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SAFETY AND AUTHENTIC PARTICIPATION CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION The Skilled Facilitator approach is a values-based, systemic approach to facilitation.

It is designed to help groups increase the quality of decisions, increase commitment to decisions, reduce effective implementation time, improve working relationships, improve personal satisfaction in groups, and increase organizational learning. It accomplishes this in a way that creates collaborative relationships between the facilitator and the group and within the group itself. Facilitators necessarily require authority to chair a meeting, or serve mediator or moderator or arbitrator functions, for instance in managing a progressive stack in which some speakers are preferred over others because they are more affected by a decision or have generally less voice. There are three known authority the Tutelary Authority based on the competences and skills of the Tutor/Facilitator, the Political Authority involving the exercise of educational decision-making[4] with respect to the objectives, programme, methods, resources and assessment of learning. (This manifests particularly in the planning dimension.) and Charismatic Authority - influence by presence, style and manner. (It manifests particularly through the feeling, confronting and valuing dimensions.) However it is quite possible to draw from this the requirements for a facilitator to be clear how they are operating in any environment. But on ship the captain or master mariner are the one who facilitate or has the authority to command or organized everyone of the crew to work more effectively; to collaborate and achieve synergy. The captain is the one who support everyone to do their best thinking and practice. The facilitator or the captain encourages full participation, promotes mutual understanding and cultivates shared responsibility. By supporting everyone to do their best thinking, a facilitator enables group members to search for inclusive solutions and build sustainable agreements. Since the captain is the one who facilitate on board ship he is responsible of safety and efficiency of every work done on board ship including cargo operations, navigation, crew management and ensuring that the vessel complies with local and international laws, as well as company and flag state policies. Safety means keeping yourself and others free from harm or danger. It means taking care not to fall or bump or run into things. It also means to avoid accidents by being careful with what you are doing.

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IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY There are risks associated with every workplace. To avoid accidents. Most of the time accidents happen due to recklessness and irresponsibility. People who dont follow the safety precautions always end up getting injured or worse, getting killed. Whether its inside the house or in the workplace, exercising safety precautions is a must. Promoting safety everywhere teaches public awareness and discipline. People who work with jobs which involve dangers are always briefed and are required to wear safety gears. Examples of these are cooks, engineers, carpenters, policemen, fire fighter, and chemists etc. This can also be adapted inside the house, school or workplace and even in the streets where there are a lot of people driving cars because accidents can happen anytime, anywhere. IMPORTANCE OF AUTHENTIC PARTICIPATION Participation in the decision-making process gives each employee the opportunity to voice their opinions, and to share their knowledge with others. While this improves the relationship between manager and employee, it also encourages a strong sense of teamwork among workers. The expression of viewpoints opens dialogue between coworkers, with each worker bringing their individual strengths to a project. It is also a good way to gather information about the employees as to how they work in a team environment, and where training may be necessary, all of which leads to an increase in effectiveness, and ultimately an increase in good teamwork and performance.

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CHAPTER II Discussion ( Subtopics ) A. SAFETY Safety is the condition of a steady state of an organization or place doing what it is supposed to do. What it is supposed to do is defined in terms of public codes and standards, associated architectural and engineering designs, corporate vision and mission statements, and operational plans and personnel policies. For any organization, place, or function, large or small, safety is a normative concept. It complies with situation-specific definitions of what is expected and acceptable. Safety management system A safety management system is a collection of all the documents that are evidence that safe operating policies, procedures and risk management practices are being used on a registered commercial or fishing ship. A safety management system should consider all risks associated with the operation of the ship

TYPES OF SAFETY Normative safety Normative safety is when a product or design meets applicable design standards and protection. Substantive safety Substantive, or objective safety occurs when the real-world safety history is favorable, whether or not standards are met. Perceived safety Perceived, or subjective safety refers to the level of comfort of users. For example, traffic signals are perceived as safe, yet under some circumstances, they can increase traffic crashes at an intersection. Traffic roundabouts have a generally favorable safety record yet often make drivers nervous. Low perceived safety can have costs. For example, after the 9/11/2001 attacks, many people chose to drive rather than fly, despite the fact that, even counting terrorist attacks, flying is safer than driving. Perceived risk discourages people from walking and bicycling for transportation, enjoyment or exercise, even though the health benefits outweigh the risk of injury.

