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SEMINAR REPORT

1.0 ABSTRACT
The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as witricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea, Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Tesla's work was impressive, but it did not immediately lead to wide spread practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as witricity. Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrate the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts. As witricity is in the development stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION

Electricity is today a necessity of modern life. It is difficult to imagine passing a day without electricity. The conventional use of electricity is made possible through the use of wires. However researchers in MIT have devised a means of providing electricity without any wires. These researchers coined the term witricity; which is basically a portmanteau for wireless electricity. This principle of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transference of electricity to objects without the use of any wires. A vitricity system consists of a witricity transmitter and another device called the receiver. The receiver works on the same principle as radio receivers where the device has to be in the range of the transmitter. It is with the help of resonant magnetic fields that witrecity produces electricity, while reducing the wastage of power. This is unlike the principle adopted by Nikola Tesla in the later part of the 19th century; where conduction based systems were used. The present project on witricity aims at power transmissions in the range of 100 watts. May be the products using WiTricity in future might be called Witric or Witric's. So far the MIT researchers have been able to power a 60 watt light bulb from a power source that is located about seven feet away, while providing forty percent efficiency. This was made possible using two copper coils that were twenty inches in diameter which were designed so that they resonated together in the MHz range. One of these coils were connected to a power source while the other, to a bulb. With this witricity setup, the bulb got powered even when the coils were not in sight.

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2.1 INVENTORS OF WITRICITY


The inventors of witricity are the researchers from the team from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They are the people who had coined the phrase of witricity and this invention can change the way electricity is used today. With witricity, the tangle of cables, plugs and charters that normally clutter homes can be rid of. This team from MIT belonged to the Department of Physics, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies. The members of this team were Andre Kurs, Aristeidis Karalis, Prof. Peter Fisher, Robert Moffatt and Prof. John Joannopoulos. The leader of this team of researchers was Prof. Marin Soljacic. It was Prof. Marin Soljacic who provided the inspiration for the experiment and invention of witricity. It was while standing in the kitchen one night, that on staring at his mobile phone that he had thought it would be nice if his mobile phone would take care of its own charging instead of him having to periodically charge it. He then tried out his experiment using two coils of copper, where one was connected to a receiver, and the other to a transmitter. With the help of these two coils of copper, the inventors of witricity managed to transmit power across seven feet through the air to instantly light up a light bulb. Though witricity worked only distances up till 9 feet at its inception, the inventors believed that it was possible to charge a battery that was located at a distance of a few yards from the power source that was connected to the receiving coil. They state that it would be sufficient to place a source in each room to provide power to the whole house.

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2.2FIRST EXPERIMENT OF WITRICITY


The first experiment of witricity, the concept of wireless electricity, was conducted in the year 2006, by researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Assistant Professor of this team of researchers was Marin Soljacic. This experiment was done using two copper coils of diameter two feet, a transmitter that was attached to a power source and a receiver that was placed about seven feet from the transmitter. This receiver was attached to a light bulb and once power was switched on at the transmitter, the bulb lit up despite there being no physical connection between the transmitter and receiver. Data collected through measurements showed that there was transference of 40% of electricity through witricity. The interesting part of the electricity was that the bulb glowed despite the fact that wood, metal and other devices were placed in between the two coils. This concept of witricity was made possible using resonance where an object vibrates with the application of a certain frequency of energy. So two objects having similar resonance tend to exchange energy without causing any effects on the surrounding objects. Just like in acoustic resonance, where there is a chance of a glass breaking if you strike the right tone, witricity is made possible with the resonance of low frequency electromagnetic waves. In this experiment, the coils were resonated at 10 MHz where the cols coupled and energy made to flow between them. With each cycle, more pressure and voltage built up in the coil till the accumulation of voltage provided enough pressure and energy to flow to the light bulb. These low frequency electromagnetic waves are rather safe as though the body responds strongly to electric fields; it has almost zero response to absorbing power from a magnetic field.

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2.3 RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY


A team from MITs Department of Physics, Department of Electrical Engineering and

Computer Science,and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN) has experimentally demonstrated wireless power transfer. The team was able to light a 60 W light bulb from a power source seven feet (more than two meters) away; there was no physical connection between the source and the appliance. The MIT team refers to its concept as WiTricity (as in wireless electricity). WiTricity is based on using coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while interacting weakly with extraneous off-resonant objects. The team explored a system of two electromagnetic resonators coupled mostly through their magnetic fields; they were able to identify the strongly coupled regime in this system, even when the distance between them was several times larger than the sizes of the resonant objects. This way, efficient power transfer was enabled. The investigated

