3.7K views

Original Title: Lab Manual

Uploaded by chanjunshen_rmc

Lab Manual

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Bernoulli
- Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual
- ME 2208 - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery - Lab Manual
- Lab Manual (Hydraulics Engineering)
- ORIFICE DISCHARGE lab report sample.docx
- Fluid Mechanics 2- Practical 1 Discharge Through an Orifice
- Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual
- Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual-Spring 2008
- Basic Civil and Mechanical Engineering Unit 1
- Complete Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Datasheet
- CEE335 Lab Manual 2011
- Fluid Mechanics Manual
- Manual Mechanical Workshops
- Fluids_Lab_Manual
- Hydraulics Manual
- Flow Through an Orifice
- FLUID FLOW AND FLUID DYNAMICS
- Flow Measurement
- Exp 2 Venturi Meter 2012
- Fluid Meters in Incompressible Flow

You are on page 1of 29

EXPERIMENTS

FOR

Drexel University

Revised, June 2000

LABORATORY MANUAL

FOR

Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering

Drexel University

Experiment 1

Center of Pressure on Partially and Fully Submerged Plates

submerged plane surface.

n Procedure:

1. Place the quadrant on the two dowel pins and, using clamping screw, fasten it to the

balance arm.

2. Level the Plexiglas tank by adjusting the screwed feet. The level is indicated on the

circular spirit level.

3. Hang the balance pan and make the balance arm horizontal by moving the counter

balance weight.

4. Measure a, L, d, b as shown in Figure 1-1.

5. Close the drain cock and fill the tank with water until the water level reaches the

bottom edge of the quadrant. Level the arm by moving the counterbalance weight.

6. Place 50 grams on the balance pan and slowly add water to the tank until the balance

arm is again horizontal. Record the water level (y) on the quadrant and the weight on

the balance pan (W = mg).

7. Repeat Step 6 for several increments placing about 50 grams on the balance pan for

each step until the water level reaches the top of the quadrant end face. Repeat Step 6

one more time so that the quadrant end face is totally submerged for this last run.

8. Remove each increment of weight and allow the water to drain until the balance arm

is level. Note the weights and water levels for each increment as the weights are

removed.

n Interpretation of Results:

You want to find the center of pressure on the plate for each reading taken during filling

and draining the tank. To do this, take moments about the pivot. Thus,

− mg ( L) + F (a + d − z ) = 0 (1-1)

in which z = the height of the center of pressure above the bottom of the plate. The force

on the submerged plate is given by,

1

F = ρgyA with y = y and A = by (1-2)

2

Therefore,

y2

F = ρgb (1-3)

2

Substituting,

ρgy 2b

− mg ( L) + (a + d − z ) = 0 (1-4)

2

Solving for z we get,

2mL

z = a+d − 2 (1-5)

ρy b

Note that ρ = 1 gm/cm3 or 1000 kg/m3.

For each of the readings obtained during filling and draining the tank calculate the height

above the bottom of the plate of the center of pressure (z) and plot the calculated values

of z against y. Fit a straight line to the data.

n Questions:

1. What is the slope of the straight line?

2. How far above the bottom of the plate should the center of pressure be?

3. Theoretically, what should the value of the slope be? Did you get this value? If not,

why not?

4. If the plate had been a isosceles triangle with its base at the bottom, what would the

theoretical slope of the line be?

n Data:

Water temperature=

a= 10.2 cm; L=27.5 cm; d= 10.0 cm; b=7.5 cm

Tank Filling Tank Draining

m (gm) y (cm) m (gm) y (cm)

Experiment 2

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow - Reynolds Number

n Purpose: To observe the transition of laminar flow through a tube into transitional

and turbulent flow.

n Procedure:

1. Close the dye flow control valve and fill the reservoir with dye.

2. Check whether the dye injector is just above the bellmouth entry.

3. Close the flow control valve.

4. Open the bench inlet valve and fill the head tank to the over flow level; close the inlet

valve.

5. Measure the temperature of the water.

6. Open the inlet valve and flow control valve slightly until water just trickles from the

outlet pipe. Open the control valve a little more and adjust the dye valve until slow

flow with a line of dye down the tube is achieved. Measure and record the flow rate

with a stopwatch and graduated measuring cylinder.

7. Open the flow control valve a little more and observe the dye streak. Again measure

the flow rate and record the condition of the dye streak. Continue opening the flow

control valve in small increments, record the condition of the dye streak and measure

the flow rate at each step. Continue this process until the dye streak breaks up

indicating fully turbulent flow.

8. Reverse the process by decreasing the flow in small increments, recording the dye

streak condition and measuring the flow rate at each step.

n Interpretation of Results:

Notes:

VD

ℜ= (2-1)

ν

in which ℜ = the Reynolds number, V = the flow velocity, D = the tube diameter and ν =

the kinematic viscosity of water at the measured temperature. Note also that the V can be

found from the continuity equation, Q = VA where A = the cross-sectional area of the

tube. For the experimental apparatus, D = 1 cm.

