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Click card # to mark/un-mark cardmark allun-mark all # Front Side Back Side

Using Figure 21.1, match the following: 1) Heavy chain. Answer: B 2) Light chain. Answer: D 1 3) Variable region. Answer: C 4) Constant region. Answer: E 5) Antigenbinding site. Answer: A

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Back Side Using Figure 21.2, match the following: 6) Area where B cells become immunocompet ent. Answer: C 7) Area where T cells become immunocompet ent. Answer: B 8) Area where activated immunocompet ent B and T cells recirculate. Answer: E 9) Area seeded by immunocompet ent B and T cells. Answer: D 10) Area where antigen challenge and clonal selection are most likely to occur. Answer: D 11) First line of defense. D

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Match the following: 3 A) Inflammatory response and skin and mucous membranes B) Immune response C) Inflammatory response D) Intact skin and mucous membranes

12) Second line of defense. C 13) Third line of defense. B 14) Innate defense system. A

Answer: A 17) Major innate mechanism that mediates destruction of foreign substances in the body. B 16) Small proteins secreted by virus-containing cells.# Front Side Back Side 15) Adaptive defense system. Answer: A 22) Protects mucosal Match the following: A) Interferon B) Regulatory T cells 4 C) Complement D) Helper T cells E) APCs Match the following: A) IgG 5 B) IgD C) IgE D) IgA E) IgM . Answer:C 18) Stimulate the proliferation of other lymphocytes. Answer:B 20) Present the double activation signal to T cell Answer: E 21) Main antibody of both primary and secondary immune response. Answer: D 19) Dampen the activity of both T cells and B cells.

A) thymus B) spleen C) bone marrow D) lymph nodes 5) Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response? A) prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue B) replaces injured tissues with connective tissue C) disposes of cellular debris and pathogens D) sets the stage for repair processes 6) The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________. Answer: D 23) Involved in allergies. Answer: E Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies? A) carbohydrate structure B) composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains C) three binding sites per antibody monomer D) incapable of being transferred from one person to another 2) Which of the following is associated with passive immunity? A) exposure to an antigen B) infusion of weakened viruses C) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus D) booster shot of vaccine 3) Which of the following is not a type of T cell? A) cytotoxic B) antigenic C) helper D) regulatory 4) B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________. Answer: B 25) Activates complement. A) vasodilation B) vasoconstriction 6 Answer: B 7 Answer: C 8 Answer: B 9 Answer: C 1 0 Answer: B 1 1 Answer: A . Answer: C 24) Along with IgM.# Front Side Back Side barriers. this is a B cell receptor.

adherence. ingestion. digestion. C) NK cells attack cells that display abnormal MHC antigens. 10) The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________. spleen. B) NK cells are present in the blood. ingestion. chemotaxis B) chemotaxis. D) NK cells attack cancer cells and virus-infected body cells.# Front Side C) phagocyte mobilization D) production of complement and interferon 7) The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds. killing. killing D) ingestion. which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned? A) antigen B) interferon C) antibody D) complement 9) Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement? A) NK cells are a type of neutrophil. chemotaxis. lymph nodes. and red bone marrow. A) disulfide B) hydrogen C) amino acid D) sodium 8) In clonal selection of B cells. adherence. digestion. A) diapedesis B) chemotaxis C) margination D) phagocytosis 11) Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________. A) haptens B) antibodies C) ions D) reagins 12) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis? A) adherence. ingestion. killing 13) The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________. A) regulatory cells B) helper cells C) cytotoxic cells D) plasma cells 14) Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity? A) intracellular pathogens that reside within host cells B) some cancer cells Back Side 1 2 Answer: A 1 3 Answer: A 1 4 Answer: A 1 5 Answer: B 1 6 Answer: A 1 7 Answer: C 1 8 Answer: C 1 9 Answer: D . adherence. digestion. digestion. killing C) chemotaxis.

21) ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area. A) Isografts are between identical twins. nucleic acids. A) Basophils B) Eosinophils C) Macrophages D) B cells 16) Interferons ________. A) The type of antigen B) Memory cell production C) Enzymes present at the time of the invasion D) Our genes 18) Regulatory T cells ________. A) are virus-specific. B) Allografts are between different species. A) Cytokines B) Perforins C) Interleukin 1 proteins D) Interleukin 2 proteins 22) Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms? A) keratin B) cilia Back Side 2 0 Answer: C 2 1 Answer: C 2 2 Answer: D 2 3 Answer: C 2 4 Answer: A 2 5 Answer: B 2 6 Answer: A 2 7 Answer: D . glycoproteins. 20) Which of the statements below does not describe antigens? A) Antigens exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity. C) Xenografts are between individuals of the same species. D) Autografts are between two genetically identical individuals. B) Antigens only come from microbes. A) release cytokines that increase the activity of cytotoxic T cells and activated B cells B) decrease their activity as antigenic stimulus decreases C) may function in preventing autoimmune reactions D) are the most thoroughly understood T cells 19) Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.# Front Side C) foreign tissue transplants D) pathogens in the CNS 15) ________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections. so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus B) act by increasing the rate of cell division C) interfere with viral replication within cells D) are routinely used in nasal sprays for the common cold 17) ________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist. D) Antigens can include proteins. C) The parts of antigen molecules that initiate immune responses are called epitopes or antigenic determinants. and certain large polysaccharides. lipoproteins.

A) natural killer cells B) T lymphocytes C) B lymphocytes D) pinocytosis 27) Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites. This phenomenon is termed ________. A) diapedesis B) agglutination C) opsonization D) chemotaxis 28) Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system? A) It is antigen-specific. enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. D) It is specific for a given organ. 29) Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________. B) It is systemic.# Front Side C) gastric juice D) phagocytes 23) Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens? A) small molecules B) reactivity with an antibody C) contain many repeating chemical units D) inhibit production of antibodies 24) B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________. C) It has memory. A) using a xenograft B) use of immunosuppressive drugs C) treatment with antilymphocyte serum D) total body irradiation 26) Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________. A) juvenile diabetes B) hepatitis C) rabies D) pregnancy 30) Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction? A) immune complex hypersensitivity B) anaphylaxis C) cytotoxic hypersensitivity Back Side 2 8 Answer: B 2 9 Answer: D 3 0 Answer: A 3 1 Answer: A 3 2 Answer: C 3 3 Answer: D 3 4 Answer: A 3 5 Answer: D . A) reducing its size B) immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies C) forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell D) producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells 25) Graft rejection may be caused by ________.

37) Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity. which seems to inhibit bacterial replication 35) Immunocompetence ________. A) is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous B) decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy C) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat Answer: C to a higher setting D) causes the liver to release large amounts of iron. and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens. A) B cells B) T cells Answer: D C) plasma cells D) phagocytosis 32) Which of the following statements is incorrect or false? A) Haptens lack immunogenicity unless attached to protein carriers. thymic cells. B) Class 1 MHC molecules are built into the plasma membranes of all body cells.# Front Side Back Side 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 D) allergic contact dermatitis 31) Innate immune system defenses include ________. during which cells line up against the capillary wall B) margination. Answer: C C) Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigenpresenting cells. A) diapedesis. A) occurs in one specific organ of the adaptive immune system B) is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it Answer: B C) prevents intercellular communication so that only specific cell types respond to the invader D) requires exposure to an antigen 36) Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self. 33) Phagocyte mobilization involves ________. A) Immunological memory is established by passive immunization. D) MHC proteins are the cell’s identity markers. D) Tolerance is developed during fetal life. C) Tolerance to self is due to the action of foreign antigens that inactivate the immune response to one's own tissues. B) Neutrophils capable of binding to self-antigens are chemically Answer: D inactivated. B) A vaccination is an example of the introduction of passive immunity Answer: D into the body. C) The antibodies utilized in active immunity are acquired from another ." A) The development of tolerance is specific to B cells only. which is the process of white cell movement through the Answer: C walls of capillaries into injured tissues C) mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas D) monocytes as the most active phagocyte 34) Fever ________.

