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Fields and units. u is a unit if it has a multiplicative inverse, i.e., t such that ut = 1. A ring R is a eld if every non-zero element is a unit. If an ideal contains a unit u then it is R itself, since it contains (ru1 )u = r for all r R. Integral Domains R is an integral domain (ID) if ab = 0 either a = 0 or b = 0. For the rest of this sheet, assume we are in an ID. Primes and irreducibles. p is prime if p | ab p | a or p | b. r is irreducible if r = ab one of a or b is a unit. Prime irreducible: Suppose p = ab. Then, since p is prime, p | a or p | b. Suppose p | a, so that a = pc. Then p = ab = pcb, so p(1 cb) = 0. As we are in an ID, either p = 0 or cb = 1. Thus b is unit.

In general, irreducible prime. = ( all irreducible. So the E.g., in Z[ 6], we have 6 = 2 3 6) 6, with 2, 3, 6 irreducible 2 divides the product ( 6) 6 but divides neither 6, so is not prime. EDs, PIDs, UFDs. A Euclidean function is a map : R N with the useful property that if a, b R, b = 0 then there exist q, r R such that a = qb + r with (r) < (b). It means we can apply a Euclidean algorithm, and gives a way of measuring whether the remainder is decreasing. E.g., (n) = |n| in the usual Euclidean algorithm on Z; or (f ) = deg(f ) for polynomials; or (z ) = |z |2 for the Gaussian integers Z[i]. R is a Euclidean domain (ED) if we can dene such a Euclidean function. R is a principal ideal domain (PID) if every ideal is principal. That is, if I R then I = (r) for some r R. (Note that we can have a ring which is not an ID but in which every ideal is principal, such as Z/nZ for composite n. Call this a principal ideal ring.) R is a unique factorisation domain (UFD) if each element can be uniquely factorised into irreducibles. (Unique up to order of factors and multiplication by units, that is.) In an ED / PID / UFD, irreducible prime. (Proof in notes, I assume.) Some implications. Firstly, what do these imply about R[X ], the polynomial ring? R a eld R[X ] a eld, since 1/X isnt a polynomial. In fact, R a eld R[X ] a PID. R a eld R[X ] an ED, since we can take (f ) = deg(f ) and do polynomial division.

() Let a = 0. Then the ideal (a, X ) = (f ) for some polynomial f (since were in a PID), then f | a (so f = constant, since in an ID, a = f g implies deg a = deg f + deg g ) and also f | X (so f = unit or f = unit X ). Thus f = unit, and so (f ) = R. So 1 (a, X ), say 1 = ap(X ) + Xq (X ), so comparing coecients gives 1 = ap0 , i.e. a has an inverse. R an ED R[X ] an ED, and R a PID R[X ] a PID. For example, Z is a ED and PID, but in Z[X ] the ideal (2, X ) is not principal. (And ED PID see over the page.) R a UFD R[X ] a UFD. Proof in notes, probably mentioning Gauss Lemma somewhere. R an ID R[X ] an ID. Suppose f (X ) = i=0 ai X i , g (X ) = i=0 bi X i with am , bn = 0. Then f (X )g (X ) = am bn X m+n + . . . with am bn = 0. I.e., f, g = 0 f g = 0.

m n

Secondly, what do they imply about each other? Field the rest trivially. Since every non-zero element is a unit: If b = 0 then we can write a = qb in the Euclidean algorithm, with r = 0. So its an ED. Any non-zero ideal contains a unit, so the only ideals are (0) and R = (1). So its a PID. Its a UFD since factorisation up to units is done already. If ab = 0 with b = 0 then multiplying by b1 gives a = 0. So its an ID.

ED PID. If I R with I = {0}, then take a I with minimal value. If some b I is not a multiple of a, then we can write a = qb + r with (r) < (a), contradiction. So I = (a). Converse? PID ED, but this is hard to prove (so dont worry about it), as it requires 19)]. (1 + showing that no Euclidean function exists. E.g., Z[ 1 2 PID UFD. Proof in notes. (Idea: PID every element can be expressed as a product of irreducibles; PID irreducibles are prime; prime factorisation unique factorisation.) Converse? UFD PID (so not ED, eld either). E.g., in Z[X ], (2, X ) is not principal. UFD, PID, ED ID. Thats what the D means, so nothing to prove. Converse? ID UFD (so not PID, ED, eld either). E.g., Z[ 6], as mentioned earlier. Some other things. P R is a prime ideal if ab P a P or b P . (Compare the denition of prime.) P is a prime ideal if and only if R/P is an ID: R/P is an ID i (a + P )(b + P ) = ab + P = 0 implies either a + P = 0 or b + P = 0 i ab P implies either a P or b P i P is prime.

M R is a maximal ideal if there is no ideal between it and R. That is, if for some ideal N we have M N R then either N = M or N = R. M is a maximal ideal if and only if R/M is a eld: () Take a + M R/M with a / M . Then the ideal (a, M ) M , so its R. So 1 (a, M ), so 1 = a + m (some R, m M ). Then in R/M , (a + M )1 = + M , so R/M is a eld.

() Take N M , and a N \ M . In R/M , a + M = 0, so (a + M )(b + M ) = 1 + M , some b, so ab + M = 1 + M , so ab 1 = m M , so 1 = ab m N , so N = R, so M is maximal. Let R be a PID and be an irreducible. Then () is a maximal ideal: If there is an ideal between () and R, it is principal, so we have () ( ) R, say. So | , and so either is a unit (in which case ( ) = R) or = unit (in which case ( ) = ()). Note that this doesnt follow in a non-PID. For example, 2 is irreducible in Z[X ], but we have (2) (2, X ) Z[X ].

An example of how we can string all these together is to show that F2 [X ]/(X 3 + X + 1) is a eld. F2 is a eld F2 [X ] is a PID. In F2 , the polynomial X 3 + X + 1 is irreducible (since if a cubic factorises then it must have a linear factor and thus a root, but 0 and 1 are the only elements in F2 and neither is a root), and so the ideal (X 3 + X + 1) is maximal. Therefore the quotient F2 [X ]/(X 3 + X + 1) is a eld. We have illustrated the following. We could include more arrows (e.g., horizontally in the second row), but these would make it more confusing (and most can be deduced from the rest anyway). R a eld = = R an ED = = = R a PID = = = R a UFD = = = R an ID =

R[X ] an ED

R[X ] a PID

R[X ] a UFD

R[X ] an ID

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