Notes:

Laminar flow denotes a steady condition where all streamlines follow parallel paths.

Under this condition the dye will remain easily identifiable as a solid core.

Turbulent flow denotes an unsteady condition where streamlines interact causing shear

plane collapse and mixing of the fluid. Under this condition the dye will become

dispersed as mixing occurs.

Transitional flow conditions occur when the flow is neither laminar nor turbulent flow

but is in the “transition” stage of going from laminar to turbulent. Under this condition

the dye will appear as a wandering dye stream prior to its dispersion across the flow tube

at the onset of turbulence.

n Questions:

1. At what Reynolds number does the flow just start to become turbulent as you increase

the flow rate (the onset of turbulence)? What is the Reynolds number when the flow

becomes fully turbulent?

2. At what Reynolds number does the flow again become laminar as you decrease the

flow rate?

3. Do you get the same Reynolds number for the transition from laminar to turbulent flow

as you get for the transition back from turbulent to laminar flow? Explain your answer.

4. Compare the Reynolds numbers calculated above with the values given in your

textbook for the transitions.

n Data:

Water temperature=

ν=

D= 1 cm

Increasing Q Decreasing Q

Vol. Time of Flow Vol. Time of Flow

collected collection condition collected collection condition

(mL) (sec) (mL) (sec)

Experiment 3

Verification of Bernoulli's Theorem

demonstrating the relationship between pressure head and kinetic energy head for a

conduit of varying cross-section.

n Pre-Lab Setup

1. Set up the Bernoulli apparatus on the working surface and level it.

2. Connect the supply hose to the inlet stub and tighten the hose.

3. If not already open, open the drain cock on the outlet tank.

n Procedure:

1. Close the main control valve and start the pump.

2. Regulate the pump flow to fill the header tank and maintain it at a steady level. The

flow through the channel will be quite rapid and the pressure at the throat may be too

low to show on the piezometer tube.

3. Increase the back pressure in the channel and the outlet tank by slowly closing the

drain cock. This will tend to raise the level in the outlet tank so the pump flow control

valve should also be carefully regulated.

4. Adjust both pump flow and drain cock until there is the widest possible difference in

pressure between the inlet and throat of the channel, with the water level visible in

every piezometer tube.

5. Measure the volumetric flow rate with a graduated cylinder and stop watch.

6. Measure the height of the water level in each piezometer tube and record on the data

sheet together with the corresponding distance from the channel entrance.

7. Measure the height of the water level in both the inlet and outlet tank.

8. Switch off the pump and close the main valve.

1. Using your measured discharge rate, calculate the velocity at the throat of the flow

conduit if the cross-sectional area of the throat is 40.32 mm2 (0.4032 cm2)

2. Calculate the total head, H, at the throat. (The total head is the sum of the measured

pressure head and the velocity head at the throat.)

3. Plot the total head, H, as a function of distance, x, where x = 0 at the inlet, x = 2.5 cm

at the first tube, etc., x = 15.0 cm at the throat and x = 30.0 cm at the outlet.

4. What is the head loss between the inlet and the throat?

5. What is the head loss between the throat and the outlet?

6. Assume that the total head varies linearly between x = 0 and x = 15.0 cm and also from

x = 15.0 cm to x = 30.0 cm, and determine the total head at each piezometer tube.

7. Determine the velocity head at each piezometer tube.

8. Determine the velocity at each piezometer tube.

9. Determine the cross-sectional area of the flow at each piezometer tube and plot that

area as a function of x.

10. Calculate the degree of pressure recovery. See Appendix 2. What does this indicate

about the energy of the fluid as it passes through contractions and expansions?

Notes:

Assumptions used to obtain the simplified version of the equation are that the fluid is

inviscid and incompressible and that the flow is steady. Bernoulli’s equation is a

mathematical statement of the work-energy principle which directly corresponds to the

equations of motion. This principle states that the work done on a particle is equal to the

change in kinetic energy of the particle. Along a streamline,

p v2

+ + z = const . (3-1)

γ 2g

2. Conservation of Mass

For a given cross-sectional area the product of the velocity and density is proportional to

the mass flow rate.

M = ρQ = ρvAn (3-2)

v= = = = (3-3)

ρAn (mass / vol ) An An An

Q = volumetric flow rate,

v = average velocity,

An = area normal to the direction of flow, and

ρ = mass density.

M in = M out (3-4)

ρ 1v1 A1 = ρ 2 v 2 A2 (3-5)

v1 A1 = v 2 A2 = Q (3-6)

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

If the cross-sectional area decreases, the velocity must increase to satisfy continuity.