design consists of two copper coils, each a self-resonant system. One of the coils, attached to the power source, is the sending unit. Instead of irradiating the environment with electromagnetic waves, it fills the space around it with a nonradiative magnetic field oscillating at MHz frequencies. The non-radiative field mediates the power exchange with the other coil (the receiving unit), which is specially designed to resonate with the field. The resonant nature of the process ensures the strong interaction between the sending unit and the receiving unit, while the interaction with the rest of the environment is weak. In a lab test, Nokia Siemens Networks showcased how a Virtual Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) method that can be used for the uplink in LTE (Long Term Evolution) networks. Using the SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access) technique, two standard mobile devices, each with only one physical transmission antenna, communicate with a base station simultaneously and on the same radio channel. Using this technique an aggregated uplink transmission speed of 108 Mbps was achieved instead of the usual 54 Mbps. While MIMO on the downlink primarily generates higher peak data rates for the end user, Virtual MIMO on the uplink brings benefits for the network operator by making it possible to increase network capacity and better utilize the available spectrum. Moreover, with Virtual MIMO only one power amplifier and transmission

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antenna is necessary for each device, and that reduces production costs and power needs. In the test bed, which was constructed in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications (Heinrich Hertz Institute), two cooperating wireless end-user devices form a Virtual MIMO system in which the antenna elements are distributed over the two devices. The two devices can be supplied simultaneously with data over the same frequency band using space division multiplexing. NTT DoCoMo announced that in collaboration with DoCoMo Communications Laboratories USA, it has developed speech coding technology that provides exceptionally high-quality voice for mobile phones, yet only requires the low-level computing power of conventional mobile telephony technologies. This new technology realizes a wide frequency range of 50 Hz16 kHz, which is approximately the full range of the human voice. By comparison, the frequency range of legacy telephony services is limited to 300 Hz 3.4 kHz. The technology employs speech compression that is matched to the specific characteristics of human auditory perception, such as the fact that distortion in loud sounds is relatively imperceptible.

2.4 SIZE AND POWER LEVEL


The size of the components is dictated by: * distance from transmitter to receiver * the wavelength of the radiation * the laws of physics, specifically the Rayleigh Criterion or Diffraction limit, used in standard RF (Radio Frequency) antenna design, which also applies to lasers. These laws dictate that any beam will spread (microwave or laser) and become weaker and more diffuse over greater distance. The larger the transmitter antenna or laser aperture, the tighter the beam and the less it will spread as a function of distance (and vice versa). Smaller antennas also suffer from excessive losses due to sidelobes.Then the power levels are calculated by combining the above parameters together, and adding in the gains and losses due to the antenna characteristics and the transparency of the medium through which the radiation passes.

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2.5 EFFICENCY
The efficiency of wireless power is the ratio between power that reaches the receiver and the power supplied from the transmitter. Generally wirelessly transmitted energy is dispersed as the energy radiates into the environment or is lost as heat at the transmitter or receiver. Wired transmission techniques on the other hand lose far less power as wires are good conductors and help to confine and guide the energy to where it is needed. Generally, wireless energy transfer works best at short range; although long distances are possible if the transmitters and receivers are physically large, or the energy is able to be formed into a tight beam, such as with lasers or large microwave dishes. The ultimate angle subtended by a beam is limited by diffraction. When phased arrays are used for wireless transmission, the phased array normally needs to be contiguous due to a phenomenon called the thinned array curse; gaps in the array act as a diffraction grating and causes side bands that lose energy. Microwave power beaming often achieves higher conversion efficiency than lasers, and is less prone to atmospheric attenuation. However microwaves have far longer wavelengths than visible light, and require proportionately larger transmitters and receivers to deal with diffraction, particularly over long distances. The most efficient laser power beaming system today has photovoltaic panels optimized to the wavelength of the laser. Losses due to atmospheric spreading can be reduced by the use of adaptive optics, and losses due to absorption can be reduced by a properly chosen laser wavelength. Laser power beaming does not work well through clouds. Although laser and photovoltaic technologies have been rapidly advancing, it is unknown what transmission efficiency improvement is possible. The most efficient lasers laser diode arrays, can surpass 50% efficiency, but such lasers do not have mutual coherence. Other options include standard chemical lasers with efficiencies of a few percent or less. High-coherence diode laser arrays or a similar technology would allow for notably improved power usage efficiency, as laser inefficiency comprises most of the energy loss.

