Journal of Sustainable Development; Vol. 6, No.

8; 2013 ISSN 1913-9063 E-ISSN 1913-9071 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education

The Sustainable Design and Renewal of Water’s Edge Public Spaces in the Asia-Pacific Region: Sydney, Hong Kong and Singapore
Mabel John1, Steffen Lehmann1 & Alpana Sivam2
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Zero Waste Centre for Sustainable Design & Behaviour (sd+b Centre), School of Art, Architecture and Design, University of South Australia, Australia School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Australia

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Correspondence: Mabel John, Zero Waste Centre for Sustainable Design & Behaviour, City West Campus, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Tel: 61-406-672-534. E-mail: Mabel.John@unisa.edu.au Received: December 13, 2012 doi:10.5539/jsd.v6n8p26 Abstract Emerging water’s edge public spaces display distinct characteristic features and stand apart from historic ones. In analysing these emerging spaces it becomes clear that there has been a shift towards enhancing environmental connections while: 1) encouraging mixed use functionality; 2) focusing on heritage preservation and adaptive re-use; 3) applying green urbanism principles; 4) implementing technological connectivity, maintaining and establishing connections to urban networks; 5) allowing avenues of incomplete urbanism; and 6) harnessing renewable energies in the public domain. Water’s edge developments are not only significant locally but are a key to the identity and perceived image of the selected cities. The rediscovery of the image of a city and economic benefits of tourism are the drivers of the development of any city’s waterfront or riverfront. This paper presents the outcomes of a pilot study that compared three water’s edge public spaces in Asia-Pacific cities at different stages of their lifecycles. It analyses and discusses factors in the sustainable design and renewal of such spaces. The aim of the overall study, that this paper is the first part of, is the consideration of sustainability and models of sustainability evaluation in a comparative urbanism framework for Water's Edge Public Spaces. This research suggests that architectural science input should be increased during the initial stages of design, to ensure continual links with biological and seasonal cycles, including other environmental processes over time. Results are presented within the context of changing relationship dynamics, understanding underlying subservient associations established due to colonisation, with a deep-seated realisation of the valued and reliant social, architectural and cultural relationships between the East and the West. Keywords: water’s edge, sustainable design, green urbanism, emerging public spaces, convergence and divergence, architectural science 1. Introduction Some well developed and emerging relationships between cities can be analysed by understanding the city's association with water. We can differentiate city typologies based on their historic and current connections with water, such as cities on a river, harbour, bay, estuary, delta or ocean shore. Many cities have originated near or on the edge of water bodies, because water is essential in terms of sustaining life, having historically enabled trade and commerce, and, today water is still an essential part of cities and their transformative development. The sustainable design of water’s edge public spaces is an integral part of the realisation of the cities of tomorrow. Historically, trading posts and routes have facilitated cultural exchange and interaction at levels surpassing other spaces. Areas alongside harbours and docking points have been fertile ground for the display of commercial, social, architectural and cultural hierarchies. These dynamics are continually changing and, as populations and economic relationships alter over time, the physical manifestations remain visible in the architecture, buildings, structures and, most prominently, the design of public spaces. In association with physical manifestations, virtual aspects (i.e. online versions of reality, animated connections, gaming strategies, virtual landscapes and technological reminders) allow us to understand and appreciate changing architectural forms. Public spaces are constantly evolving due to people’s thoughts, views, interests
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Accepted: June 24, 2013

