Arthur Miller’s

Playing For Time

Actor’s Script Addendum

S.Yates 17 December 2013 The Geor e !ashin ton "ni#ersit$

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Table o( )ontents and 'ntroduction Dramatis Personae )haracter *uestionnaire Glossar$ -iblio raph$ and Su ested Materials

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Introduction This short pac&et is intended (or $ou to print out and place behind $our script. so that $ou can use them throu hout $our rehearsal process. /nclosed in these pa es are a character listin . a 0uestionnaire. and lossar$ (or the more obscure re(erences in the script. -ehind these materials is a short listin o( alternate materials $ou mi ht consider en a in 1ith. so as to better understand $our character and the 1orld o( the pla$. as 1ell as the historical circumstances o( !orld !ar '' and the 2olocaust. ' also 1ant to direct $ou to1ards the online dramatur ’s noteboo& (or this pa e. a 1ebsite that ' hope 1ill be a use(ul resource (or $our 1or& throu hout this production. There $ou 1ill (ind copies o( the historical presentations i#en throu hout the rehearsal process. as 1ell as a multimedia appendi3 that contains a (ull #ersion o( the 1450 )-S 6ilm. ima es. and music. /#en combined. these materials are b$ no means e3hausti#e. 2o1 does one con#e$ the totalit$ o( loss. or the depth o( the horror. e3perienced b$ 2olocaust #ictims and sur#i#ors7 This dramatur $ noteboo&. ' hope. 1ill orient $our 1or& onsta e and spar& ne1 0uestions (or us to e3plore to ether. 'n this production. ' ur e $ou to ma&e choices as coura eous and bold as those o( the !omen’s 8rchestra o( Ausch1it9 did. 6orced to create art under the most tr$in o( circumstances. these 1omen (ound passion. beaut$. and stren th in the most horri($in o( places. Un bel dì, vedremo levarsi un fil di fumo sull'estremo confin del mare. E poi la nave appare. Poi la nave bianca entra nel porto, romba il suo saluto. : Un bel di, Madame utterfly

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Dramaturg’s Note: !ritten as a teleplay, Miller"s script lac#s a clear dramatis personae outlining necessary c$aracters for production. %lt$oug$ t$is cast could indubitably be pared do&n for stage production, as a live't$eatre event, ( $ave compiled a full c$aracter listing to best orc$estrate, if you &ill, Miller"s vision of t$is tale. )entral %la$ers ; 6ania 6<nelon =/arl$ 20s. an >out oin ? 6rench 1oman@ i(ted pianist and sin erA ; Marianne =nai#e 6rench irl o( 20. sin erA ; Alma Bose =late 30s. a talented:i( cold:#iolinstA ; Schmuel =An man in his C0s or ,0s. 1orn 1ith caresA Da9i )ounterpoint ; Dr. Men ele =A handsome man. a medical doctor and >e3perimenter.? earl$ 30sA ; 6rau Schmidt =A harsh 1oman in her mid;30s or possibl$ older. Eapo o( processin and oodsA ; Fa er(uhrerin Maria Mandel =A beauti(ul 1oman. in char e o( the 1omen in the camp. 30A Main Supportin %la$ers o( 8rchestra ; /l9#ieta =A #er$ ood #iolinist. a rather aristocratic %ole 1ho still has her hairA ; %aulette ='n her mid;20s. German;Ge1ish. an e3cellent cellistA ; Fiesle =A bon$. timid. near;h$stericall$ (ri htened mandolin pla$er. tr$in desperatel$ to &eep up 1ith the beat. -el ianA ; )harlotte =A #iolinist. (ine pla$er. slim and noble;loo&in . -el ian. e3tremel$ intelli ent. poetic (aceA ; /talina =A 1isecrac&er. small. Bumanian. #iolinist. a tombo$A ; Michou =6rench. pla$s the (lute. a militant communistA ; /sther =A taut. militant Hionist 1ho bears her intense e$es on the #ision o( %alestine@ accordionistA ; 8l a ="&ranian accordionist. a dumbbell 1ho 1ill later ta&e o#er the orchestraA -ac& round o( 8rchestra ; Giselle =A (rec&led. #er$ $oun 6rench irl 1ho can barel$ pla$ drums at all. but is too $oun to despair. and thus beats a1a$ as loudl$ as possibleA ; -erta : =A (lautistA ; +ar$a =)$mbalist. a %ole 1ho has her hairA ; Eatrina =%olish. a #er$ bad uitarist. stubborn. unteachable@ has her hairA ; Greta =Dutch accordianist. countr$ irl. scared at all times. a #er$ poor pla$erA ; Tchai&o1s&a =The leadin &apo o( the orchestra. a militant %olish 1omanA Supernumeraries M/DI %risonersJ!or&ersJDa9iJEapoJ!aiter !8M/DI %risionersJEapo Fittle -o$I -o$ ScoutJFadislaus