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SAFETY MEASURES Safety measures are activities and precautions taken to improve safety reduce risk related to human health. Common safety measures on board ship or before going out to sea. Drug testing of employees Instruction manuals explaining how to use a product or perform an activity Physical examinations to determine whether a person has a physical condition that would create a problem Training of employees, Visual examination for dangerous situations such as emergency exits blocked because they are being used as storage areas. X-ray analysis to see inside a sealed object such as a weld, a cement wall or an airplane outer skin Wearing personal safety equipment Know how to use emergency equipment Know all the points to stay healthy Know checklist and manuals Safety circulars Stay alert Always Ensure smooth and safe operation Always double check Good attitude Awareness of sorrounding Study carefully the alarm instruction or escape plan which you will find posted in your cabin. Study the escape route signs in corridors and stairways showing the escape routes to the assembly stations. Note the main escape routes and the alternatice escape route and try them out. Make a point of regarding all safety signs wherever you are on board. Understand the safety signs on board ship like exit signs, lifeboat signs, the muster station bill, hazards signs, fire equipment signs.

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SAFETY SIGNS Safety and/or health sign a sign providing information or instruction about safety or health at work by means of a signboard, a colour, an illuminated sign or acoustic signal, a verbal communication or hand signal. Signboard a sign which provides information or instructions by acombination of shape, colour and a symbol or pictogram which is rendered visible by lighting of sufficient intensity. In practice many signboards may be accompanied by supplementary text. 1. Prohibition sign a sign prohibiting behaviour likely to increase or cause danger (eg no access for unauthorised persons); 2. Warning sign a sign giving warning of a hazard or danger (eg danger: electricity); 3. Mandatory sign a sign prescribing specific behaviour (eg eye protection must be worn) 4. Emergency escape or first-aid sign sign giving information on emergency exits, first aid, or rescue facilities (eg emergency exit/escape 5. Safety colour a colour to which a specific meaning is assigned (eg yellow means be careful or take precautions); 6. Symbol or pictogram They are for use on a signboard or illuminated sign (eg the trefoil ionising radiation warning sign); 7. Illuminated sign a sign made of transparent or translucent materials which is illuminated from the inside or the rear to give the appearance of a luminous surface (eg many emergency exit sign. 8. Acoustic signal a sound signal which is transmitted without the use of a human or artificial voice (eg fire alarm) 9. Verbal communication a predetermined spoken message communicated by a human or artificial voice; 10. Hand signal a movement or position of the arms or hands giving a recognised signal and guiding persons who are carrying out manoeuvres which are a hazard or danger to people 11. Fire Safety Signs - provides information on escape routes and emergency exits in case of fire; provides information on the identification or location of firefighting equipment; or gives warning in case of fire.

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FIRE DETECTION

The ship is equipped with an advanced automatic fire detection system. Automatic smoke detection devices are installed in all rooms on the ship including cabins, corridors, public rooms, storerooms, linen rooms, car deck and engine room. These are monitored from the bridge and the engine control room. The detectors will be activated by just a small amount of smoke and the exact location of the smoke will be indicated on the fire alarm central panel.

FIRE FIGHTING TEAM Members of the crew are organised into fire fighting teams with specific tasks and duties when a fire alarm is sounded. Each member of a fire fighting team is specially trained in using a self-contained breathing apparatus (smoke diver) enabling them to operate in dense smoke. FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT There are several fully equipped fire stations on board. In an emergency these will be manned by specially trained fire fighting crew. Fire posts and hoses are located at frequent intervals on all decks throughout the ship and connected to the fire main and the pump system. A large number of portable extinguishers are located in all corridors and public rooms as well as on the car deck and in the engine room. FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS A sprinkler system is installed on all car decks and connected to a separate fire pump. The engine rooms and the galley area are protected by either Halon or CO2 extinguishing systems. FIRE EXTINGUISHER TYPES AND SUITABILITY ABC Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher Powder fire extinguishers are ideal for use in mixed risk environments and offer excellent all round fire protection. With a unique class C rating, powder fire extinguishers are the only effective solution for fires involving flammable gases usually blue AFF Foam Fire Extinguisher Foam fire extinguishers are ideal for use on fire involving solid combustible materials and are highly effective on flammable liquid fires. The layer of foam applied by these extinguishers helps to prevent re-ignition after the fire has been extinguished usually color yellow CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) Fire Extinguisher CO2 fire extinguishers are suitable for use on flammable liquid fires and are extremely effective at extinguishing fire involving electrical Becoming A Skilful Facilitator: Safety and Authentic Participation
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equipment. CO2 is also one of the cleanest extinguisher agents and leaves no residue behind usually color black Water type Fire Extinguisher Water fire extinguishers are suitable for use in environments containing solid combustible materials such as wood, paper and textiles. It is important to remember that water conducts electricity and should not be used around electrical equipment (unless water extinguishers with additive are used) usually color red Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher Wet chemical fire extinguishers have a unique class F rating and are usually supplied with a special application lance. The perfect solution for tackling large burning oil fires, wet chemical extinguishers are ideally suited to the kitchen environment. Usually color yellow

