# Statistics for Managers using Microsoft Excel

6th Edition
Chapter 2 Organizing and Visualizing Data

2-1

Learning Objectives
In this chapter you learn:
  

The sources of data used in business

The types of data used in business
To develop tables and charts for numerical data To develop tables and charts for categorical data

The principles of properly presenting graphs
2-2

A Step by Step Process For Examining & Concluding From Data Is Helpful In this book we will use DCOVA

 

Define the variables for which you want to reach conclusions Collect the data from appropriate sources Organize the data collected by developing tables Visualize the data by developing charts Analyze the data by examining the appropriate tables and charts (and in later chapters by using other statistical methods) to reach conclusions

2-3

such as “yes” and “no. Inc.” Numerical (quantitative) variables have values that represent quantities.Types of Variables DCOVA  Categorical (qualitative) variables have values that can only be placed into categories. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-4 .    Discrete variables arise from a counting process Continuous variables arise from a measuring process Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Types of Variables DCOVA Variables Categorical Examples:    Numerical Marital Status Political Party Eye Color (Defined categories) Discrete Examples:   Continuous Examples:   Number of Children Defects per hour (Counted items) Weight Voltage (Measured characteristics) 2-5 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc.

Levels of Measurement DCOVA A nominal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which no ranking is implied. Inc. Categorical Variables Personal Computer Ownership Type of Stocks Owned Internet Provider Categories Yes / No Growth / Value / Other Microsoft Network / AOL/ Other Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-6 .

CC. DDD. B. B. D. Neutral. C. BBB. Junior. Sophomore. AA. DD. publishing as Prentice Hall Ordered Categories Freshman. Instructor AAA.Levels of Measurement (con’t. Unsatisfied Professor. A. C. Senior Satisfied. CCC. Associate Professor. F 2-7 . BB. D A. Inc. Assistant Professor.) DCOVA An ordinal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which ranking is implied Categorical Variable Student class designation Product satisfaction Faculty rank Standard & Poor’s bond ratings Student Grades Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-8 .  Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc.) DCOVA  An interval scale is an ordered scale in which the difference between measurements is a meaningful quantity but the measurements do not have a true zero point. A ratio scale is an ordered scale in which the difference between the measurements is a meaningful quantity and the measurements have a true zero point.Levels of Measurement (con’t.

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-9 .Interval and Ratio Scales DCOVA Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

A pharmaceutical manufacturer needs to determine whether a new drug is more effective than those currently in use. publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc. 2-10    Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Why Collect Data? DCOVA  A marketing research analyst needs to assess the effectiveness of a new television advertisement. An auditor wants to review the financial transactions of a company in order to determine whether the company is in compliance with generally accepted accounting principles. An operations manager wants to monitor a manufacturing process to find out whether the quality of the product being manufactured is conforming to company standards.

Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-11 . Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Sources of Data DCOVA  Primary Sources: The data collector is the one using the data for analysis  Data from a political survey  Data collected from an experiment  Observed data  Secondary Sources: The person performing data analysis is not the data collector  Analyzing census data  Examining data from print journals or data published on the internet.

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-12 . Inc.Sources of data fall into four categories  DCOVA Data distributed by an organization or an individual A designed experiment   A survey An observational study  Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Examples Of Data Distributed By Organizations or Individuals DCOVA  Financial data on a company provided by investment services. Industry or market data from market research firms and trade associations. and sports statistics in daily newspapers. Stock prices. Inc. weather conditions. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-13 .   Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Market testing on alternative product promotions to determine which promotion to use more broadly. Inc. Material testing to determine which supplier’s material should be used in a product. publishing as Prentice Hall .Examples of Data From A Designed Experiment  DCOVA Consumer testing of different versions of a product to help determine which product should be pursued further. 2-14   Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-15 .Examples of Survey Data DCOVA  Political polls of registered voters during political campaigns. People being surveyed to determine their satisfaction with a recent product or service experience. Inc.  Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Measuring the volume of traffic through an intersection to determine if some form of advertising at the intersection is justified. publishing as Prentice Hall .Examples of Data From Observational Studies  DCOVA Market researchers utilizing focus groups to elicit unstructured responses to open-ended questions. Measuring the time it takes for customers to be served in a fast food establishment. 2-16   Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Categorical Data Are Organized By Utilizing Tables Categorical Data Tallying Data One Categorical Variable Summary Table Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall DCOVA Two Categorical Variables Contingency Table 2-17 .