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Playing For Time Character Questionnaire Dramaturg’s Note: elo& are )* +uestions for you to t$in# about as you begin to develop an understanding of your c$aracter. ( suggest ans&ering t$ese first using your script and t$e $istorical information offered on t$e &ebsite and suggested readings as a guide. %fter ans&ering t$ese, and allo&ing t$ese c$oices to inform your first fe& &ee#s of acting c$oices, revisit t$ese. ,ou mig$t find ne& motivations $ave developed. 1. !hat is $our character’s name7 2. Does $our character ha#e a nic&name7 2o1 did the$ et their nic&name7

3. !here does $our character call home7 !hat nationalit$ is $our character7

C. 's $our character reli ious7 '( so. ho1 does sJhe (eel about the reli ious persecution happenin durin the pla$7

,. !ho is $our character closest to in this pla$7 8utside the onsta e action7

K. Does $our character desire to be closer to an$one7 '( so. 1ho7

7. !here or to 1hom does $our character o 1hen sJhe is an r$ or upset7

5. !hat is $our character’s bi est (ear7 !ho ha#e the$ told this to7 !ho 1ould the$ ne#er tell this to7 !h$

4. '( $ou could chan e one thin about $our character. 1hat 1ould it be7 !h$7

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10. !hat is the 0ualit$ $our character li&es most in the opposite se37

11. 2as $our character e#er been in lo#e7 2ad a bro&en heart7 !hat is love to $our character7

12. '( $our character is in the 8rchestra. ho1 does she (eel about pla$in to >assist? Da9i captors7 '( $our character is not in the 8rchestra. ho1 does sJhe (eel about the 1or& o( the 8rchestra7

13. Does $our character e#er ma&e re(erences to time in the pla$7 '( so. 1hat does sJhe sa$. and ho1 does sJhe measure time7

1C. !hat is it that $our character is least proud o(7

1,. A central 0uestion o( the pla$ is 1hether Da9i captors can be seen as human. or i( their barbaric beha#ior ne ates empath$. 2o1 does $our character (eel about the humanit$ o( Third Beich members7