Online Published: July 16, 2013

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v6n8p26

www.ccsenet.org/jsd

Journal of Sustainable Development

Vol. 6, No. 8; 2013

and use of them. The nature of associated private space is also changing, from primarily retail and commercial to mixed use, recreational and technological. This shift is occurring as consumers move to customised online purchasing, away from traditional shopping methods. Privately-owned spaces on the water’s edge are slowly being transformed by city-defining buildings including casinos, hotels, restaurants and bars. Increasingly, shopping interfaces remain, but shop owners struggle to be competitive with specialised online, bulk, or chain retailers, who do not bear similar profit to rental expense ratios. Three global cities from the Asia-Pacific region, i.e. Sydney, Hong Kong and Singapore, have been analysed using a comparative urbanism framework as part of the pilot study presented in this paper. The case studies chosen are within these three cities, the cities themselves have a shared heritage as British colonies: all of them were influenced by the British, to varying degrees, and with varying effects due to their individual experience of colonisation, and each developed differently over time. Most water’s edge public space designs do not currently incorporate biological and environmental aspects (including the understanding of changing processes and cycles). This paper investigates whether new and upgraded water’s edge public spaces should consider the key links between architectural design and architectural science (especially considering the environment and biology through time). The flow of energy within water’s edge public spaces is considered crucial in understanding the variables and parameters that drive change. In critically analysing emerging public spaces, it has become clear that a comparative analysis to study these water's edge public spaces is lacking. This critical analysis is however not the focus of this paper. The outcomes of the pilot study lead to preliminary recommendations and the development of conceptual models to aid the sustainable design of water’s edge public spaces. This paper excludes public spaces that are not on a water’s edge, even if they are ‘restive’ or ‘restorative’, and focuses upon “convivial” water’s edge public spaces (as defined by Shaftoe, 2008; Banerjee, 2001; Peattie, 1998). Waterfronts and riverfronts may be used for recreational purposes where densities are lower, with walking, running and outdoor fitness contributing towards urban health and wellbeing. Overall, public spaces (especially water’s edge public spaces) are important because, amongst other things, they play a key role in encouraging physical activity, particularly walking and cycling for transport or recreation (Giles-Corti, 2006), and in increasing positive and/or chance social interactions and social trust (Karuppannan & Sivam, 2011), thereby aiding individuals’ personal endeavours to maintain healthy bodies and minds, while also promoting community cohesion. 2. Background Water’s edge public spaces are convivial spaces, being major transportation hubs, destinations, historic ports, developed waterfronts or riverfronts, or promenades. These spaces were previously used for port trade and water-based transportation, and are currently used for lifestyle, cultural, environmental and innovative pursuits. The pilot study has analysed architectural science models for the sustainable design of water’s edge public spaces. The water’s edge public spaces analysed are at different stages of their lifecycles. 2.1 The Individual in a Water’s Edge Public Space To understand the individual in a water’s edge public space we need to cosider: a) connections, b) interaction and c) reliance, we must go back to the most basic single entity, namely an individual’s ‘self’ and its reliance on nature. The connection an individual makes with his/her environment is intrinsic to their environment, and as the world’s population becomes more urbanised, an individual’s perceived connections with natural environmental elements diminish. Perceptions of nature become limited to immediate experience, that is, open spaces, parks, reserves and existing water’s edges. Staggeringly few of the natural formations that cities were historically created around (for example, hills, valleys and riversides) remain in their original state. The reality of our daily dependence on nature for food, shelter and oxygen becomes further removed from our consciousness and is often taken for granted due to commoditisation and corporatisation changing our lifestyles. For example, purchasing apples from a supermarket becomes more common than picking apples from a tree. This growing disconnect between the self and the environment drives fluctuations of public and corporate environmentalism, including green thinking philosophies, to-and-fro, away and back into our radars over time (from Ebenezer Howard to Timothy Beatley, we can find resurgances of architectural structures that mimic nature, such as green walls; a recent example within Gardens by the Bay in Singapore). These movements all relate to the quest for a stronger individual–environment connection, recapturing personal desires to farm and grow, and seeking the environmental importance of our choices. To minimise this growing divide between self and environment, the
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No. 2003) ). This is apparent wh hen analysing built form. need an nd culture. G Google+). poetry. 201 13).in the form o of online manif festations. and analy ysing individua als and their u use of the space e. we observe th hat better re-de esign of water r's edge public c spaces can be e undertaken. th he history of a place and esta ablished/embel llished relation nships are visib ble in water’s edge In analysin public spa aces.e. Public c space designs can reflect my yriad states of f mind. Virtually y.in the f form of incorp porating farmin ng principles in nto daily lifest tyles. ng reliance. visually and d in animation. Hong Kong g and Singapore) ). our p priorities and visions. interaction i and d their use of w words/languag ge.. The levels of inte eraction incre ease in well-sc caled environme ents that create e ambiance and d allow the ga athering of sim milar minds. Overall. 2) virtu ual realisation . and d the contempo orary plaza. The conc cept of an indiv vidual within a water’s edge e public space Figure 1 p portrays the three t major su ub-spheres wh hich contribut te to an indiv vidual's view of space i. thro ough chats. designing an nd trialling syst tems for chang ge (Lehmann & Crocker. and d yet real. which w includes re esponses to fun nctional requir rements. fi firstly with on ne’s self and one’s thought t processes. experi ience. There is a dif fference in the way designers p plan and desig gn waterfront sites due to pr rominence and d impact. real. his storic and rela ational cues remain present thr rough people. among other r aspects. th hen with histo ory. Coloniali ism has had de eeply ingrained impacts on p places. includ ding connectin ng/social netw working world dwide profession nals who may enable chang ge (in a now online public c space). Interaction n occurs in any y space as a re esult of enviro onment.www.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. . refle ects the effects of colonialism m over time. Online. community y gardens. perceived and shared. The e design of a space s relates to i individual perc ceptions and pr rovides people e reasons to sto op. and 3) motivating g change: framing environme ental problems s. and d human-scale/ /individual inc corporations o of the principles of green urba anism. pa apers. as s well as in Canaletto’s scen ne of connections in Venice’ (C Carr et al. to the questioning o of value and a ability. encouraging cyc clical processe es and pushing g the visual/onli ine landscapes s towards app preciating the natural. psychological and emotional needs (Moffe ett et al. Figu ure 1. but o often goes beyo ond this to add dress spiritual. urb ban and verge e farming. the e changing tec chnological lan ndscape is ena abled without ph hysical travel or negotiating g actual spatia al barriers. 6. visual graph hics and anima ations enable c n the online public domain. incl luding gaming g such as Mono opoly and Farmv ville.ccsen net. self-b belief and self-esteem. 8. an nd thirdly in a p public online space s (social net tworking page es-facebook. the New N England common. from a affecting user identity. Relationship ps between ind dividuals and built form can n be linked to their past attach hment styles. 2013 authors rec commend: 1) physical p realis sation .. em mails and ongo oing shared p posts (websites s and blogs). including g inter-generat tional conversations (by readin ng scanned boo oks. . In n the meantim me. articles a and so on). by y using the com mparative urbanism framew work. the physica al water’s edge remains ope en to decoding g: relationships s and attachments are visibly etched in the chosen space es. a the Roman n forum. rewardin ng farming-rel lated formulai ic success. the q quality of thes se spaces is see en as 28 . think and i interact. Ca arr and colleag gues argue that t ‘the public spaces created by y societies serv ve as a mirror o of public and p private values a as can be seen in the Greek agora. 1992). and so too th he built form of post-colon nial cities (su uch as Sydney y.

