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13 BOY F E O I . : ? I IT IT 3 Y -L V A i\ I A "
A Ilo^rf.phy of G-ov. £ohn A. h'a r t i n, 1885-1889
Ah 2ssay for the Fortni ;htly Club
of Topeha, Kansas
Presented October 29, 1973, by
3 m e s t F. Tonsins

V.'illiaa Irs~_: lurnow begins h i s h i s t o r y of Kansas with these
word:.: "The w r i t e r of Oenesis iooiced b.ck on a golden past and
wrote: '.jad the Lord planted a garden eastward of Fden, . . . a n d a
r i v e r went out of Iden to water the garden; end from thence i t was
parted and became into four h e a d s . ' Those l i c l e - l o v i n - , slavery-
hetinv pioneers who crossed froja Missouri in the 1650's were c e r t a i n
t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n could refer only to one p l a c e . I t was c l e a r , they
argued, the geographical conditions of Zdeii '."ere the same ss those
of Il-nsas. Ijsny uoderr Tu-nsuns S t i l l enlarge t h i s unusual
g c r i p t u r a l e:-:egesis." (Icrnow, ;.il_iau Lr'-rf:, l i s t c r y of the
v - g u a w u _>t'_ ~ e , 1 9 5 7 , ^:'i ze 5)

Ycur #3scyist has long been i n t s r s t e d in a rich seuue.at
of Kansas h i s t o r y , when ecrly co::ers found themselves thinlcing
_io .1, :: u S . t was rei s year ez.o when he

>:le (writ; en by his
U_ ^ w„„ _ , ..sJ. " / J *-i»U ...» --- l»±«a ..__•-._^cr. :-ch on the
— z: \* ~ .

The period of whieh v;e speal: i t t h . t from 1857-1389. In thlJ
1 u 2 - y : : r span, th? i n * : a t \ t a t e suffered ah-:- '. j ? n i e t of b i r t h , over-
came growth pairs* of :;reat magnitudt, uUU? f -'-n to-mMtuF»—tov.»rd - t-hf;

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time when she was to take a proud place among the other 33 states,
a keystone state in the ceuse of freedom. "To the stars through
difficulty" became her fitting motto, as John J. Ingalls lacer
framed it.
It was in 1520, when Missouri was admitted as.a slave state,
that slavery began to be a threat to the western territories. The
Kansas-Nebraska Act, signed by President Pierce, Hay 30, 1854,
ignited the issue by giving new states local option. As a newsman
later wrote, it "made Kansas the Central Figure in a tremendous
conflict". The first territorial Constitution, proposed the next
year, declared: *"There shall be no slavery in this state, or
involuntary servitude, except for crime". This Topeka Constitution
failed to survive. The Leavenworth and Lecompton constitution were
both pro-slavery, and also failed adoption, even though "President
Buchanan had declared, "Kansas is already a slave state, as much as
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Georgia or South Carolina."" Kansas settlers repudiated this
remark by rejecting the Lecompton Constitution, 6 to 1.
Into the midst of this political turbulence came a young
boy from the eastern state of Pennsylvania. He had been born
March 10, 1339, in Brownsville, had learned the printer's trade
at the' a-~e of 15 in the sho^ of the Brownsville dinner.. V/hen 18
years of age he was in Pittsburgh, a compositor in the office of
the Commercial Journal. In October, 1357, he came to Atchison,
set type for a ahort time for the Squatter Sovereign, and the
Crusader of Freedom at Doniphan. On February 20, 1853, he purchased
the S°uetter Sovereign and changed its name to Freedom's Chamnion.
The Squatter Sovereign had besun publication two years
before, on February 3, 1856. Its vituperative editorial policy
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soon mads it, as its Idzt editor, C.T.Sgort, remarhed ,Maost renowned
for sustaining border ruffian outrides". In ;.i"ust of 1856, when six
"flronths in publication, and the same day the association of the town of
iktoaison was incorporated, it printed this warning: "V,re will continue
to tar and feather, arown, lynch and hang, every white-livered
Abolitionist who dares to pollute our soil." The year before,
Pardee Butler had refused to sign a pro-slavery statement in
,-itchison. He was lashed to two logs and set adrift on the Missouri
river with his barege and a loaf of breed. Mr.Short prepared
the way tog young Martin, when he reversed the paper's pro-slavery
policy, saying: "Upon the people of this territory we shall urge
4
the adoption of free institutions, and the prohibition of slavery."
Martin wrote, in the first edition of Freedom's Champion:
The undersigned, having purchased the office of the Squatter Sovereign,
will continue its publication under the title of Freedom's Champion,
h'ith an earnest faith in the principles of Freedom as opposed to
slavery in Kansas, ...we shall use every euertion to defeat the
accomplishment of th.t great wrong, and to strengthen the principles
5
for which we contend." <Tohn .MLexnnder Martin was 19 years of age
when pe penned these lines, opening an editorial career which was