Applying Bernoulli’s equation to a flow where there is no change in elevation (z =

constant), a decrease in velocity must be accompanied by an increase in pressure and vice

versa. Bernoulli’s equation expresses the conservation of energy and that the work done

on the fluid shows up as a change in kinetic and/or potential energy.

n Data:

Water temperature=

γ=

Q= mL/sec

Width of channel= 6.72 mm (for cross-check ONLY)

Ht. of top of channel from given datum= 50.5 mm

Ht. of water in inlet tank=

Ht. of water in outlet tank=

Tube Ht. of channel X-section area (mm2) Ht. of water in Ht. of water in tube

no. x-section, d (for cross-check tube from from mid-ht. of

(mm) ONLY) datum (cm) channel (cm)

1 15.0

2 13.0

3 12.0

4 10.0

5 8.0

6 6.0

7 8.0

8 10.5

9 12.0

10 13.5

11 15.5

Experiment 4

Measuring Velocity with a Pitot Tube

n Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to show how a pitot tube can be used to

measure flow velocity and to compare the measured velocity profile in a closed conduit

with the profile assumed for an ideal fluid.

n Procedure:

1. Using the crank, elevate the base of the channel to a height of 4 inches. Insure that the

sluice gate is all the way in its upward position.

2. Start the pump. Adjust the inlet and outlet valves so that the inlet reservoir is at a

height of 9.5 inches and the level of the outlet reservoir is at about 9 inches. Do not

readjust heights once you have started to take measurements.

3. Measure the flow rate once the system is in equilibrium.

4. Measure the water level in the piezometer and the pitot tubes.

5. Keeping the flow rate constant, repeat Step 3 for the following bed levels:

a) 3 inches, b) 2 inches, c) 1 inch

Make sure that the horizontal portion of the pitot tube is midway between the top and the

bottom of the channel for each bed level. (As the base of the channel is adjusted, the

level in the inlet and outlet reservoirs will decrease since the cross-section of the flow

area is increasing at the throat.)

6. Reset the bed to 4 inches. Repeat Step 3 with the horizontal portion of the pitot tube at

the following levels:

a) 4.1 inches, b) 4.3 inches, c) 4.7 inches, d) 5.0 inches, e) 5.2 inches

f) 5.5 inches, g) 5.7 inches, h) 6.0 inches, i) 6.2 inches

7. Change the flow rate by adjusting the inlet and outlet valves. Make sure the difference

between the levels of the inlet and outlet reservoirs is about 0.5 inch. Repeat Steps 5

and 6 for one additional flow rate. (Be sure to measure the flow rate in each case.)

1. Plot the average velocity vs. the centerline velocity determined by the pitot tube (see

Note). This graph should contain 8 data points, 4 for each flow rate. The data points for

each flow rate should be distinguished by using different symbols. Compute the flow rate

from the measured velocity distribution. Discuss the difference between the centerline

velocity measured by the pitot tube and the average velocity calculated from the flow

rate. The graph should have a line with a slope of 45° representing perfect agreement so

that the comparison can be made.

2. Plot the velocity profile for each flow. Comment on the shape of the profiles.

Remember that the conduit is rectangular in shape and that the flow is probably turbulent

so that the profile will generally not be parabolic.

Note: Figure 1 shows a closed conduit completely filled by a flow of water whose

velocity is to be measured. The piezometer, a vertical tube connected to a hole in the

smooth roof of the conduit, indicates that the water is under pressure. If the hole does not

alter the flow pattern, the column of water, p/ρg, in the piezometer indicates the static

head of the streamtube adjacent to the wall. Moreover, if all the stream tubes in the

conduit flow parallel to the walls, they will exert no centrifugal force and the pressure

distribution throughout will be hydrostatic. Thus the static pressure head, p/ρg, along a

streamtube a distance y' above the bed will be related to the piezometer column by,

p'/(ρg) + y’ = p/(ρg) + y

thus,

p'/(ρg) = p/(ρg) + (y - y') (4-1)

The total energy is the sum of the pressure, potential and kinetic energies of the fluid

within the streamtube. One form of Bernoulli's equation expresses the sum of the energy

per unit weight of fluid, H, as,

H = p'/(ρg) + (y' + z) + v2/(2g) (4-2)

Each term is considered to be a form of head since it has dimensions of length. Thus, H is

known as the total head, p'/ρg is the pressure head, (y' + z) is the potential head, and

v2/(2g) is the velocity head. the sum of the pressure head and the potential head is known

as the piezometric head, h.

Near the tip of the horizontal portion of the pitot tube the flow along the stream tube is

reduced to zero velocity at what is the stagnation point. The local static pressure, pS , and

the total head measured by the pitot tube is represented by the terms,

pS /(ρg) + (y' + z) = H (4-3)

Assuming that no loss of total head occurs along the streamtube, Bernoulli's equation

states,

p'/(ρg) + (y' + z) + v2/(2g) = pS /(ρg) + (y' + z) (4-4)

or,

h + v2/(2g) = H (4-5)

Thus,

v = 2 g ( H − h) (4-6)

Generally, for real fluid flows, the velocity and the total head are not constant across a

section of conduit (from one streamtube to another). However, the pitot tube can still be

used satisfactorily to measure velocity where the pressure distribution is nearly

hydrostatic (where the streamtubes are nearly parallel).

V = Q/A = Q/(W y) (4-7)

in which V = the average velocity in the conduit cross-section, Q = the discharge, W = the

width of the conduit (1.5 inches), and y = the depth of the conduit (the vertical height of

the channel opening) which varies with your experimental setup.