links with water and riverine/marine environment SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS Larger tourist population traversing the area An updated new design scheme for the city Project designs to consider site history. changing. options for the better design of water's edge public spaces Ownership may provide issues in terms of a large grand design Designs will focus on the users and use of the area (form and function will be considered) Funds will be necessary to progress the works Large amounts of funding may determine the project’s success or failure A higher profile outcome for the city ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Biodiversity. health and fitness. The differences and similarities between designing any space and designing a water's edge public space DESIGN STAGE CONCEPT AND INITIAL/PRE-LODGEMENT DIFFERENCES Varied options available because of presence of land and water SIMILARITIES Basic design processes remains the same creation of a Master Plan either through a tender process. While the process followed is the same. 2013 being crucial to use and functioning. FOCUS Water. The differences and similarities between designing 'not on the water's edge' and 'on the water's edge' are presented in Table 1. from a concept to built outcome.ccsenet. 8. competition etc. environmental and built form connections. and should link more closely with the environment than they currently do.www. renewable energies. and a site analysis to determine environmental elements Area used by a range of people for various purposes .real and virtual Area determines the view/ perception of the city Links with a network of key places that are 29 . 6. unique and interesting Area to be designed to be accessible by all segments of the population (including the aged) Maintaining and enhancing environmental and built-form connectivity Connectivity . No. Table 1.should be flexible.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. the designs are up for more scrutiny.

environment and life connections. The notion of comparison. 4. The authors collated this information and identified similarities and differences based on a detailed survey of the case studies. The comparison was undertaken through the gathering of information using a common questionnaire which was used to analyse all chosen sites. mid and emerging lifecycle components. but offers an alternative route where theories of the urban might emerge. such as those that state that the East and West have little relevance to each other. built form displaying history and re-use. The information gathered related to the categories of: density and use. 2010). change and flexibility. McFarlane also suggests that there is a tendency to compare with the “usual suspects”. The outcomes of the pilot study are based in the context of these key ideas. Hong Kong and Singapore based on key factors. mid is defined as 1950s-2010 and emerging as 2012 onwards. The links to the types of architectural models were then established.1 Comparative Urbanism The next logical step in the analysis of water’s edge public spaces ensured comparison over time.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. comparative urbanism has been “shipwrecked on the reef of developmentalism” with ‘hierarchical categorisation’ causing divisions and long-term stuck-on and eroding effects. The water’s edge public urban spaces chosen as case studies were selected because they display early. Research Methodology This paper uses the comparative urbanism framework to analyse water’s edge public spaces. Hong Kong and Singapore. 2013 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS considered important to the city A key to improving tourism and visitor numbers in a city A key to the perception of a city and fostering of social and cultural networks within a city The historic elements and stories of the origins of a city began at key ports and waterfronts Well designed. 6. Therefore. Some Asia-Pacific researchers argue that “the hyper-dense environment of Asia-Pacific cities is a different animal from that of the relatively low density western cities and demands a qualitatively different treatment” (Miao. comparative analysis is reduced to a perfunctory and unenlightening assessment of how the “others” compare to the paradigmatic city’ (Beauregard. In her book Ordinary Cities. the analysis presented in this paper is an objective comparison of water’s edge public spaces in Sydney. She argues for a more cosmopolitan form of theorising. Theoretical Context 3. 8. noting McFarlane’s (2010) point that urbanism has always been conceived comparatively.www. The authors contend that comparative dissections through time provide a better understanding of specific issues: both overall and within their particular contexts. and this is more useful for postcolonial urbanism. The comparisons were undertaken by visiting and surveying each space. McFarlane (2010) argues that retaining a broad understanding of comparative thinking informs research and imaginative geographies of the urban. Nevertheless. innovative spaces are usually well visited Project profile Designs to be inclusive of all cultures Historic and cultural links 3. he says. this paper uses comparative urbanism. The questionnaire had qualitative and quantitative 30 .ccsenet. ‘by holding one city up as a model. 2003). 2001). Jennifer Robinson advances an argument for the removal of entrenched ways of thinking. which were selected for this analysis. 2012). No. citing divisive categorisations and terminology such as First/Third. networks. Also. and utilising cyclical processes proactively. Robinson (2010) argues that. with one being modern and the other not. While noting this. The pilot study results were analysed by comparing case studies in Sydney. in the past. In this context early is defined as of the 1850-1900s or prior. serves not just as an alternative to caution against integrationist verticalising forms of comparison. Developed/Developing or North/South. there is also a contrary view that “Cities in the developing world cannot have the same strategies and debates as cities in the developed world” (Lehmann. “one that tracks across different kinds of cities and contexts” (Robinson.