Organizing Categorical Data: Summary Table DCOVA  A summary table indicates the frequency. amount. Summary Table From A Survey of 1000 Banking Customers Banking Preference? ATM Automated or live telephone Drive-through service at branch In person at branch Internet Percent 16% 2% 17% 41% 24% Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-18 . or percentage of items in a set of categories so that you can see differences between categories. Inc.

A Contingency Table Helps Organize Two or More Categorical Variables  DCOVA Used to study patterns that may exist between the responses of two or more categorical variables Cross tabulates or tallies jointly the responses of the categorical variables For two variables the tallies for one variable are located in the rows and the tallies for the second variable are located in the columns 2-19   Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc.

or large No Errors Errors Total amount. Frequency of Invoices Categorized Each invoice is categorized By Size and The Presence Of Errors as a small. Small 170 20 190 Each invoice is also Amount examined to identify if there Medium 100 40 140 are any errors. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-20 . Amount This data are then organized Large 65 5 70 Amount in the contingency table to the right. medium. Inc.Contingency Table . 335 65 400 Total Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Example DCOVA     A random sample of 400 Contingency Table Showing invoices is drawn.

50% = 170 / 400 25.0% 42.00% = 100 / 400 16. publishing as Prentice Hall .25% 16.50% 25.50% 100. Inc.25% = 65 / 400 No Errors Small Amount Medium Amount Large Amount Total 2-21 Errors 5.00% 1.25% Total 47.Contingency Table Based On Percentage Of Overall Total No Errors Small Amount Medium Amount Large Amount Total 170 100 65 DCOVA Errors 20 40 5 Total 190 140 70 42.75% 335 65 400 83.50% of sampled invoices are for small amounts.00% 17.00% 10.00% 16.25% 83.50% 35. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.75% of sampled invoices have no errors and 47.

Inc.47% = 170 / 190 71.57%) of having errors than small (10.Contingency Table Based On Percentage of Row Totals No Errors Small Amount Medium Amount Large Amount Total 170 100 65 DCOVA Errors 20 40 5 Total 190 140 70 89.0% 100.86% = 65 / 70 No Errors Small Amount Medium Amount Large Amount Total 2-22 Errors 10.57% 7.14% 16.0% 89.43% 92.47% 71. publishing as Prentice Hall . Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.14%) invoices.0% 100.53%) or large (7.43% = 100 / 140 92.86% 83.75% 335 65 400 Medium invoices have a larger chance (28.53% 28.25% Total 100.0% 100.

0% Errors 30.85% 19.77% = 20 / 65 No Errors Small Amount Medium Amount Large Amount Total 50.50% 100.0% Total 47.40% 100.54% 7.77% 61.75% 29. publishing as Prentice Hall .50% 35.00% 17.Contingency Table Based On Percentage Of Column Total No Errors Small Amount Medium Amount Large Amount Total 170 100 65 DCOVA Errors 20 40 5 Total 190 140 70 50.0% 2-23 335 65 400 There is a 61.69% 100. Inc. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.75% = 170 / 335 30.54% chance that invoices with errors are of medium size.

Tables Used For Organizing Numerical Data Numerical Data DCOVA Ordered Array Frequency Distributions Cumulative Distributions Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-24 . Inc.

in rank order. Shows range (minimum value to maximum value) May help identify outliers (unusual observations) Day Students Age of Surveyed College Students 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 22 18 23 19 25 18 28 20 27 19 32 20 32 19 33 21 38 20 41 22 42 21 45 2-25 Night Students Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. from the smallest value to the largest value.Organizing Numerical Data: Ordered Array DCOVA    An ordered array is a sequence of data. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall .

publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc. typically there are more classes. In general. you divide the range (Highest value–Lowest value) of the data by the number of class groupings desired.Organizing Numerical Data: Frequency Distribution DCOVA  The frequency distribution is a summary table in which the data are arranged into numerically ordered classes. a frequency distribution should have at least 5 but no more than 15 classes. 2-26  Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. To determine the width of a class interval.   The number of classes depends on the number of values in the data. and establishing the boundaries of each class grouping to avoid overlapping. determining a suitable width of a class grouping. You must give attention to selecting the appropriate number of class groupings for the table. With a larger number of values.

Inc. 30. 41. 27. 17. 46. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-27 . 21. 53.Organizing Numerical Data: Frequency Distribution Example DCOVA Example: A manufacturer of insulation randomly selects 20 winter days and records the daily high temperature 24. 43. 13. 44. 12. 27 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. 35. 58. 24. 38. 26. 32. 37.