Experiment 5

Discharge Through an Orifice

n Purpose: This experiment will relate the flow through a circular orifice to the total

head. The experimental flow rates will be compared to the theoretical flow rates and the

flow coefficient determined.

n Procedure:

1. Fit the 5 mm orifice into the threaded hole in the side of the tank.

2. Start the pump and regulate the flow rate to maintain the water level in the tank steady

at 50 cm.

3. Record the volume of water discharged through the orifice with a graduated cylinder

for a time of five seconds.

4. Repeat Step 3 for water levels of 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, and 10 cm.

5. Raise the water level to 50 cm.

6. Stop the pump and record the time required for the tank to empty. Be careful in

specifying the time when the tank is said to be empty. (When the jet stops.)

7. Repeat Step 6 for heights of 40, 30, 20, and 10 cm.

8. Repeat Steps 1 through 7 for the 8 mm orifice.

9. Close the feed valve and switch off the pump.

n Data:

Diameter of the tank = 9 cm.

Diameter of the orifices = 5 mm and 8 mm.

n Data Analysis:

1. Calculate the theoretical flow rate Qt. Plot the theoretical curve of the flow rate Qt vs.

the total head, H, for both the 5 mm and 8 mm diameter orifices. H should range from

0 to 50 cm and Qt should be in cubic cm per second.

2. On the same graphs plot the experimental values of the flow rate Qe vs. H. Comment

on the differences between the theoretical and experimental values of Q.

3. For each orifice, plot a graph of Qe vs. H on log-log paper or plot the logarithms of Qe

and H on arithmetic graph paper. From the plot determine the value of k (y intercept)

and n (slope). Compare these values to the theoretical values. See Appendix 1 and

Note 1.

4. For each orifice determine the value of the discharge coefficient, Cd, for each measured

value of H. Plot Cd vs. H. Describe how Cd varies with respect to H. See Notes 2 and

3.

5. When the column is draining, the flow rate equals the rate of change of volume with

respect to time. Use the equation for the discharge coefficient and by integration show,

(

t 2 − t1 = 2 AC

H1 − H 2 ) (5-1)

Cd Ao 2 g

6. Construct a table with the following information:

Height Height drop drop

(cm) (cm) (sec) (sec)

50 40

40 30

30 20

20 10

10 0

Discuss how the measured times compare with the theoretical times as the water level in

the column drops.

Notes:

1. The flow through an orifice can be described by an equation of the form, Q = k Hn.

Given the values of Q and H, the values of k and n can be determined by plotting Q vs. H

on log-log paper. Alternatively, on linear scale graph paper, the logarithm of Q can be

plotted against the logarithm of H to find k and n. Either common or natural logarithms

can be used but common logarithms (to base 10) are preferred. A best-fit straight line is

drawn through the points; n is then the slope of the line and the logarithm of k is the y

intercept at H = 1 (log H = 0).

2. If an ideal fluid is assumed with no energy losses, flow through an orifice is described

by,

Qt = Ao 2 gH (5-2)

This equation is derived from Bernoulli's equation. Assuming no losses, Bernoulli’s

equation is,

p A v 2A p v2

+ + z A = B + B + zB (5-3).

γ 2g γ 2g

Only the third, fifth and sixth terms of eq. (3-3) are non-zero terms, therefore,

v2

(z A − zB ) = B (5-4).

2g

Letting H = (zA - zB),

v2

H = B or v B = 2 gH (5-5).

2g

Note that the velocity at the orifice depends only on the head and not on the orifice area.

From continuity, v = Q/Ao, therefore,

Q = Ao 2 gH (which is equation 5-2) (5-2)

n = 0.5 (5-6)

and

k = Ao 2 g (5-7)

3. The experimental flow rate through an orifice for a real fluid will be less than the

theoretical rate. To determine the experimental flow rate a discharge coefficient is used

so that,

Qe = Cd Qt (5-8)

Therefore,

Qe

Cd = (5-9)

Ao 2 gH

Notation:

t = time,

Ac = area of column,

Ao = area of orifice,

H = available head,

Cd = discharge coefficient,

g = acceleration of gravity,

Qt = theoretical discharge rate given by eq. (5-2),

Qe = experimentally measured flow rate,

n = exponent, and

k = coefficient.

Experiment 6

Measuring Flow Rates with a Venturi Meter

n Purpose: The Venturi meter is widely used as a flow measurement device. It can

easily be inserted in a pipeline with only a small energy loss. In this experiment we will

measure the flow rates through the Venturi and compare them with those calculated from

the pressure readings at the inlet and the throat.

n Procedure:

1. Close the pump flow control valve and start the pump.

2. Close the outlet valve about 3 1/4 turns from the full open position.

3. Regulate the pump flow to produce the maximum possible differential water level on

piezometers 2 and 3 at the Venturi inlet and throat respectively. Take care to avoid

water flowing up the piezometers into the manifold.