Lebanese. professional services SINGAPORE 5. tall skyline and busy port Global mix: English and Chinese. finance.ccsenet. German.1 Sydney. finance.www. retail.2%.1% City make-up/ residential type Languages spoken Global mix: English (80%).8 people/ha 803.6 million 12144.1 Case Study Cities 4.8 people/ha Entrepot. Finance.1 million 1104 km² 6480/km² Planned Management. 6. exports. 1997).5 people/ha Entrepot. manufacturing. including videoing and observational analysis of the spaces.8 people/ha 32. Tamil 3.6 km² 2058/km² Planned Property. high density. Vietnamese. IT.2 people/ha 80. skilled workforce Low taxation and free trade.9 people/ha 258 people/ha 300. Korean.2%.8 people/ha 124. Table 2. tourist and nightlife precinct HONG KONG 7. corruption free.9 people/ha 15. Malay 13. in order to best simulate a comparative dissection through time. business services.3/1000 79ug/m³ 113.4%. business consultation. Regional HQ Borderless 2. Japanese. “connecting” and “networks” (Thompson.5 people/ha 86. small island with high density. Chinese. and a growing demand for “comfort” and “security” (Dick & Rimmer. centre of finance and trade. health and community services Chain of parklands. while emerging public spaces in the East focus on “usage by a rising middle class”. Hong Kong and Singapore In line with the different projected demographic profiles of the East and West. English 29. immigration Amenity Infant mortality Suspended particles Intensity of land use Central city Intensity of land use Inner area Intensity of land use Outer area Intensity of land use Metropolitan Economic character Functional role Low taxation and free trade. Hong Kong and Singapore (compiled from various sources) SYDNEY Population Area Average density Planned/fluid Economic breakdown 4.32/1000 35ug/m³ 82. 2013 aspects. other Southeast Asian and Middle Eastern 1. 4. Finance.8 people/ha Post-industrial. Turkish and Vietnamese 4.1. over 7650 skyscrapers. or mass use.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. emerging public spaces in the West focus on “access”.2 million 710 km² 7315/km² Planned Hub.61/1000 in Australia (Data not available) 20.3 people/ha 16. 2002). harbour. Greek. market-based economy. Regional HQ Borderless 31 . The similarities and differences between Sydney. The surveys were conducted following each other. over 300 parks and four nature reserves Global mix: Chinese 54. 8. No.

