1. The correct hierarchy (order) of the levels of organizations in all living organisms is a.

cells, organs, tissue, organs systems, organisms b. organism, body system, organs, tissue, cells c. cells, tissue, organs, organ system, organism 2. Who was the first person to see cells under the microscope and give them a name? a. Leeuwenhoek saw living organisms b. Hooke looked at tree cork c. Schwann looked at animal tissue 3. In biology, cell theory is a scientific theory that describes the properties of cells, which are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction. The initial development of the theory, during the mid-17th century, was made possible by advances in microscopy. What were the 3 scientist who contributed to cell theory? a. Hooke, Schwaan & Virchow b. Schleiden, Schwaan & Virchow c. Schleiden, Schwaan & Leeuwenhoek 4. Which is NOT a part of cell theory? a. All living organisms are made of cells b. The cells are the smallest unit of life c. All cells arise from pre-existing cells. d. Cells are mostly made of water. 5. This picture below shows meat covered with cloth preventing contact with flies remained free of maggots, while meat in contact with flies developed maggots. A series of experiments eventually disproved “spontaneous generation”. Fransico Redi demonstrated in 1668 that Aristotle was wrong about maggots. Maggots did not arise spontaneously, but from eggs laid by adult flies. Which part of cell theory does this support? Proved Virchow’s contribution to Cell Theory - All cells come from pre-existing cells.

6. Cells are made of organelles. The organelle responsible for energy, called the powerhouse, is the a. nucleus b. mitochondria c. cytoplasm 7. Organs systems are made up of organs. Organs are made up of a. tissue b. muscles c. organisms 8. Plants and animal cells have many of the same organelles, but only the plant cell has a _CELL WALL____, to maintain the plants structure.

9. Osmosis is the movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane of a cell. What determines the direction the water will move? a. the temperature inside the cell b. the amount of water inside and outside the cell c. the temperature of the water.

10. Plants and animals are both made up of organs and organ systems. An example of a plants organ system would be a. xylem b. phloem c. root system d. digestive system 11. What is the relationship between chromosomes, genes, and DNA? Genetic information I s located inside the nucleus. Humans have 46 chromosomes which are made up of genes, which are made up of sections of DNA.

12. Cells are surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane that allows nutrients and waste to pass through. What is meant by a semi-permeable membrane? a. allows all molecules through the membrane. b. allows some things but not others through the cellular membrane. c. only allows water and sugar through the cellular membrane. 13. The jelly like substance that holds all the organelles of a cell in place and gives the cell its shape is called _CYTOPLASM__. 14. Humans have 46 CHROMOSOMES which are the structures found in the nucleus of a cell that contain DNA. 15. African violets are plants that can be grown from leaf cuttings. The cuttings from both roots and shoots. How does the genetic material of the offspring of new plants grown from cuttings compare to the genetic material of the parent plant? a. equal in amount and identical b. less material than the parent plant c. more material than the parent plant d. equal in amount, but with distinct differences

16. Plants growing from plant cuttings is an example of ASEXUAL reproduction.

17. Meiosis produces sex cells and their offspring will have _________ genetic information. a. identical b. shared c. asexual

18. When the female gamate, egg or ovum, is fertilized by the male gamate, sperm, the offspring will have genetic variation and is called SEXUAL reproduction. 19. Where are nutrients absorbed into the bloodstream so that they can make their way to the cells? a. mouth c. small intestine d. large intestine 20. Plants and animals are both made up of organs and organ systems. An example of a plants organs would be a. xylem b. phloem c. root system d. both a & b 21. What is peristalsis? a. the muscular movement in the esophagus that pushes the food to the stomach. 22. Peristalsis occurs during digestion. Does this represent a physical or chemical change during digestion? MUSCLES MOVING WILL BE PHYSICAL 23. Chewing food is how your mouth, teeth and tongue work together with your saliva to break down food particles into smaller pieces. In your mouth ______________ digestion occurs. a. physical c. chemical d. both physical and chemical. 24. During digestion both physical and chemical digestion occurs. Chewing your food is an example of which? _PHYSICAL 25. Why is osmosis important to a cell? a. it cures cancer b. it helps the nervous system communicate with the endocrine system. c. it is needed to move nutrients water, nutrients and waste. 26. The respiratory system and the circulatory system work together to provide nutrients and get rid of waste for cellular respiration. The gas exchange occurs in the alveoli when surrounding blood vessels (capillaries) carry _OXYGEN__ and get rid of __CO2___ . Nutrients and waste move from the blood vessels into the alveoli through the process of _DIFFUSION________. 27. Hormones, which are the signal system for the endocrine system, are released from glands all over the body. Hormones are a part of the endocrine system which works to help your body maintain homeostasis or a. regulate bodily functions. b. make energy. c. dream. 28. Bile is injected into this part of the digestive system which is about 18 to 23 feet long. It is the part of the digestive system where blood cells absorb the nutrition needed by the body cells. a. stomach b. mouth c. small intestine 29. Saliva in your mouth contains the enzyme amylase which helps break down food during digestion. Enzymes are like keys that unlock (or breakdown) specific macromolecules. Amylase breaks down a. protein b. carbohydrates c. fats (lipids) 30. An example of chemical digestion is a. chewing your food b. saliva breaking down food 31. Cells get nutrients from food through the process of a. digestion b. diffusion c. respiration

