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A drug is defined as any chemical agent which affects protoplasm and is intended for use in the treatment, prevention or diagnosis of disease. The word drug is derived from French word drogue which means a dry herbThe Science which include whole of the knowledge about drugs is called Pharmacology the Greek word pharmacon meaning drug and logos meaning study or discourse And a drug is always related to addiction and mind and drug is differentiated into psychotropic, therapeutic and competitive drugs psychoactive drug, sedatives, ,tranculiseer,opiods, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine Whereas the consumption of alcohol is decreasing in developed countries, it is increasing in countries of the former Soviet Union and in developing countries, especially in the Western Pacific Region. Worldwide, about 200 million people use some type of illicit drug, most commonly Cannabis, but also others such as amphetamines, opioids, and cocaine. The use of illicit drug is more frequent among males and younger people. The number of people who inject drugs is also increasing, which contributes to spreading HIV. And drugs are chemical substances that are ingested, injected, inhaled, or put into the body some other way, causing a change in how the body functions.


Psychotropic drugs of different types

This drugs act on the brain and alter behavior, consciousness and capacity of perceptions. Hence these are called mood altering drugs. These include sedatives,tranculiseer,opiods and stimulant they are also known as psychoactive drug tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine, and Heroin. Tobacco smoking is spreading rapidly in developing countries And among women. The average consumption of cigarettes is particularly high in Asia and the Far East, with the Americas and Eastern Europe following closely behind.


Psychoactive Drugs drawback

Affect mental processes and behavior Affect thought processes and actions Alter perceptions of reality Change level of alertness, response time and perception of the world Achieve effects by interacting with the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Psychoactive Drug Use

Is a common activity Is part of a range of human behaviours Can be classified in many ways, including legal status, drug effects Alters mood or consciousness, although there are other ways to achieve this: e.g. skydiving, meditation, extreme (and non-extreme) sport, sex. Children, for example, love to alter their consciousness by spinning around

The Drug Classifications

status legal chemical medical social action and properties depressants stimulant hallucinogenic etc


anxiety, reduce pain, treat some illnesses, give pleasure, and let them talk to their gods in order to control their environment II. The human brain chemistry can be affected by psychoactive drugs to induce an altered state of consciousness or mood. Psychoactive drugs: Any substance that directly alters normal functioning of the central nervous system. These drugs are described by their chemical, trade, and street names. If psychoactive drugs did not affect the human brain chemistry in a desirable manner, then they would not be used. III. Governments and businesses have been involved in cultivating, manufacturing, taxing, and prohibiting drugs. IV. Technological advances in refining and synthesizing drugs have increased the potency of these substances V. The development of more efficient and faster methods of putting drugs in the body has intensified the Mix, absorb, inhale, inject, snort, dissolve, smoke, and crush

History of Psychoactive Drugs

prehistoric & the Neolithic Period (8500 BC -4000 BC) It has been estimated that 4,000 plants yield psychoactive substances although only about 150 have historically been used for that purpose. Alcohol has been the most popular psychoactive substance over the millennia Ancient Civilizations (4000 BC AD 400) Heavy drinking was recognized as a problem by the Egyptians when their hieroglyphics recommended the moderate consumption of beer. Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine
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Five Historical Themes: Why do people use drugs?

I. Human beings have a basic need to find ways to cope with their environment and existence. Early man by chance and experimentation found that ingesting certain plants could ease fear and



, recommended opium as a painkiller.

Middle Ages (400-1400) A Greek philosopher emphasized that opium and other drugs can be medicine at low doses, a psychoactive drug at a moderate dose, and a deadly poison at high doses. Renaissance and Age of Discovery (1400-1700) Through trade and colonization European explorers, soldiers, merchants, traders and missionaries carried their own cultures drug using customs and drugs to the rest of the world. During this time came about the first laws about alcohol use and taxation Age of Enlightenment and Early Industrial Revolution (1700-1900) London Gin Epidemic from 1710 1750: 1 in 6 houses was a gin house. Production of gin was 1.23 million gallons in 1700 to 6.4 million gallons in 1735 to 7 million gallons by 1751. The Tippling Act of 1751 prohibited distillers from selling gin (prices rose and consumption declined). This incident showed how unlimited availability of a desirable substance causes excess use. Only stiff taxes and strict regulation of sales brought the epidemic under control. Age of Enlightenment and Early Industrial Revolution (17001900)continued: 1804: a German pharmacist discovered how to refine morphine from opium. Morphine is 10 times more powerful than opium causing it to be a more effective pain reliever. 1855: the reusable hypodermic needle was invented (drugs could easily be put directly into the bloodstream causing more intense effects).