1K. 2o1 does $our character (eel at the conclusion o( the pla$7

17. !hat happens to $our character at the conclusion o( the pla$7

Yates GLOSSAR

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Dramaturg’s Note: T$is glossary is intended to support t$e performance of %la$in (or Time as most recently publis$ed, in -.)-. T$is version is located in a collected ant$ology of %rt$ur Miller"s &or#, available t$roug$ /ibrary of %merica press.) %ll language and page numbers belo& reference t$is version.Ger!an"Occu#ied Paris$ %&'( )*+,-I This sta e direction importantl$ locates the be innin o( this stor$ in %aris. 14C2. A mass arrest and raid o( Ge1ish persons. no1 remembered as Ba(le du +<lodrome dL2i#er. The roundup. a Moint operation bet1een German occupiers and the 6rench police. 1as &no1n as 8p<ration +ent printanier =N8peration Sprin -ree9eNA. and too& place on 1K and 17 Gul$ 14C2. An estimated 13.1,2 Ge1s 1ere arrested and held at the +<lodrome dL2i#er and the Dranc$ internment camp nearb$. then shipped b$ rail1a$ transports to Ausch1it9 (or e3termination. .ania #la/in01sin0in0 a 2Parisian 3allad 4ar!ed 4ith lon0in0 and 4arti!e senti!ent5 )*+,-I 8ne such number mi ht be /e bar de l'escadrille =14C2A. populari9ed b$ Marie Gos<. =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#O'ut0A$8(07AA 3our0eois dress )*+,-I -our eois (ashion in %aris in 14C2 1as built on la$erin e3pensi#e (abrics in bri hter colors. 1ith a speci(ic bent to1ards con#e$in a national sentiment. As +alerie Steele 1rites in Paris Fas$ion0 % 1ultural 2istory. >Despite the economic and cultural importance o( %aris )outoour. the +ich$ re ime pre(erred to emphasi9e the s$mbols o( la francit3. (rom Goan o( Arc to the beret. As a result. durin the period (rom 14C0 to 14CC. 6rench (ashion 1as periodicall$ encoura ed to become more authenticall$ P6rench.’ 'n practice. this meant htat re ional (ol& costumes 1ere periodicall$ dra ed out as Pinspirations’ (or the current modes =Must as the$ 1ere in German$ and 'tal$? =2KKA. 2666 he7s in the Resistance5 )*++-8 Also &no1n as la B<sistance. the Besistance 1as the ci#ilian mo#ement a ainst a Da9i;German occupation o( 6rance and a ainst the collaborationist +ich$ r< ime durin !orld !ar ''. )omprised o( small cells o( men and 1omen. the B<sistance 1or&ers too& to uerrilla 1ar(are acti#ities. publishin under round ne1spapers. pro#idin intelli ence to Allies. and establishin an escape net1or& to assist soldiers and airmen trapped behind enem$ lines. Fa B<sistance 1as comprised o( all le#els o( 6rench societ$I <mi r<s@ )atholics@ citi9ens (rom the ran&s o( liberals. anarchists. and communists. 2Labor far!s in Munich5 )*+&-I The labor (arms in Munich here re(ers to the Dachau concentration camp. the (irst o( the Da9i concentration camps. build in 1433. 't 1as 10 miles
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Miller. Arthur. Playing for Time. Arthur MillerI )ollected %la$s 14KC;1452. /d. b$ Ton$ Eushner. De1 Yor&I The Fibrar$ o( America =2012A. ,57;K55. %rint. 2 Meant to be a rehearsal;(riendl$ user uide. it is uncommon to pro#ide academic in;te3t citations (or e#er$ note in dramatur ical production materials. particularl$ (or common; &no1led e historical in(ormation. ' ha#e onl$ done so 1here necessar$ (or clari(ication. 6or additional in(ormation and readin . please re(er to the biblio raph$ at the end o( the document.

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(rom Munich. German$. 'ts purpose 1as ori inall$ (orced labor. but durin !!'' Ge1s. ordinar$ German and Austrian criminals. and e#entuall$ (orei n nationals (rom countries 1hich German$ occupied or in#aded. 1ere imprisoned here. Dachau 1as liberated in 14C, =Yad +ashemA. 2An0el of Death5 )*&(-I An el o( Death =Todesengel. in GermanA 1as the nic&name Goseph Men ele ac0uired (or his 1or& at Ausch1it9. 1here he per(ormed ruesome e3periments on human prisoners. 2e 1as also &no1n as the >!hite An el? b$ inmates because 1hen he stood on the plat(orm inspectin and selectin ne1 arri#als his 1hite coat and 1hite arms outstretched. e#o&in the ima e o( a ruesome an el. Selections #rocessI The selection process o( arri#als 1as di((erent at e#er$ camp. based on the needs and purposes o( camp labor. Generall$. ho1e#er. health$ men. as 1ell as $oun ;adult bo$s and irls. 1ere sa#ed (or hard labor 1hile most 1omen. children. and ill 1ere immediatel$ assed. Some. in Ausch1it9. 1ere sa#ed and ta&en to the Gose( Men ele’s >hospital? 1here the$ 1ere subMected to tortourous medical >e3periments.? Red Cross Insi0nia On Truc9sI The Bed )ross insi nia 1as o(ten put on transport #ehicles in order to lull ne1 arri#als at Ausch1it9 into a (alse sense o( calm and ensure their eas$ participation the processin o( ne1 camp prisoners. :a#o )*&;-I Eapo 1ere prisoners selected to ser#e as 1ardens or captains in concentration camps. These indi#iduals o(ten recei#ed special pri#ile es (or their duties. such as e3tra rations o( (ood. di((erent sleepin 0uarters. or belon in s ta&en (rom incomin prisoners. Processin0 )*&'-I The processin (or incomin prisoners included a dispossession o( all material items and clothin . shearin a prisoner’s hair =1hich pre#ent lice. althou h also ser#ed to humiliate prisonersA. and identi(ication numbers tattooed on the (orearms o( prisoners =Marianne is mar&ed. and becomes &no1n as. 3KC441 (or instanceA. 6ania (irst reco ni9es that Ausch1it9 is a death camp durin this processin se0uence. 1hen she reco ni9es items ta&en (rom other passen ers on her train transport. 2<e4"Cra# =6 .rench5 )*&>-I This is the (irst o( se#eral identit$;opposition sets in the pla$ that interro ate a Ge1ish identit$ a ainst a national identities o( 6rench. German. 'sraeli. %alestine. "nderneath this is a con#ersation is debate on 1hether Ge1ishness is a national identit$ o( its o1n. 'n Ausch1it9. a mi3ed;prisoner camp. Ge1ish identit$ became an additional caste s$stem =Ge1ishJ2al(;Ge1ishJGentile ta&in #arious #alances and pri#ile esA. 3loc9a4a )*&>-I The bloc&a1a. one step abo#e the &apo. is a bloc& 1arden that o(ten mana es se#eral barrac&s. These indi#iduals 1ere o(ten German 1or&ers. but occasionall$ %olish prisoners. 6rau Schmidt. (or e3ample. has additional duties but she also 1or&s as an Ausch1it9 bloc&a1a. 2I7! 0oin0 to 9ill a Polish 4o!an?5 )*&,-I Dot a le itimate. this (lippant remar& is e3ample o( the e3treme anta onism bet1een the Ge1ish and %olish prisoners. 'n the case o( orchestra members. Ge1ish prisoners 1ere allo1ed to share nice 0uarters 1ith %olish prisoners.