B) The largest type of antigen is called a hapten. A) are mediated by B cells B) include allergic contact dermatitis C) include anaphylactic shock. B) The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins. C) Hodgkin's disease is a hereditary immunodeficiency found in children. D) Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies. A) are also called cytotoxic T cells B) are a type of phagocyte C) are cells of the adaptive immune system D) can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated 44) Select the correct statement about antigens. 45) Clonal selection of B cells ________. C) They include allergic contact dermatitis. D) The most common form of immunodeficiency is graft-versus-host (GVH) disease. B) They are are adaptive immune responses to disease organisms. 38) Cytotoxic T cells ________. D) One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.# Front Side organism. 42) Delayed hypersensitivities ________. A) bind tightly to target cells and release a lymphotoxin called perforin B) often function to decrease the immune response C) release B7 proteins D) function in the adaptive immune system activation 40) Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency. C) Only small antigens exhibit reactivity. A) are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells B) require the double recognition signal of I MHC plus II MHC on the target cell in order to function C) function mainly to stimulate the proliferation of other T cell populations D) self-destruct once the antigen has been neutralized 39) Helper T cells ________. A) Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) disease is an acquired condition. a systemic vasodilation that results in inadequate blood delivery to all tissues D) do not involve T cells 43) Natural killer (NK) cells ________. 41) Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities? A) They are also called type IV hypersensitivities. Back Side 4 3 Answer: A 4 4 Answer: D 4 5 Answer: B 4 6 Answer: D 4 7 Answer: B 4 8 Answer: D 4 9 Answer: D 5 Answer: B . A) "Self-antigens" is another name for incomplete antigens. D) They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.

6 C) The membrane attack complex consists of complement proteins C3a through C5. D) The most potent agglutinating agent is IgG.# Front Side 0 A) occurs during fetal development B) results in the formation of plasma cells C) cannot occur in the presence of antigens D) only occurs in the secondary immune response 46) The primary immune response ________. D) Complement proteins C1 through C9 act exclusively in the classical pathway. 5 52) Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per 7 functional antibody unit? Back Side Answer: D Answer: C Answer: B Answer: B Answer: B Answer: A Answer: D . A) occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the secondary response 5 B) occurs when memory cells are stimulated 1 C) is another name for immunological memory D) has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells 47) Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies. and alternate." B) Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells 5 to clump together. 2 C) Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection. 48) Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity? A) B cell 5 B) helper T cell 3 C) cytotoxic T cell D) APC 49) Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease? A) multiple sclerosis 5 B) type II diabetes 4 C) systemic lupus erythematosus D) glomerulonephritis 50) Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders? A) exposure of previously "hidden" self-antigens to the adaptive immune system 5 B) a second exposure to an allergen 5 C) mutation followed by the appearance of membrane proteins not previously present D) cross-reaction of antibodies formed against foreign antigens with selfantigens 51) Select the correct statement about complement. A) An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target. A) Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders. 5 secondary. B) Complement can be activated through three pathways: classical.

C) IgG contains 6 binding sites. Fill-in-the-Blank/Short Answer Questions Back Side Answer: B Answer: B Answer: A Answer: B Answer: A Answer: C Answer: Xenografts . C) Once activated. which then activates a subpopulation of killer cells. the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur. D) They will develop into cytotoxic T cells if antigen is complexed with class II MHC proteins. C) After becoming immunocompetent. 53) Antibody functions include all of the following except ________. D) IgM contains 10 binding sites. they cannot secrete cytokines. A) cytokines B) histamine C) prostaglandins D) complement 56) Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work? A) neutralizing antigen B) activating cytokines C) enhancing phagocytosis D) agglutinating and precipitating antigen 57) What is the role of interferon in defense against disease? A) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses B) protects cells that have not yet been infected by bacteria C) activates the complement mechanism D) activates the inflammatory process 58) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? A) The lymphoid organs where lymphocytes become immunocompetent are called primary lymph organs.# 5 8 5 9 6 0 6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 Front Side A) IgD contains 4 binding sites. D) T cells and B cells become fully immunocompetent when they bind with recognized antigens. All other lymphoid organs are referred to as secondary lymphoid organs. 55) Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene. A) binding and inactivating chemical toxins released by bacteria or other microorganisms B) cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched C) linking soluble antigens together so that they fall out of solution D) targeting foreign cells so that complement proteins can cause cellular lysis 54) Which statement is true about T cells? A) They usually directly recognize antigens. that determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist. B) IgA contains 6 binding sites. not antigens. B) Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2. B) It is our genes.

