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S.

Mekid 1
Rolling Contact Bearings
(Chapter 11)
Dr Samir Mekid

Mechanical Engineering Department
KFUPM


ME 308 Machine Design II

Semester 131- 2013
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Rolling Contact Bearings
2

1. Introduction
2. Bearing Types
3. Ball Bearing Nomenclature
4. Bearing Life
5. Bearing Loads
6. Load-Life trade-off
7. Bearing Survival, Reliability and Goal
8. Equivalent Load
9. Ball and Roller Bearing Selection
10. Selection of Tapered Roller Bearings
11. Lubrication Mounting and Enclosure
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Various types


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Objectives

1- Types of rolling bearings

2- How to choose them? (No design of RCB!)
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We will learn the following:

1. Types of bearings
2. How do we select them depending on application
3. Calculate forces applied to bearings in all directions
4. Estimate life time of bearings
5. Understand failure mechanisms in bearings
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Rolling Bearings
History:
1. As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and
Babylonians used rollers inserted between
enormous stones and ground to reduce
friction.
2. The wheel based on sliding motion came
later.
3. The bicycle introduced the need for rolling
elements.
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Bearings
Journal (Sleeve) Bearings
Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact

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Bearing Types
Rolling
Element
Pure radial load
(Cylindrical roller bearings)
Pure Thrust load
(Cylindrical and Ball)
Combination load
(Deep groove ball, Tapered
roller, Angular contact
bearings)
Sliding (Journal)
Bearings
Pure radial
Pure Thrust
Combination

In general
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Bearings
RCB
SCB
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Journal Bearings
Radial
(Plain Bearings, sleeves)
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Thrust Journal Bearing
Ch 11. Notes
Thrust
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Other Types
Magnetic
bearings




Air bearings

Micro/Nano
bearings
13


Flat Pad air bearings
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Why Rolling-Contact Bearings?
RCB are used to minimize the friction resulting
from relative motion performed under load.
RCB are used to describe bearings in which the
main load is transferred through rolling elements.
Typical applications include supporting shafts
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Design Considerations
Bearing life and reliability
Bearing speed (rpm)
Space limitation
Accuracy
Bearing load radial, thrust (axial) or both
Radial load
Radial load
Thrust load
Bearings are selected from catalogs, before referring to catalogs
you should know the followings:
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Bearing Nomenclature
Inner and outer races are typically pressed onto shafts or hubs with slight
interference fit to make them move with shafts (inner race) or remain stationary
(outer race)
Ball
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Ball Bearings
How are the balls introduced
between the races?

Expecting answers from you in the next
lecture !
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Assembly of single-row deep groove ball bearings
In the assembly of this type of bearing, the inner race is placed
eccentric with the outer race, and then the balls are inserted in the
crescent shaped space.

The balls are then evenly spaced as the races are brought into
concentric relation.

The halves of the retainers are then assembled so that the balls will
remain evenly spaced but can rotate freely.

Even spacing of the balls is desirable from the standpoints of:
Distribution of the load and
Balance of the bearings.

The four steps in the assembly of the deep groove
type ball bearing
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Rolling Contact Bearings
Deep groove (Conrad) bearing
Filling notch ball bearing or maximum capacity bearing
Angular contact bearings (AC)
1. Ball bearings
3. Thrust bearings
4. Linear bearings
Cylindrical bearings
Needle bearings
Tapered bearings
Spherical bearings
2. Roller bearings
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Ball Bearings
2. Filling notch or maximum capacity ball bearings
Bearings have the same basic radial construction as Conrad type.
However, a filling notch (loading groove) permits more balls to
be used.
Thrust load capacity drops to 20% (2 directions) of radial
load capacity.
Notch
Radial load capacity is 20 40% higher than Conrad type
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Ball Bearings
3. Angular contact bearings (AC)
The centerline of contact between the balls and the raceway is
at an angle to the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.
Used for high radial and thrust load applications
Extra support
in the back
Direction
of thrust
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Roller Bearings
Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings, load is
transmitted through line contact instead of point contact.
Straight cylindrical roller
Needle type
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Roller Bearings
Tapered bearings
Designed to withstand high radial loads, high thrust loads, and
combined loads at moderate to high speeds. They can also withstand
repeated shock loads.
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Ball Bearing Types
25
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Notes on Bearings
Bearings maybe obtained with shields on one or
both sides. Shields provide a degree of protection
against dirt.
Some bearings are manufactured with seals in one
or both sides. If sealed on both sides, bearings
are lubricated at the factory.
Starting friction is almost twice the running
friction.
Bearings are manufactured to take either pure
radial load, pure thrust load or a combination of
both.
Bearing makers usually provide manuals to
describe the various types. (www.skf.com,
www.fag.com, www.timken.com )
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Ball Bearings Forces
Angular ball bearings have higher thrust load capacity in
one direction than Radial ball bearings.
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Ball bearing self aligning
28
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Mounting and Enclosure of Bearings
Duplex Mounting of angular contact bearings: Bearings manufactured for this purpose
have their rings ground with an offset so that they are tightly clamped together and
a preload is automatically established (as you have seen on the animation).
a) Face to face mounting (DF) for heavy F
r
and F
a
from either direction
b) Back to back mounting (DB)= a)+ aligning stiffness
c) Tandem arrangement (DT) for thrust which is always in the same direction. Preload
required.