STATION BILL, EMERGENCY DUTIES AND ALARMS A ship crew must be prepared all the time to tackle and fight against any kind of emergencies which can arise due to reasons such as rough weather, machinery malfunction, pirate attack, human error etc. Such emergencies can lead to fire, collision, flooding, grounding, environmental pollution, and loss of life. To stress the importance of training for different emergency procedures and duties of personnel, muster list is provided onboard ship. A muster list is basically a list which is displayed in prominent areas of the vessel so that every crew member on onboard can read it on a go. Some of the important areas where the muster list is posted are- Bridge, Engine room, accommodation alleyways etc., areas where ships crew spends the maximum of their time. The Important features which are displayed in the muster lists are Types of Emergency and different alarms for the same Main emergencies like fire, man overboard, abandon ship, oil spill etc. are listed along with dedicated visual and audible alarms. Instruction to follow in case of different types of emergency Brief instruction is given in case the alarm for a particular emergency is sounded, which includes action to be taken by the crew onboard. Common Muster point for all the crew The common muster point is clearly described if any emergency alarm is sounded. Normally life boat deck area is made as a common muster point. Crew list of all crew member with assigned life boat Becoming A Skilful Facilitator: Safety and Authentic Participation
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The crew name is displayed along with the assigned life boat for abandon ship emergency. Normally two life boats are assigned in between all the crew member i.e. port side and starboard side life boat. Assigned duties for abandon ship All the crew listed in the muster list are assigned with duties to perform in emergency situation like carrying EPIRB and SART, lifeboat and life raft launching etc. Different teams with assigned duties for the individuals of the team for emergencies Different teams are made to tackle emergencies like fire, flooding etc. these are 1.Command Team: operated from bridge. 2.Emergency team 1: Operates at the point of scenario. 3.Emergency team 2: Standby team and helping hand for emergency team. 4.Roving Commission: Team working along with all other team. 5.Engine room team: This team stand by in ECR Special and general instruction by master A separate section for general and special instructions is provided which is used by the master or the chief engineer of the vessel to keep inform or to instruct the crew of the ship. The muster list is posted to keep the crew aware of the different emergency situations and duties to be performed if such situations occur in reality. For this, regular training and drill must be conducted by the master of the ship to ensure that all crew members are familiar with life saving and fire fighting appliances. Different Types of Alarms on Ships Alarm on board ships are audible as well as visual to ensure that a person can at least listen to the audible alarm when working in a area where seeing a visual alarm is not possible and vice versa. It is a normal practice in the international maritime industry to have alarm signal for a particular warning similar in all the ships, no matter in which seas they are sailing or to which company they belongs to. This commonness clearly helps the seafarer to know Becoming A Skilful Facilitator: Safety and Authentic Participation
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and understand the type of warning or emergency well and help to tackle the situation faster. 1.) General Alarm: The general alarm on the ship is recognized by 7 short ringing of bell followed by a long ring or 7 short blasts on the ships horn followed by one long blast. The general alarm is sounded to make aware the crew on board that an emergency has occurred. 2.) Fire Alarm: A fire alarm is sounded as continuous ringing of ships electrical bell or continuous sounding of ships horn. 3) Man Overboard Alarm: When a man falls overboard, the ship internal alarm bell sounds 3 long rings and ship whistle will blow 3 long blasts to notify the crew on board and the other ships in nearby vicinity. 4) Navigational Alarm: In the navigation bridge, most of the navigational equipments and navigation lights are fitted with failure alarm. If any of these malfunctions, an alarm will be sounded in an alarm panel displaying which system is malfunctioning. 5) Machinery space Alarm: The machinery in the engine room has various safety devices and alarms fitted for safe operation. If any one of these malfunctions, a common engine room alarm is operated and the problem can be seen in the engine control room control panel which will display the alarm. 6) Machinery Space CO2 Alarm: The machinery space is fitted with CO2 fixed with fire extinguishing system whose audible and visual alarm is entirely different from machinery space alarm and other alarm for easy reorganization. 7) Cargo Space CO2 Alarm: The cargo spaces of the ship are also fitted with fixed fire fighting system which has a different alarm when operated. 8) Abandon Ship Alarm: When the emergency situation on board ship goes out of hands and ship is no longer safe for crew on board ship. The master of the ship can give a verbal Abandon ship order, but this alarm is never given in ships bell or whistle. The general alarm is sounded and every body comes to the emergency muster station where the master or his substitute (chief Officer) gives a verbal order to abandon ship. 9) Ship Security Alarm System: Most of the ocean going vessels are fitted with security alert alarm system, which is a silent alarm system sounded in a pirate attack emergency. This signal is connected with different coastal authorities all over the world via a global satellite system to inform about the piracy.