to span three decades.
The youthful editor was not long in gaining recognition,
"..hen the state Hegabllcsn prrty was organised in 11. y, 1S59, he was
chosen, along with Daniel wilder, one eg the secretaries. He wrote
the -ireancie and four of the ten articles of inceraorm tion.
hnen the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention net, on guly 5
of the seme year, he was elected secretary, at 2C years of age. The
clean, strong handwriting and signature of young Martin can be seen
today on the original copy of the State Constitution displayed at
the State Historical Society.
One of John A. liar tin's few political errors was to occur
in 1859. On December 3, the Leavenworth Herald announced: "The
Hon. Abe Lincoln is on Kansas soil. Ee has spoken at Elwood, Troy,
and Doniphan. Last night, he spoke at Atchison. Today, he arrives
in Leavenworth." The speech in Atchison, on December 2, was not
even mentioned in Freedom's Champion. As Franklin Adams later
wrote: "He could not buook the thought of any encouragement or
t
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countenance given by the people of ^tchison to a rival candidate."
His candidate was William Henry Seward. The young editor was to
be a delegate to the Republican national convention which nominated
Lincoln, and became one of his most enthusiastic supporters.
Congress, beginning in 1860, took over a year to come to a
decision on Kansas statehood. It had carried the house, but not
the senate. On $anua*y .21, 1361, when Jeff Davis and other Southern
senators withdrew from the floor, Senftox William Henry Seward called
for the admission of Kansas. It carried. President Euchanan
signed the bill that made Kansas the 54th state. On February 22, 1861,
the newly-inaugurated President Abe Lincoln raised the first flag
with the Hansas st_r over Constitution Hall in ?hil?delphia. Noble
r'rentis, in his history of Hansas, says: The star of H?nsas was
raised above the birthplace of Independence, en the birthday of
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Washington, by the har.es of ^.inecln, the Emancipator." John A.
Martin was 21 when this occurred.
Meanwhile, the youthful editor had been elected to the first
stats senate under the Wyandotte Constitution at aje 21. He was •
barely 22 when the firse legislature met, March 26, 1261. A month
_ A .
later, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to meet the
risin: threat of Southern secession. Kansas was assigned a quota
of 13,554 men, and was to raise, during the course of the war, a
surplus of 5,500. All were volunteers. No draft or bounty was
allowed. The young state wag to suffer lost or killed in action
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more soldiers per 1,000 than any other state in the Union.
A disastrous drought struck Kansas in 1359-60, causing
great privation, and lasting 15 months. Massive relief measures
brought over 7,000,000 pounds of food and other aid from a sympa-
thetic nation. John A. Martin was named secretary of the
TerritorialfRel^ef Convention, and recorded for history, in the
Champion, the sources and disposition of the relief.
Although young Martin was a state senator, and had just
been named postmaster of ^tchison, the impulse to join-the Union
army gripped him and many of his friends. On June 4, 1861, the
First Kansas Volunteers mustered at Ft. Leavenworth. On October 20,
the Eighth Kansas was organized. The commander of the Eighth was
Col. Henry V.'essels, a West Point graduate, but the chief organizer
and second in command was Lt. Col. John A. Martin, then 22 years old.
He and. his regimental compatriots did not know that the
8th Kansas was to bec;me one of the most respected units of the
•riT-'.r.- of the Cumberland, the only Kansas regiment in that command,
and one of only several Kansas 'units to see action beyond the
Ken ::.s-Missouri line. Ordered oO Corinth, Miss., in May, 1862,
Martin was elevated to commanding officer upon the natural death
of the then commander, Col. ?:. K. Graham, at St. Louis. . In
November, he was made a full colonel at the age of 23.
The 8th did occupation duty at Mashville for six months,
where he was named provost mar-shall. The citizens, upon his
leaving, presented him a gold sword in appreciation.
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His command entered the spotlight of Civil War service
when, on September IE, 1863, near Chicamauga, two small brigades,
6n-e the 8th, fought alone, in heavy woods, against two Rebel
divisions. After two days of combat, over 60 percent of the 8th
was dead or wounded, causing the survivors to retreat to Chicamauga.
A month later, the 8th captured Orchard Knob, which was to become
the headquarters of Generals Grant and Thomas during the coming
assault on Missionary Ridge.
Two days after the Orchard Knob engagement, the 8th took
part in thetfierce battle for Missionary Ridge. Along with the
6th and 49th Ohio brigades, they overran Rebels dug in at the base.
7/ithout orders to do so, they decided to move to the summit, where
the 8th was one of the first to plant a flag. The assault and * -