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Characteristics of ball Bearings
30
Type Approximate range of
bore sizes, mm
Relative capacity Limiting
speed
factor
Tolerance
to mis-
alignment
Minimum Maximum Radial Thrust
Conrad or deep
groove
3 1060 1.00
a
0.7 1.0 015
Maximum capacity
or filling notch
10 130 1.2-1.4
a
0.2 1.0 03
Self-aligning
internal
5 120 0.7
b
0.2 1.0 230
Self-aligning
external
- - 1.0
a
0.7 1.0 High
Double row,
maximum
6 110 1.5
a
0.2 1.0 0.3
Double row, deep
groove
6 110 1.5
a
1.4 1.0 0
a
Two directions
b
One direction
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Characteristics of Angular Contact Ball
Bearings
31
Type Approximate
maximum
size, mm
Relative capacity Limiting
speed factor
Tolerance
to mis-
alignment
Radial Thrust
One-directional
thrust
320
b
1.00-1.15
a, b
1.5-2.3 b1.1-3.0 02
Duplex, back to
back
320 1.85
c
1.5 3.0 0
Duplex, face to
face
320 1.85
c
1.5 3.0 0
Duplex, tandem 320 1.85
a
2.4 3.0 0
Two directional or
split ring
110 1.15
c
1.5 3.0 02
Double row 140 1.5
c
1.85 0.8 0
a
One direction
b
Depends on contact angle
c
Two directions
d
In other direction
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Roller Bearings
32
Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings.
Roller bearings require prefect geometry.
Straight roller bearing (radial cylindrical) cannot take thrust loads.
Tapered roller bearings combine the advantage of ball and straight
roller bearings, they take radial and thrust loadings.
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Roller bearings: Needle Bearings
33
Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.
Needle bearings can be used with and without races.
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Characteristics of Cylindrical Roller Bearings
34
Type Approxi mate range of
bore si zes, mm
Rel ati ve capaci ty Li mi ti ng
speed
factor
Tol erance
to mi s-
al i gnment
Mi ni mum Maxi mum Radi al Thrust
Seperable outer
ring, nonlocating
(N)
10 320 1.55 0 1.20 05
Seperable inner
ring, nonlocating
(NU)
12 500 1.55 0 1.20 05
Seperable inner
ring, one direction
locating (NJ)
12 320 1.55
a
Locating 1.15 05
Seperable inner
ring, two-direction
locating (NUP)
20 320 1.55
b
Locating 1.15 05
a
One direction
b
Two directions
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Characteristics of Spherical Roller Bearings
35
Type Approxi mate range of
bore si zes, mm
Rel ati ve capaci ty Li mi ti ng
speed
factor
Tol erance
to mi s-
al i gnment
Mi ni mum Maxi mum Radi al Thrust
Single row, barrel
or convex
20 320 2.10 0.20 0.50 2
Double row, barrel
or convex
25 1250 2.40 0.70 0.50 130
Thrust 85 360
a
0.10
b
0.10
a
1.80
b
2.40
0.35-0.50 3
Double row,
concave
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 130
a
Symmetric rollers
b
Asymmetric rollers

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Other Types of Bearings
36
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Rolling Contact Bearing Materials
37
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Rolling Contact Bearings
The designer should take into consideration
the following:
- The available space
- The load and its characteristics
- The desired life
- The required speed
- The cost
38