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3.0 LITERATURE SURVEY

3.1 WITRICITY IN HISTORY


Wireless power transmission is not a new idea. Nickola Tesla demonstrated transmission of electrical energy without wires in early 19th century. Tesla used electromagnetic induction systems. William C Brown demonstrated a micro wave powered model helicopter in 1964. This receives all the power needed for flight from a micro wave beam. In 1975 Bill Brown transmitted 30kW power over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency without using cables. Researchers developed several technique for moving electricity over long distance without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. Consider an example, in this electric devices recharging without any plug-in. The device which can be recharged is placed on a charger. Supply is given to the charger and there is no electrical contact between charger and device. The recharging takes place in following steps. 1. Current from the wall outlet flows through a coil inside the charger, creating a magnetic field. In a transformer, this coil is called the primary winding. 2. When the device placed on the charger, the magnetic field induces a current in another

coil, or secondary winding, which connects to the battery. 3. This current recharges the battery.

Figure1: A camera and mobile placed on a charger for charging.


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By the use of this one or more devices can be charged at the same time. An electric toothbrush's base and handle contain coils that to allow the battery to recharge .A Splash power mat uses induction to recharge multiple devices simultaneously. Some important milestones leading to the development of wireless electricity are as follows:

1820: Andr-Marie Ampere develops Amperes law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field. 1831: Michael Faraday develops Faradays law of induction describing the electromagnetic force induced in a conductor by a time-varying magnetic flux.

1864: James Clerk Maxwell synthesizes the previous observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory and mathematically models the behavior of electromagnetic radiation. 1888: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirms the existence of electromagnetic radiation. Hertzs "apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves" was a VHF or UHF "radio wave" spark gap transmitter.

1893: Tesla demonstrates the wireless illumination of phosphorescent lamps of his design at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

1891: Nikola Tesla improves Hertz-wave wireless transmitter RF power supply or exciter in his patent No. 454,622, "System of Electric Lighting."

1894: Hutin & LeBlanc, espouse long held view that inductive energy transfer should be possible, they received U.S. Patent # 527,857 describing a system for power transfer at 3 kHz.

1894: Tesla wirelessly lights up single-terminal incandescent lamps at the 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory, and later at the 46 E.Houston Street laboratory in New York City by means of "electrodynamic induction," that is to say wireless resonant inductive coupling.

1894: Jagdish

Chandra

Bose ignites gunpowder and

rings

bell

at

distance

using electromagnetic waves, showing that communications signals can be sent without using wires.

1895: Bose transmits signals over a distance of nearly a mile.

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1896: Tesla transmits signals over a distance of about 48 kilometers (30 mi). 1897: Guglielmo Marconi uses a radio transmitter to transmit Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 km.

1897: Tesla files the first of his patent applications dealing specifically with wireless transmission.

1899: In Colorado Springs, Tesla writes, "the inferiority of the induction method would appear immense as compared with the disturbed charge of ground and air method."

1900: Marconi fails to get a patent for radio in the United States. 1901: Marconi transmits signals across the Atlantic. 1902: Tesla vs. Reginald Fessenden - U.S. Patent Interference No. 21,701, System of Signaling (wireless); selective illumination of incandescent lamps, time and frequency domain spread spectrum telecommunications, electronic logic gates in general.

1904: At the St. Louis World's Fair, a prize is offered for a successful attempt to drive a 0.1 horsepower (75 W) airship motor by energy transmitted through space at a distance of least 100 feet (30 m).

1916: Tesla states, "In my [disturbed charge of ground and air] system, you should free yourself of the idea that there is [electromagnetic] radiation, that energy is radiated. It is not radiated; it is conserved."

1917: Tesla's Wardenclyffe tower is demolished. 1926: Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi publish their first paper on Uda's "tuned high-gain directional array" better known as the Yagi antenna.

1961: William C. Brown publishes an article exploring possibilities of microwave power transmission.

1964: Brown demonstrates on CBS News with Walter Cronkite a model helicopter that received all the power needed for flight from a microwave beam. Between 1969 and 1975, Brown was technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beamed 30 kW over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency.

1968: Peter Glaser proposes wirelessly transferring solar energy captured in space using "Power beaming" technology. This is usually recognized as the first description of a solar power satellite.

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1971: Prof. Don Otto develops a small trolley powered by induction at The University of Auckland, in New Zealand. 1973: World first passive RFID system demonstrated at Los-Alamos National Lab.[ 1975: Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex does experiments in the tens of kilowatts.

1988: A power electronics group led by Prof. John Boys at The University of Auckland in New Zealand, develops an inverter using novel engineering materials and power electronics and conclude that power transmission by means of electrodynamic induction should be achievable. A first prototype for a contact-less power supply is built. Auckland Uniservices, the commercial company of The University of Auckland, patents the technology.

1989: Daifuku, a Japanese company, engages Auckland Uniservices Ltd. to develop technology for car assembly plants and materials handling providing challenging technical requirements including multiplicity of vehicles.

1990: Prof. John Boys team develops novel technology enabling multiple vehicles to run on the same inductive power loop and provide independent control of each vehicle. Auckland UniServices Patents the technology.