c. peristalsis

32. Your stomach contains the enzyme pepsin which helps break down food during digestion. Enzymes are like keys that unlock (or breakdown) specific macromolecules. Pepsin breaks down a. protein b. carbohydrates c. fats (lipids) 33. Your liver produces bile an enzyme which helps break down food during digestion. Enzymes are like keys that unlock (or breakdown) specific macromolecules. The gall bladder stores bile then releases it out of ducts into the small intestine. Bile breaks down a. protein b. carbohydrates c. fats (lipids) 34. Why does the body need food particles broken down into smaller pieces? TO BE SMALL ENOUGH TO MOVE THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE. 35. During digestion, food particles are broken down into smaller pieces. This process of large molecules breaking down into smaller molecules is also known as a. decomposition b. respiration c. urination 36. An example of physical digestion is a. chewing your food b. saliva breaking down food

c. stomach acids breaking down food.

37. Carbohydrates are broken down into __________, and then passed into the blood stream and carried to all your cells for cellular respiration. a. fats b. proteins c. sugars 38. The production of offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism but does not provide any genetic variation among individuals of a species is called __ASEXUAL_______ reproduction. 39. Cells contain genetic information in a substance called DNA located in the organelle called the _NUCLEUS________. 40. The female reproductive system’s cycle begins with an egg being released from the _OVIDUCT_ in the fallopian tubes. If the egg is fertilized, it will travel into the _UTERUS_ where it will attach to the wall and grow.

41. Which adaptation helps an animal avoid being eaten by a predator? a. thin skin b. short tail c. camouflage 42. Darwin’s scientific theory that explains how traits and species change over time is called NATURAL SELECTION 43. What is an organism’s phenotype? a. its complete set of genes b. its observable set of traits c. the coded instructions in its DNA

Work = Force x Distance 44. How much work does Bobby perform in pushing a 35N crate a distance of 4 meters? 35N X 4M – 140 JOULES 45. Bobby drove 500 meters in 25 minutes, calculate work per minute. 20j

46. Jose weighed 200 pounds and ran 5 miles, how much work in joules was done? 1000j

47. How far will a 70 N crate be moved if 3500 joules or work are accomplished? 50m

48. What force is needed to move a barrel 25m, if 225 joules of work is accomplished? 9N Luis stands 3 meters from the checkout at the grocery store holding a 20N bag of potatoes for 10 minutes. How much work is done? NONE, DISTANCE IS 0. 49. If the forces acting upon an object are balanced, then the object a. must not be moving. b. must be moving with a constant velocity. c. must not be accelerating. d. none of these 50. If you are pushing a box toward your friend with a force of 20 N, and your friend is pushing the box toward you with a force of 30 N, what will happen to the box? A. The box will move toward your friend with a force of 50 N. B. The box will move toward you with a force of 50 N. C. The box will move toward your friend with a force of 10 N. D. The box will move toward you with a force of 10 N. 52. If you are pulling on a box with a force of 30 N, and your friend is pushing the box in the same direction with a force of 30 N, what will happen to the box? A. The box will move in the direction of the push and pull with a force of 60 N. B. The box will move in the direction of your friend's push with a force of 30 N. C. The box will not move because the forces are balanced. D. The box will move 53. When the net force on an object is zero, we say that the two forces are: A. cancelled out B. gross C. balanced D. unbalanced