24. Inc.Organizing Numerical Data: Frequency Distribution Example DCOVA    Sort raw data in ascending order: 12. 58   Find range: 58 . 27. 41. 46. 37. 27. 45. 13. 17. 43. 44. 25. 38. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-28 . 30. 35. 26. 32. 21. 35. 55 Count observations & assign to classes Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. 24.12 = 46 Select number of classes: 5 (usually between 5 and 15) Compute class interval (width): 10 (46/5 then round up) Determine class boundaries (limits):      Class 1: Class 2: Class 3: Class 4: Class 5: 10 to less than 20 20 to less than 30 30 to less than 40 40 to less than 50 50 to less than 60   Compute class midpoints: 15. 53.

32. 24. 46. 27. 13. publishing as Prentice Hall .Organizing Numerical Data: Frequency Distribution Example DCOVA Data in ordered array: 12. 53. 17. 26. 44. 21. 35. 30. 58 Class Midpoints Frequency 10 but less than 20 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 50 but less than 60 Total 15 25 35 45 55 3 6 5 4 2 20 2-29 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. 37. Inc. 41. 27. 43. 24. 38.

20 .15 . 43. 37. 32. 17. 58 Relative Frequency Class Frequency Percentage 10 but less than 20 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 50 but less than 60 Total 3 6 5 4 2 20 . 26.10 1. 24. 53. 27. 30. 21. 13.25 . 27. 41. 35.00 15 30 25 20 10 100 2-30 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. 38. 44.30 .Organizing Numerical Data: Relative & Percent Frequency Distribution Example DCOVA Data in ordered array: 12. 46. publishing as Prentice Hall . 24. Inc.

46. 38. publishing as Prentice Hall .Organizing Numerical Data: Cumulative Frequency Distribution Example DCOVA Data in ordered array: 12. 58 Class 10 but less than 20 Frequency Percentage 3 15% Cumulative Cumulative Frequency Percentage 3 15% 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 6 5 4 30% 25% 20% 9 14 18 45% 70% 90% 50 but less than 60 Total 2 20 10% 100 20 20 100% 100% 2-31 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. 27. 37. 13. 26. 32. 30. 24. 27. 35. Inc. 43. 21. 44. 53. 17. 24. 41.

Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall .Why Use a Frequency Distribution? DCOVA  It condenses the raw data into a more useful form  It allows for a quick visual interpretation of the data It enables the determination of the major characteristics of the data set including where the data are concentrated / clustered 2-32  Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Frequency Distributions: Some Tips DCOVA  Different class boundaries may provide different pictures for the same data (especially for smaller data sets)  Shifts in data concentration may show up when different class boundaries are chosen As the size of the data set increases. Inc. you must use either a relative frequency or a percentage distribution 2-33   Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. the impact of alterations in the selection of class boundaries is greatly reduced When comparing two or more groups with different sample sizes. publishing as Prentice Hall .

Inc.Visualizing Categorical Data Through Graphical Displays Categorical Data Visualizing Data Summary Table For One Variable Bar Chart Pie Chart Pareto Chart Contingency Table For Two Variables DCOVA Side By Side Bar Chart Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-34 .

Inc. the length of which represents the amount. frequency or percentage of values falling into a category which come from the summary table of the variable. Banking Preference DCOVA Banking Preference? ATM Automated or live telephone Drive-through service at branch In person at branch Internet % 16% 2% 17% 41% 24% Internet In person at branch Drive-through service at branch Automated or live telephone ATM 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. a bar shows each category. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-35 .Visualizing Categorical Data: The Bar Chart  In a bar chart.

The size of each slice of the pie varies according to the percentage in each category. Banking Preference Banking Preference? ATM Automated or live telephone % 16% 16% 2% ATM 2% Automated or live telephone Drive-through service at branch In person at branch Internet 24% Drive-through service at branch In person at branch Internet 17% 41% 24% 17% 41% Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Visualizing Categorical Data: The Pie Chart DCOVA  The pie chart is a circle broken up into slices that represent categories. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-36 . Inc.

Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-37 .Visualizing Categorical Data: The Pareto Chart DCOVA   Used to portray categorical data (nominal scale) A vertical bar chart. where categories are shown in descending order of frequency A cumulative polygon is shown in the same graph Used to separate the “vital few” from the “trivial many”   Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Visualizing Categorical Data: The Pareto Chart (con’t) DCOVA Pareto Chart For Banking Preference 100% 100% % in each category (bar graph) 60% 40% 20% 0% In person Internet at branch Drivethrough service at branch ATM Automated or live telephone 60% 40% 20% 0% Cumulative % (line graph) 80% 80% Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-38 .