4. Allow a steady flow rate to be established through the entire circuit.

5. Measure the flow rate through the outlet and the level of water in each piezometer.

6. Carefully regulate the flow rate so that the differential between the inlet and the throat

is reduced in about 5 equal steps.

7. Measure all piezometric heights and the flow rate for each step.

1. By plotting a graph of the logarithm of the measured flow rate vs. the logarithm of the

measured pressure drop, verify the relationship between Qmeas and Hmeas derived in

Note 1 below.

2. Calculate the meter constant (Cm) and the meter coefficient (k). Show that the

intercept with the y-axis on the graph plotted in question 1 above is equal to log (kCm).

See Note 2 below.

3. Calculate the theoretical flow rate and compare the values with the measured flow

rates. Comment on any discrepancies.

4. Calculate the pressure recovery. See Appendix (A-2.)

5. Discuss the performance of the Venturi meter. See any text on fluid mechanics.

Notes:

1. The expression for the theoretical flow rate can be derived from Bernoulli's equation.

p2 /(ρg) + v22 /(2g) + z2 = p3 /(ρg) + v32 /(2g) + z3 (6-1)

Qtheor = v2 A2 = v3 A3 (6-2)

For a horizontal channel,

z 2 = z3 (6-3).

p2 − p 3 v 3 − v 2

2 2

= (6-4)

ρg 2g

Substituting for the velocity into Eq. 6-1, and multiplying top and bottom by A22,

( p2 − p3 ) Q 2 (r 2 − 1)

= (6-5)

ρg A22 (2 g )

in which r = the ratio of the inlet area to the throat area,

r = A2 /A3 (6-6)

and theoretically, (p2 - p3)/(ρg) = htheor = the difference in piezometric pressure head and

A2 = the inlet area. Rearranging gives,

2 ghtheor

Qtheor = A2 (6-7)

(r 2 − 1)

2. Since A2 , g and r are constant for a given Venturi meter, the expression (Eq. 6-7)

becomes,

Qtheor = Cm htheor (6-8)

in which,

2g

Cm = A2 (6-9)

(r − 1)

2

Due to friction and the contraction losses, the actual pressure drop, H, will be greater than

the theoretical pressure drop, h. The actual flow rate is given by the equation,

Qmeas = kCm H meas (6-10)

in which,

htheor

k= (6-11).

H meas

k is called the meter coefficient which is always less than one.

datum

15 mm

n Data:

Water temperature=

ρ=

Set Flow rate Piezometer height (cm) k Qtheor

Vol. Time Q #1 #2 #3 #4 (mL/sec)

(mL) (sec) (mL/sec)

1

2

3

4

5

Average=

Note: Convert all units consistently.

Experiment 7

Energy Loss in a Hydraulic Jump

supercritical (rapid) flow to subcritical (slow) flow in an open channel and to analyze the

resulting energy changes.

n Procedure:

1. Adjust the tailgate of the channel so that it causes no obstruction at the outlet end. This

is done by placing the tailgate into its lowest position.

2. Open the sluice gate to a height of approximately 3/4 inch. Keep the flow rate at about

12 gal/min. Adjust the flow so that the inlet reservoir has sufficient head to cause

supercritical flow to exist along the entire length of the channel. Insure that no

overflow occurs from the rear of the inlet reservoir.

3. By adjusting the tailgate, create a hydraulic jump in the central portion of the channel.

4. Measure: a) the depth of flow in front of (y1) and behind (y2) the jump,

b) the levels in the pitot tubes on each side of the jump, by placing them 20, 40, 60 and

80 percent of the flow depth from the water surface,

c) the depth of flow at the vena contracta, and

d) the opening of the sluice gate.

5. Keeping the flow rate constant and changing the sluice gate opening to 1 or 1 1/2 inch,

repeat Steps 1 through 4 at least 3 times until you obtain a situation where you cannot

obtain a hydraulic jump by tailgate adjustment.

6. For 1 additional flow rate, create a hydraulic jump in the central portion of the channel

and measure the depth of flow in front of (y1) and behind (y2) the jump.

1. Draw the velocity distribution profiles and compute the average velocities at the cross

sections on either side of the hydraulic jump. Compare the profile values with the

average velocity.

2. Calculate the energy loss in the hydraulic jump using Bernoulli’s Theorem (Eq. 7-1)

and the average velocity. Compare this to the difference in heights in the pitot tubes.

3. Plot the relationships between the ratio of conjugate depths and the corresponding

Froude number. See Eqs. 7-11 and 7-12.

4. Calculate the critical depths. Do they fall within the expected ranges? To answer this

question,

a) Draw the specific force curve for one value of Q.

b) Draw the specific energy curve for the same value of Q. (F = γd2/2)

5. Calculate the coefficient of contraction for the sluice gate by comparing the vena

contracta with ygate. (C = yvc/ygate)

6. What percent of the upstream energy is dissipated? Is the hydraulic jump an efficient

energy dissipator?