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PERSONAL SAFETY ON SHIPS As a seafarer, it is extremely important that the duties onboard ships are performed with an utmost conscious mind in order to avoid any kind of harm to the crew or the ship. Awareness of Surrounding The first and most important step towards personal safety on ships is to be aware of your surroundings. Awareness of surroundings includes knowing your working space, risks and hazards present around you, and assessing the amount of effortsthe job would require. This would allow you to plan your job safety and efficiently. Checking Your Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Personal protective equipment on ships provides you withtools to enhance your safety on board. Ensure that you are using the right personal safety equipment as required by the job. It is also imperative that you know the operation and working of all safety tools on board ships. In emergency situation, these tools are your lifelines, which would get you out safe and secure. Escape route Escape route is the last resort you would seek in case all measures to curtail an accident fail. Note that ships comprise of several machines, pipelines, and complex systems (Pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical, and electronics) running at extremely high working parameters. This makes the ship an extremely hazardous environment to work in. While working on ship, trouble always comes uninvited and you must be prepared for the same. Sometimes, in spite of following all the safety measures, things might go wrong. For such situations, always pre-plan your exit-strategy from your working place through the easiest and fastest route possible. Protection against occupational hazards The most important benefit of personal safety is that it gives utmost protection against work related risks or occupational hazards onboard ship. Ship operations are always attached with some form of dangers. A systematic approach towards work, along with safe practices, can work wonders towards reducing the risk factor.

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Ensures Smooth and Safe operation Any work carried out on ship after following all safety procedures has least chances of failure or facing hurdles. This results in smooth operation of the concerned machinery and also of the overall ship. Ship and Crew Protection A single mistake by a crew member can put the safety of the whole ship at stake. Thus taking all measures to ensure personal safety eventually leads to a safer ship and enhance crew protection. Better Decision Making When you work along with necessary safety gears and follow all safe operating procedures, the chances of meeting with an accident are rare. This drastically reduces work related stress, enabling you to take better decisions and avoiding mistakes. Better Interpersonal Work Relationship When colleagues and seniors on ship realize that you are a person with safety conscious approach towards work, they will always be ready to work with you. This would improve both professional and personal relationships on ship. Creates a Good Impression Having a safety first attitude always creates a good impression on superiors and ship management. Such responsible behaviour will always be an added advantage while assessing your performance report. Moreover, people with the right safety attitude are always considered as valuable assets for the ship and the company.

Ensures a Safe Journey Last but not the least, a mind with the right approach towards safety ensures a safe, hassle-free sea contract by avoiding unsafe practices and unnecessary hurdles.