making the capillaries very leaky and thus depleting blood 8 shock or Sepsis fluids. itis Answer: Innate body defenses to disease include surface membrane barriers. # . such as the skin and mucous membranes. 7 8) The antibody that becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and Answer: IgE 1 causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals is ________. 6 2) Pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant Answer: 5 are called ________ antibodies. monoclonal 6 Answer: 3) ________ is the most common type of immediate hypersensitivity. 6 Answer: 6) Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms are called ________. sebum.Front Side Back Side 1) ________ are grafts taken from another animal species. Not 12) List and briefly discuss innate body defenses to disease. hybridoma 7 10) ________ cells are the only T lymphocytes that can directly attack Answer: 3 and kill other cells. mucus. 5 only do the skin and mucous membranes act as a physical barrier to microorganisms . 6 Allergy 6 4) ________ cells can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body Answer: Natural 7 cells before the immune system is activated. 9 pathogens 7) ________ refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally 7 Answer: circulate in an inactive state and are a major mechanism for destroying 0 Complement foreign substances in the body. killer 5) ________ is a dangerous condition where the cytokines are released 6 Answer: Septic unchecked. as the first line of 7 defense. but they also secrete chemicals such as saliva. Cytotoxic T Answer: 7 11) ________ is an autoimmune disease that severely impairs renal Glomerulonephr 4 function. 7 9) A(n) ________ is a cell hybrid formed from the fusion of tumor cells Answer: 2 and B lymphocytes.

They are produced from the progeny of a single B cell hybridoma "clone. Innate cellular defenses include the use of phagocytes and natural killer cells. Answer: Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibody preparations that exhibit specificity for a single antigenic determinant. increased vascular permeability. and what 6 are some of their clinical uses? Back Side and HCl that kill microorganisms . and phagocyte mobilization.# Front Side 7 13) What are monoclonal antibodies? How are they produced. Antimicrobial substances such as interferon and complement are also produced as innate defenses by the body." prepared by injecting a specific antigen . Inflammation occurs in response to injury. The inflammation response includes vasodilation.

Answer: The antigen challenge is the first encounter between an immunocompet ent lymphocyte and an invading antigen. Answer: They are vital in the final stopping of an immune response after the antigen is . rabies. It usually takes place in the spleen or a lymph node. and the resulting hybridoma cells (B cells fused with myeloma cells) produce the monoclonal antibody. and for other purposes. The cells are mixed with myeloma cells and incubated. and where does it usually take place? 7 7 15) Why are regulatory T cells important to the immune process? 8 Back Side into a lab animal and then harvesting sensitized B cells from its spleen. They are used for the diagnosis of pregnancy. but may happen in any lymphoid tissue. certain sexually transmitted diseases.# Front Side 7 14) What is the antigen challenge. hepatitis.

the T cells will not mature and become immunocompet ent.# Front Side 16) What is the most likely type of hypersensitivity associated with an 7 agonizingly itchy case of poison ivy. heat. Answer: The hypersensitivity associated with poison ivy is delayed hypersensitivity allergic contact dermatitis. or a positive TB test? 8 17) Children born without a thymus must be kept in a germ-free 0 environment if they are to survive. The hypersensitivity associated with hives is a local anaphylactic reaction. 8 18) What are the signs of inflammation. and how does inflammation 1 serve as a protective function? Back Side inactivated. This is of . Answer: If the thymus fails to develop. Answer: The four signs of inflammation are swelling. there is no resistance to disease. If T cell function is disrupted. The hypersensitivity associated with a positive TB test is delayed hypersensitivity. appearance of hives after eating 9 shellfish. Explain why this is necessary. They may also help prevent autoimmune reactions. and pain. The signs are caused by local vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. redness.

(type I) diabetes. glomerulonephri tis. and allows the entry of clotting proteins. Answer: Multiple sclerosis. the Front Side . rheumatoid arthritis. myasthenia gravis.# 8 2 8 3 8 4 Back Side benefit because the process helps to dilute harmful substances that may be present. Pain helps immobilize the injury. juvenile 19) Name four autoimmune diseases. and cells necessary for the repair process. brings in large quantities of oxygen. Give an explanation for this observation that relates to immune ages. nutrients. 21) Elderly people tend to develop cancer more frequently than younger Answer: As one people. Answer: 1) Appearance of new selfproteins in the circulation that have not 20) What are two general mechanisms by which autoimmune diseases previously been could arise? exposed to the immune system. 2) An immune response to foreign antigens resembling selfantigens. Graves' disease. systemic lupus erythematosus.