capture of this ridge turned the course of the war for the Union.
Martin later quoted General Gordon Granger as ssyin:: to his
"victorious soldiers, whose courage and enthusiasm had carried
then, without orders, up the blazing heights: 'Here you are, but
how did you get here? You v;ere ordered to take the line of works
at the foot of the ridge, and you have taken those on the summitJ
You ought to have known you couldn't take this position. You are
here in defiance of ali military rules, of tactics, and of orders,
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and I am goin;~ to have every one of you court-martialedl"' M0thing
came of the threat.
\£ien the 5th was finally mustered out in 1366, it had
traveled 1C,750 ..dies, se:.ved in four Union field armies, partici-
pated in 15 battles and IE skirmishes. It had lost 64 killed,
272 wounded, and 21 missing. Nearly all of the missing were found
to have been killed, end a third of the wounded died.
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Liar tin was to lose one brother, James, by diease, in the
war, at Stevenson, -'-.labana. He v,as a member of the 3th Kansas.
Upon discharge, Col. Martin, ax the age of 25, was made brevet
Prip^dier 3-ener_i.
die had named John J. In :c lis act in; editor of Freedom's
Champion during his absence. In January, 1885, he resumed the
editorship, and. in Uarch, changed the v/eelily paper to the
•i-tchisen pL»il" Champion.
Durinj the ne::t several decades, John Alexander Ida r tin
found himself, as a private citizen, involved in locrl, state and
l
national politics, bux alvrays as related to the welfare of his
adopted state. He became mayor of Atchison in 1865, and was
postmaster for 12 years. He was to complete 25 consecutive 2/ears
as chairman of his county Republican co:rlixtee, which he had
organized in ICcC. He VJ&.S elected commander-in-chief of the
Teter^ns Brotherhood of iktns&j, In 188?, he and le^din- Repub-
lic ns organised the caup-izn in favor of ITevro and against
v/omen's suffrage. He v;as a delegate four tines to national
Republican conventions. He -..as one of the incorporators of the
;n;> a Id ;::i:e, and an incorporator and president, in 1S75, of
the"itcte Historic! loclety he helped brinj into deinj in 1S75.
Ofl June 1, 1271, he -..as married to Ida C. Shulliss, eldest
Prentis, in his History of Kansas, noted: "Kansas, in these
for .-native years, demonstrated the fitness of the American
.^. Republic's form of government. Without charter or grant or
proclamation, the homeseeking thousands selected the places for
their rooftrees and fires, organized the institutions of govern-
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ment, commended order, and established justice." In a speech
at the Quarter-Centennial of the admission of Kansas to the Union,
Liar tin was to 3ay: "The growth of Kansas has no parallel. The
great states of New York and Pennsylvania were nearly a hundred
and fifty years.in attaining e population Kansas has reached in
30 years."15 By 1380, 3,104 miles of railroad tracks had been
constructed. Abilene was a cow town from 1866-1372, where
Wild Bill Hickock and other marshalls held forth. The legis-
lature, in 1831, passed the Prohibition law, which Martin
voted against when it was ratified by the citizenry.
Although he was suggested for governor at the State Republi-
can cor.ven-cion in 1873, John ?. 3t. John won the nomination.
Blackmar's history of Kansas says: "For years (Hartin) lied a
laudecle embiticr- to be chief executive of his adopted state,
but he ;;:iev." Vjov; -co v;ait and prepsre himself for the duties of
"the office in case he should be called to fill it. The cf 11
c.uue in 1834 when he v.'cs nominated anS triumphantly electe;.."
The boy from Pennsylvania had attained, st 45 years of age,
wh: t he crnsidered his highest honor. He v.rs inaugurated the
10th governor of Hvu-ac, J:nu:ry 12, 1S35. He v.as re-elected
in 1££6. Cne of his appointments that first term was Daniel
"..". '..'rider, as executive clerk to the governor, who was to
become the distinguished editor of the comprehensive "Annals
of H-nsae, ieU-1365;!.
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During his tv.:o terms, events of historical import trooped
through his office. He personally crbitrated the Missouri
Pacific strike of 1635. '.Then the legislature, thet year,
authorised organisation of the Kansas National Guard, he
became the first commander-in-chief. The sane yecr, he
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supervised establishment of rational Soldiers Orphans Home
in ^tchison, and of the state Reformatory for young offenders
at Hutchinson. The year 1366 saw the first board of dentistry
appointed, the State Soldiers Home at Dodge City established,
and Haskell Indian Institute opened at Lawrence. Uartin was
succe..iful% in bringing the United States Soldiers Home to
Leavenworth, and secured the Nctional Cemetery at Fort
Leavenworth. In ten months of 1366, 94 new towns were
chartered, and 453 railroad charters filed in the^office of
the secretary of stc-te, resulting in 1,520 additional miles
of railroad track built in that 10-month period.

