James Yu

Chem I

Chapter 9: Concepts and Definitions
Definitions Hybridization – The mixing of native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding Sigma Bond – In each of these bonds, the electron pair is shared in an area centered on a line running between the atoms Pi Bond – Parallel p orbitals share an electron pair, which occupies the space above and below a line joining the atoms Bonding Molecular orbital – lower in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed Antibonding Molecular Orbital – higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed Bond Order – the difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons divided by two Homonuclear diatomic molecules – composed of two identical atoms Heteronuclear diatomic molecules – different atoms Paramagnetism – causes the substance to be attracted into the inducing magnetic field Diamagnetism – causes the substance to be repelled from the inducing magnetic field Delocalized – the condition where the electrons in a molecule are not localized between a pair of atoms but can move throughout the molecule

Concept Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model Let us consider methane: 1) Using the 2p and 2s atomic orbitals will lead to two different types of C—H bonds: Those from the overlap of a 2p orbital of carbon and a 1s orbital of hydrogen and those from the overlap of a 2s orbital of carbon and a 1s orbital of hydrogen. This is a problem because methane is known to have four identical C—H bonds. 2) Since the carbon 2p orbitals are mutually perpendicular, we might expect the three C—H bonds formed with these orbitals to be oriented at 90-degree angles. However, the methane molecule is known by experiment to be tetrahedral with bond angles of 109.5 degrees. What really happens then? The 2s and 2p orbitals in carbon hybridize to form sp3 orbitals. They are somewhat mushroomed shaped and make a tetrahedral arrangement. Whenever a set of equivalent tetrahedral atomic orbitals is required by an atom, this model assumes that the atom adopts a set of sp3 orbitals; the atom becomes sp3 hybridized. Sp2 Hybridization In ethylene, the sp3 orbitals we just considered will not work because they are at angles of 109.5 degrees rather than the required 120 degrees. These angles can be obtained by combining one s orbital and two p orbitals, this is called sp2 hybridization. The three sp2 orbitals on each carbon can be used to share electrons. This type of bonding is called a sigma bond. But how can we explain the double bond? The second bond is the result from sharing an electron pair above and below the sigma bond, this type of bond is called a pi bond. The Localized Electron Model •

Draw the Lewis structures Determine the arrangement of electron pairs using the VSEPR model. Specify the hybrid orbitals needed to accommodate the electron pairs.

The Molecular Orbital Model 1. The electron probability of both molecular orbitals is centered along the line passing through the two nuclei. 2. In the molecule only the molecular orbitals are available for occupation by electrons. 3. The electrons will fill the MO1 before filling in the MO2, that is because it is lower in energy than the latter. There are now two classes of electrons, bonding and antibonding. Bond Order To indicate bond strength, we use the concept of bond order. Bond order is the difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons divided by two. The higher the bond order, the more stable the atom is.

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