Notes:

1. In open channel flow, the free surface coincides with the hydraulic grade line provided

that the pressure distribution is hydrostatic. The pressure distribution will be hydrostatic

if the accelerations and curvature of the streamlines in a vertical plane are negligible and

if the slope of the bed is small (< 10%). Under these conditions the expression for the

total energy may be written as,

H = p/γ + z + v2/(2g) = y + z + v2/(2g) (7-1)

in which y = the vertical distance from the bed to the water surface (depth of flow) and z

is defined as the height of the bed above the datum.

If we consider the channel bed as the datum (z = 0), the Eq. 7-1 reduces to,

H = y + v2/(2g) = E (7-2)

where E is termed the specific energy. For this experiment, since z = 0, the total energy

and the specific energy are the same. Furthermore, for this experiment with a rectangular

channel cross-section with constant width b,

(area of cross-section), A = by (7-3),

(flow rate or discharge), Q = v A = v b y (7-4),

(discharge per unit width), q = Q/b = v b y/b = v y (7-5).

Therefore,

E = y + q2/(2gy2) (7-6).

The relationship expressed by Eq. 7-6 is cubic in terms of y and there must be three

solutions for a given set of values for E and q. However, only two of the solutions are

real. Thus, there are two possible depths of flow for a given specific energy level, E, and

discharge, q. The two depths are referred to as alternate depths. This provides for two

regimes of flow, either slow and deep, or fast and shallow, referred to as subcritical flow

and supercritical flow, respectively. If there is a transition from one regime to the other

for a given E and q, then the flow must go through an intermediate condition known as

critical flow. This critical condition describes the state of flow at which the specific

energy is a minimum for a given flow rate per unit width, q. Conversely, at this critical

condition for a given E, the flow rate, q, must reach a maximum value. The depth at

which critical discharge occurs is called the critical depth, yc , and the velocity is the

critical velocity, vc . From Eq. 7-6 assuming critical conditions,

vc2 = g yc (7-7)

2 3

q = g yc (7-8)

and,

yc = 2/3 E (7-9).

From Eq. 7-7, at critical flow conditions,

Fr2 = vc2 /gyc = 1 (7-10)

in which Fr = the Froude number. At the critical flow condition, Fr = 1. When Fr < 1 the

flow is subcritical and when Fr > 1 the flow is supercritical.

The hydraulic jump allows a reasonably abrupt transition from supercritical to subcritical

flow. It can be accompanied by considerable energy loss and turbulence. The energy loss

varies with the Froude number of the jump and is generally an unknown. The energy loss

can be found by computing the flow energy upstream of the jump and the reduced flow

energy downstream of the jump. The energy loss is the difference between the two

energy levels. Conservation of momentum can be used to derive the equations for the

upstream and downstream depths which are needed to calculate the energies and the

energy loss. The relationships between the upstream and downstream depths are given

by,

y2 1

y1 2

= [ ]

1 + 8 Fr21 − 1 (7-11)

y1 1

y2 2

= [ ]

1 + 8 Fr22 − 1 (7-12)

where the subscripts 1 and 2 apply to conditions upstream and downstream of the jump

respectively. y1 and y2 are termed the conjugate or sequent depths. The upstream Froude

number is given by,

v

Fr1 = 1 (7-13)

gy1

and the downstream Froude number is given by,

v

Fr 2 = 2 (7-14)

gy 2

(Note that the conjugate depths are not the same as the alternate depths discussed above

since there is a loss of energy from the upstream side to the downstream side of the

hydraulic jump.)

n Data:

Water temperature=

(gpm) Opening ven.contr. (in (in Pitot tube 1 Pitot tube 2

(in) , yvc (in) ) ) 0.2y 0.4y 0.6y 0.8y 0.2y 0.4y 0.6y 0.8y

11 0.75

1.00

1.10

12 0.75

1.00

1.10

Experiment 8

Flow Over a Weir

n Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to verify the discharge equation and to

determine the discharge coefficient for a sharp crested weir. The flow of water over a

weir depends on the shape of the weir and the height of the water level above the sill or

notch of the weir. The data from the tests described below are used to verify the

theoretical relationships between these factors. These results can then be used to find the

coefficient of discharge.

n Procedure:

1. Attach the rectangular weir to the channel.

2. Close the pump flow control valve and start the pump.

3. Regulate the flow to maintain a water level in the flow channel so that the weir is filled

to the top of the machined section. Be careful to avoid flooding above this level.

4. Allow a steady flow to develop throughout the entire circuit. Measure the height of the

water level above the top of the weir as an H to start the analysis.

5. Measure the flow rate with a stopwatch and graduated measuring cylinder, and

measure the water level in the approach channel using the gage at a location about

halfway along the approach channel; the first reading of the gage should be used as a

calibration. For each set of measurements, measure the flow rate at least three times

and take the average.

6. Reduce the approach channel water level in about 2 or 3 even steps, each time

recording the water level differential in the channel with the gage. Also record the

flow rate.

7. Attach the triangular (90°) weir (V-notch), where θ = 0.5 (90°) = 45°

8. Repeat Steps 2 through 6; however, this time regulate the flow to maintain a level in

the approach channel so that the weir is filled only to the top of the triangular section.