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Personal Safety in Engine Room Engine room is considered one of the most hazardous areas on the ship. With several machines running amidst an hostile environment, having inflammable oils, extremly hot water, high temperature steam, and eleveted parameters such as RPM, temperature, pressure etc., an engine room is a dangerous place to work in. To survive in the hostile environment of the engine room one needs to strike a proper balance between personal safety and good seamanship, not to forget the skills necessary to handle a machinery. A smooth and efficient engine room process can be achieved when one keeps some important safety points in mind while working. Following hazards or risks are always present in the engine room and one must be aware of them in order to take necessary precautions to ensure personal safety. 1.) The most common risk in the engine room is of slipping, tripping, or falling because of small, confined spaces and high elevated staircases, which are desiged in such a way to compensate for machinery spaces. Always be careful while walking through such areas. Remember to hold the railing with one hand when using stairs. Also, be extra careful if oil or any other slippery material is on the floor. 2.) Always wear safety gears provided to you, especially safety helmet when working in the engine room ( Ship professionals often avoid helmets in the engine room because of high temperature). 3.) There would always be hazards from machines running at high RPM, along with other elevated parameters. Always be careful of them and start work on any machinery only after it is fully isolated and after necessary permits are taken. 4.) As mentioned earlier, because of abundance of oil (lube and fuel) in the engine room, the chances of slipping and tripping are high. Thus, always keep an eye on oil leaks and maintain good housekeeping in the engine room. 5.) Never lean or put your weight on floor railings as it may lead to tripping and falling from heights. Always use safety harness while working at heights. 6.) Do not run in the engine room as confined spaces are fitted with several pipes and protruding structures. Even during emergency alarm, maintain your calm and walk carefully. It is better to reach your point safetly rather than not reaching there at all because of an accident on the way. 7.) Make sure you take all the precautions necessary before working on electrical systems to avoid electrical shock hazard.

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Personal Safety on Deck The deck of the ship is the most highly accessed area on the ship by both ships crew (on duty and off duty) and visitors. It is therefore also the highest accidental prone area of the ship. When on deck, there are several hazards one should be aware of. Keep in mind below mentioned points in order to avoid accidents on ships deck. 1.) The deck area is exposed to open weather and thus water or moisture is always present on the surface. Make sure you walk carefully to avoid slips, trips, or falls. Also wear the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE) and hold railings when moving on the open deck. 2.) Also be careful of pipings and other deck fittings which may lead to trips and falls 3.) Most of the deck machines operate heavy and high tensioned loads. Make sure you are well aware of the deck machinery, along with the safety precautions and operation. 4.) When on port, keep an eye on the ports gantry, crane, and any connected pipes. Also, never walk under lifted cargo or crane grap. 5.) At port, several items are loaded or unloaded by the ships crane. Take all due precautions while working on the deck and never walk under lifted loads. 6.) Know the location of the nearest fire extinguisher in forepeak and aftpeak of the ship. 7.) Know the location of life buoys and liferafts on thedeck. 8.) When ship is at the sea, always inform someone before coming out on the deck alone, even during off duty hours. 9.) Never come out on the deck during rough weather. 10.) When working at fore or aft part of the ship, beware of ropes, chains and machines, especially when they are under operation in ports. 11.) Never lean on the ships side or on the side railings. 12.) When using the gangway, make sure railings and safety net are provided. 13.) Know the location of international shore connection, fire plan, fire hydrant, and hoses on the deck. 14.) On tanker ships, take all due precautions to fight hazardous atmosphere on deck when in port.

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15.) Know the location of IMDG containers and their specifications including emergency procedure provided with IMDG certificate in container ships. 16.) When working at heights such as on mast or bridge area, always wear safety harness. 17.) When setting up the gangway in port, always wear safety harness and life jacket. 18.) If you are climbing or using pilot ladder, make sure you use a 3 point contact to avoid a fall. 19.) Always use all necessary personal protective equipment (PPEs) and work in team. Personal Safety in Workshops A ship is mainly provided with two workshops, one on the deck and other in the engine room. Both these workshops are equipped with a variety of machine tools such as lathe, drills, millers, grinders etc., which are required for repair and fabrication operations performed on board ships. Because of the high number of tools present in the areas, these workshops are considered risky areas where personal safety is of utmost importance. Following precautions must be taken by any person using ships workshop to ensure his or her personal safety 1.) Always wear proper personal protective equipment before performing any operation in workshop. 2.) Make sure you know how to safely operate the machinery and equipment of the workshop. 3.) Know the correct tools required for each machine in the workshop 4.) If you are not familiarised with any machinery, ask your seniors for assistance. 5.) Make sure machine guards are always in place. 6.) Perform one job at a time and never distract any person operating an equipment in the workshop 7.) Avoid loose boiler suits and belongings such as chains and finger rings 8.) Avoid long hair or tie them while working 9.) Always wear eye protection in workshop as this is the place for welding, bracing, scrapping etc. Becoming A Skilful Facilitator: Safety and Authentic Participation
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10.) Know the nearest fire fighting extinguisher 11.) Know the escape route from the workshop 12.) Report all damaged equipment and tools, and avoid using them 13.) Keep the workshop clean and dry 14.) Report all hazardous and unsafe condition in the workshop 15.) Always shutdown all equipment and machines in workshop after use