6. Green open spaces and environmental sustainability are considered important elements of high-rise living in Singapore (Yuen & Yeh. with the removal of the city’s statutory 150-foot height limit that the waterfront became an attractive commercial location (Marshall. landscaping and open space provisions to maximise environmental capital. with the majority of residents located on the main island. 2002). resulting in a churning cauldron of activity that’s a lot messier than Singapore but no less productive (DAJ.2. materials and structures (which connects to architectural science). and each continues to stem from key individuals (Hall. 2007. within which individuals interact and in which they invest meanings (Bernard et al.2 Comparisons of the Cities’ Characteristics Hong Kong and Singapore have both embarked on a program supporting high-rise living. cultural aspects and land density. planning and architecture. Over 75 per cent of Hong Kong’s land consists of hill slopes and a large proportion of the relatively flat areas are under private ownership. 2011). recycle and connect. Yuen and Yeh (2011) state that Hong Kong and Singapore have the highest densities and largest amount of tall housing in the world. & Kellaher. social sciences. Most of the development is concentrated within Kowloon. a person with five years’ work experience will earn A$140. public spaces have social and psychological. Within the human condition are biological processes such as birth. 2011). 2006). New Kowloon and Hong Kong Island.1. Hong Kong and Singapore displays geographic consistency. 4. 8.1. 2011).. for example. He maintains that such an understanding comes only from a social science-based approach that is currently ignored by the multitudes. uniqueness. composition. 2007). ranks Sydney as having the highest cost of living followed by Singapore and then Hong Kong. Comparing salaries in the three jurisdictions. 2001). It has combined management and economic freedom. A geospatial comparison of Sydney. Cuthbert suggests. Hong Kong and Singapore is presented in Table 2. To maintain a connection between the natural sciences. 2013 As shown in Table 2. High-density development in Hong Kong is a result of its topography. Peace et al. making development tricky. It was only in the 1950s. as well as physical. where land was obtained through hill levelling and land reclamation by the government. the comparisons between Sydney.. In both the East and the West. No.3 Hong Kong Hong Kong bears the imprint of British management and continues to play its historic role as a prime link between the East and the West.000 (for top-tier UK firms) in Singapore and Hong Kong respectively. Despite rapid urbanisation. 4.1 Cost of Living Hong Kong and Singapore rank highly in terms of rental costs compared with Sydney. from Glaeser. for an average top-tier job. but it is now a model of superb urban management.000 in Sydney and A$185. 4.4 Singapore “Singapore is a legacy of the British East India Company. but Sydney is commonly ranked as having the most expensive cost of living overall followed by Singapore and then Hong Kong. dimensions. The take-home salary is lowest in Sydney. followed by Hong Kong. Peace. was the site of an outbreak of the bubonic plague in 1900 due to its squalid and crowded living conditions. Spaces themselves can be classified based on ‘internal or external’ interaction. 4. The Hong Kong government has a policy of dividing land before leasing it to private developers (through auction and tender). The Australian Government’s Economic Intelligence Unit (2011).2 Sydney Sydney is one of the largest cities in the world in terms of area. 4. It is a hyper-dense city-state with traffic that moves more fluidly than in many small US towns” (Land Transport Authority of Singapore. 2012. and by ‘interpersonal’ distance.equal to London and more than double the size of New York . 2011). Urban built up density is high in Singapore. The metropolitan area of Sydney covers some 1600 square kilometres . Circular Quay was historically a working part of the city and the now-fashionable The Rocks. Key ideas in twentieth-century planning re-echo.1. ageing and death. “we must look much deeper into the human condition” (Cuthbert. Singapore has emphasised tree planting. and largest in Singapore. historical development and land policy. 32 . 2011).and the harbour is a defining element of the city. Holland. The pilot study maintains this analysis of the ‘human condition’ as the key to examination through a “comparative urbanism lens” (Robinson. The sale of land leases contributes about 30 per cent of the government’s total revenue (Yuen & Yeh.ccsenet.www. from Glaeser. and these very same processes also apply to architectural elements.000 (for top-tier US firms) and A$150.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol.

thermal and wind st tudies. S Sydney has hi igh-quality res staurants and a developed dining scene. Tempera ature. 6. the numb bers of visitors s and whether th he space is use ed as a transpor rt hub or for re ecreational and d/or cultural an nd social purp poses. ligh hting. The e environmental and economi ic consequences of density ha ave varying eff ffects upon the ese spaces.35 in n Singapore. w where Hong K Kong ranks hig ghest. Utilities are c cheapest in Ho ong Kong. Hig gher densities generally allo ow greater div versity. Hong Kong g and Singapore have differen nt densities an nd sociocultura al uses. No. Archite ectural Scienc ce and Factors s Affecting W Water’s Edge P Public Spaces Architectu ural science ha as historically brought the b benefits of scie ence and archi itecture togeth her. is generally cheaper c in Sin ngapore and H Hong Kong. a ty ypical long-distan nce fare costs A$4. B Both Singapore e and Hong Kon ng have extensive rail system ms connecting m most public pl laces. Sydn ney is generally y the most expe ensive of the three cities. Factors affe ecting water’s edge public sp paces: three ma ajor aspects . t tailored clothi ing is cheape est in Hong Kong. 5. 2013 Public tran nsport in Hong g Kong and Sin ngapore is gen nerally a third c cheaper than in n Sydney. the an nalysis of sust tainable water r’s edge public c spaces is aid ded by architec ctural science be ecause architec ctural science allows the co onstant referen ncing of associ iated fields an nd conceptual links with evolu utionary biolog gy. followed d by Hong K Kong and then n Sydney. A$1. a along with din ning. as avai ilable funding is then usually sufficient to c complete large er-scale develo opments. Entertainment in all three e cities is expen nsive and the c cost difference es between the e three is not si ignificant. psycholog gy and computing (Szokolay.www. its density lo ower. Singapo ore charges a se even per cent G GST.60 i in Hong Kong g and A$1. For r example. and the rai il network link ks major public c places.d density. The water r’s edge spaces in Sydney y. Spo orting events and a cruises are e common in S Singapore and Hong Kong. followe ed by Singapore.80 in Syd dney. Sele ected high-end g goods are gene erally compara able price wise and better sou urced in Sydne ey. 5.ccsen net. Groceries are generally cheaper in Ho ong Kong and Singapore tha an in Sydney. 2008). Austr ralia charges a goods and services tax (G GST) of 10 pe er cent but Ho ong Kong does not impose thi is tax. Figure 2. Water’s s edge spaces have areas wher re biological diversity.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. H Hong Kong ha as the cheapest fast food but m meals are gener rally cheapest in Singapore. therefore e goods and se ervices taxes ar re only comparable between Sydney and Sin ngapore. Sydney’s area is larger r. d ecol logical and env vironmental fa factors and soc cial synergy al ll intersect thr rough effective d design. Overall. 8. seasons an nd weather co onditions also o affect densit ty. covering fields f such as a acoustics.1 Archite ectural Science and Density The numb bers of people using water’s edge public sp paces vary bas sed on popula ation. which ranks higher h than Sy ydney. In thi is paper. All three c cities have vib brant dining a and nightlife. Various cu ultural and fiscal factors con ntribute towar rds each city’s s functioning. follo owed by Singa apore and then S Sydney. e except for hou using rental. environ nmental scien nce. divers sity and design ncontri ibute to biolog gical change of f space in time e 33 . Desig gns that mimic c biology mus st not only be ae esthetic but mu ust also allow harnessing of f biological cy ycles and proc cesses. K Clothing i Electronic goods are ge enerally cheap pest in Singap pore.