1. By plotting a graph of the logarithm of the flow rate vs. the logarithm of the depth,

compare the theoretical power law and coefficient with those obtained from the graph.

Comment on your results. See Notes 1 and 2, and Appendix A-1.

2. Calculate the coefficient of discharge. See Eq. (8-6), (8-13) and Appendix 3.

Notes:

1. Consider the flow through a rectangular notch or sharp-crested weir as shown in

Figure 8-1. A horizontal differential element is taken at a depth y below the free surface.

The area of the element is given by,

dA = B dy (8-1)

The velocity through the element is given by,

v = 2 gy (8-2)

Therefore, the theoretical discharge through the element is,

dQ = B 2 gydy (8-3)

Integrating Eq. 8-3 yields the theoretical discharge,

H

Qt = B 2 g ∫ y 1/ 2 dy (8-4)

0

or,

2

Qt = B 2 g H 3/ 2 (8-5)

3

The actual discharge is given by,

2

Qa = Cd B 2 g H 3/ 2 (8-6)

3

2 3

where Cd = the coefficient of discharge, K = B 2 g , N = and B = 3 cm.

3 2

2. Consider the flow through the triangular notched weir shown in Figure 8-2. Consider

an element at depth y. The breadth of the element is given by,

B = 2 (H - y) tan θ (8-7)

and the area of the differential element is then given by,

dA = 2 (H - y) tan θ dy (8-8)

while the velocity through the element is given by,

v = 2 gy (8-9)

The discharge through the element is,

dQ = 2( H − y ) 2 gy tan θdy (8-10)

and the total theoretical discharge is obtained by integrating Eq. 8-10,

H

Qt = 2 tan θ 2 g ∫ ( Hy1 / 2 − y 3 / 2 )dy (8-11)

0

which yields,

8

Qt = tan θ 2 g H 5/ 2 (8-12)

15

The actual discharge is given by,

8

Qa = C d tan θ 2 g H 5 / 2 (8-13)

15

in which Cd = the coefficient of discharge.

θ = 1/2 of the machined angle = 45°

N = 5/2 (triangle), and

8

K= 2 g tan θ

15

Figure 8-1 Flow Over a Rectangular-Notched, Sharp-Crested Weir

n Data:

Water temperature=

Set Q H (cm) Set Q H (cm)

(mL/sec) (mL/sec)

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

Experiment 9

Design of an Outfall Diffuser

________________________________________________________________________

flow uniformly.

a multi-port distribution system and to solve for the required flow areas to achieve this

distribution provided that the upstream energy in the system is known. However, for a

diffuser, a range of discharges may be experienced and the upstream energy level is

likely to be a variable as well. In addition, the construction of different sized orifices at

each discharge point is generally not feasible from an economic point of view. Therefore,

it is generally better to specify a given diameter for all the discharge orifices or at least a

combination of only a few different orifice diameters and then to compute the flow

distribution from the proposed system.

Qo

< 1.5

of flow in a diffuser pipeline. The following design parameters will be used in the

analysis:

# of orifices: N Spacing between Orif.: S

Diffuser pipe friction: F

v2

Discharge coefficient for orifice: cd = 0.63 − 0.58

2 gE

in which v is the velocity (in the pipe) just upstream from the orifice and E is the

difference between the total energy inside the pipeline and the static head outside.

The analysis should begin with an assumed energy head at the upstream end of the

diffuser and proceed downstream with repeated applications of orifice and energy

equations. The repeated calculations will include the following steps:

1. Calculation of the orifice cd based on local conditions.

2. Calculation of orifice flow, Qi = cd Ai 2 gE .

3. Calculation of velocity in the pipe downstream from the orifice.

4. Calculation of the friction loss to the next orifice.

5. Calculation of the velocity head and energy at the next downstream orifice.

The repeated calculations will yield a total orifice discharge associated with the assumed

upstream energy. Adjustments in this energy will then be necessary until the computed

discharge agrees with the design discharge, while satisfying the following constraints:

1. The flow rates from the orifices must be within 7% of each other.

2. At the design discharge, the available head at the upstream end of the manifold

cannot exceed a specific value.

Questions:

Prepare a brief description of the computations including a description of the input and

output. Details of the computations must be submitted with the attached output to show

your solution. The output must include the orifice diameters and the flow distribution

from the orifices. Also, provide a listing of the required energy head at the upstream

orifice to develop this flow condition. It is also useful to print out the maximum and

minimum orifice discharges. Repeat the analysis for a flow rate of 0.5 m3/s to see how

changing the rate affects the flow distribution. Comment on all relevant results.

Data:

Q0 = 5.0 m3/s;

DIA = 2.0 m;

F = 0.02;

S = 3.0 m;

N = 40;

allowable upstream head difference = 1.5 m.

Appendix

Q = k Hn (A-1)

then by plotting log(Q) vs. log(H), k and n can be easily found. Taking logarithms of

both sides of Eq. A-1,

which is the equation of a straight line in slope-intercept form if the variables are

log(Q) and log(H). The slope of the line gives n while the y-axis intercept is the value of

log(k). To find k, simply raise 10 to the log(k) power.