Not to design rolling bearings but to select proper
bearings for the application
Objective:
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Bearing Life
Assuming perfect mounting, adequate
lubrication and protection thus failure will
occur by fatigue.
Bearings are subjected to millions of
repeated contact stress (Hertezian) cycles
causing spalling (flaking or pitting) on ball
or raceway. (Video 1& 3)

Failure Criteria:
1. SKF: failure happens when a pit of
diameter 10
-4
diameter of ball or roller
2. Timken Co.: failure happens when 10
-2
in
2

of surface is spalled

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Simulation of progression of fatigue
failure
Fatigue Wear
Mc Graw Hill, Hamrock et al.: Figure 8.22, page 346
Flake
pit
Spalling Surface Fatigue

Pitting Surface Fatigue

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Bearing Life
Definitions

1. Fatigue Life = Useful Life of a bearing = #
revolutions (or Hrs @ a certain speed) of ring
before evidence of failure in ball or rings.

1. Rating Life (AFBMA= Anti-Friction Bearing
Manufacturers Association)=Minimum Life =
L
10
= B
10
= # revolutions (or Hrs @ a certain
speed) that 90% of a group of apparently
identical (2500 bearings) will complete or exceed
before failure develops.

1. Median Life = Average Life = L
50
= #
revolutions completed or exceeded by 50% of
bearings.
L
50
= 4 to 5 times L
10


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Bearing Load
Load Ratings:
1. Static Load Rating,
2. Dynamic Load Rating

Basic Static Load Rating (AFBMA)= C
0


Radial load causing a total deformation of
10
-4
of ball or roller diameter.
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Bearing Load
Dynamic Load Rating
Basic Load Rating = Specific
Dynamic Capacity = Dynamic Load
Capacity = Basic Dynamic Capacity =
C = C
10
= AFBMA Catalog Load =
constant radial load resulting in L
10
= 10
6

revolutions of inner ring or 500 hrs @
33&1/3 rpm. (Companies e.g. SKF, FAG,
NTN)

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Other ratings: Companies such as Timken Co. use 90
x10
6
revolutions or (3000h @ 500 rpm)
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Life & Load Calculation
a
F
C
L
|
.
|

\
|
=
10
a
FL C
/ 1
10
=
Life
Load Rating
L = Life (in Millions of revolutions)
C
10
= Basic Dynamic load rating
F = Design Load
a = 3 for ball and 10/3 for roller bearings
Load F
Life L
a
D
D
F
C
L
L
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
10
10
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46
a
R R
D D
D
n L
n L
F C
/ 1
10
60
60
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
D
and L
R
are in Hrs and n
D
and n
R
in rpm
Sub D is for design and R for rated (catalog)
Load Rating
x
D =
life multiplier
Load F
Life L
or
a
D
D
F
C
L
L
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
10
10
When life is in Hours
Life & Load Calculation
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Example on load-life
A radial ball bearing has a basic dynamic load
rating of 2350 lb.
-What would be its life when operating at a load 1675 lb?
Given
1. Ball bearing (a=3)
2. C
10
= 2350 lb
3. F
D
= 1675 lb
4. L
10
= 10
6
revolutions
Required: L
D
?
Note: Load reduced by 30%
Life increased by 176%
Solution
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Load-Life and Reliability
The reliability used so far is the catalog reliability of 90%
(R = 0.90)
In practice, a reliability of less than 90% is not desirable
because bearings are used in large numbers in assemblies

= = = =
= = = =
=
53 . 0 ) 9 . 0 ( 9 . 0 6
81 . 0 ) 9 . 0 ( 9 . 0 2
6
6
2
2
R R and N
R R and N
R R
N
N
Example if an assembly has N bearings
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Load-Life and Reliability
49
R=.9
x
D
=1
From Machine Design Handbook
R
D
Greater than 0.90
> 90%
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Load-Life and Reliability
50
a
R
D
D
K
x
F C
/ 1
10
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
To correct for reliabilities > 90%:
|
|
.
|

\
|

= =
60
60
/ , 10
R R
D D
D
n L
n L
L L x multiplier life
483 . 1 / 1
) 1 ( 439 . 4 02 . 0
D R
R K + =
5 . 1 / 1
)) / 1 (ln( 48 . 4
D R
R K =
The reliability correction factor K
R
for ball and straight
(cylindrical) roller bearings is:
and for tapered roller bearings:
In calculating F
D
it is important to take into account the
Load application factor given in table 11.5.
Some recommended bearing life values (L
D
) are given in table 11.4