1996: Auckland Uniservices develops an Electric Bus power system using Electrodynamic Induction to charge (30-60 kW) opportunistically commencing implementation in New Zealand. Prof John Boys Team commission 1st commercial IPT Bus in the world at Whakarewarewa, in New Zealand.

1998: RFID tags powered by electrodynamic induction over a few feet 1999: Dr. Herbert L. Becker powers a lamp and a hand held fan from a distance of 30 feet. 2001: Splashpower formed in the UK. Uses coupled resonant coils in a flat "pad" style to transfer tens of watts into a variety of consumer devices, including lamp, phone, PDA, iPod etc.

2004: Electrodynamic Induction used by 90 percent of the US$1 billion clean room industry for materials handling equipment in semiconductor, LCD and plasma screen manufacture.

2005: Prof Boys' team at The University of Auckland, refines 3-phase IPT Highway and pick-up systems allowing transfer of power to moving vehicles in the lab.

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2007: Using Electrodynamic Induction a physics research group, led by Prof. Marin Soljai, at MIT, wirelessly power a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2 metres (6.6 ft) distance with two 60 cm-diameter coils.

2008: Bombardier offers new wireless transmission product PRIMOVE, a power system for use on trams and light-rail vehicles.

2008: Industrial designer Thanh Tran, at Brunel University made a wireless lamp incorporating a high efficiency 3W LED.

2008: Intel reproduces Nikola Tesla's original 1894 implementation of Electrodynamic Induction and Prof. John Boys group's 1988 follow-up experiments by wirelessly powering a nearby light bulb with 75% efficiency.

2008: Greg Leyh and Mike Kennan of the Nevada Lightning Laboratory publish a paper on Nikola Tesla's disturbed charge of ground and air method of wireless power transmission with circuit simulations and test results showing an efficiency greater than can be obtained using the Electrodynamic Induction method.

2009:

Consortium

of

interested

companies

called

the Wireless

Power

Consortium announce they are nearing completion for a new industry standard for lowpower Inductive charging

2009: An Ex approved Torch and Charger aimed at the offshore market is introduced. This product is developed by Wireless Power & Communication, a Norway based company.

2009: A simple analytical electrical model of resonance power transfer system is proposed and applied to wireless power transfer for implantable devices.

2009: Lasermotive uses diode laser to win $900k NASA prize in power beaming, breaking several world records in power and distance, by transmitting over a kilowatt more than several hundred meters.

2009: Sony shows a wireless electrodynamic-induction powered TV set, 60 W over 50 cm 2010: Haier Group debuts the world's first completely wireless LCD television at CES 2010 based on Prof. Marin Soljai's follow-up research on Nikola Tesla's electrodynamic induction wireless energy transmission method and the Wireless Home Digital

Interface(WHDI).

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3.2 WITRICITY AT PRESENT


In 2006 MIT researchers discovered a new method to provide electricity to remote objects without wires. Wiricity is based on coupled resonant objects. In 2007 researchers implemented a prototype using self resonant coils. In this first experiment they demonstrated efficient nonradiative power transfer over distance up to eight times the radius of the coils. This experiment was done using two copper coils. Each coil act as self resonant system. One of the coils is attached to the electricity source. Instead of irradiating the environment with electromagnetic waves, it fills the space with a non-radiative magnetic field oscillating at MHz frequencies. The non-radiative field mediates the power exchange with the other coil, which is specially designed to resonate with the field. The resonant nature ensures strong interaction between sending unit and receiving unit. In the first experiment they successfully demonstrated the ability to power a 60W light bulb from a power source that was 2 meters away with 40% efficiency approximately. They used two capacitively loaded copper coils of 51 cm in diameter designed to resonate in the MHz range. One coil was connected to a power source, the other to a bulb. In this experiment the coils were designed to resonate at 10MHz. The setup powered the bulb oh even when the coils were not in line of sight. The bulb glowed even when wood, metal, and other devices were placed in between the coils. Effect of using capacitively-loaded loops and lowering the operating frequency on field strengths and power levels. Capacitively loaded loops generate significantly lower electric fields in the space surrounding the objects than self-resonant coils. The calculations to simulate a transfer of 60W across two identical capacitively-loaded loops are similar in dimension to our self-resonant coils.