FIRST AID First Aid is the provision of initial care for an injury or an illness. It is usually performed by a non-medical individual until medical treatment can be accessed. Step One: Assess the situation: what happened and is there still danger? If giving first aid will expose you to danger, do not do it but call and go for help If a person is still in danger, remove either the person from the danger or the danger from the person before giving first aid If bystanders are in danger, Step Two: If you are alone, shout for help. Step Three: Choose the best place for first aid.On the spot? No, if fire is present No, if dangerous gases are present No, if there are hazards in the site of accident In the ships infirmary or cabin? No, if delay in moving the patient is dangerous. Step Four: If there are several injured people, prioritize. Attend first to any unconscious person If there is more than one unconscious person. Check each for pulse and breathing. Begin resuscitation of a person who is not breathing or has no detectable heart beat. Attend to conscious patients. Apply direct pressure on bleeding wound. Wait until patient has been moved to sick bay before dealing with other injuries. And What NOT to do when giving first aid: DO NOT GIVE FIRST AID if you have doubts about your ability to do first aid correctly. DO NOT ENTER AN ENCLOSED SPACE unless you are sure its safe .DO NOT MOVE THE PERSON without checking for: Spinal injuries Fractured long bones DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING TO EAT OR DRINK (especially alcohol)

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B. AUTHENTIC PARTICIPATION

Participation, in the development context, is a process through which all members of a community or organization are involved in and have influence on decisions related to development activities that will affect them. That implies that development projects will address those community or group needs on which members have chosen to focus, and that all phases of the development process will be characterized by active involvement of community or organization members. Participation is crucial to success of development work of all levels of action. Authentic, a process of engagement which is not simply treated as a co-opted input and means for making externally supported development happen more effectively but regarded as a foundation of any development strategy. What has to be addressed is why authentic participation is so seldom happening in practice. Training is the acquisition of new skills and knowledge relevant to a job. Development involves the growth of an individual's wider education and capabilities within a field of employment.

Induction training familiarises new employees with their role and responsibilities. Colleagues are introduced, systems explained and the expectations of the job are clarified. On-the-job training is arranged in the workplace through instruction and observation. Off-the-job training takes employees away from the immediate workplace. It may be 'in-house' using the employer's facilities or 'out-house' and provided by another company or college/university.

Development has a broader focus on learning and relates to a career rather than to a job. It emphasises the employee's potential to acquire more capabilities. The government supports training and development through modern apprenticeships which give young people vocational skills through a mix of on and off-the-job training. The Investors in People award requires firms to demonstrate their commitment to training and career development for staff.

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Employee participation

Employee participation is the process whereby employees are involved in decision making processes, rather than simply acting on orders. Employee participation is part of a process of empowerment in the workplace. This means all crew shall participate because no ship will survive if there is no cooperation. Performance management is a management approach, which seeks to get the most out of the human resource. Typically rewards are related to performance and some form of appraisal scheme lies at the heart of this process. There are many different types of appraisal system. Qualitative appraisal may take the form of a relatively structured interview in which the appraiser develops a report on the performance of the appraisee. Alternatively, a quantitative appraisal may be employed in which the appraiser ranks performance along a scale - excellent, good, adequate, inadequate, etc.

The appraisee will be seen at regular time intervals, and will be given feedback on job performance. The assessment of individuals will normally be against some specified performance standards, often related to a job description. At a review meeting it is possible to establish individual objectives and targets for the subsequent time period. Individual development plans can then be created which set out how employees will work towards targets. The review meeting will also include an assessment of performance over the previous period against targets. This assessment will often be linked to rewards (e.g. an individual who has met or exceeded targets will be entitled to performance related pay.)

An analysis of the opportunities and experiences that are required for individuals to train and develop in order to meet organisational and personal objectives. A training and development plan can then be created to set out how these needs can be addressed in practical steps.

