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How Poverty & Third-Grade Reading Skills Influence High School Graduation ?

By !s" Sha#yra $ennedy

% Pa&er Su'#itted (or

In Partial (ulfill#ent of )ourse Re*uire#ents for the Bachelor+s of %rts in ,i'eral -ducation .egree /B%,-0

B" %" ," -" )ourse -. 1233 Inde&endent Study

,angston 4niversity School of -ducation and Behavioral Sciences ,angston5 4niversity (or

.r" Randy Hunt Bachelor+s of %rts in ,i'eral -ducation /B%,-05 .irector .ate %&ril 675 8263

Chapter 1 Introduction
% national study of a&&ro9i#ately :35;<7 students 'orn 'etween 6;<; and 6;=;>5 links third grade reading &roficiency5 childhood &overty5 and graduation rates /Hernande?5 82660>" The study showed that children living in &overty were #ore likely to have reading skills that were 'elow &roficiency and less likely to graduate fro# high school5 regardless of their reading skill level /Hernande?5 82660" Hernande? /82660 also states that5 :one out of every si9 child who cannot read

co#&etently 'y the third grade usually do not graduate fro# high school on ti#e 5this a#ount is four ti#es greater than the nu#'er of children who are ca&a'le readers 'y the third grade /@anette5 et al"5 82680>" Twenty-three &ercent of the 'elow-'asic third grade readers donAt graduate fro# high school on ti#e" This is co#&ared to nine &ercent of children who do have the 'asic reading skills and four &ercent of those children who can read co#&etently /Blanchard5 $elley5 and Burstein5 82680" %ccording to Blanchard5 $elley5 and Burstein /826805 a'out :twenty-two &ercent of children who have s&ent ti#e living in &overty fail to graduate fro# high school5 while only si9 &ercent of children who have never 'een &oor donAt graduate>" Bhen #ore than half of a student+s life is s&ent living in &overty5 this rate increases to thirty-two &ercent /Blanchard5 $elley5 & Burstein5 82680" Those children who couldnAt read &roficiently in the third grade and were living in &overty for #ore than one year failed to graduate5 :#ore than si9 ti#es the rate for &roficient readers> /Hernande?5 82660" Black and His&anic students living in &overty had the highest graduation failure rates this a'out :eight ti#es the rate for &roficient readers> /Hernande?5 82660"

Below-&roficiency third grade readers who were Black and His&anic graduated fro# high school at a significantly lower rate than Bhite students with the sa#e level of reading skills" Cinety-eight &ercent of the #ost &roficient third grade readers who had never lived in &overty received their high school di&lo#a on ti#e" This re&ort was 'ased on infor#ation contained in a data'ase of students that were 'orn 'etween 6;<; and 6;=; /Hernande?5 82660" -cono#ic status and other fa#ily factors were surveyed and recorded while childrenAs &rogress in reading :was tracked using the Pea'ody Individual %chieve#ent Test /PI%T0 Reading Recognition su'test /Cichols5 Glass5 and Berliner5 822D0>" To co#&lete the study5 researchers used three se&arate reading grou&s of children into three reading grou&s corres&onding to the skill levels used in the Cational %ssess#ent of -ducational Progress /C%-P0 and se&arated the# into three 'asic inco#e categories /Cichols5 Glass5 and Berliner5 822D0>" It is reco##ended that there 'e so#e actions taken on three distinct areas where &olicies and &rogra#s could 'oost childrenAs success in school" Those three are schools5 fa#ilies5 and govern#ent" /Berliner5 822;0" It is further reco##ended that govern#ent and schools work together on various student-centered initiatives tied to findings fro# the study such as e9&anding Pre-kindergarten5 reducing a'senteeis#5 creating su##er learning o&&ortunities5 and ensuring that schools offer high-*uality instruction /$rashen5 82210" Poverty+s effect on the a'ility reading alone can 'e very negative" (actors other than reading associated with &overty influence high school graduation" Reading a'ility influences high school graduation5 inde&endent of &overty" % nu#'er of studies have confir#ed that &overty has a strong negative influence on reading a'ility /$rashen5 8221E 82660" There is an o'vious reason for this Studies /$rashen5 82210 consistently show that children living in

&overty have little access to 'ooks at ho#e5 at school5 and in their co##unities" ,ess access5 it has 'een shown5 results in less reading5 and less reading results in less literacy develo&#ent"

