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-concern for fact or reality and rejection Rationalism -a theory that reason is in itself a source of knowledge superior to and independent of sense perceptions. -a view that reason and experience rather than the nonrational are the fundamental criteria in the solution of problems -the doctrine that reason alone is a source of knowledge and is independent of experience. -Taken to extremes the empiricist view holds that all ideas come to us through experience, either through the external senses or through such inner sensations as pain and gratification, and thus that knowledge is essentially based on or derived from experience. At issue is the fundamental source of human knowledge, and the proper techniques for verifying what we think we know . -Rationalism is from the Latin word ratio meaning reason. So, Rationalists believe that reason is the primary source of knowledge, providing justification for beliefs. -the philosophical view that regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge. Holding that reality itself has an inherently logical structure, the rationalist asserts that a class of truths exists that the intellect can grasp directly. There are, according to the rationalists, certain rational principlesespecially in logic and mathematics, and even in ethics and metaphysicsthat are so fundamental that to deny them is to fall into contradiction. The rationalists confidence in reason and proof tends, therefore, to detract from his respect for other ways of knowing.

- in philosophy, the view that all concepts originate in experience, that all concepts are about or applicable to things that can be experienced, or that all rationally acceptable beliefs or propositions are justifiable or knowable only through experience. This broad definition accords with the derivation of the term empiricism from the ancient Greek word empeiria, experience.

-Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. -is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern scientific method, that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith; that is, empirical research and a posteriori inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic. -The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge. -search for knowledge by observation and experiment -the theory that sense experience is the only source of knowledge -a disregarding of scientific methods and relying solely on experience -Belief that all knowledge of matters of fact as distinct from knowledge of logical relations among assumptions or concepts is based on (or comes from) observation and experience. Empiricism relies on what piecemeal information is at hand and follows self-correcting experimentation in pursuit of greater knowledge. In general, an empiricist is described as one who looks first and thinks afterwards, as opposed to a rationalist who thinks first and looks afterwards. In management, empiricism is more applicable where a pressing need to do something precludes the possibility of a detailed analysis and full understanding of the situation. Most inventions emerge from empiric (observational) thinking, whereas most discoveries result from analytic or rationalistic thinking.

- is the view that, for any specific kind of entity, there is a set of characteristics or properties all of which any entity of that kind must possess. Therefore all things can be precisely defined or described. In this view, it follows that terms or words should have a single definition and meaning.[1] -In simple terms, essentialism is a generalization stating that certain properties possessed by a group (e.g. people, things, ideas) are universal, and not dependent on context. For example, the statement 'all human beings are mortal' is essentialist. -According to essentialism, a member of a specific group may possess other characteristics that are neither needed to establish its membership nor preclude its membership, but that essences do not simply reflect ways of grouping objects; they also result in properties of the object, as the object can be subjugated to smaller contexts. -The metaphysical theory that the essential properties of an object can be distinguished from those that are accidental to it.

- in its most stripped down meaning refers to the belief that people and/or phenomenon have an underlying and unchanging 'essence'. I like to work with a definition that refers to any statement that seeks to close off the possibility of changeable human behaviour. The term essentialism is commonly used in three main ways. Firstly it refers to the use of biological, physiological and, increasingly, genetic, causes as explanations for human social behaviour. In this case little, if any, explanatory weight is given to psychological, sociological or cultural explanations. An example would be to argue that men are more aggressive than women and that this is inevitable due to hormonal differences. So the intention here is to use biology to argue that a particular social difference and/or behaviour is unchangeable. A second use of the term essentialism is when generalised statements are asserted that make no reference to crosscultural differences or previous historical variation. This is also sometimes called universalism. An example would be to state that men are more visual then women, in all cultures and at all times. Against this a sociologist or anthropologist may argue that the way we use our senses, and which ones we prioritise, is very definately something that varies between cultures and throughout history.

Thirdly, the term essentialism refers to when in everyday conversation or also in academic writing we make use of unified concepts. This means when we talk of the experiences, for example, of white disabled women. Now at first glance this is better than simply making a generalisation about 'women' or the 'disabled' per se. However even when we introduce a few levels of specification we still talk in a highly problematic way. In other words, to use the above example, the experiences of white, disabled, women is not unified but highly mixed or variable (or 'heterogeneous' to use a longer word) and is also likely to change over time due to differing economic and cultural conditions. This third sort of essentialism is tolerated more (certainly in acdemic writing) than the first two, but still remains problematic.

-is the belief and practice centered on a philosophical claim that for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics, all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. A member of a specific kind of entity may possess other characteristics that are neither needed to establish its membership nor preclude its membership. It should be noted that essences do not simply reflect ways of grouping objects, essences must result in properties of the object.