Figure 3.3 Archite ectural Science and Design Water’s edge public sp paces should b be designed to o contribute s systematically to improving g the efficienc cy of ecological and environm mental systems s over time and d enhance thei ir cyclical aspe ects. 5. i. encoura aged environm mental diversity y and sustained centuries of environmenta al fluctuations s. trans sport.4 Archite ectural Science and Time Enhancing g the existing system by des signing with b biology in min nd minimises r risk by increas sing life spans s and maintainin ng existing life ecycles. social and online con nnectivity and d networks (to the city.g g.2 Archite ectural Science and Diversity ty Water’s e edge public sp paces were historically situ uated beside unharnessed r riverbanks. Some nat tural environm mental strategies a are: (1) the co onsidered use of o architectural l design to sup pport biologica al cycles and processes over time. naturally p prevented over rflow. h height and rate e of water flow w. lifecycle of f flora. and often need n to be rede esigned to inco orporate enviro onmental strate egies. through desi ign and maint tenance). sunlight and wind. social movem ment and gatherings in/along gside water’s e edge spaces.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol.www. se eashores. sele ective and bet tter sustained. Water’s ed dge spaces are now shifting t to primarily re ecreational uses. parks and gardens). and environ nmental quality y is highly rega arded. No. preventing erosion and se ediment movement throug gh biological and a structural p processes. (3) creatin ng and maintaining lifecycle e flora and faun na (incorporati ing green urba anism principle es). H Hong Kong and d Singapore h have come up with various w ways to preser rve the quality y of their emer rging green wate er’s edge publ lic spaces (e. The u use of appropri iate constructio on materials a and ensuring p processes feed back to overall c cyclical proces sses enables th hese lifecycles to continue in n a self-sustain ning manner.ccsen net.e. fauna. 2013 5. pref ferred landing do ocks and gree en areas that h had an ecolog gical reason fo for existing. (2) the be eneficial use of o the speed. water w flow. were ada aptable to chan nges in water l levels. w (5) creatin ng moveable water’s w edges t that respond fa avourably to fl looding and drought conditio ons. (4) genera ating renewable energies based on cyclica al and ever-pre esent inputs.applies to water’s edg ge environmen nts based on ph hase 34 . an nd (7) maintaining and enh hancing recrea ational. Environme ental pollution n is among the e challenges w when analysin ng water’s edg ge spaces’ biol logy and diversity. 5. The changing g requirements of systems in time . (6) allowi ing natural use e. Today’s w water’s edges may not hav ve similar co oping mechanism ms. and the succe ess of these w water’s edge public spaces wil ll no doubt be the t subject of further researc ch. Sydney. T These areas di irected water flow. Ecological diversit ty in green wa ater’s edge publi ic areas may be larger. 8. 6.