Chapter 2 Hypothesis
It is &lausi'le to hy&othesi?e that other factors associated with &overty relate to high school graduation" Bhile those factors #entioned 'y Hernande? such as health care have 'een shown to 'e related to school achieve#ent /Berliner5 822;05 an o'vious factor related to highschool co#&letion is &overty itself !any students have to dro& out to work" Those who read 'etter5 regardless of &overty status5 will #ost likely have a 'etter chance of co#&leting high school" Hernande?A data su&&orts this (or those who had e9&erienced &overty as well as those who had not5 'etter readers were #ore likely to finish high school" (or those who had not e9&erienced &overty5 8F of G&roficientG readers dro&&ed out of high schoolE 61F of G'elow 'asicG readers had not" (or those who had e9&erienced &overty5 66F of G&roficientG readers dro&&ed out5 while 36F of G'elow 'asicG readers dro&&ed out" % national study of a&&ro9i#ately 35;<7 students 'orn 'etween 6;<; and 6;=;5 links third grade reading &roficiency5 childhood &overty5 and graduation rates /Hernande?5 82660" The study showed that children living in &overty were #ore likely to have reading skills that were 'elow &roficiency and less likely to graduate fro# high school5 regardless of their reading skill level /Hernande?5 82660" Hernande? /826605 also states that one in si9 children who canAt read &roficiently in third grade fail to graduate fro# high school on ti#e 5which is four ti#es the rate for children who are &roficient readers in the third grade /@anette5 et al"5 82680" Twenty-three &ercent of the 'elow'asic third grade readers donAt graduate fro# high school on ti#e" This co#&ares to nine &ercent

of children who have 'asic reading skills and four &ercent of children who read &roficiently /Blanchard5 $elley5 & Burstein5 82680"

%ccording to Blanchard a'out twenty-two &ercent of children who have s&ent ti#e living in &overty fail to graduate fro# high school5 while only si9 &ercent of children who have never 'een &oor donAt graduate /Blanchard5 $elley5 & Burstein5 82680" Bhen students s&end #ore than half their childhood living in &overty5 that rate increases to thirty-two &ercent /Blanchard5 $elley5 & Burstein5 82680"

Chapter 3 Methodology
The &ri#ary research goal of this &ortion of the work is to e9a#ine the relationshi& 'etween a child+s third-grade reading level and su'se*uent educational outco#es s&ecifically high school graduation and college attendance" Students who were first-ti#e third graders in )hicago Pu'lic Schools /)PS0 during the 6;;DH;< school years co#&rise the focus cohort for this research study" The third-largest school district in the 4nited States5 )PS serves a&&ro9i#ately 1625222 students in #ore than D22 schools" In the 822;-62 school years5 eighty-si9 &ercent of students in )PS were eligi'le for free or reduced-&rice lunch and the #aIority of the student &o&ulation was either %frican %#erican /17F0 or ,atino /16F0" Historically5 )PS students have scored lower on standardi?ed tests as co#&ared to their national &eers" (or e9a#&le5 on the 822; Cational %ssess#ent of -ducation Progress /C%-P0 ad#inistration of the Trial 4r'an .istrict %ssess#ent5 6D &ercent of fourth-grade students and 6< &ercent of eighth-grade students in )PS scored at or a'ove the C%-P &roficient level for reading5 co#&ared to 36 &ercent of fourth-grade students and 8; &ercent of eighth-grade students


Ta'le 6 shows the general grade &rogression for the focus cohort fro# the 6;;DH;< school year through the 822<H2= school year" In addition5 it shows how the nu#'er and &ercent of actively enrolled students changes fro# year to year /'otto# two rows0"
Table 1. The Grade 3 Focus Cohort: Active Students and Grade Levels by School Year
School Year
9697 3 4 5 6 26015 9798 47 1 19,204 9899 !! 4"#!3 17,917 !17 4"#$% 16,759 4% 4"!&# 15,244 !!# 3" 1& 15,371 $$7 3"7 1 13,474 144 4"%43 11,027 1"# # 3"7%4 9,355 $% %!1 $"$#$ 9,009 $ "#1! $4"#41 $$" &% $1"443 $#"!13 1&"74& 17" $! 1 "1!$ 14"3%# 1$"3!3 %$ 1&1 $$# 1"%%% $"3%$ $1 37 3! $#4 3## 9900 0001 0102 0203 0304 0405 0506 0607 0708


7 8 9 10 11 12

Active Students 'ro( )ri*inal Sa(+le ,ercent o' sa(+le lost 'ro( +revious year

7. -

!. -










.otes: 1. .u(bers that a++ear in bold'ace indicate a student/s e0+ected *rade *iven yearly +ro(otion a'ter third *rade. $. ,rior to a*e 17" students 1ho are inactive have le't the district. A'ter a*e 17 21hich can occur anyti(e 'ro( *rades &31$4" inactive students also include students 1ho have dro++ed out and students 1ho have *raduated.