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Mada!e 3utterfl/ )*&+-I Madame -utter(l$ is an 'talian opera in three acts b$ Giacomo %uccini. Fui i 'llica. and Guiseppe Giacosa. 't is based on Gohn Futher Fon ’s stor$ b$ the same name. 't’s music is standard (are classical music per(ormance. and is the rare opera that has mana ed to cross into popular culture. 3echstein Grand #iano )*&&-I A rand piano produced b$ A ). -echstein %iano(orte(abri& AG. also &no1n as -echstein. /stablished b$ )arl -echstein in 15,3. this German manu(acturer used e3pensi#e alpine spruce to build its soundboards durin !!''. The use o( a -echstein in Ausch1it9 spea&s to a si ni(icant relationship bet1een Adol( 2itler and the -echstein (amil$ durin his rise to po1er in the 1430s. The 2Melod/5 cafe$ Paris )*&&-I Do account e3ists o( a Melod$ )a(< in %aris circa 14C2. 't is li&el$ that this ca(< is an in#ention o( Miller. 't inde3es the popularit$ o( ca(< musicians. as 1e hear learn that 6ania pla$ed se#eral ca(<s in the cit$. not Must the one o( the pla$’s openin . Ros@ Strin0 Quartet )*&&-I The Bos< *uartet 1as a strin 0uartet (ormed b$ Arnold Bos<. Alma’s (ather. in 1552. 't 1as acti#e (or ,, $ears. until 1435. Gusta= Mahler )*&&-I Gusta# Mahler =7 Gul$ 15K0 : 15 Ma$ 1411A 1as a late;Bomantic Austrian composer and one o( the leadin conductors o( his eneration. Baisin his baton be(ore the +ienna )ourt 8pera. the De1 Yor&’s Metropolitan 8pera. and the De1 Yor& %hilharmonic. he (ocused primaril$ on conductin rather than composin . 2is last period o( music. ele iac in mood. 1ere #astl$ success(ul a(ter Mahler’s death. Mahler is the uncle o( Alma Bos<. 2=on Su##@ orchestral nu!ber5 )>A'-I 6ran9 #on Supp< is 14th centur$ +iennese composer. 8ne such number in the repertoire o( the !omen’s 8rchestra mi ht be Supp<’s 1ell;lo#ed 15CK >%oet and %easant? 8#erture. due to its hea#$ reliance on strin instruments. particularl$ #iolin =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#Oc3QaMQs0B1"A. 2At ease$ Philhar!onic5 )>A>-I )allin an orchestra a >%hilharmonic? is a common 1a$ to address the bod$ o( artists as a 1hole 1hile in rehearsals@ Alma’s comment. ho1e#er. doubles as inside Mo&e measurin her orchestra a ainst her o1n belo#ed +ienna %hilharmonic. a roup 1idel$ re arded as the best orchestra in the 1orld. Orchestrate )>A,-I Also &no1n as arran in or scorin . to orchestrate is to adapt or 1rite music (or orchestral per(ormance. 'n the case o( the !omen’s 8rchestra. 6ania is adaptin materials (or a stran e assortment o( instruments that usuall$ do not per(orm in an ensemble. includin #iolin. piano. accordian. uitar. cello. and drums. 2Sin0s a s!o9/$ Parisian 3allad5 )>A&-I 8ne such number mi ht be Tango Marina =14C2A. populari9ed b$ Marie Gos< =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#OM2T$+"GMa*MA. Marianne steals food )>%A-I The mar arine that Marianne steals is 1orth a pittance. but in a place 1here (ood is scarce and e#er$thin has a price. and a morsel o( bread is the di((erence