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3.3 ADVANTAGES OF WITRICITY


1 .No need of line of sight - In witricity power transmission there is not any need of line of sight between transmitter and receiver. That is power transmission can be possible even if there are any obstructions like wood,metal, or other devices receiver. 2. No need of power cables and batteries - Witricity replaces the use of power cables and batteries. 3. Does not interfere with radio waves 4. Wastage of power is small - Electromagnetic waves would tunnel, they would not propagate through air to be absorbed or dissipated. So the wastage is small. 5. Negative health implications - By the use of resonant coupling wave lengths produced are far lower and thus make it harmless. 6. Highly efficient than electromagnetic induction - Electro magnetic induction system can be used for wireless energy transfer only if the primary and secondary are in very close proximity. Resonant induction system is one million times as efficient as electro magnetic induction system. 7. Less costly - The components of transmitter and receivers are cheaper. So this system is less costly. placed in between the transmitter and

3.4 DISADVANTAGES
1. Wireless power transmission can be possible only in few meters. 2. Efficiency is only about 40%. As witricity is in development stage, lot of work is done for improving the efficiency and distance between transmitter and receiver.

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4.0 METHODS STUDY

4.1 INTRODUCTION
If we are particularly organized and good with tie wrap then also a few dusty power cord tangles around our home. We have even had to follow one particular cord through the seemingly impossible snarl to the outlet hoping that the plug pull will be the right one. This is one of the downfalls of electricity. While it can make people's lives easier, it can add a lot of clutter in the process. For these reasons, scientists have tried to develop methods of wireless power transmission that could cut the clutter or lead to clean sources of electricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea. Many researchers developed several methods for wireless power transmission. But witricity is a new technology used for wireless power transmission. By the use of this technology transmission of electrical energy to remote objects without wires can be possible. The inventors of witricity are the researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). They developed a new technology for wireless electricity transmission and this is based upon the coupled resonant objects. In this resonant magnetic fields are used. So the wastage of power is reduced. The system consists of witricity transmitters and receivers. The transmitters and receivers contain magnetic loop antennas made of copper coils and they are tuned to the same frequency.

4.2 METHODS USED

4.2.1 INDUCTION (INDUCTIVE COUPLING)


This is the first method used for wireless power transfer. The simplest example for wireless energy transfer using this method is the electrical transformer. In this the primary and secondary circuits are electrically isolated from each other. The transfer of energy takes place by electromagnetic coupling through mutual induction. The main draw back of this method is the short range. For efficient working of a system which uses this method, the receiver must be in very close proximity to the-transmitter. A larger, stronger field can be used for energy transfer
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over lorjg distance, but this process is extremely inefficient. Since magnetic field spreads in all direction, making a large wastage of energy. Inductive coupling uses magnetic fields that are a natural part of current's movement through wire. Any time electrical current moves through a wire, it creates a circular magnetic field around the wire. Bending the wire into a coil amplifies the magnetic field. The more loops the coil makes, the bigger the field will be. If you place a second coil of wire in the magnetic field you've created, the field can induce a current in the wire. This is essentially how atransformer works, and it's how an electric toothbrush recharges. It takes three basic steps:

Current from the wall outlet flows through a coil inside the charger, creating a magnetic field. In a transformer, this coil is called the primary winding. 1. When the toothbrush is placed in the charger, the magnetic field induces a current in another coil, or secondary winding, which connects to the battery. 2. This current recharges the battery.

Figure 2: an electric tooth brush's cut section.


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4.2.2 RESONANT INDUCTION (EVANESCENT WAVE COUPLING)


In 2006 MIT researchers discovered an efficient method to transfer power between coils separated by few meters. They extend the distance between coils in inductive coupling system by adding resonant. They demonstrated by sending electromagnetic waves around in a highly angular waveguide, evanescent waves are produced, which carry no energy. An evanescent wave is a near field standing wave exhibiting exponential decay with distance. Evanescent waves are always associated with matter, and are most intense within one-third wavelength from any radio antenna. Evanescent means tends to vanish, the intensity of evanescent waves decays exponentially with the distance from the interface at which they are formed. If a proper resonant waveguide is brought near the transmitter, the evanescent waves can allow the energy to tunnel to the power drawing wave guide. Since the electromagnetic waves would tunnel, they would not propagate through the air to be absorbed or dissipated and would not disrupt .electronic devices or cause physical injury like microwave or radio waves transmission. In resonant induction method induction can take place a little differently if the electromagnetic fields around the coils resonate at the same frequency. In this a curved coils of wire uses as an inductor. A capacitance plate which can hold a charge attaches to each end of the coil. As electricity travels through this coil the coil begins to resonate. Its resonant frequency is a product of the inductance of the coil and the capacitance of the piate. Unlike multiple layer secondary of non-resonant transformer single layer solenoids with closely spaced capacitor plates on each end as shown in figure 1 is used as transmitter and receiver.