3) economic developme ent . Energie es other than tr raditional non-renewable ene ergies within w water’s edge pu ublic spaces nsidered throug gh a biologica al and/or farm ming lens. These e spaces are n now in the vir rtual arena. foru ums and discu ussion boards t through techn nology (smart phones. harness sing environm mental values o t island mitiga ation. 35 . 6.Touris sm. integrating use of f space and im mproving belon nging and partici ipation. 2) historical/ ge enerational lin nks . enabling t the flow of dat ta/ideas and all lowing online communicatio on.2 Histo orical and Gen nerational Link ks . i. 6. tablet ts and so on) now integrate w with water’s ed dge public spac ces. flo ow and use of f energy withi in a space. i.tourism.5 Envi ironmental and d Biological En nergies Emerging public spaces s are visibly g green.1 Socia al and Virtual Presence Emerging water’s edge e public space es display bett ter social and d virtual conn nectivity. and 6 6) non-renewab ble and renewa able . mixed us se and recreat tional activities n now being con nducted in eme erging water’s edge public sp paces.3 Econ nomic Develop pment . 8. hy ydro. Trade and Commerce Historical water’s edge e public space es were areas where econo omic developm ment sparks. comp pared with that of traditional ones. No. 6. the larger the creatio on. Tradit tional rs. storage.social s synergy a and social art ts/creative. 6.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol.1. The needs of the space s change wi ith time and the t correct inp puts are requi ired at the rig ght times to en nsure the long g-term growth h and developme ent of the spac ce.www. Concep ptual Models of o Sustainable e Water’s Edg ge Energies an nd Processes 6.from Ener rgy Transfer Sp Spaces to Energ gy Generation n and Storage S Spaces The flow o of energy with hin existing wa ater’s edge pub blic spaces fac cilitates the su uccess of the sp pace.1.1. Bio ological energies are being harnessed thr rough ample urban u revegetatio on in water’s edge regions to make up f for built concr rete edges tha at don’t respon nd well to dis saster events.built fo orm and iden ntity. 6. 5) environ nmental and bio ological. t tourism. 6. in the form f of organi ised gatherings and online c connections. wind and d so on. the ad daptive re-use of historical b buildings. of urban heat climate ch hange reductio on and green urbanism. w with more touri ism. 4) tech hnological . T The density in emerging plac ces is higher and d many links ex xist there.1 Energi ies . 6.e. 2013 Fig gure 4.1.ccsen net. the e greater the s success of the space. trade e and commerce e began.1.4 Tech hnology .Built Form m and Identity Well-desig gned emerging g water’s edge public spaces s maintain hist torical connect tion and comm munity participation opportunit ties.ena abling the flow w of ideas and online connec ctions. trade t and comm merce. Energy in this context re efers to: 1) phy ysical presence e of people .solar. whereas e water’s ed dge public sp paces are non n-renewable en nergy transfer rrers and user emerging ones s are renewable energy genera ators and store ers.e. cogn nizance of the e fourth dimen nsion (time) means m When con considerat tion of water’s s edge public spaces in term ms of inputs a and outputs ov ver time.Enab bling the Flow of Ideas and O Online Connec ctions Online lan ndscapes.

8.ccsen net. The B Branching Mod del: Random B Branching Figu ure 5. T The tap root stores s energy for r eventual flow wer production and the harnes ssing of biolog gical forms of energy stores.1. C. wind and d power-harnessing systems. th he following biological b ener rgy flow. The ro oot vegetable model m . n and Fractals 6Aii. Branches s: flow of ener rgy and the cre eation/enabling g of resources ching model consists of org ganised or ran ndom energy f flows. creati ion and resour rce-enabling m models have been formulated: A. The choice o of materials/fo orm and system m configuratio on enables ‘flo ow on’ (resource or energy) an nd continuity to o connected pr rocesses.design ned for specific c use.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. No. 6B. dge public spa aces have ave enues where en nergy transfer r and use can be optimised. and uncovering the fruit is s the outcome e of many year rs of soil ferti ility and plant t dormancy.design a adapted. create ed and used – including i cycle es and seasons s). 2013 6. .6 Rene ewable Energie es . The En nergy Storage Model This mode el considers th hat which is no ot visible but m may be crucial l to the lifespa an of the syste em. fr and a biologi ical method of f attaining thi is in design. The branching mode el (random and d repetitive) .desig gned to balanc ce energy (nat tural. Through h this process s various ecolo ogies The branc evolve and d are sustained d. The B Branching Mo odel: Repetition Figure 6. T This model dep picts energy th hat is spent on p producing a fruit/outcome.t transfer of ene ergy . The e equilibrium model . A stable formu ula or The patter pattern ma ay repeat itself f endlessly so l long as energy inputs are con nstant. and use new models for en nergy generation n and storage systems. 36 . hy ydro. Self-similar S bra anches: flow o of energy and t the creation/en nabling of resources rns of repetitio on and branching can be form mulaic as in th he fractal struc ctures above. s This i involves desig gns that incorp porate solar.www. 6Ai. B.storag ge and use of en nergy . In studying these Water’s ed avenues. Hydro a and Wind Emerging water’s edge public spaces are trying to shift from en nergy transfer.balance e of energy d dynamics over r time . 6.Including Solar.