1874: Heroin was refined from morphine, but it was not until 1898 that is was marketed as a remedy for coughs, chest pains, and tuberculosis. 1785: The first Temperance (limiting drinking) Movement was started by Dr. Benjamin Rush. Twentieth Century (1900-2000)

The invention of the automatic cigarette rolling machine (1884), a milder stain of tobacco enabling smokers to inhale deeply, advertising, and a more plentiful supply of the leaf vastly expanded the market for cigarettes. 1920: The Eighteenth Amendment (Prohibition) Prohibited the manufacture and sale of any beverage with alcohol content greater than .5%. 1934: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was founded by two alcoholics Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith.

Five common ways that drugs enter the body:

Inhaling: Acts more quickly than any other method of use (7-10 seconds before the drug reaches the brain and begins to cause changes). Injecting: Intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous (15-30 seconds intravenously, 3-5 minutes in a muscle or under the skin). Mucous Membrane Absorption: Snorted in the nose, under the tongue, or between the cheeks and the gums (3-5 minutes). Oral Ingestion: Absorbed in stomach (20-30 minutes). Contact Absorption: Applied to the skin through saturated adhesive patches (1 to 2 days).


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What is an addiction?
When a person becomes dependent on a drug, so much so that he feels that he cannot live without it, then it is called addictions Addictions consist of psychic dependence, e, tolerance and physical dependence


Flow chart for drugs


smoking kills Highly carcinogenic


inhaling drug

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Hallucinogens are a type of drug that causes you to have hallucinations. They affect the way you see and perceive things. The user may see or hear things that aren't really there, or what they see may be distorted in some way. The effects of hallucinogens vary greatly and it is impossible to predict how they may affect a particular person at a particular time

Cannabis is a plant that grows mainly in tropical and subtropical climates and has been Used as a drug for centuries. The main forms Of cannabis are marijuana and hashish. Marijuana is produced by drying the tops and leaves of the cannabis plant. Hashish is a concentrated form of marijuana made from the resin secretions of the Cannabis plant. Tetrahydrocannabinl (THC) is the most significant psychoactive chemical Marijuana ingredient found in Cannabis. The level of THCdetermines determines the potency of The THC (Tetrahydrocannabinl) drug Dry mouth and rapid heartbeat Can amplify senses Some loss of coordination and poor Is it addictive sense of balance THC binds to cannabinoid receptors in various Reduced ability to concentrate, control parts of the brain, blocking synaptic muscle contractions and judge time and transmission. These receptors commonly bind distances (shouldnt operate vehicles). chemicals, such as anandamide, whose Blood vessels in the eye expand (eyes look red)g. functions are not well known


Psychomotor stimulants
They are psychoactive drugs which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical function or both. Heroin is a narcotic that is highly addictive; It is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant Stimulants are used primarily to relieve Fatigue and increase alertness. The most widely used stimulants are nicotine, which is found in tobacco products, and caffeine, which is found in soft drinks, coffee And tea. Cocaine and amphetamines are More potent stimulants. People who use stimulants build up a tolerance, which means they have to take larger and larger quantities in order to maintain the desired Effects. Greater levels of use increase the likelihood of physical and psychological Dependence .

Consequences of Tobacco Tobacco-

Healthy lungs



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Blocks dopamine and noradrenalin reabsorption at synapses in the brain. Result: Increased energy, alertness, talkativeness Intense feeling of euphoria. Length of high - ~ 40 minutes

How is cocaine absorbed in the body?

Absorbed through the skin inside the nostrils, where it causes constriction of blood vessels, delaying absorption. Crack A form of cocaine that forms a vapor when heated. Thus, it can be inhaled and absorbed very quickly and lead to very intense effects. This causes greater addiction and overdose problems than other forms of cocaine

Nicotine binds to receptors in the presynaptic neuron and causes it to undergo more action potentials.

Why do some nicotine users claim that it has a calming effect (even though its excitatory)?
Probably because, since it is addictive, so a nicotine level increase in the blood reduces craving for nicotine.


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Opiates narcotics

The term opiate describes any of the narcotic opioids alkaloids found as natural products in the opium poppy plantThe The term "narcotics" refers to substances used to induce sleep or stupor, to dull the senses, and/or to relieve pain. In the legal system, the term, "narcotics" may refer to any addictive drug subject to illegal use, or refer to opium and its natural and synthetic derivatives. Cocaine is considered a "narcotic" under the Controlled Substances Act, but it is not a narcotic in terms ms of the classification system used for this class. Some of the common physiological responses from narcotics use include respiratory depression (slowed breathing), drowsiness, confusion, and euphoria. Excessive use of narcotics can lead to nausea, vomiting, ng, convulsions, increased risk for STD's when narcotics are injected, convulsions, coma and death.


