Transmission Line Parameters
II: Extended Review and
Example Problems
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
2
Inductance Calculations
last time we derived the formulas for
approximating the inductance of transmission
lines
the formulas are dependent on whether or
not:
the conductors are solid or stranded
the conductors are bundled or not
the conductors are symmetrically space or
asymmetrically spaced
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
3
Solid Vs. Stranded Conductors
derivations assumed
solid conductor
in practice, most
conductors are stranded
solid conductors: use r
in the calculations
stranded: look up GMR
in the book
2r 2r
4
'
r
r re
 

\ .
=
alternate representation
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
4
Bundled Vs. Not Bundled
bundling acts to increase
the effective radius of the
conductor
stranded or not, the GMR
must be computed
solid conductor
stranded conductor
example bundle
configurations
(may or may
not be stranded)
( )
1
12 1
' , ,
b
b b
R r d d =
( ) ( )
1
12 1
, ,
b
b b
R GMR d d =
from the table
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
5
Table Use
X
L
can be split into
X
a
: 1 foot spacing, dependent on the type of
conductor and frequency
X
d
: dependent on the GMD
values of X
a
, as well as the GMR have been
tabulated for stranded conductors, that are
not bundled
X
d
can be used for symmetric or asymmetric
lines, as long as the proper GMD is used
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
6
Symmetrical Vs. Asymmetrical
it is not always practical
or ideal to symmetrically
space the conductors
for asymmetric spacing,
assume lines are
transposed at equal
distances
GMD can be calculated
for both cases
symmetric
asymmetric
20 ft 20 ft
20 ft 20 ft
symmetric
asymmetric
20 ft
( )( ) ( )
1
3
m
D D D D D = =
( )( ) ( )
1
3
12 23 31 m
D D D D =
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
7
Example Problems
find inductive reactance per phase in Ohms per mile
solid conductor, symmetric spacing
bundled solid conductor, symmetric spacing
bundled solid conductor, asymmetric spacing
stranded conductor, symmetric spacing
bundled stranded conductor, asymmetric spacing
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
8
Problem Solving Hints
typically interested in inductance per length,
reactance per length or inductive reactance
always remember to use consistent units
permeability in H/m is defined as:
basic assumptions:
60 Hz
if asymmetrical, then the lines are transposed and the
average is of interest
internal and external relative permeability is 1
distances between phases >> radius of conductors and the
distance between conductors in a bundle
circuit is balanced threephase
7
0
H
4 x 10
m
t
=
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
9
Problem Solving Hints
the basic equation used to find inductance is
we need to determine what value to put in the
numerator and the denominator
solution approach is to classify the problem
based on conductor and transmission line
characteristics
then compute using the correct formula
7
2 ln x 10 H/m
GMD
l
GMR
=
`
)
Copyright 2008, Henry
Louie
www.slackbus.com
10
Problem Solving Hints
symmetric spacing
D is used as GMD
bundled
use R
b
solid: usually described
by single dimension
(e.g. radius, diameter)
use r in all GMD or R
b
calculations
asymmetric spacing
GMD must be calculated
not bundled
use r or GMR (from
Table)
stranded: described by
codeword (e.g. Hawk,
Pheasant)
use GMR as found in the
Table for GMD or R
b
calculations
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
11
Example 1
solid, single
conductors with a
radius of 1 inch
transmission line is
operated at 60 Hz
find the inductive
reactance per mile
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
12
Solid Conductor, Symmetric Spacing
given information:
solid conductor
r = 1 inch
f = 60 hz
assumptions:
balanced threephase
relative permeability = 1 (free
space)
we cannot use the tables since
this doesnt correspond to an
ACSR conductor
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
13
Solid Conductor, Symmetric Spacing
approach
determine proper equation to
calculate per phase
inductance per mile
multiply inductance by
frequency in radians to find
inductive reactance
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
r = 1 inch
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
14
Solid Conductor, Symmetric Spacing
transmission line is solid
conductor, symmetrically
spaced, not bundled
this means we should use
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
r = 1 inch
7
2 ln x 10 H/m
'
D
l
r
=
`
)
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
15
Solid Conductor, Symmetric Spacing
1) calculate r
2) find D
3) calculate inductance
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
r = 1 inch
7 7
20
2 ln x 10 =2 ln x 10 H/m
' 0.0649
D
l
r
=
` `
) )
in ft
1
4 4
' 0.7788 0.0649
r
r re re
   
