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Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag To begin, we will divide the airfoil geometry into

camber and thickness distributions: yc ( x )

( x)
yu ( x) x

yl ( x )

v v v U U = u cos i + U sin j 1 y u ( x) = y c ( x) + ( x) 2 1 y l ( x) = y c ( x) ( x) 2

Note: The x -axis, which is the axis defined through the leading edge and trailing edge points, is used to define the freestream angle of attack. The chord line is the line connecting i.e. to t.e. and, the chord length is the distance between these points. To calculate the lift and drag, we need to integrate the pressure forces around the airfoil. v v v F = pn ds when n points out of the airfoil surface.
airfoil

Now, we begin specializing this formula for the assumptions of linearized flow, i.e.

c yc

<< 1

(small thickness) (small camber) (small )

<< 1

<< 1

The normal on the upper surface is

Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag

v nu
v tu
x

yu ( x)

v dx v dy u v j tu = i+ ds ds dy v dx v v j nu = u i + ds ds
dy v v v But, since we have thin airfoils ds dx , thus nu = l i + 1 j dx v dy v v Similarly, on the lower surface nl = l i 1 j dx Thus, the force may be written: v c c v v F = pu nu dx p nl dx
0 0

v c c dy v v dy v v F = pu u i + j dx pl l i j dy 0 0 dx dx v v c dy v c dy F = i pu u p l l dx + j ( p l pu )dx 0 0 dx dx The drag component is in the freestream direction: v v u v v v D = F u = F (cos i + sin j )

1 v v v v D = F i + F j

c c dy dy D = pu 0 pl l dx + ( pl pu )dx 0 0 dx dx

Similarly, the lift is: v v v L = F ( sin i + cos j )


v v v v = F i + F j

c c dy dy L = pu u pl l dx + ( pl pu )dx 0 0 dx dx

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Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag

Or, manipulating the L & D slightly:


c dy dy D = pu u p l l dx 0 dx dx c dy dy L = p l 1 + l pu 1 + u dx 0 dx dx

Then substituting in for the c p

p p , we can write this as: 1 2 u 2 1 c dy dy c d = c pu u c pl l dx 0 c dx dx

dy dy 1 c c pl 1 + l c pu 1 + u dx c 0 dx dx As shown in Anderson c p = 2 2 In supersonic linearized M 1 flow where is the flow dy u direction relative to the 2 dx freestream (and c pu = 2 M 1 assuming an isolated airfoil). dy 2 l + Upper surface c pl = dx u 2 M 1 dyu cl =

dx

u =

dy u dx Lower surface
dx

dyl

l = dy l + dx

Next, lets substitute c pu and c pl into cl :

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Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag

cl =

dy dy 1 c 2 2 dy u dy l + 1 + l 1 + u dx 0 2 2 c dx dx 1 dx 1 dx M M
small small

cl

2
2 c M

dy l dy u + 2 dx 0 dx dx
c

c dy c dy l u dx dx + 2 c 0 dx 0 dx 2 c M 1

But

dy l dx = y l (c) y l (0) = 0 0 = 0 0 dx c dy u And, similarly, dx = 0 0 dx

cl =

4
2 M 1

Important result!!

cl is linear with but note the slope is different than subsonic case

dc 2 l = . 2 d 1 M cl does not depend on camber! All the y -dependence has disappeared in this result. Thus, cl also does not depend on thickness.
Now, lets look at cd :
2 2 dy u dy l + dx cd = 2 dx dx 1 0 c M

2 dy u 2 dy u dy l dy l 2 = 2 + + + 2 dx 2 dx dx dx dx 1 0 c M

This term will integrate to 0

dy u 2 dy l 2 2 cd = + + 2 dx 2 dx dx 1 0 c M 2
c

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Implications of Linearized Supersonic Flow on Airfoil Lift & Drag

cd =

2 2 1 c dy u dy l + + dx 0 2 2 dx dx M 1 M 1 c 0 2 4

Note: cd is >0 unless = 0 and airfoil is a plate ( y u = y l = const y u = y l = 0) . A little manipulation gives another form dependent on the camber and thickness:

cd =

2 1 c 1 1 c d ( ) + dy dx + c dx 0 2 2 2 M 1 M 1 c M 1 c 0 dx

2 4

Thus, for a given cl , the lowest cd occurs when the airfoil is a flat plate ( yc = = 0) !!

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