Synthesis of heroin

What Are Opioids?

Opioids are natural atural or synthetic substances that act on the brains opiate receptors. Opioids dull pain and relieve anxiety that comes from thinking about pain. People abuse e opioids because they provide a feeling of euphoria (a (a rush).

It is synthesized form of morphine, derivative of opium poppy. Does not occur naturally but it is produced by acetylating of morphine which leads to 3 folds increase in its potency.

Heroin dealers often add substances such as sugar, starch, quinine, and powdered milk to heroin to increase profits, which increases the risk of overdose or death. Very often, users are not aware of precisely what they are putting into their bodies In medical use, the term narcotic refers to opium; narcotic analgesics are often Referred to as opioids. The tern analgesic refers to the pain pain-relieving effect of narcotics. Opium, morphine, heroin and codeine are the Most commonly used narcotics. Opium is extracted from the seed pod of the opium poppy; morphine and codeine are derived from the substance found in opium. Heroin is a synthetic drug made by modifying the chemicals in opium.



The drugs that produce mirthful and comfortable feelings due to depression of the cortical inhibitory centers are called intoxicants for example alcohol. Because it is used by vary large section of population, it need a detailed description

Acts as an inhibitor in at least two ways:

1) Enhancing effects of the inhibitory NT GABA by binding to its receptor. 2) Decreases glutamate activity. Glutamate is an excitatory NT.

Small Quantities: reduces inhibitions (therefore people become more talkative and confident), impairs reaction times and fine muscle coordination (unsafe to drive vehicles) Large Quantities: memory loss, slurred speech, loss of balance, poor muscle coordination, sometimes violent behavior Slows down sympathetic nervous system. Disrupts memory processing. Reduces self-awareness. awareness. Involved in up to 60% of all crimes. The worst drug from a macro perspective out there.

Bleeding Pancreas of an Alcoholic, hes now dead!

Effects of Alcohol Use Accident


PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS February 8, 2012 Used to help a person with sleep disturbances get restful sleep Lack of sleep is one of the greatest problems faced by persons with chemical dependency and psychiatric illnesses (lack of sleep can increase mood changes, irritability, and psychiatric symptoms

How do psychoactive drugs affect health?

Psychoactive drugs impose a substantial health burden on Society. Tobacco and alcohol in particular are major causes of death and disability in developed countries, and the impact of tobacco is expected to increase in other o parts of the world.
Using psychoactive drugs, be it to find pleasure or to avoid pain,

Can harm health and cause social problems both in the short and longer term. Health effects can include diseases of the liver or the Lungs, cancer, deaths and injuries caused by accidents, overdoses, suicide, and assaults. Examples of social effects include arrests, the Breaking up of relationships, as well as neglect of work and family duties.

How does drug addiction affect the functioning of the Brain?

Drug addiction, also referred to as drug dependence, is disorder of the brain caused by the use of psychoactive drugs. Drug-dependent Drug person may experience cravings for the drug and difficulty in controlling its consumption, suffer from withdrawal symptoms when use of the drug is reduced or discontinued, and need increasing doses of the drug to feel its effects (tolerance).The person may come to neglect other r pleasures or interests, spend more and more time getting or using the drug or recovering from it, and nd persist in using the drug despite clear evidence that it is causing harm. Psychoactive drugs affect communication between brain cells in certain regions of the brain. For instance, some drugs mimic and

Psychoactive drugs affect the brain Based on the different ways in which they affect the brain, psychoactive drugs can be divided into four main groups: depressants (e.g., alcohol and sedatives), stimulants (e.g., nicotine and ecstasy), opioids (e.g., morphine and heroin), and hallucinogens (e.g., PCP and LSD). Despite their differences, all of them affect regions of the brain involved in Motivation, which plays a role in drug dependence.

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PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS February 8, 2012 others block the effects of naturally occurring Molecules ecules that carry specific messages from one brain cell to another (neurotransmitters).

Why do drug addiction and mental illness often coexist?

How does drug addiction develop?

The development of drug addiction can be seen as a learning process. A person takes a drug and experiences the psychoactive effect, wh which is highly rewarding or reinforcing, and which activates circuits in the brain that will make it more likely that the person will repeat this behavior. The brain responds as if taking the drug was important for survival. Studies show that the dependence on some drugs is significantly heritable and develops due to the interaction of several genes with other individual and environmental factors. Exposure to drugs could have a much greater effect on somebody who carries a genetic vulnerability to drug depen dependence than on someone who does not. Genetic differences may influence how pleasurable a drug is for an individual, to what extent it harms health, how strong the withdrawal symptoms and cravings are, and how the person Develops tolerance.