-believe that one should teach the things that one deems to be of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. They believe that the most important topics develop a person. Since details of fact change constantly, these cannot be the most important. Therefore, one should teach principles, not facts. Since people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or techniques. Since people are people first, and workers second if at all, one should teach liberal topics first, not vocational topics. A particular strategy with modern perennialists is to teach scientific reasoning, not facts. They may illustrate the reasoning with original accounts of famous experiments. This gives the students a human side to the science, and shows the reasoning in action. Most importantly, it shows the uncertainty and false steps of real science. Although perennialism may appear similar to essentialism, perennialism focuses first on personal development, while essentialism focuses first on essential skills. Essentialist curricula thus tend to be much more vocational and fact-based, and far less liberal and principle-based. Both philosophies are typically considered to be teacher-centered, as opposed to student-centered philosophies of education such as progressivism. However, since the teachers associated with perennialism are in a sense the authors of the Western masterpieces themselves, these teachers may be open to student criticism through the associated Socratic method, which, if carried out as true dialogue, is a balance between students, including the teacher promoting the discussion. Perennialism is often associated with the belief that "All religions say the same thing". Given the manifold expressions of the religious impulse throughout history, many find this hard to believe. Do all religions talk about God? What about Buddhism? Do all religions preach individual salvation? What about Judaism? Do all religions teach reincarnation? What about Christianity? It is obvious that on the level of content, the perennialist claim is difficult to defend. Therefore, perennialists often make a division between exoteric and esoteric religion. Exoteric religion is culturally conditioned, specific, local, dogmatic -- esoteric religions is cross-cultural, generic, global and tolerant. Exoteric religions are the cause of much strife and war in the world, since essentially exoteric religion cannot conceive religious truth to be anything else then it's own particular doctrine. Only true believers (in that particular doctrine) go to heaven; "nonbelievers" (in that particular doctrine) can be killed even for their own sake. (This may sound pretty medieaval, but then again, we see it played out even in the world of today).

Progressivism is a political movement that represents the interests of ordinary people in their roles as taxpayers, consumers, employees, citizens, and parents. To coin a phrase, progressivism champions government "of the people, by the people, for the people."Given this mission, one might expect all democracies to be made up predominantly of one or another Progressive parties. Unfortunately, this isn't the case. - is a political philosophy that takes as its objective the greatest political and economic good of the greatest number (sometimes called the common good). It is, therefore, a form of liberal populism. Progressives do not seek change merely for the sake of change, but rather insofar as the institutions and practices of a society depart from this objective and hence require reform. Progressivism thus stands in sharpest contrast to economic elitism and political authoritarianism.

-Progressives sought the advancement of humanity (progress was defined here in Darwinian terms; i.e., the actually improvement of mankind in an evolutionary sense). Progressives sought advancement through the liberation of human energies and potential from both the fading restraints of past ages and the new restraints imposed by modern industrialism. Progressivism was, thus, both forward-looking and backward-looking in its outlook. -the principles and practices of progressives.

-offers an explanation of reality or human experience in which ideas or spiritual. -The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form. -the cherishing or pursuit of high or noble principles, purposes, goals, etc. -the tendency to represent things in an ideal form, or as they might or should be rather than as they are, with emphasis on values.

- is the philosophical theory which maintains that experience is ultimately based on mental activity. -in philosophy, any view that stresses the central role of the ideal or the spiritual in the interpretation of experience. It may hold that the world or reality exists essentially as spirit or consciousness, that abstractions and laws are more fundamental in reality than sensory things, or, at least, that whatever exists is known in dimensions that are chiefly mentalthrough and as ideas.

The curriculum theories of reconstructionism and perennialism are polar opposites. Reconstructionism focuses on society. They believe that the curriculum should be a method of change and social reform for society. Furthermore, they see the schools as the solution to different social crisis. On the other hand, perennialists believe that the curriculum should focus on the intellect by teaching the classical subjects. In addition, both theories have different views about the roles of the teacher, what subjects should be emphasized, and what knowledge should be imparted to students. Reconstructionism is clearly defined by an attempt to change societal values, behaviors, etc by using schools as the vehicle. Throughout history our schools in the United States have been used as a means of cultural change. A tool used by society, government, school officials, and communities to reshape some aspect of culture.

- is a term applied to the work of several 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,[1][2][3] shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subjectnot merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual.[4] In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world.[5] Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. [6][7] -existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility. The belief is that people are searching to find out who and what they are throughout life as they make choices based on their experiences, beliefs, and outlook. And personal choices become unique without the necessity of an objective form of truth. An existentialist believes that a person should be forced to choose and be responsible without the help of laws, ethnic rules, or traditions.

-Realism, Realist or Realistic are terms that describe any manifestation of philosophical realism, the belief that reality exists independently of observers, whether in philosophy itself or in the applied arts and sciences. In this broad sense it is frequently contrasted with Idealism. -Realism-interest in or concern for the actual or real, as distinguished from the abstract, speculative, etc.

-the tendency to view or represent things as they really are. of the impractical and visionary