0% 10.0% 7.69%) Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.85% Invoice Size Split Out By Errors & No Errors Errors Large Amount Total 19.0% 70.0% Large 30.77% and 7.0% Medium Small Invoices with errors are much more likely to be of medium size (61.77% 61.Visualizing Categorical Data: Side By Side Bar Charts DCOVA  The side by side bar chart represents the data from a contingency table.00% Small Amount Medium Amount 50. No Errors Errors 30.54% Total 47. Inc.40% 100.75% 29. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-39 .0% 50.54% vs 30.50% 100.69% 100.0% 40.0% 20.50% 35.0% 17.0% No Errors 0.0% 60.

Visualizing Numerical Data By Using Graphical Displays DCOVA Numerical Data Ordered Array Frequency Distributions and Cumulative Distributions Histogram Polygon Ogive Stem-and-Leaf Display Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-40 .

Inc.Stem-and-Leaf Display  DCOVA A simple way to see how the data are distributed and where concentrations of data exist METHOD: Separate the sorted data series into leading digits (the stems) and the trailing digits (the leaves) Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-41 .

Inc.Organizing Numerical Data: Stem and Leaf Display  DCOVA A stem-and-leaf display organizes data into groups (called stems) so that the values within each group (the leaves) branch out to the right on each row. Age of College Students Day Students 18 18 18 Age of Surveyed College Students Day Students 16 17 17 Night Students Stem Leaf 1 2 3 4 8899 0138 23 15 Stem 1 Leaf 67788899 19 22 19 25 20 27 20 32 21 38 22 42 Night Students 18 23 18 28 19 32 19 33 20 41 21 45 2 3 4 0012257 28 2 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-42 .

The vertical axis is either frequency. publishing as Prentice Hall .  In a histogram there are no gaps between adjacent bars. or percentage. The height of the bars represent the frequency. relative frequency. relative frequency. The class boundaries (or class midpoints) are shown on the horizontal axis.Visualizing Numerical Data: The Histogram  DCOVA A vertical bar chart of the data in a frequency distribution is called a histogram. Inc. or percentage. 2-43    Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Inc.30 .10 1.20 .25 .15 .00 15 30 25 20 10 100 8 Histogram: Age Of Students Frequency 6 4 (In a percentage histogram the vertical axis would be defined to show the percentage of observations per class) 2 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 More Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Visualizing Numerical Data: The Histogram Class Frequency Relative Frequency DCOVA Percentage 10 but less than 20 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 50 but less than 60 Total 3 6 5 4 2 20 . publishing as Prentice Hall 2-44 .

Inc. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. The cumulative percentage polygon. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-45 . or ogive. displays the variable of interest along the X axis. and the cumulative percentages along the Y axis.Visualizing Numerical Data: The Polygon  DCOVA A percentage polygon is formed by having the midpoint of each class represent the data in that class and then connecting the sequence of midpoints at their respective class percentages.   Useful when there are two or more groups to compare.

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-46 . Inc.Visualizing Numerical Data: The Frequency Polygon Class 10 but less than 20 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 50 but less than 60 Class Midpoint Frequency 15 25 35 45 55 3 6 5 4 2 DCOVA Frequency Polygon: Age Of Students (In a percentage polygon the vertical axis would be defined to show the percentage of observations per class) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 Frequency Class Midpoints Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-47 .Visualizing Numerical Data: The Ogive (Cumulative % Polygon) DCOVA Class 10 but less than 20 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 50 but less than 60 Lower % less class than lower boundary boundary 10 20 30 40 50 15 45 70 90 100 Cumulative Percentage Ogive: Age Of Students 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Lower Class Boundary (In an ogive the percentage of the observations less than each lower class boundary are plotted versus the lower class boundaries. Inc. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Visualizing Two Numerical Variables: The Scatter Plot DCOVA  Scatter plots are used for numerical data consisting of paired observations taken from two numerical variables  One variable is measured on the vertical axis and the other variable is measured on the horizontal axis  Scatter plots are used to examine possible relationships between two numerical variables Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-48 .