Governor Martin enthusiastically supported public and
private education. In 1337, many institutions, some still
functioningj opened their doors: Midland College at
Atchison, Bethany at Lincsborg, Kansas V/esleyan at Salina,
the Hiawatha ^cademy, Central IT0rmal at C-re.t Bend, Bethel
of ITswton, and 3*« John* 3 Military academy at gslina. In 1337
alone, 312 schoolhouses were built. "Visitor3 to Kansas",
says Brentis' History, -''were impressed v.ith ths beauty and
co.sfoit of the buildings provided for the education of
the children."15
Me have noted th. t John ---. Martin had earlier opposed
woman's suffrage. Twenty years later, in 1337, he and the
legislators reversed this stend. The governor signed the

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woman's suffrage bill, February 14, 1387, making Kansas the
first state to give women the right to vote for city and school
officials. The next spring, Mrs. L'ec.ora Salter was elected
mayor of ---r^onia, perhaps, as Prentis says, "the first women
in the world to hold the office".16 In another year, five
towns in Kansas had woman mayors, Argonia, Oskaloosa,
Cottonwood Falls, Hos^ville, and Baldwin.
Kansas was a beehive of experimentation and discovery
in the '80s. Salt deposits were discovered in 1887 by oil
crews drilling near Hutchinson. Kansas quickly became, and
still fs, «ne of the foremost producers of fine table salt
in the world. Natural gas, an oil-well product, discovered
near Fort Scott, came into use for light and heat, one of the
first star,e institutions to use it being the State asylum
at Ossawetomie.

One of the more bizarre experiments took place in a
French colony in PrankLin county, called Silkville, which
raised silk.vorms and spun thread for eastern mills. The
"Annals of Kansas, 1886-1925", notes that, in 1386,
"hundreds of women and children were engaged in the silk
17
industry." In 13S7, the official silk station was located
in PeMoody. .'. letter written September 24 from the silk
station ao Governor Martin says: "Kcn.John ... Martin,
Governor: I 'oez to inform your honor that among the fruits
of the Manses Staae Silk Strtion is a very fine silk dress
paatern for your I.dy, Mrs* Martin. ...I ask you to accept
the same en behalf of the State of Kansas."-8 The dress made
from th_t silk is still in existence.