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bet1een li(e and death. the the(t is hi h treason. This becomes a si ni(icant moment in the de#elopment o( 6ania and Marianne’s relationship. Dranc/ Prison )>%%-I Dranc$ 'nternment )amp. named (or its location in a suburb o( %aris. 1as a 1a$;station (or the deportation o( Ge1s to other camps durin the German occupanc$ o( 6rance. K7.C00 6rench. %olish. and German Ge1s 1ere deported (rom the camp in KC rail transports 1hich included K.000 children. 8nl$ 1.,C2 remained ali#e at the camp 1hen Allied (orces liberated it on 17 Au ust 14CC =Dranc$A. 2Stor!/ Beather5 )>%(-I An American son b$ 2arold Arlen and Ted Eoehler. and (irst debuted in 1433 at 2arlem’s )otton )lub ni ht club. The Ma99$ piece spea&s to lon in and disappointment. 1ith the l$rics sa$in . >Don’t &no1 1h$ there’s no sun in the s&$.? The son ained notoriet$ durin %aris in the 14C0s. 1hen Ma99 became a popular music st$le =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#O*)G3&Gt*-EoA. Trian0le 3ad0es )>%;-I The$ 1ere used in the concentration camps in the Da9i;occupied countries to identi($ the reason the prisoners had been placed there. These trian les 1ere made o( color;coded (abric and 1ere se1n on Mac&ets and trousers o( the prisoners (or eas$ identi(ication. Sin le trian les usuall$ indicated nationalit$ or reason (or imprisonment. a double;trian le indicates bein o( Ge1ish herita e. 2Eins, swei, drei 6 6 6 hu#$ hu#$ hu#C5 )>%'-I German march@ the /n lish translation is >8ne. t1o. three . . . hup. hup. hupR? 3ach chaconne )>%'-I The >chaconne? =or )iaconnaA that )harlotte practices is -ach’s %artita in D minor (or solo #iolin. =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#O2l%H!Gu1*%'SlistOBD,b+BTtc!mT'A Dundred ears7 Bar )>%'-I A series o( con(licts 1a ed (rom bet1een /n land and 6rance (rom 1337 to 1C,3 (or control o( the 6rench throne. 't is ironicall$ used here as a measurement o( time. to indicate an insu((erable. almost preposterous len th. 27Raus, ’raus, schnell …5 )>%,-I German. /n lish translation is >Get out. et out. 0uic&l$R? ; Una Bel Di )>%+- : Son 6ania is per(ormin is (rom Madame utterfly. 1idel$ hailed as the master1or& o( the opera. The /n lish translation is >8ne -eauti(ul Da$.? or alternatel$. >8ne 6ine Da$? =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#OE+Bhu*!SCtcA. 2To see Palestine65 )>(%-I This is the (irst o( /sther’s Hionist comments. Spea&in in 14C2. 'srael had not $et been (ormed =that 1as to come in 14C5A. and the establishment o( a Ge1ish state 1as to come throu h independence (rom Mandator$ %alestine. Thus. 1hen /sther spea&s o( %alestine. she does not mean %alestine in the contemporar$ sense. The Hionist mo#ement ad#ocates on behal( o( the Ge1ish state. 2 hma !srael, adonai elohaynu5 )>((-8 These are the openin lines to the one o( the most important o( all Ge1ish pra$ers. &no1n as the Shema 'srael. 't is a declaration o( (aith pra$ed t1ice dail$. 't is also the (irst pra$er tau ht to Ge1ish children and it is the last 1ords Ge1 sa$s