% (A-2)

3. Discharge coefficient

- BernoulliUploaded byIvan Ernest Tomagos
- Fluid Mechanics Lab ManualUploaded byDr. B. Ramesh
- ME 2208 - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery - Lab ManualUploaded byMohan Prasad.M
- Lab Manual (Hydraulics Engineering)Uploaded byShahid Kamran
- ORIFICE DISCHARGE lab report sample.docxUploaded byArjun Mullu
- Fluid Mechanics 2- Practical 1 Discharge Through an OrificeUploaded byShivesh Sohawan
- Fluid Mechanics Lab ManualUploaded byJithin Aj
- Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual-Spring 2008Uploaded bypaniuatui
- Basic Civil and Mechanical Engineering Unit 1Uploaded byA.R. Pradeep Kumar
- Complete Fluid Mechanics Laboratory DatasheetUploaded byArmfield Ltd
- CEE335 Lab Manual 2011Uploaded byRobert Flournoy
- Fluid Mechanics ManualUploaded byHarold Taylor
- Manual Mechanical WorkshopsUploaded bykasateesh
- Fluids_Lab_ManualUploaded byturnip331
- Hydraulics ManualUploaded byjos2001
- Flow Through an OrificeUploaded byhozipek5599
- FLUID FLOW AND FLUID DYNAMICSUploaded byJeff Poi
- Flow MeasurementUploaded byHarryadi Novry
- Exp 2 Venturi Meter 2012Uploaded byAsyraf Hakim Muhammad Azmi
- Fluid Meters in Incompressible FlowUploaded byStephen Mirdo
- Expt 1 - Friction Loses in PipesUploaded byFauzi Helmi
- Flow Through an OrificeUploaded byVinay Shenoy
- Undergraduate Academic Catalog 07-08Uploaded bybillbradely0420
- Introduction to Fluid PowerUploaded bySultan Almassar
- Hyd n Hyd Machines-Compiled-NBSUploaded bySbs Smrt Lta
- main component and their function for francisUploaded bykalaylay413
- Broad Crested Weir Calculations_SI unitsUploaded bymanwarkhan
- F1-10 Issue 11 Instruction ManualUploaded byDimas Dzunun

- DUS2052 C- GC1Uploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- Lect-acc diagramUploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- EMM 3223_Lesson1Uploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- DUS2052 F - GC4Uploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- Experiment 12Uploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- Exp 2Uploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- DUS2052 E - GENEVA CONVENTION 3Uploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- DUS2052 D - GC2Uploaded bychanjunshen_rmc

- Report 2 Open ChannelUploaded byAin Sherin
- Chapter 5 Weir and Barrages b) Design of Surface & Sub Surface Flow.pptUploaded byUMAR FAROOQ
- 9A01402 Hydraulics and Hydraulic MachineryUploaded bysivabharathamurthy
- Design of BarrageUploaded byShahbaz Manzoor
- Hydraulic Jumps and Nonuniform Open Channel Flow CourseUploaded byDianne M. Depositario
- Contoh Soal Peredam EnergiUploaded byBogie Prastowo Mahardhika
- Chapt3 MomentumUploaded byAnastasia Monica Khunniegalshottest
- DROP Design ManualUploaded bysumankonar1
- FishXing - Gradually Varied FlowUploaded byYohan Lim
- Slides 3 Non Uniform Flow in Open ChannelUploaded byTing Wee Kiet
- Chap 3_non Uniform Flow Std(Encrypted)Uploaded byHonin Alshaer
- Hydraulic Jumps on Adverse Slope in Two Cases of Rough and Smooth Bed.pdfUploaded bytsksingh
- M6b Water Surface Profiles.pdfUploaded byEftima Kredan
- CH-5 Momentum Principle in OCFUploaded byAmier Thaqif
- Hydraulic Jumps[1]1Uploaded byVirat Ahuja
- 15CV43 Lesson PlanUploaded byPrashanth Jagadeesh
- Hydraulic Jump Simple MathsUploaded bySom Dev
- overtopping of wallsUploaded byFlorentina Sudu
- 00 DP InclinedUploaded bySuharyono Sabit
- Water Eng OCF NotesUploaded byDavid Thomson
- Hydraulics IIUploaded byZerihun Ibrahim
- energy dissipatorUploaded byC_C_8717
- Design of Small DamsUploaded byNarendra Singh Bhandari
- Stepped Spillway as an Energy DissipaterUploaded byxiaoyu liu
- AutoCAD Civil 3D Hydraflow Express Extension - User's GuideUploaded byericfg
- te_civil2008.pdfUploaded byjjmanoj007
- Water Surface ProfilesUploaded byMagesh Kumar
- BFC21103 Chapter3Uploaded bybadrul
- CFD Simulation of Hydraulic Jump in Triangular Channel Seminar ReportUploaded byRanjitDesai
- ENERGY DISSIPATION DEVICES_S.K. MAZUMDER.pdfUploaded bytsksingh