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Great strides were made toward completing the Capitol
building during the Martin period. The east wing had been
constructed by 1869, the west by 1381. Ornamentation of the
senate chamber was completed in January, 1386. John A. Martin
tool: part in initiating the refurbished senate room, a
shov/place even today for its elaborate Egyptian architecture,
piaster ornamentation, end hand-hammered copper columns, each
requiring different foreign artisans. A subterranean stream
was discovered in excavating for the dome in 1887, a problem
overcome with gTeat difficulty. Nevertheless, construction
i
moved toward the far-away date of final completion in 1903.
When a proposal came to the 1881 legislature to build
the Topeka library on the capitol grounds, Martin wrote in -
the Champion: "The square is not at all ornamented by the
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smaller edifices which at present occupy it." Ke would
have been heartened had he know it was to be removed 80
years later by some who felt the 3ame way he did.
Governor Martin's work habits are described in the
introduction to a book of "Addresses of John A. Martin",
written by his friend, Annalist Daniel V.r. Wilder:
"During the session of the Legislature, it is not
often t&&t the Governor has a rest of ten minutes, by day,
and at night he is followed -.o his hotel and the solicitations
often continue until midnight. ,».V*'lth all of these personal
demands, entreaties, and importunities, the Governor not only
never neglects a caller, never loses his placid self-control,
but even finds time to attend to many outside affairs in his
busy life and in the ceaseless activity of the restless Kansas
life that surrounds us all."20

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Besides reversing himself about Abraham Lincoln, and
about woman's suffrage, he had a charge °? heart about
prohibition. In a speech to the 3ta-ce Temperance Union in
Topeha, June 12, 1883, he admitted: "1 never made any secret
of the fact th t I voted against the prohibition amendment."
His speech a year and a half earlier had left no doubt about
his shift, when he spoke to the Republican State convention
in the gubernatorial campaign. Almost the entire address is
given to refutation of claims that the five-year-old Kansas
prohibition law was not effective, and to strong affirmations
about the economic, social, and political advantages of
prohibition. He said to the Stcte Temperance Union: "j.n my
opinion, this state is today the most temperate, orderly,
21
sober community of people in the civilized world." V/« F.
Connelly, in his history of Kcnsas, writes: "At first not a
prohibitionist,...as he saw the beneficial effects, he became
converted to be one of its most ardent champions."2^
Kartin's addresses dur ng his time as governor are, as
D.K.Kilder says, "of and for Kciisas c,y a raaa wnose whole life and
thought are wrapped up inKansas. They i-xe chapters of Kansas
- ^ • 1.2^
• hisuory, anc worthy of preservation."
The continuing love affair with his adopted stcte and
It$ people glows in every one of his speeches. In 1S37, at
Fort Leavenworth, he said: "Attracting the test brain and
brawn of "che civilized world, Kansas has fu^ed all into a
homogeneous and cosmopolitan people, v;hose achiev-nents have
been a weaver anc a model for all the generations of men.
In less than three decades the men and women of Kansas have
wiped a desert from the map of J_merica and replaced it \vith
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cultivated fields anc fragrant meadows, and towering forests;

(they) have dotted the whole of this vast territory with

prosperous cities, towns and villages; h^ve sent a locomotive

Whistling through nearly every county; have planted school

houses and churches in every township, and have accumulated

greater and more equitably distributed wealth than is possessed

by any other equal number of people on the face of the globe.

Fairly, but very briefly summarized, this is the record of

Kansas in peace."

John 1— IJartin relinouished the governor's chair in 1389.

With evident relief, he went home to Atchison, there to resume

the role of a family man, and the task to which he felt he

was alnost divinely called as editor of the Atchison Daily

Champion. He was very tired, for he had not withheld himself a-e

the chief executive of a beloved state. In September of the

same year, he was stricken with pneumonia, and succumbed,

following a short illness, an October 2, 1889, at 6:50 p.m.,

surrounded by his beloved family and frienis. He was 50

years of a^e.

The shocked commonwealth reacted with spontaneous and

lavish tributes and eulojies. One such article, appearing in

the '.Veilin;;ton Press, is typical of the hundreds of editorial

s or L/e.-ien^s"

"He entered! Hansas an unknown bo- in the f-11 of 1857.

He ran his thirty-one years' race well end laid down his life

honored 'z~j the whole state. He was a soldier who did his whole

duty. It may he said that in all the activities of the 30
26
y e a r s , t h e r e was not a sin-'le s t a i n upon h i s c h a r a c t e r . "
Che University of IHnsas, en Hay 15, 133a, honored t h i s
sentiment by electing hia as the eighth nominee to the Ilansas
Pewspaper Hall of 3?aa*«
In July, 1385, he had expressed his standard of ethics
and conduct when he accepted the re-nomination for governor:
"I have never cared—and I shall never care—whether any
person eulogises my official life as brilliant or distinguished,
just so that all citizens shall say that it was clean, just,
safe, honest and industrious. This is the only praise I hope
?7