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be(ore death. 't is a pra$er o( praise to God and it is a pra$er o( beseechment. as 1ell. The Shema is recited in preparation (or the readin o( the Torah on the Sabbath and Ge1ish holida$s and at the end o( the holiest da$. Yom Eippur. Gudaism teaches that the name o( God is not read aloud in the Shema@ it is replaced 1ith AdonaiINm$ FordN =>The Shema 'srael?A. 23e sure to ta9e her to the hos#ital$ not deathEshe is a !usician$ the/ need her65 2Be understand65 )>(;-8 Mala i#es the Bumanian =JBomanianA translation. 1hich 1ould be >Asi urați;#U cU sU o ia la spital. nu moartea ea este un mu9ician. au ne#oie de ea.? The response. >!e understand.? translates to. >Am Vnțeles.? Resistance )re6 Mala- )>(;-I %lease see earlier loss on >The Besistanace.? Shubert son0 4ith 2lachen5 in the =erse )>('-I The script re0uires that 6ania be 1or&in throu h a 6ran9 Shubert son 1ith >lachen? (eatured in the l$rics. 8ne o( Shubert’s most (amous lieds. >Fachen und !einen? =>Fau hter and !eepin .? 1523A. mi ht be tonall$ appropriate (or this moment =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#Om;TB23'34$"A. 2? !/ father 4as first =iolin in the 3erlin O#era$ his strin0 Fuartet #la/ed all o=er the 4orld?5 )>(*-I 2ere Alma is re(errin to Arnold Bos<. %lease see earlier loss on Bos<. .urt4Gn0ler )>(>-I Gusta# 2einrich /rnst Martin !ilhelm 6urt1Wn ler is a mid;t1entieth centur$ German conductor and composer 1hose music 1as o(ten accompanied Third Beich materials and entertainment. 2The second ti!e to a !an$ a =iolinist$ 4ho onl/ 4anted !/ father7s na!e to o#en doors for hi!?5 )>(,-I Alma is re(errin to )9ech #iolinist +XYa %Z[hoda. 1hom she married in 1430. %Z[hoda 1as considered one o( the reat #iolin #irtuosi o( the 20th centur$. The 2M@ditation5 fro! Tha"s )>(+-I An entrLacte interme99o (rom the 154C opera T$a4s (or orchestra and solo #iolin. this piece Alma pla$s is a huntin piece o( music is based on thematic repetitions. =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#OK%(DnAsK)55A. 2 ou7=e beha=ed li9e a dirt/ 0o/i!?5 )>(&-I A goy or goyim is a dispara in term (or one 1ho not a Ge1. -ased (rom the Yiddish 1ord. it alternatel$ connotes a Ge1 i norant o( the Ge1ish reli ion. -oth are appropriate to Marianne’s status amon st her (ello1 orchestra members. 2Since 4hen ha=e /ou all beco!e such <e4ish nationalistsH5 )>(&-I Another re(erence to Hionism. %lease see loss on %alestine abo#e. This con#ersation. ho1e#er. is about more than politici9ed principles on 'srael@ it si nals the di((icult$ o( Ge1ish persons 1ho ha#e been (orcibl$ disassociated (rom their pre#ious nationalities. 2I a! sic9 of the Iionists"and"the"MarJistsK the <e4s"and"the"GentilesK the Easterners" and"the"BesternersK the Ger!ans"and"the"non"Ger!ansK the .rench"and"the"non" .rench65 )>(&-I These are the maMor polemical debates o( 14C2:political;philosophical an3ieties