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Figure3:Inductor Coil Capacitance Plate The MIT wireless power project uses a curved coil and capacitive plates. Electricity traveling along an electromagnetic wave can tunnel from one coil to the other as long as the both have the same resonant frequency. As long as both the coils are out of range of one another nothing will happen, since the field around the coil are not strong enough to affect much around them. Similarly if two coils resonate at different frequencies nothing will happen. Figure 2 shows the working of wireless power transmission. By using resonant induction one coil can send electricity to several receiving coils as long as they all resonate at same frequency. The MIT team's preliminary work suggests that kind of setup could power or recharge all the devices in one room. Some modifications would be necessary to send power over long distances, like the length of a building or a city.

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Figure4: A single transmitter can be used to charge several devices in a room. The concept of witricity was made possible using resonance, where an object vibrates with the application Of a certain frequency of energy. So two objects having similar resonance tend to exchange energy without causing any effect on the surrounding objects. To under stand the energy transfer using resonant method consider an example involves acoustic resonances. Imagine a room with 100 identical wine glasses, each filled with wine up to a different level, so they all have different resonant frequencies. This is because objects physical structure determines the resonant frequency. The frequency at which an object naturally vibrates is called resonant frequency. If a singer sings loudly inside the room, a glass of corresponding frequency might accumulate sufficient energy to even explode, while not influencing the other. In all the system of coupled resonators there exists a strongly coupled regime of operation. These considerations are universal, applying to all kinds of resonances. MIT researchers focused on magnetically coupled resonators and thus wireless

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power transmission over few meters are possible. This method is one million times as efficient as electromagnetic induction systems. This method is also called non-radiative energy transfer, since it involves stationary fields around the coils rather than fields that spread in all direction.

4.2.3 RADIO AND MICROWAVE


If resonance is incorporated or not, induction generally sends wireless power over relatively short distance. For very long distance power transmission radio and microwaves are used. Japanese researcher YAGI developed a directional array antenna known as YAGI antenna for wireless energy transmission. It is widely used for broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries. While it did not prove to be particularly useful for power transmission. Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically in the microwave range. A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, an antenna used to convert microwaves into DC power. Being that an antenna refers to any type of device that converts electromagnetic waves into electricity or vice versa. A rectenna is simply a microwave antenna. Inverse rectennas convert electricity into microwave beams, rectennas suitable for receiving energy beamed from solar panels in geocentric orbit would need to be several miles across. Although power densities of such an arrangement would be low enough to avoid any damage to people or the environment. Rectifying antennae are usually made an array of dipole antennae, which have positive and negative poles. These antennae connect to semiconductor diodes. Rectenna conversion has an efficiency of about 95%.

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Figure5: stations on earth can receive energy from the moon via microwaves. In the 1980s, Canada's Communications Research Centre created a small airplane that could run off power beamed from the Earth. The unmanned plane, called the Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform (SHARP), was designed as a communications relay. Rather flying from point to point, the SHARP could fly in circles two kilometers in diameter at an altitude of about 13 miles (21 kilometers). Most importantly, the aircraft could fly for months at a time.

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Figure 6: SHARP The secret to the SHARP'S long flight time was a large, ground-based microwave transmitter. The SHARP'S circular flight path kept it in range of this transmitter. A large, disc-shaped rectifying antenna, or rectenna, just behind the plane's wings changed the microwave energy from the transmitter into direct-current (DC) electricity. Because of the microwaves interaction with the rectenna, the SHARP had a constant power supply as long as it was in range of a functioning microwave array. This arrangement functions according to the following procedure. 1. 2. 3. Microwaves, which are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, reach the dipole antennae. The antennae collect the microwave energy and transmit it to the diodes. The diodes act like switches that are open or closed as well as turnstiles that let electrons

flow in only one direction. They direct the electrons to the rectenna's circuitry. 4. The circuitry routes the electrons to the parts and systems that need them.

While scientists have built working prototypes of aircraft that run on wireless power, larger-scale applications, like power stations on the moon, are still theoretical. As the Earth's population continues to grow, however,

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the demand for electricity could outpace the ability to produce it and move it around. Eventually, wireless power may become a necessity rather than just an interesting idea. Micro wave power transmission has some drawbacks: The solar power stations on the moon would require supervision and maintenance. In other words, the project would require sustainable, manned moon bases. Only part of the earth has a direct line of sight to the moon at any given time. To make

sure the whole planet had a steady power supply, a network of satellites would have to re-direct the microwave energy. Many people would resist the idea of being constantly bathed in microwaves from space,

even if the risk were relatively low.

4.2.4 LASER
Laser beams can be used for wireless power transmission. Power can be transmitted by converting electricity into laser beam. At the receiving side a solar cell receiver is used. But it has many drawbacks, they are given below 1. 2. Conversion to light, such as with a laser, is moderately inefficient Conversion back into electricity is moderately inefficient, with photovoltaic cells

achieving 40%-50% efficiency 3. 4. Atmospheric absorption causes losses. This method requires a direct line of sight with the target.

