 21) Compare deposition rates for SMAW and GMAW welding under the various conditions given. The GMAW weld at 180 amps and a wire speed of 110 had the highest deposition rate of 20 grams per minute. The SMAW E6010 process had the second highest rate at 16 grams per minute, while the SMAW E7014 and GMAW at 260 amps and a 160 wire feed speed both a deposition rates of 14 grams per minute. It is clear that the more energy put into the weld, the less the deposition rate. 22) What were some difficulties that you encountered while STICK welding in lab? Do you feel as though some of the difficulties affected your STICK welding experiment? While our group was not responsible for the STICK welding portion of the laboratory experiment, some difficulties in the welding process surely had to be overcome. First, it was fairly frequent for the electrode to get stuck onto the metal. This was avoided by keeping the electrode at a safe distance away from the metal. Additionally, because STICK welding is a constant current process, the proximity of the electrode to the metal is much more significant than the MIG weld. It was important to keep the electrode not too far and not too close the metal being welded. Finally, the circular motion was difficult to keep consistent throughout the entire weld. 23) Extension Question: Arc Blow is a problem with STICK welding. What is arc blow? What is the difference between magnetic arc blow and thermal arc blow? (Resource Required) Arc blow occurs when the arc stream does not follow the shortest path from the electrode to the workpiece. Because of this, the stream is deflected either backwards or forwards from the direction of the welding. Magnetic arc blow is caused by unbalance in the magnetic field around the arc. This is due to the varying distances from the workpiece connection. It can also result because of a change in the direction in the current from the electrode into the metal. Thermal arc blow is caused by a lag of the electrode due to reluctance of the arc to move to a colder plate. The conductive path from the electrode varies between the hot molten metal and the cold plate, causing arc blow.[12] 24) Extension Question: Describe the differences between the AWS E6010 and E7014 electrodes used. What do the designations mean? Why were the AWS E6010 and E7014 electrodes baked in the FAME LAB? (Resource Required) The AWS E6010 is a mild steel electrode designed for DCEP welding. It penetrates deep and is characterized by a friable slag on the weld. It has a tensile strength of 60,000 psi. The E7014 electrode is an electrode designed for high strength and good deposition. It produces flat smooth beads and creates slag that is easily removed. It has a tensile strength of 70,000 psi. The electrodes are preheated in order to remove moisture. Moisture in the electrode can lead to spattering and the formation of cracks, and needs to be controlled by preheating.[13]

25) Extension Question: What welding supply does STICK typically employ (Constant Current or Constant Voltage)? Explain. (Resource Required) STICK welding is typically a constant current process. Here, large changes in voltage cause a small change in current. Thus, as the arc gap distance increases, the current stays the same but voltage increases. This leads to more or less heat input into the weld. Thus, in constant current welding, it is important to maintain a steady arc gap.[8] Conclusions Through this lab it was determined that, - Hardness decreased when moving farther away from the weld - The filler metal used impacts the hardness of the base metal - Different currents and feed rates affect the deposition rate in MIG welding - The electrode used in Stick Welding also affects the deposition rate - When MIG welding, the square butt joint is generally the strongest followed by transverse lap, and then the v-joint. - The current and feed speed during welding affects the weld strength as well Through different welding processes and setups, the final product of the weld can be greatly affected. Therefore, when welding in the future, it is very important to know what welding process for the task at hand, what settings to use the welding machine at, as well as how those choices will affect the overall strength and hardness of the base material. By keeping in mind the final outcomes of the processes and settings while using these processes, the final product can be made to the highest possible quality for its application.

Bibliography [1] Cary, Howard B., and Scott C. Helzer. Modern Welding Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. 75. Print. [2] "General Aluminum Information." Info, Aluminum. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2013. <>. [3] "TIG Frequency ." Miller . Miller Electric Mfg Co. . Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>. [4] Zielinski, David. "The Basics of TIG Welding Current Types and Polarity Settings." Enzine Articles. Enzine. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>. [5] "GTAW Welding." Welding Engineer. American Metallurgical Consultants. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>. [6] "Shielding gases for TIG and plasma-arc welding." Sandvik. Sanvik AB. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>.

[7] "TIG Pulsed Arc Welding." AluMatter. The University of Liverpool. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>. [8] "The significance of constant voltage in MIG welders." Everlast. Everlast Power Equipment Inc., 12 Aug 2010. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>. [9] "Welding & Metal Fabrication." PraxAir. PraxAir Technology, Inc.. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <!tab=related-gases/>. [10] "Aluminum Dross Hazards." Weitz and Luxenberg P.C.. Weitz & Luxenberg. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>. [11] "TIG Welding Aluminum." Lincoln Electric. The Lincoln Electric Company. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <;>. [12] "How To Prevent Arc Blow." Lincoln Electric. The Lincoln Electric Company. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <;>. [13] "Welding Alloys." Partsmaster. N.p.. Web. 28 Mar 2013. <>. [14] The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. Cleveland: Lincoln Electric, 1994. 1-5. Print.