Pus indicates the presence of dead or dying neutrophils.# 8 5 8 6 Back Side function. The inoculations are of great benefit in preventing 22) Why do schools require inoculations for childhood diseases such as the diseases mumps. Answer: The inoculations are required to try to prevent epidemics of these microbiological infections. What has happened to the wound? indicate acute inflammation. and whooping cough? Why are the inoculations of because the value? vaccines cause immunity to the pathogens by stimulating both the formation of protective antibodies and the establishment of immunological memory against future infection Answer: The wound has become infected. probably with bacteria. heat. This may allow cancer to become established more easily. and redness. The 23) Tom gets a cut on his hand. Front Side . measles. Upon opening the wound to relieve the pressure. initial pain. efficiency of the immune system begins to decline. After several days he notes swelling. symptoms the presence of pus is noted.

# 8 7 8 8 8 9 Back Side broken-down tissue cells. stage. There is Information taken during the personal history reveals that he has multiple no cure and sex partners with whom he frequently engages in unprotected sex. it does not trigger 24) What are some of the drawbacks of passive humoral immunity? memory cell production. Next. Answer: The ABO and other blood group antigens of the donor and recipient must be determined. and your body degrades the antibodies. Answer: The effects are short lived. A physical examination reveals swollen to this advanced lymph nodes. donor and recipient tissues are matched as 2) A young girl requires a liver transplant due to failure of her liver to closely as function. Front Side . Following surgery she must receive immunosuppres sive therapy to keep her body from rejecting the new liver as foreign tissue. What drug therapy has is likely to be the man's problem and what is his outlook? had limited short-term success. He has purple-brown skin lesions (a symptom of Kaposi's has progressed sarcoma) and a persistent cough. What is required for her to have a good prognosis and why? possible. and living and dead pathogens. and laboratory tests find a very low lymphocyte count. Answer: He is probably suffering from Clinical Questions AIDS. His outlook is poor 1) A 36-year-old man enters the hospital in an extremely debilitated once the disease condition.

Answer: Max could be given an immune serum to the rattlesnake venom. thereby conferring passive immunity. What treatment would be given and why? Back Side Answer: The woman is suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. She was 0 involved in an automobile accident a couple days ago but only bruised her neck. The reason for passive immunization is that the venom could kill the person before active immunity could be established. The immune system has mounted an attack on the thyroid gland. His friends 9 immediately apply ice packs to the bitten area to slow the spread of the 1 protein-based toxin. The automobile accident injured the thyroid gland and released thyroidglobulin into the bloodstream. The passive immunity would last until the "borrowed" antibodies naturally degraded in the body. What could be the problem? 4) Max is bitten by a rattlesnake while on a camping trip. they then rush him to an emergency facility. No immunological memory would be established because B cells .# Front Side 3) A woman comes into the hospital emergency room complaining that 9 she is having problems swallowing and her neck is swelling.

The patient's temperature is 100. Answer: A mild or moderate fever is an adaptive response that seems to benefit the body.4 F. Explain the rationale for not to multiply. Answer: The primary defect in patients with AIDS is depletion of helper T cells. mediated response. a 32-year-old male patient has includes speed an anaphylactic reaction.4 F. which helps to reduce the bacterial population. and therefore 6) Nursing care of a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome the cell(AIDS) includes monitoring of T lymphocyte counts. During fever. The nurse understands that therapeutic in recognition of management includes what critical items? signs and symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction because Front Side . Bacteria need large amounts 5) A physician orders Tylenol for a temperature greater than 101 degrees of zinc and iron F.# 9 2 9 3 9 4 Back Side are not activated. Explain why. medicating a fever of 100. the liver and spleen sequester these nutrients. making them less available. This immunodeficien cy makes the patient more susceptible to infection and unusual cancers. Answer: Therapeutic management 7) After receiving penicillin intravenously.

Good luck in your class! . heat. and swelling are not manifested. In this 5 case. making it difficult to breathe. I will try to reply within 48 hours.# Front Side 8) When the white blood cell count is depressed. the classic signs of 9 infection such as redness. 6 Thank you for taking the time to view my notecards! Back Side death can occur within minutes. because the bronchioles constrict. 9 Please message me. Answer: Aspirin would disguise a fever that would indicate infection. the nurse should avoid administering aspirin. If you have any questions or notice any mistakes. Maintaining an open airway is critical. Explain why.