Student retention and #issing data influence the analyses conducted for this study" Because the analyses e9a#ine the relationshi& 'etween third-grade reading level and future educational #ilestones /grade =5 grade ;5 graduation5 and college enroll#ent05 it was necessary to allow for different years of test taking5 ninth-grade entry5 and co#&letion" (or e9a#&le5 if a student was retained in grade 35 then sJhe will take the grade = reading test a year after students who have not re&eated a grade" Si#ilarly5 the graduation rate is

calculated 'ased on whether the student ever graduated5 regardless of when the student entered ninth grade"

Ta'le 8 shows the attrition of our original third grade cohort at each of the key #ilestones" (irst5 875;1= first-ti#e third graders with ITBS reading test scores co#&rise the 'eginning cohort" Kf those students5 6<56<D have eighth-grade ITBS reading scores5 and 6=5888 entered ninth grade in the fall of 82265 82285 82235 or 8221" Kf those students5 615211 students have the following ninth-grade course &erfor#ance infor#ation a'sences5 nu#'er of course failures5 and GP% /charter schools are not re*uired to &rovide grade or a'sence infor#ation to )PS5 so this infor#ation is not contained in the data files0" Re#oving students who leave the district after ninth grade and 'efore graduation5 7= &ercent of students fro# the original third-grade cohort graduated within 7 years" (inally5 of the students fro# the focus cohort who graduated fro# )PS5 71 &ercent of students enroll in college within 6 year of high school graduation"
Table $. Available 5ata 'or the Third3Grade Focus Cohort at Five 6ilestones Time 1 Grade 3 #T$S %eadi!" $!"&4% 'irst3ti(e 3rd *raders 1ith 7T8S readin* scores 'ro( the level & 2on3 *rade4 test Time 2 Grade 8 #T$S %eadi!" 17"$%& students 1ith %th3*rade 7T8S readin* scores Time 3 Grade 9 Course &er'orma!ce Time 4 HS Gradua io! ()i hi! 5 *ears+ Time 5 Colle"e , e!da!ce !"$7# students 2out o' &"7&4 *raduates4 enroll in colle*e 1ithin one year o' *raduation

1%"$$$ students enter &"7&4 students 2out &th *rade in 'all #1" #$" o' 17"#1 active #3" or #4 students4 *raduate in ! years 914"#44 students have course +er'or(ance in'or(ation

The co#&osition of the sa#&le changed slightly over ti#e" (or the first three ti#e &oints /third-grade5 eighth-grade5 and ninth-grade05 the &ro&ortion of #ost grou&s of students re#ains fairly consistent Iust less than half of students are #ale5 a'out D7 &ercent of students are %frican %#erican5 and 3 &ercent of students are of %sian descent" (ewer white students are in the sa#&le in eighth grade than in third grade /=F co#&ared to 68F0 although the &ro&ortion of white graduates and college attendees increases later in ti#e" !ore fe#ale students than #ale

students in this sa#&le graduated and attended college"

(igure 6 shows the &ercent of #ale students and students in each of the #aIor racialJethnic categories at each ti#e &oint"

Fi*ure 1. 5e(o*ra+hic Co(+osition o' the )ri*inal 3 rd Grade Cohort Given Attrition )ver Ti(e %#7##&erce! o' S ude! s


4#3#$#1##Full Sa(+le Students 1ith Students 1ith Gr3 2n:$!"&4%4 Gr% data Gr& data 2n:17"$%&4 2n:14"#444 Graduates 2n:&"7&44 Colle*e attenders 2n:!"$7#4

-8lac; -Latino -<hite -Asian

Fi*ure $ dis+lays other chan*es in the sa(+le over ti(e. Fe1er students 1ith co*nitive disabilities and students 1ho 1ere ever in 'oster care are in the hi*h school *raduate sa(+le as co(+ared to the ninth3*rade sa(+le" 1hich is *enerally si(ilar to the third3*rade sa(+le. Further(ore" even 'e1er students 1ith co*nitive disabilities attend colle*e.
14% 12% 10% &erce! o' S ude! s 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Full Sa(+le Students 1ith Students 1ith Gr3 2n:$!"&4%4 Gr% data Gr& data 2n:17"$%&4 2n:14"#444 Graduates 2n:&"7&44 Colle*e attenders 2n:!"$7#4
Students 1ith identi'ied disability by *rade % Students 1ho s+ent ti(e in 'oster care at any +oint durin* schoolin*