This mechanism is generally known as "power beaming" because the power is beamed at a receiver that can convert it to usable electrical energy.

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Figure 7: NASA prototype With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells, a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

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5.0 APPLICATIONS OF WRITICITY


Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have devised a means of transferring electricity without using any wires. They have dubbed this technology as witricity and has declared that there are many potential applications for it. Some of these potential applications include the powering of cell phones, household robots, laptops and other devices that normally run with the help of batteries or with plugging in of wires.

As witricity is in the developmental stage, lots of work is still to be done in improving it as the device used for their research disclosed that witricity power applications operate at only 40% efficiency. The potential applications of witricity are expected to materialize in the new future, of say a few years time, after the necessary modifications are made to them.

These witricity applications are expected to work on the gadgets that are in close proximity to a source of wireless power wherein the gadget charges automatically without necessarily having to get plugged in. There are no limitations in witricity power applications where anything and everything that used to run with batteries or electrical connections can be used using witricity.

Just imagine, the future witricity power applications permit you to use wireless energy, without having to replace or recharge batteries. There will be no need of getting rid of these batteries either or of remembering to recharge batteries periodically. In addition to this, with witricity, there is no need of plugging in any wires and plugs and thus face a mess of wires.

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6.0 APPENDICES
NIKOLA TESLA An inventor, mechanical, and electrical engineer. He was an important contributor to the birth of commercial electricity, and is best known for his many revolutionary developments in the field of electromagnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current(AC) electric power systems, including the polyphase system of electrical distribution and the AC motor. This work helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. Born an ethnic Serb in the village of Smiljan, Croatian Military Frontier in Austrian

Empire (today's Croatia), Tesla was a subject of the Austrian Empire by birth and later became an American citizen.[1] Because of his 1894 demonstration of wireless communication through radio and as the eventual victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as one of the greatest electrical engineers who worked in America.[2] He pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. In the United States during this time, Tesla's fame rivaled that of any other inventor or scientist in history or popular culture,[3]. Because of his eccentric personality and his seemingly unbelievable and sometimes bizarre claims about possible scientific and technological developments, Tesla was ultimately ostracized and regarded as a mad scientist by many late in his life.[4][5] Tesla never put much focus on his finances and died with little funds at the age of 86, alone in the two room hotel suite in which he lived, in New York City.[6] The International System of Units unit measuring magnetic field B (also referred to as the magnetic flux density and magnetic induction), the tesla, was named in his honor (at the Confrence Gnrale des Poids et Mesures, Paris, 1960), as well as wireless energy transfer to power electronic devices (which Tesla demonstrated on a low scale with incandescent light bulbs as early as 1893 and aspired to use for the intercontinental transmission of industrial power levels in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project). In addition to his work on electromagnetism and electromechanical engineering, Tesla contributed in varying degrees to the establishment of robotics, remote control, radar, and computer science, and to the expansion of ballistics, nuclear physics,[7] and theoretical.

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WREL (Wireless Resonant Energy Link) It is a form of wireless resonant energy transfer technology developed by Intel. The technology relies on strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators, a principle similar to the way a trained singer can shatter a glass using his/her voice. At the receiving resonator's natural frequency, energy is absorbed efficiently, just as a glass absorbs acoustic at its natural frequency. At the wall socket, power is put into magnetic fields at a transmitting resonator - basically an antenna. The receiving resonator is tuned to efficiently absorb energy from the magnetic field, whereas nearby objects do not. In a resonating system, the quality of the resonance is determined by its Q factor; 2 Pi times the ratio of the energy in the resonant circuit divided by its loss per cycle. When two non resonating coils are placed some distance apart, some fraction of the magnetic field from one coil couples into the second, and so changes in the magnetic field of one coil generates a voltage at the other (in accordance with Faraday's law of induction), however little of the energy will couple because most of the field will miss the receiver. The fraction of the field that does couple is called the coupling coefficient. However, it may be seen that if some energy is placed in a 'sender' coil when it is in resonance then the coil will ring for a number of cycles before losing the energy to its resistance. Provided the Q of the transmitting circuit is high enough to overcome the coupling coefficient, then most of the power can eventually be absorbed by the receiving coil over several cycles and can be tapped off. The remaining power will be lost in the resistance of the sender, and some in the receiver coil also. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION Electrical energy can be transmitted by means of electrical currents made to flow through naturally existing conductors, specifically the earth, lakes and oceans, and through the upper atmosphere starting at approximately 35,000 feet (11,000 m) elevation[74] a natural medium that can be made conducting if the breakdown voltage is exceeded and the constituent gas becomes ionized. For example, when a high voltage is applied across a neon tube the gas becomes ionized and a current passes between the two internal electrodes. In a wireless energy