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-49 .Scatter Plot Example Volume per day 23 26 29 33 38 42 Cost per day 125 140 146 160 167 170 Cost per Day DCOVA Cost per Day vs. Production Volume 250 200 150 100 50 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 Volume per Day 50 55 60 188 195 200 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Visualizing Two Numerical Variables: The Time Series Plot
DCOVA

A Time Series Plot is used to study patterns in the values of a numeric variable over time
The Time Series Plot:  Numeric variable is measured on the vertical axis and the time period is measured on the horizontal axis

2-50

Time Series Plot Example
DCOVA
Number of Franchises 43
Number of Franchises

Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Number of Franchises, 1996-2004
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 Year 2002 2004 2006

54 60 73 82 95 107 99

2004

95

2-51

Using Pivot Tables To Explore Multidimensional Data

DCOVA

Can be used to discover possible patterns and relationships in multidimensional data. An Excel tool for creating tables that summarize data. Simple applications used to create summary or contingency tables Can also be used to change and / or add variables to a table

 

All of the examples that follow can be created using Section EG2.3
2-52

4 6.93 0.1 7.9 Above Average Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Pivot Table Version of Contingency Table For Bond Data DCOVA First Six Data Points In The Bond Data Set Type Intermediate Government Assets Fees Expense Ratio Return 2008 3-Year Return 5-Year Return Risk 0.4 6.7 No 0. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-53 .0 Above Average 5.2 No 497.62 0.6 6. Inc.61 7.8 Average 5.4 Above Average 4.3 Average 5.3 6.6 No 243.3 5.2 No Intermediate Government Intermediate Government Intermediate Government Intermediate Government Intermediate Government 420.9 11.7 No 462.1 No 24.7 7.5 6.9 11.7 5.49 0.27 8.0 Average 158.0 7.61 0.

Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-54 .Can Easily Convert To An Overall Percentages Table DCOVA Intermediate government funds are much more likely to charge a fee. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

publishing as Prentice Hall 2-55 . Inc.Can Easily Add Variables To An Existing Table DCOVA Is the pattern of risk the same for all combinations of fund type and fee charge? Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-56 . Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Can Easily Change The Statistic Displayed DCOVA This table computes the sum of a numerical variable (Assets) for each of the four groupings and divides by the overall sum to get the percentages displayed.

Inc.Tables Can Compute & Display Other Descriptive Statistics DCOVA This table computes and displays averages of 3-year return for each of the twelve groupings. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-57 . Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.

Inc. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Below is the worksheet created by drilling down in the short term corporate bond / fee yes cell.Can “Drill Down” Into Any Cell In A Pivot Table DCOVA Double click in any cell to see a worksheet displaying the data that is used in that cell. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-58 .

The graph should not contain unnecessary adornments (sometimes referred to as chart junk). publishing as Prentice Hall 2-59 . The scale on the vertical axis should begin at zero. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Principles of Excellent Graphs   DCOVA     The graph should not distort the data. Inc. The graph should contain a title. The simplest possible graph should be used for a given set of data. All axes should be properly labeled.

Graphical Errors: Chart Junk Bad Presentation DCOVA  Good Presentation \$ 4 Minimum Wage 1960: \$1.10 0 1990: \$3.80 1960 1970 1980 1990 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.60 Minimum Wage 2 1980: \$3. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-60 .00 1970: \$1. Inc.

SO = Sophomore. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-61 . Inc. SR = Senior Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Good Presentation % 30% 20% 10% 0% FR SO JR SR A’s received by students. 200 100 0 FR SO JR SR FR = Freshmen. JR = Junior.Graphical Errors: No Relative Basis Bad Presentation Freq. 300 DCOVA A’s received by students.

Inc.Graphical Errors: Compressing the Vertical Axis Bad Presentation Quarterly Sales \$ 200 100 0 Q1 Q2 50 DCOVA  Good Presentation \$ Quarterly Sales 25 0 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-62 .

Graphical Errors: No Zero Point on the Vertical Axis Bad Presentation \$ 45 42 39 36 J F M A M J Monthly Sales DCOVA  45 42 39 36 0 Good Presentations Monthly Sales \$ J F M A M J Graphing the first six months of sales Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-63 . Inc.

pie chart. a relative frequency distribution.  Examined the do’s and don'ts of graphically displaying data. Inc. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.Chapter Summary In this chapter.  Looked at examples of the use of Pivot Tables in Excel for multidimensional data. percentage polygon.  Organized numerical data using an ordered array. a percentage distribution. histogram. and a cumulative percentage distribution. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-64 . and ogive.  Visualized categorical data using the bar chart. and Pareto chart. a frequency distribution. we have  Organized categorical using a summary table or a contingency table.  Developed scatter plots and time series graphs.  Visualized numerical data using the stem-and-leaf display.

Inc. in any form or by any means. photocopying. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education. Printed in the United States of America. stored in a retrieval system. or transmitted. mechanical. without the prior written permission of the publisher. or otherwise.All rights reserved. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-65 . electronic. recording.