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CHAPTER III: Summary In all, A crew who has best Safety Program has the elements of good leadership by their captain or master mariner, inspect workplaces, task analysis and procedures, accident/incident response and avoidance, task observation, emergency preparedness, complete employee/crew trainings, personal protective equipment, personal communication and evaluation and continuous improvement. Also, Maintenance. All safety signs need to be properly maintained so that they are capable of performing the function for which they are intended. This can range from the routine cleaning of signboards to regular checks of illuminated signs and acoustic signals to see that they work properly. A guaranteed supply of power or back-up in the event of failure may be necessary for safety signs and signals which require some form of power to enable. Participation increases self-esteem and personal control in the lives of children, young people and families, and fosters mutual respect and shared responsibility. It is empowering. All crew must be participate drills on board ship and participate on trainings to them either it is recommendatory or mandatory The facilitator was as the director of a performance (theatre, music), where each participant played a central role. By the end of the workshop, so much synergy has been created that all the participants exploded in a rush of happiness and pleasure. It was such a fantastic experience of working creatively and collectively to achieve some goals. It is the similar feelings that football players experience after winning a match, where the victory has been the result of a combination of individual creativity, collective hard work and suitable facilitation Group Facilitation Websters dictionary defines to facilitate as: to promote, to aid, to make easy, or to simplify. In other words a group facilitator is a person who supports the group (or team) during the task solving process. A team is a very experienced group where each individual can be the facilitator. In a workshop a distinction is made between content (the theme under discussion), approaches (the way a problem is tackled), and social processes (group interaction and communication). Facilitation focuses primarily on approaches and processes. That is, the facilitator does not need to be particularly expert about the theme being discussed. Too much or too little knowledge on the subject matter might actually hinder the process. Personal safety or safety of life at sea comes at the top of priority list as there is no loss which is considered greater than the loss of human life. Shipping companies understand the importance of the safety of human life at the sea and thus rank it at the very top. Its a known fact that without an efficient crew no shipping company can survive.

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CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION In conclusion, you may say that life isnt predictable. That no matter how hard you try to protect yourself, sometimes accidents just happen or you may say that life is worth the risk but for me its never worth your life or the lives of others. If you can prevent it then do it. Theres no harm in keeping oneself safe. On Section A-IV/1 paragraph 2, requires seafarers employed or engaged in any capacity on board a ship on the business of that ship as part of the ship complement with designated safety or pollution prevention duties in the operation of the ship, to complete approved basic training before being assigned to any vessel. Safety first. Everyone must know all method to remain safe at any working environment, and it will be guided with the facilitator or the captain to observe all proper and correct way to used the equipment, emergency signs and medical response in case of accidents. When a ship is in port, or near to port where hospital and other expert medical attention are available, the first aid treatment necessary aboard ship is similar to that practiced ashore. At sea, in the absence of these facilities, trained ships officers are required to give types of treatment beyond that accepted as normal first aid. aid necessary for the safe and efficient immediate treatment of casualties before they are transported to the shiphospital or to a cabin for any necessary definitive treatment However, anyone aboard ship may find a casualty and every seaman should know three basic life-saving actions to be given immediately while waiting for trained help to arrive. These are: 1. to give artificial respiration by the mouth to nose/mouth method; 2. to place an unconscious casualty in the unconscious position; 3. to stop severe bleeding. Safe worker are loyal workers, any work or any kind of work you do you must remind to yourself that safety first because of safety it can improved your work in smoother way because absence of safety means prone of any kind of accident

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REFERENCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facilitator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety Charles G. Oakes, PhD, Blue Ember Technologies, LLC.Safety versus Security in Fire Protection Planning,The American Institute of Architects: Knowledge Communities, May 2009. Retrieved on June 22, 2011. Jeroen Johan de Hartog, Hanna Boogaard, Hans Nijland, Gerard Hoek (1 August 2010). "Do the Health Benefits of Cycling Outweigh the Risks?". Environmental Health Persepctives. Retrieved 2012-08-13. Dorcey, A.; Doney, L.; Rueggeberg, H. (1994), "Public Involvement in government decision making: choosing the right model", BC Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Victoria Spring, Dietz, and Grimm (2007), Leveling the Path to Participation: Volunteering and Civic Engagement Among Youth from Disadvantaged Circumstances, Corporation for National and Community Service Shetzer, L. (1993), "A social information processing model of Employee Participation", Organization Science 4 (2), retrieved 2012-10-03 Wiedemann, P.M.; Femers, S. (1993), "Public Participation in waste management decision making: analysis and management of conflicts", Journal of Hazardous Materials 33 (3): 355368, retrieved 2010-06-12 Connor, D.M. (2007), "A new ladder of citizen participation", National Civic Review 77 (3): 249257, retrieved 2010-06-12 Rocha, E.M. (1997), "A ladder of empowerment", Journal of Planning Education and Research 17 (1): 31, retrieved 2010-06-12

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