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transmission system using this principle, a high-power ultraviolet beam might be used to form vertical ionized channels in the air directly above the transmitter-receiver stations. The same concept is used in virtual lightning rods[, the electro laser weapon and has been proposed for disabling vehicles. A global system for "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" dependent upon the high electrical conductivity of the earth was proposed by Nikola Tesla as early as 1904. "The earth is 4,000 miles radius. Around this conducting earth is an atmosphere. The earth is a conductor; the atmosphere above is a conductor, only there is a little stratum between the conducting atmosphere and the conducting earth which is insulating. . . . Now, you realize right away that if you set up differences of potential at one point, say, you will create in the media corresponding fluctuations of potential. But, since the distance from the earth's surface to the conducting atmosphere is minute, as compared with the distance of the receiver at 4,000 miles, say, you can readily see that the energy cannot travel along this curve and get there, but will be immediately transformed into conduction currents, and these currents will travel like currents over a wire with a return. The energy will be recovered in the circuit, not by a beam that passes along this curve and is reflected and absorbed, but it will travel by conduction and will be recovered in this way. Researchers experimenting with Tesla's wireless energy transmission system design have made observations that may be inconsistent with a basic tenet of physics related to the scalar derivatives of the electromagnetic potentials, which are presently considered to be nonphysical. The intention of the Tesla world wireless energy transmission system is to combine electrical power transmission along with broadcasting and point-to-point wireless telecommunications, and allow for the elimination of many existing high-tension power transmission lines, facilitating the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global scale. One of Tesla's patents suggests he may have misinterpreted 2570 km nodal structures associated with cloud-ground lightning observations made during the 1899 Colorado Springs experiments in terms of circumglobally propagating standing waves instead of a local interference phenomenon of direct and reflected waves.

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Regarding the recent notion of power transmission through the earth-ionosphere cavity, a consideration of the earth-ionosphere or concentric spherical shell waveguide propagation parameters as they are known today shows that wireless energy transfer by direct excitation of a Schumann cavity resonance mode is not realizable. "The conceptual difficulty with this model is that, at the very low frequencies that Tesla said that he employed (1-50 kHz), earth-ionosphere waveguide excitation, now well understood, would seem to be impossible with the either the Colorado Springs or the Long Island apparatus (at least with the apparatus that is visible in the photographs of these facilities. On the other hand, Tesla's concept of a global wireless electrical power transmission grid and telecommunications network based upon energy transmission by means of a spherical conductor transmission line with an upper three-space model return circuit, while perhaps not practical for power transmission, is feasible, defying no law of physics. Global wireless energy transmission by means of a spherical conductor single-wire surface wave transmission line and a propagating TM00 mode may also be possible, a feasibility study using a sufficiently powerful and properly tuned Tesla coil earth-resonance transmitter being called for.

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7.0 FUTURE SCOPE OF WITRICITY


Modern science has now made it possible to use electricity without having to plug in any wires. This concept is called witricty which seems to have a bright future in providing wireless electricity. Researchers developed witricity using resonance where energy is transmitted between two copper coils that resonate at the same frequency. Of these two coils, one is the power transmitter and the other, the receiver. The advantage of witricity is that there is no need of having a line of sight. As long as the object to be powered has a source of wireless power, in its vicinity, the appliacnce charges automatically without having to be plugged in.

Just imagine the future, with witricity, where there will be no need of power cables and batteries. The city just has to be covered with witricity hot spots wherein you can use your electric gadget battery and wire free making it more convenient to carry around and much lighter. With witricity, there will be no need of charging batteries, or buying new batteries for your electrical gadgets. Just as beneficial witricity may be, there are some contraindications to the concept, with debates if it is risky living next to power lines and having a low power witricity network running in the home. They wonder what happens if a glass of water is spilt in a witricity room.

However despite these contraindications, witricity has a bright future with the many advantages it provides in terms of weight, convenience and portability of electrical appliances.

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8.0 CONCLUSION

Witricity is in development stage, lots of work is to be done to use it for wireless power applications. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100w. Before the establishment of this technology the detailed study must be done to check whether it cause any harm on any living beings.

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9.0 REFERENCES
1. Sasthra Keralam magazine

2. Aristeidis Karalis; J.D. Joannopoulos, Marin Soljai (January 2008). "Efficient wireless nonradiative mid-range energy transfer". Annals of Physics 323: 34 48. doi:10.1016/j.aop.2007.04.017. "Published online: April 2007". 3. WiTricity-The Wireless Power Transfer [Mobile Radio] Vehicular Technology Magazine, IEEE (February 2008) Issue Date : June 2007

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