 
\ . \ .
= = = =
( )( )
ft
3
20 20 20 20 GMD D = = =
x H/m
6
1.15 10
= make sure units are consistent
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
16
Solid Conductor, Symmetric Spacing
4) calculate reactance
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
r = 1 inch
( )
/m 2 0.000432
L
X f l t = = O
( )
/mi 0.000432 1609 0.695 = = O
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
17
Example 2
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
18 in
18 in
7
2 ln x 10
b
D
l
R
=
`
)
line is solid conductor,
symmetrically spaced that
is bundled
this means we should use
r =1 in
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
18
Bundled Solid Conductor, Symmetric
Spacing
20 ft
20 ft 20 ft
18 in
18 in
ft 20 D =
( )( )
in
4
0.7788 18 18 25.456 8.95 GMR = =
in
1
4
' 0.7788 r re
 

\ .
= =
7 7
20
2 ln x 10 =2 ln x 10
0.7458
b
D
l
R
=
` `
)
)
7
x 10 H/m 6.6 =
ft 0.7458 =
1) calculate GMR
2) find GMD
3) calculate inductance
r =1 in
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
19
Bundled Solid Conductor, Symmetric
Spacing
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
18 in
18 in
( )
/m 2 0.0002479
L
X f l t = = O
/mi 0.399 = O
4) calculate reactance
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
20
Example 3
20 ft 20 ft
18 in
18 in
r = 1 inch
are the conductors
solid or stranded?
is the transmission
line symmetric?
are the conductors
bundled?
solid, asymmetric,
bundled
use
7
2 ln x 10
b
GMD
l
R
=
`
)
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
21
Bundled Solid Conductor, Asymmetric
Spacing
20 ft 20 ft
18 in
18 in
( )( )
ft
3
20 20 40 25.198 GMD = =
( )( )
in
4
0.7788 18 18 25.456 8.95 GMR = =
in
1
4
' 0.7788 r re
 

\ .
= =
ft 0.7458 =
r = 1 inch
what is r?
what is the GMR?
what is the GMD?
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
22
Bundled Solid Conductor, Asymmetric
Spacing
20 ft 20 ft
18 in
18 in
ft 25.198 GMD =
ft 0.7458 GMR =
7 7
25.198
2 ln x 10 =2 ln x 10
0.7458
b
GMD
l
R
=
` `
)
)
7
x 10 H/m 7 =
( )
/m 2 0.0002654
L
X f l t = = O
/mi 0.427 = O
r = 1 inch
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
23
Example 4a
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
Bluebird
can we use the
Table to find X
L
?
what is X
a
?
what is X
d
?
what is X
L
?
/mi 0.344
a
X = O
/mi 0.363
d
X = O
/mi 0.344 0.363 0.707
L
X = + = O
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
24
Example 4b
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
7 7
20
2 ln x 10 =2 ln x 10 H/m
0.0588
D
l
GMR
=
` `
) )
ft 20 D =
x H/m
7
11.7 10
=
( )
/m 2 0.000439
L
X f l t = = O
( )
/mi 0.000439 1609 0.707 = = O
ft 0.0588 GMR =
Bluebird
now try it without
finding X
a
and X
d
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
25
Example 5
20 ft 20 ft
18 in
18 in
find X
L
Bluebird
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
26
Bundled Solid Conductor, Asymmetric
Spacing
( )( )
ft
3
20 20 40 25.198 GMD = =
( )( )
in
4
0.706 18 18 25.456 8.73
b
R = =
ft = in 0.0588 0.706 GMR =
7 7
25.198
2 ln x 10 =2 ln x 10
0.728
b
GMD
l
R
=
` `
)
)
7
x 10 H/m 7.1 =
( )
/m 2 0.0002673
L
X f l t = = O
/mi 0.429 = O
ft 0.728 =
20 ft 20 ft
18 in
18 in
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
27
A Side Note
we used the Table to look up the GMR of
Bluebird conductor and found GMR = 0.706
in.
what do you think the outer diameter of the
conductor is?
it is 1.762 inches. Does this fit in with our
understanding of r?
in GMR
1
4
1.762
0.686
2
e
 
= =

\ .
clearly, the stranding and steel
reinforcement has an effect
Copyright 2008, Henry Louie www.slackbus.com
28
Observations
example 1: solid conductor, r = 1 in.;
symmetric, D = 20 ft ; no bundle
example 4: Bluebird, GMR = .706 in., same
configuration
example 2: solid conductor, r = 1. in; bundled
at 18 in. (GMR = 8.95 in.); same
configuration
/mi 0.707
L
X = O
/mi 0.695
L
X = O
/mi 0.399
L
X = O
the larger the radius, the less the inductive reactance
what can be said about the inductive reactance as
the distance between phases increases?