to deserve or seek to win} this is the aim of my ambition."
The boy from Pennsylvania had indeed come a ion:; way.
He had achieved his goal of a clean, just, safe, honest and
industrious official and personal life. On the way, he had
known Intimately the first nine governors of Il-nsas, had seen
the Pony Pzpress come and. go, had placed his name to the
wyandotte Constitution at 20 years of ege, had distinguished
himself as a soldier worthy of high command on the field of
battl© at 25, wielded vast influence as the editor of whet was
the oldest newspaper in the state, served as postmaster of
•.tQhison for 12 ye?rs, end as mayor for 12 years, organized
the Pepublican party of the state ana county, and was elected
a strt.e sen?aor before he was 21.
Pa had rubbed elbows with such historic person "es as
Cyrus P. Polliday, founder of popeka :.rk the Saute. Pe rcilroad;
"J. 3.Senators Preston P. PPumb and John P. Ing lis. Ee was
on personal terms with Presidents Janes Puc Parian, .fore ham
Pincoln, end general Ulysses 3. grant. John Prown, Pardee
butler, Pill Pill Hiccock, and Puffalo Pill were contemporaries.
ks the '.Jarshall Count?7 Pews noted on October SC, 1S39:
"Po h: va come to Pansas at i:, struts a newspaper cf his own
-14.,-
at 19, secretary of the constitutional convention at 20,

a st:te sane tor and a member of the (national) convention to

select Abraham Lincoln at 81, to organise c regiment and lead

it into battle by the time he v;as 23, seems lime the romance

of feme, without v;e lthy, aristocratic lineage, or friends,
28
or classic education."

3o v;ent the life of the boy from Pennsylvania, John

Alexander Martin.

(On October 20, 1973, 116 years to the month he came

to Atchison, and Kansas, as a youth of 18 years, dreaming the
t
dream of freedom, his grandson presents this paper as a tribute
to all those intrepid, idealistic settlers who served v.lth him

to start M:nsas on its v;ay "to the stars through difficulty".

May their memory be long and honorable I)
3rnest 3. Tensing
(3on of his eldest daughter,
the late Hath Martin Tonsing)

3I33I0CMA3EY

1-Addresses b John A. Martin, 15-?renais,icid. ,p.l72
ed.D:niel 3 .Milder, 1333,p. 121 1 i-Prentis , ibid. ,p.172,177,179
;j.& u ^ i of Ilansa^, by Moble L.
1 17-.cincis of Mcnsas--1335-1220,
-r-^ntis, 1-Q4,??'!<! 72. e^.by Mirhe Mech:m.pc• ;.e 1 1 .
•rTsr.oa' , i o i t . ,page oo, j.o»jD«.spj.ay \ <* ^i^atc „ r s ^^.
u ^Cr .loverei ; n , M o v . l - , .cciety,l~73.
1 •'Znr7 Wc • - ". 1 O "*•>-•, r\ - • - ' * c r » T.--" - — -. -n * n •- "i"lP
i O D / iP&.-.S <, • ± v*li^tilct. s - o - -•- u v . 4-vv.A . *> - .
5-Freedom's Champion, vol,III, .utterly, Autumn,1S72,pc ;e 253
;.-47,geb".20",Me5_,pa;e 12. 2C-..ddres :es ,icic . ,pe ge 5.
7-Mans: : It-ae Misaarical 3oci-
— <j
2l-.-dare„ses , ibid . ,pau,e 233.
Collection, 1901-2,vol. vii, 22..3ddr: ::e 3 , i:i ". ,pajs 172 .
-
6-Annals of M:nsa.,_1541-133o,by vol.2,;?:--e 7n ? -pi
3.M.Milder,pbl.1333, aage 235. .:-i -.-.care 2 Z c M i o i c • 3 ^ ' - = « • C

c-3rentis,i:id.,pr re 89. OR Z. S '3s , i b i d . , aa - 6 217 _ ^ A •<-. A

—.item son Oh: ma:. o n ,
Mov. > i 1 - - g -^» i •
n r»
0-_.dcresses,ibid~. ,pa ;e 203.
"I _ ^ n ^ a i i j : -:"--• ••; «•:•. -•*« ~q mi <is o n
_ ~i~^- .1?\
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a i j l r e n l : Miiliam 31: c M a r ,
233 _ 15 _