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aerodynamics

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( x)

yu ( x) x

yl ( x )

v v v U U = u cos i + U sin j 1 y u ( x) = y c ( x) + ( x) 2 1 y l ( x) = y c ( x) ( x) 2

Note: The x -axis, which is the axis defined through the leading edge and trailing edge points, is used to define the freestream angle of attack. The chord line is the line connecting i.e. to t.e. and, the chord length is the distance between these points. To calculate the lift and drag, we need to integrate the pressure forces around the airfoil. v v v F = pn ds when n points out of the airfoil surface.

airfoil

Now, we begin specializing this formula for the assumptions of linearized flow, i.e.

c yc

<< 1

<< 1

<< 1

v nu

v tu

x

yu ( x)

v dx v dy u v j tu = i+ ds ds dy v dx v v j nu = u i + ds ds

dy v v v But, since we have thin airfoils ds dx , thus nu = l i + 1 j dx v dy v v Similarly, on the lower surface nl = l i 1 j dx Thus, the force may be written: v c c v v F = pu nu dx p nl dx

0 0

1 v v v v D = F i + F j

c c dy dy D = pu 0 pl l dx + ( pl pu )dx 0 0 dx dx

v v v v = F i + F j

c c dy dy L = pu u pl l dx + ( pl pu )dx 0 0 dx dx

16.100 2002

c dy dy D = pu u p l l dx 0 dx dx c dy dy L = p l 1 + l pu 1 + u dx 0 dx dx

dy dy 1 c c pl 1 + l c pu 1 + u dx c 0 dx dx As shown in Anderson c p = 2 2 In supersonic linearized M 1 flow where is the flow dy u direction relative to the 2 dx freestream (and c pu = 2 M 1 assuming an isolated airfoil). dy 2 l + Upper surface c pl = dx u 2 M 1 dyu cl =

dx

u =

dy u dx Lower surface

dx

dyl

l = dy l + dx

16.100 2002

cl =

dy dy 1 c 2 2 dy u dy l + 1 + l 1 + u dx 0 2 2 c dx dx 1 dx 1 dx M M

small small

cl

2

2 c M

dy l dy u + 2 dx 0 dx dx

c

c dy c dy l u dx dx + 2 c 0 dx 0 dx 2 c M 1

But

cl =

4

2 M 1

Important result!!

cl is linear with but note the slope is different than subsonic case

dc 2 l = . 2 d 1 M cl does not depend on camber! All the y -dependence has disappeared in this result. Thus, cl also does not depend on thickness.

Now, lets look at cd :

2 2 dy u dy l + dx cd = 2 dx dx 1 0 c M

2 dy u 2 dy u dy l dy l 2 = 2 + + + 2 dx 2 dx dx dx dx 1 0 c M

dy u 2 dy l 2 2 cd = + + 2 dx 2 dx dx 1 0 c M 2

c

16.100 2002

cd =

2 2 1 c dy u dy l + + dx 0 2 2 dx dx M 1 M 1 c 0 2 4

Note: cd is >0 unless = 0 and airfoil is a plate ( y u = y l = const y u = y l = 0) . A little manipulation gives another form dependent on the camber and thickness:

cd =

2 1 c 1 1 c d ( ) + dy dx + c dx 0 2 2 2 M 1 M 1 c M 1 c 0 dx

2 4

Thus, for a given cl , the lowest cd occurs when the airfoil is a flat plate ( yc = = 0) !!

16.100 2002

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