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bet1een Hionism and the teachin s o( Earl Mar3@ Ge1ish position a ainst non;Ge1s@ German citi9enship. 1hich 1as bein (orced upon or (orcibl$ ta&en (rom citi9ens across /urope@ and a 6rench identit$ under sie e b$ the German occupation. 2 our Robert5 )>;A-I There’s no record that 6ania 1as e#er attached to a >Bobert.? althou h this is presumabl$ the bo$(riend she mentions in the openin pa es o( the script. This relationship is a bit o( Miller;de#ised sta ebusiness@ the real 6ania 1as married at the time to Sil#io %erla. a S1iss athlete. An air/$ li0ht #iece of #o#ular !usic )>;%-I 8ne such as 5e 6uis 6eule 1e 6oir spea&s to 6ania’s li&el$ repetoire =Fisten hereI httpIJJ111.$outube.comJ1atch7#O$i&#1GYb8#*A. 3al Musette nu!bers )>;(-I Musette music 1as a popular (orm o( music in %arisian ca(es. side1al&s and dance halls. The music’s minor &e$s are said to spea& o( an underl$in sadness. 1hile the rh$thm. notation. and st$le are more Maunt$ and said to con#e$ the resilience o( the human spirit. /dith %ia(. a popular 6rench musician and cabaret per(ormer. populari9ed the st$le o#er her career. This 1ould ha#e been music that surrounded 6ania and Marianne’s soundscape =Tchamouro((A. 2? Dr6 Men0ele 4ants to obser=e the effects of !usic on the insane65 )>;;-I Men ele (re0uentl$ used his >patients? as subMects in cruel tests in0uirin into the nature o( enetics and the limits o( the human bod$. 6or (urther in(ormation. see loss on >An el o( Death.? The 3eetho=en .ifth )>;>-I Be(errin to S$mphon$ Do. , in ) minor o( Fud1i #an -eetho#en. 8p. K7. 't is one o( the most popular compositions in classical music. and one o( the most (re0uentl$;pla$ed s$mphonies. The (irst (our notes. a >short;short;short;lon ? moti(. are ar uabl$ the best &no1n note se0uence in music histor$. Much has been 1ritten about -eetho#en’s 6i(th and its a((ecti#e 0ualities@ it is a head$ choice o( music to underscore the (inal music 1ith =GuerrieriA. Charlotte and Michou affair )>;+"&-I The a((air is based on a compilation o( passa es (rom 6ania’s diar$ that su est homose3ual relations bet1een the (emale prisoners. !hen the diar$ 1as translated to /n lish. man$ o( these passa es 1ere e3cised. Miller’s inclusion is notable in that it e3plicitl$ touches upon the lesbian themes absent else1here in the 1or&. and 2olocaust e3perience 1rit lar e. 2A!ericanH En0lishH Too late for /ou an/4a/65 )>'A-I Do1 in 14CC. the German’s 1ere losin the 1ar. and Ausch1it9 1as on the #er e o( bein liberated. 6<nelon had. b$ this point. contracted a nearl$;(atal case o( T$phus. This is one o( man$ implicit time allusions in the pla$. 2I could dri=e an needle throu0h !/ hand$ it 4ould hardl/ !atter65 )>'A-I 6ania’s comment here is an allusion to the cruci(i3ion o( )hrist. 2al(;Ge1ish. 2al( )atholic. 6<nelon 1as intimatel$ a1are o( her positionin bet1een the t1o identities throu hout her camp e3perience. ALLIES LANDED IN .RANCE )>''-I Also &no1n as D;Da$. Schmuel is si nalin the arri#al o( !estern Allied 6orces in Dormand$. 6rance. on K Gune 14CC.