Drug addiction is more common among people with mental disorders than among the general population. For example, people with s are more likely to be alcohol Mental disorders dependent at some stage in their lives than people without a mental illness. Conversely, drug-dependent dependent people are more likely to suffer from Mental disorders than non-dependent non people. For instance, people who are dependent on alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine are more likely to suffer from depression than non-dependent dependent people. This indicates either a common basis for both afflictions, or an interaction of effects at some level. Drug use may either eit bring about mental illness, or it may be a way of easing some of the symptoms of a mental disorder or the side effects of medication. edication. Also, since many drugs produce effects typical of some mental illnesses, drug dependence ependence and mental illness may have the same neurobiological causes.

The development of drug addiction can be seen as a learning process


Individuals often suffer from drug problems in combination with depression

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How can addiction to psychoactive drugs be prevented and treated?

The most effective way to treat drug addiction seems to be a combination of medication and behavioral therapies which are a kind of psychotherapy. New and better treatments are currently being developed. Some medications used for the treatment of drug addiction either block the effects of the drug or cause unpleasant reactions. Other substances can be used as substitutes for a drug, for instance methadone can replace heroin. Such substitutes act like the drug in some ways without inducing some of the more harmful effects. Drug addiction can also be treated through various behavioral therapies that try to replace the motivation to use drugs with the Motivation to engage in other behaviors. Such therapies aim to help people unlearn their Drug-taking Drug behavior, learn new ways to respond to cravings, and develop new skills to remain drug-free.

Drug use and addiction i impose a substantial health burden on society. Recent advances in brain research may help to find ways to reduce that burden.

Aspects that should be taken into account to ensure effective actions include:
1. The health impact of drug use depends on the type of drug and the way it issued (amount, frequency, etc.). 2. The greater a people drug use, the higher the risk of becoming dependent. 3. Effective public health programmed can reduce the overall health burden of drug use.

Methadone is a medication used as a substitute for heroin The rapid advances in our understanding of how the brain works brings with it a host of new ethical issues in both research and treatment of drug dependence. Biomedical research is guided by moral principles such as ensuring that the benefits to society are Greater than the risks to those who consent to treatment or research participation. Ethical issues that need to be addressed include, for instance, equality of access to treatment, the potential treatment of persons without their consent, public funding for treatment of Dependence, public credibility of clinical trials, and moral questions arising from animal experimentation and genetic screening.
4.Dependence is caused by many factors and it is currently impossible to predict Who will become drug dependent? 5. Drug dependence is a medical disorder that could affect anyone and that can be treated. 6. Drug dependence and mental illness often affect the same individuals individu . 7.Beyond stopping drug use, effective treatment requires changes in the behaviourof users and often the use of substitute drugs.


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PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS February 8, 2012 8. Treatment must be accessible to all in need. 9. Prejudice and discrimination against drug dependent people is one of th the main barriers to their treatment. 10. Brain research should continue to help devise effective ways to reduce the harm Caused by drug use and dependence. Recent advances in the treatment of drug dependence raise difficult ficult ethical issues that must be addressed.

Reference ;
ICSE Biology-2/pg882 /pg882 URLs :

pdf refrences; refrences

1. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clin Geriatr Med 2002;18:141158. 2002;18:141 2. Campbell AJ, Borrie MJ, Spears GF. Risk factors for falls in a communitycommunity based prospective study of people 70 years and older. J Gerontol 1989;44:M112M117. M117. 3. Cumming RG. Falls and fractures in the elderly. Drugs Aging 1998;12:4353. 4. American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society, and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Falls Prevention. Guideline for the prevention n of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001;49:664672. 672.

5. Rubenstein LZ, Powers CM, MacLean CH. Quality indicators for the management and prevention of falls and mobility problems in vulnerable elders. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:686693. 6. Leipzig RM, Cumming RG, Tinetti ME. Drugs and falls in older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis, meta Part I. Psychotropic drugs. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:3039. 7. Leipzig RM, Cumming RG, Tinetti ME. Drugs and falls in older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis, meta Part II. Cardiac and analgesic drugs. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:4050. 8. Ray WA, Thapa PB, Gideon P. Benzodiazepines and the risk of falls in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:682685. 9. Mendelson WB. The use of sedative/hypnotic medication and itscorrelation with falling down in the hospital. Sleep 1996;19:698701. 1996;19:698

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