Fi*ure 4. Students at and above *rade level 'or readin* in *rade 3 *raduate at hi*her rates than students belo1 *rade level 2Sa(+le: 17"#1 students active throu*h hi*h school4.
&#%#7#&erce! o' S ude! s

=S Graduates

.on3=S Graduates

At Third-Grade %eadi!" .e/el


Chapter 4 Experimentation and Data Collection

Students who are a'ove-grade-level in third grade in our sa#&le graduated high school and attended college at higher rates than their &eers who were at or 'elow grade level" In this section5 #ultilevel regression #odels was use to e9a#ine the lasting effect of third-grade reading level on four educational outco#es5 a'ove and 'eyond the effect of de#ogra&hic characteristics5 foster care involve#ent5 school effects5 retention effects /re&eating a grade or #ore in school05 and eighth-grade reading &erfor#ance /for outco#es 8-1 only0" The four educational #arkers are /60 eighth-grade reading levelE /80 ninth-grade course &erfor#ance /a'sences5 GP%5 and course failures0E /30 high school graduationE and /10 college attendance" %lthough third-grade reading level does not deter#ine eighth-grade &erfor#ance5 students in our sa#&le who were at or a'ove grade level in third grade were #ore likely to 'e at or a'ove grade level in eighth grade" Kf the students who were 'elow grade level in third grade5 a'out 12 &ercent were also 'elow grade level in eighth grade" )orrelation analyses 'etween third- and eighth-grade reading scores reveal si#ilar findings" Third- and eighth-grade Rasch reading scores for students in this sa#&le are correlated at rL2"D<" In other words5 students with higher third-grade scores also have higher eighth-grade scores5 and the strength of this relationshi& is #oderately strong5 as shown in (igure D" The use of descri&tive statistics was used to show the &erfor#ance of all students and students in foster care at five ti#e &oints grade 35 grade =5 grade ;5 high school graduation5 and college enroll#ent" (irst5 crossta's are used to descri'e the relationshi& 'etween thirdgrade reading &erfor#ance and /60 high school graduation5 /80 college enroll#ent5 and /30 eighth-grade reading level5 without accounting for any additional student or school characteristics"

Ce9t5 #ultilevel regression #odels /students nested within schools0 are used to esti#ate the ga& in high school graduation rates5 college enroll#ent rates5 levels of ninth-grade course &erfor#ance5 and eighth-grade reading levels for students in the below5 at5 and above-grade reading level categories in third grade" (inally5 we e9a#ine how this &erfor#ance ga& changes once we take into account differences in 'ackground characteristics5 foster care involve#ent5 neigh'orhood concentration of &overty5 acade#ic achieve#ent /as #easured 'y eighth-grade test scores and retention05 and school effects" (or this analysis5 we use two #easures of &erfor#ance fro# the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills /ITBS0" (irst5 to define :on grade level5> we rely on the national &ercentile ranks &rovided as &art of the ITBS score re&orts" % student+s national &ercentile rank re&orts the &ercent of students nationwide that received lower raw scores" It shows the student+s

relative &erfor#ance to a grou& of students who were in the sa#e grade and who were tested at the sa#e ti#e of year as the student" Ta'le 3 shows that students whose

&erfor#ance was lower than <7 &ercent of third graders nationwide /'elow the 87th &ercentile0 were defined as 'elow grade level" Students who fell in the #iddle or average range of national &erfor#ance /87th-<1th &ercentile0 were defined as at grade level" Students scoring 'etter than three-*uarters of their &eers on the level ; version of the ITBS test were defined as a'ove grade level"

National Percentile an!ing

Percent o% &ll 'tudents Percent o% 'tudents in (oster Care in "rade 3 in "rade 3 (ocus Cohort) (ocus Cohort) /nL8751=;0 /nL656230 2-81 Below 3=F 78F 87-<1 %t 72F 18F <7-622 %'ove 68F DF Ta'le 3" .efining Third-Grade Perfor#ance 4sing Cational Percentile Rankings MPercentages do not add to 622F 'ecause of rounding" (igure 3" The &ro&ortion of students who are below5 at5 and above grade level for reading varies for students in foster care5 'y gender and 'y race"