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2The/ are sendin0 !e out on tour to #la/ for the troo#s65 )>',-I !artime entertainment circuits 1ere common durin !!'' (or both German and Allied (orces. 8(tentimes. popular entertainment artists 1ere sent to tour. meet troops. pla$. and >boost morale.? 2The shot her LSch!idtM this !ornin065 )>*A-I 2istorical in(ormation su ests that Alma 1as not poisoned b$ Schmidt. althou h she ma$ ha#e died (rom (ood poisonin . The o((sta e e3ecution o( Schmidt not onl$ demonstrates the deterioration po1er structures at Ausch1it9 near the end o( the 1ar. but also authenticate Men ele’s respect o( Bos< and her cra(t. #ut to $lga, the U%ranian accordionist, who has a&&arently inherited the conductorshi&? )>*A-I 8l a. a particularl$ an accordionist 1ithout special musical abilities. inherits the conductorship as she is not a Ge1. Fi&e Bos<. she #ie1s 6ania as competition. A #ol9a 2Lau0hin0 Son05 )>*%-I A dance reel o( upbeat entertainment music 1ith the accordion. 8(tentimes lau hin replaces actual l$rics. or nonsense l$rics are used. The duet fro! 'adame Butter(ly )>*>-I Yet another e3cerpt (rom Madame utterfly. the duet Marianne and 6ania per(rom is sun b$ -utter(l$ and Su9u&i. The l$rics. >' pra$ $ou o and rest. (or $ou are 1ear$. And ' 1ill cal $ou 1hen he arri#es.? are not Miller’s o1n translation. but (rom the o((icial standard translation o( %uccini’s opera. The 3lue Dabube )>*+-I T$e lue Danube a 1425 silent (ilm romanceJdrama starrin Featrice Go$ as Mar uerite. This picture 1as produced b$ )ecil -. DeMille. 'n a stran e coincidence. the cinemato rapher (or this (ilm is Arthur ). Miller. no relation to the American pla$1ri ht. Marchin0 Orders )>>'-I !ith the ad#ance o( the !estern Allies to1ards Ausch1it9. the !omen’s 8rchestra 1as marched on (oot to -er en;-elsen. 1here the$ remained until liberation on 1, April 14C,. There 1ere no as chambers at -elsen. but the camp 1as ri(e 1ith T$phus. At the time o( the !omen’s 8rchestra’s arri#al )9ech painter and 1riter Gose( \ape&. as 1ell as Anne and Mar ot 6ran& 1ere prisoners@ these three persons. &no1n throu h a #ariet$ o( other artistic materials. died in -elsen in sprin o( 14C,. 2Marseillaise5 )>>>-I 8n the da$ o( liberation 6ania 1as inter#ie1ed b$ the --). Durin her inter#ie1 she san Fa Marseillaise. is the national anthem o( 6rance. and >God Sa#e the *ueen.? the anthem (or /n land. A recordin o( this per(ormance is presumabl$ preser#ed in the ".S. Fibrar$ o( )on ress. but catalo searches (or it ha#e pro#ed unsuccess(ul at the time o( this 1ritin . 3russels$ %&,+ )>>,-I Althou h 6ania is portra$ed in the script as retirin to -russels. this is a de#ice o( Miller’s. presumabl$ a political one that subtl$ nods to its prominent position in /" politics. The real 6<nelon li#ed in /ast German$ and. later. %aris.

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3iblio0ra#h/ and Su00ested Materials -ro1n. D. %. T$e 1amp !omen0 T$e Female %u7iliaries !$o %ssisted t$e 66 in 8unning t$e 9a:i 1oncentration 1amp 6ystem. De1 Yor&I Schi((er %ublishin . 2002. %rint. >Dranc$? T$is Mont$ (n 2olocaust 2istory. Yad +ashem. Accessed 1C December 2013. httpIJJ111.$ad#ashem.or J$#JenJe3hibitionsJthisQmonthJresourcesJdranc$.asp 6<nelon. 6ania. Playing for Time. De1 Yor&I S$racuse "ni#ersit$ %ress. 1447. %rint. Gilbert. Adrian. >Sarah’s Ee$.? T$e ;uardian. 21 Gul$ 2011. Accessed 13 December 2013. httpIJJ111.the uardian.comJsarahs;&e$J#el;dhi#;paris;14C2;1orld;1ar; t1o;adrian; ilbert. !eb. Guerrieri. Matthe1. T$e First Four 9otes0 eet$oven's Fift$ and t$e 2uman (magination. De1 Yor&I Enop(. 2012. %rint. >The 2olocaust.? Yad +ashem. Accessed 1 December 2013. httpIJJ111.$ad#ashem.or J$#JenJholocaustJaboutJinde3.asp. !eb. Fas&er;!all(isch. Anita. (n$erit t$e trut$, )<=<')<>?0 T$e documented e7periences of a survivor of %usc$&it: and elsen. FondonI Giles de la Mare. 144K. De1man. Bichard and Earen Eirtle$. %lma 8os30 @ienna to %usc$&it:. De1 Yor&I Amadeus %ress. 2003. Playing For Time. 1450. Dir. Daniel Mann. Goseph Sar ent >%r<(ecture de %olice Becords.? A'D2. Accessed 1C December 2013. httpIJJ111.aidh.or JBacismeJshoahJra(leJespoir01.pd(. !eb. 6ara$"s Aey. 2011. Dir. Gilles %a0uet;-renner. >The Shema.? Ge1ish Gi(tin %lace. Accessed C December 2013. httpIJJ111.Me1ish i(tplace.comJThe;Shema;'srael.html. !eb. Steele. +alerie. Paris Fas$ion0 % 1ultural 2istory. 83(ordI 83(ord "ni#ersit$ %ress. 1445. %rint. Tchamouro((. Ste#e. >A Short 2istor$ o( the -al Musette.? !ashin ton Metropolitan Accordion Societ$. Accessed 2 December 2013. httpIJJ111.1ashin tonaccordions.or Jbalmusette.htm. !eb.