"rade #e$el De%inition

%lthough the nu#'er of actively enrolled students and the availa'ility of data at key #ilestones decreases over ti#e5 and the &ro&ortion of students who are below5 at5 and above grade level are different 'y su'grou& /(igure 305 the &ro&ortion of students who are below5 at5 and above grade level who re#ain in the sa#&le is consistent" Students leave the district fro# the below5 at5 and above reading level grou&s in fairly e*ual &ro&ortions" It is not until students leave as dro&outs that the &ro&ortion of 'elow5 at5 and a'ove level active students 'egins to change" The second way that reading &erfor#ance is #easured in this work is 'y converting ITBS reading scores into Rasch scores" Rasch scores &rovide a #ore &recise esti#ation of student &erfor#ance and are in a scale that allows the #easure#ent of acade#ic growth over ti#e" Rasch scores are inde&endent of grade level5 and range fro# third grade to eighth grade" Ta'le 1 dis&lays average student &erfor#ance in Rasch scores" Rasch scores are in logits and difficult to inter&ret5 'ut Iust 'y co#&aring the two #eans5 it is clear that students in eighth grade are &erfor#ing at a #uch higher level than students in third grade"

Mean Grade 3 Rasch Reading Score Grade = Rasch Reading Score -6"361 6"3;<

'D 2";=8 6"677

Min -3";7= -7"7D1

Max 3"6D6 7";21

Ta'le 1" !easuring Reading Perfor#ance using Rasch Scores" 4nfortunately5 we are una'le to align ITBS scores with C%-P /Cational %ssess#ent of -ducational Progress0 levels of &roficiency in this work due to differences in test o'Iectives5 design5 and scoring" ITBS is a 'attery of nor#-referenced #ulti&le choice tests given to students grades 3-=" Scores are 'ased on the nu#'er of correct answers" C%-P tests contain 'oth #ulti&le choice and constructed res&onse ite#s given to a national sa#&le of students in grades four and eight" Proficiency is 'ased on criteria on which e9&erts agree and define as an :overall achieve#ent goal for %#erican students5> not :at grade> &erfor#ance5 according to the Cational %ssess#ent Governing Board /C%GB05 which oversees C%-P &olicies" The tests overla& in content5 'ut are not aligned"

This finding is consistent with our understanding of the cu#ulative nature of education a student+s e9&erience in each grade 'uilds on e9&eriences of the &revious year" There is so#e #ove#ent in ter#s of i#&rove#ent or decline for students who were at grade level in third grade5 'ut little #ove#ent for students at the e9tre#es" (or e9a#&le5 the left set of 'ars shows that students who were 'elow grade level in third grade were &ri#arily 'elow grade level /orange 'ar0 or at grade level /light gray 'ar0 in eighth grade" The far right set of 'ars shows that students who were a'ove grade level in third grade were &ri#arily a'ove grade level in eighth grade as well /dark gray 'ar0" Nery few students in the eighth grade 'elow-grade-level grou& fell fro# 'eing a'ove grade level in third grade /dark gray 'ar0 and si#ilarly5 very few students who were 'elow grade level in third grade were a'ove grade level in eighth grade /orange 'ar0" The ne9t set of analyses utili?ed #ultilevel regression #odels with students clustered within schools" 4sing this a&&roach5 we found that third grade reading level is a significant &redictor of eighth grade reading level even after controlling for de#ogra&hic characteristics /se95 race5 cognitive disa'ility status5 and foster care involve#ent0 and the clustering of students in the school they attended in third grade" (igure < shows how the ga& in eighth-grade reading scores for students in the below, at, and above grade grou&s decreases after controlling for

school effectsD and for de#ogra&hic characteristics5 'ut that significant differences in eighthgrade reading scores for students in the third grade below5 at5 and above grade level grou&s re#ain"
(igure D" !ost students who were 'elow grade level in third grade were either 'elow grade level or at grade level in eighth grade" /Sa#&le 6<58=; students with = th grade ITBS data0
=2F <2F D2F
&erce! o' S ude! s

72F 12F 32F 82F 62F 2F

Below Gr=Below




(igure <" Third-grade reading level re#ains a significant &redictor of eighth-grade reading scores5 even after controlling for third-grade school effects and de#ogra&hic characteristics"
3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0
Actual 3rd *rade readin* Controllin* 'or 3rd *rade +er'or(ance 2n:17"1$ 4 school e''ects Controllin* 'or 3rd *rade school e''ects and de(o*ra+hic characteristics

Chapter * Conclusion
Such 'older and 'roader strategies designed to address the educational needs of low inco#e children will cost #oney5 could 'e co#&le9 and undou'tedly will need to differ fro# &lace to &lace de&ending on the local conte9t" Because #any of the &olicies #ust 'e tailored to the local conte9t5 state and local co##unities will have to &lay a #aIor role" The #ost &roductive ste& for the federal govern#ent in the short run would 'e to eli#inate Co )hild ,eft Behind" The logic of #y argu#ent this afternoon is that in its &lace the federal govern#ent should i#&le#ent strategies designed to hel& state and local govern#ents address in a #ore constructive and &ositive #anner the educational needs of low S-S children and to assure that &oor children have e*ual access to *uality schools" Ideally5 the longer run agenda should also include a #aIor effort to reduce child &overty" !ore research is needed 'oth on the #echanis#s such as &oor &hysical and health5 li#ited out of school o&&ortunities5 and fa#ily stress through which &overty adversely affects student learning5 and on the &rogra#s and co#'inations of strategies 'est suited to address these challenges" Because these strategies are likely to re*uire action 'y #ulti&le govern#ental agencies and to cut across a nu#'er of &olicy areas5 I invite those of you who work in the interrelated areas of education and social &olicy to engage with others who focus on organi?ations and #anage#ent in this i#&ortant endeavor to reduce the i#&act of &overty and low socioecono#ic status on educational outco#es"

e%erences Berliner5 ." 822;" Poverty and Potential Kut-of-School (actors and School Success" Boulder and Te#&e -ducation and the Pu'lic Interest )enter & -ducation Policy Research 4nit" htt& JJe&ic&olicy"orgJ&u'licationJ&overty-and-&otential Blanchard5 @"5 $elley5 !"5 & Burstein5 $" /82680" High Ouality -arly )hildhood ,iteracy Progra#s !aking a .ifference for )hildren ,iving in Poverty" Reading Today5 30/805 12-16. Hernande?5 .onald @" 8266" Double Jeopardy: How Third-Grade Reading Skill and !overty "n#luen$e High S$hool Graduation" The %nnie -" )asey (oundation Cew Pork5 CP" Hott#an5 S" /82685 Se& 880" Getting a read on hel&ing kids" The %regonian" Retrieved fro# htt& JJsearch"&ro*uest"co#JdocviewJ627=3<;6=8?accountidL31=;; @anette5 -" H"5 @5 @" )"5 ,aura5 !" S"5 Heistad5 ."5 )hi-$eung )han5 Hin?5 -"5 & %nn5 S" !" /82680" -arly reading skills and acade#ic achieve#ent traIectories of students facing &overty5 ho#elessness5 and high residential #o'ility" &du$ational Re ear$her, '(/;05 3DD" Retrieved fro# htt& JJsearch"&ro*uest"co#JdocviewJ683822=6=3?accountidL31=;; $ohn5 %" 6;;;" The Schools Kur )hildren .eserve" Boston Houghton !ifflinE $ohn5 %" 8222" The )ase %gainst Standardi?ed Testing" Ports#outh5 CH Heine#ann" $rashen5 S" 8221" The Power of Reading" Ports#outh Heine#ann and Best&ort ,i'raries 4nli#ited" !ulligan5 G"5 Halle5 T"5 & $inukawa5 %" /82680" Reading, )athe)ati$ , and $ien$e a$hieve)ent o# language-)inority tudent in grade *+ i ue brie#+ ,-&S .0(.-0.* Cational )enter for -ducation Statistics" 5 P"K" Bo9 63;=5 @essu&5 !. 82<;1-63;=" Retrieved fro# htt& JJsearch"&ro*uest"co#JdocviewJ62663;<327?accountidL31=;; Cichols5 S"5 Glass5 G"5 and Berliner5 ." 822D" High-stakes testing and student achieve#ent .oes accounta'ility increase student learning? -ducation Policy %rchives 61/60" htt& JJe&aa"asu"eduJe&aaJv61n6J" Schu'ert5 (" and Becker5 R" 8262" Social ine*uality of reading literacy % longitudinal analysis with cross-sectional data of PIR,S 8226and PIS% 8222 utili?ing the &air wise #atching &rocedure" Research in Social Stratification and !o'ility 8; 62;-633"