This model depicts cause. In analysing erraticness in design. Energy is put into water’s edge public spaces to generate an outcome. No. balance. 6. another year’s harvest is often not dependent on the previous year’s crop seeds. Designing water beds with smaller-sized sediments would cause the channel to erode and soil to be washed downstream. discharge and slope (as in Lane’s Balance).2 Processes in the Design of Sustainable Water’s Edge Public Spaces The water’s edge public spaces presented in this paper acquire balance and a state of dynamic equilibrium. The resultant branching system: flow of energy and the creation/enabling of resources The models currently available generate energy but the ability to tap into biologically cyclical mechanisms is not exploited. Figure 8.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 6. for instance. Lane’s Balance is a principle that refers to streams where the velocity of water and discharge of sediments are measured. droughts and extreme weather conditions provide random occurrences.1 Stable States. 8. change and seasons. tsunamis. 2013 Planting appropriately and harnessing underground stores of energy.2. Where branching models are not part of continually nourishing environments. cyclical processes and interdependence. but the cyclical or regenerational aspects/triggers are not considered during design. Water’s edge public spaces are successful when there are balances between built and natural elements. The variables may change due to catalysts (Figure 10) or the parameters may alter due to seasonal cycles (Figure 11). floods. For example. health and diversity in ecological systems. 6. Current design then deals with these responses through basic and standard building and architectural requirements. 6C. Analysing proportion and rhythm in design tests more than aesthetic elements. 37 . The Equilibrium Systemic Model Maintaining healthy systems above ground to ensure  healthy  root  systems  over generations. Change in Lifecycles and Overall Progress Change occurs due to a shift in variables and a shift in parameters (Figure 9). effect and required fluctuations as a result of weather. where they balance sediment transport. Both these factors encourage functionality. they do not survive over time. following the farming of a field. Lane’s Balance makes: 1) the water bed stable. Figure 7. and flexible rhythms associated with seasonal variations are maintained. The balancing dynamics of equilibrium in design (as in nature) The equilibrium model contains elements of nature.www.ccsenet. and 2) increases water quality while decreasing sediment loads in the water. Design practices would be strengthened by modelling and mimicking natural systems and biological states.

chang geability in de esign of awni ings. Causes of o change and c consideration of these causes in Architectu ural Science. Figure 1 10.2. focuses on the shifts in p parameters and d allows year-r round flexibility. flora and d fauna. 6. 7. 38 . A Adapted from “Alte ernative stable states in ecolo ogy” (Beisner e et al. predato or-prey stable models). Pilot St tudy: Compar rative Analysi is of Public Sp paces The pilot study analysed d water’s edge e public space es in Sydney. Table 3 shows the ca ase studies sele ected. (4) allowi ing the harness sing of cycles (environmenta al. 2003) an nd different typ pes of stability y in theoretical c communities (I Ives & Carpen nter. technological). tem eather fluctuati ions. design. 2013 Figu ure 9. .. (2) allowi ing and mainta aining connect tions with the s site. 8. architectu ural and enviro onmental agen nda 6. appropri iate use of g glass etc. growth h and mperature. This could include e consideration n of living green walls. (3) minim mising long-ter rm adverse effe fects on the wa ater’s edge and d water body. 2007) 6.ccsen net.www. and (7) allowi ing flexibility in movement a and change. . No. social. Figu ure 11 depicts s the importance e of seasonal variance v with r reference to th he availability o of fruits in Sou uth Australia a and tree foliage e. (5) using patterns to ben nefit the system (climate. this constitut tes sustainable e design. ecological. (6) recons sidering use (a areas of levels of appropriate e human-enviro onment impact ts). Finding the e right catalyst t for change: a biological.2. H Hong Kong an nd Singapore (see Figures 12-14 1 and Appen ndix B) at vary ying stages of their lifecycles (see Append dix A).1B The e Cycles and Seasonal S Adva antages Model: : A Shift in Parameters Design tha at is aware of cyclical c and se easonal change es. flora a and fauna. soil. we chang ge.1A The Catalyst: A Shift S in Variab bles Catalysts e enable the sust tainable design n of water’s ed dge public spac ces in the follo owing ways: (1) suitab ble engineering g/construction.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. ma aterials.

No. Table 4 show ws which conc ceptual model of energy is th he best fit with the case studie es chosen. 6.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. 2013 lists the ty ype and nature of the space a and identifies w which stage of f its lifecycle i it is at. 8. its s need for ren newal varies. Ba ased on the sta age of the life ecycle that the e public space e is part of. Tapping into cycles to obtain optima al results: seaso onal availabilit ty of fruit in South Australia a 1 Sydney coa astline and wat terfront: urban n form and case study locatio ons Figure 12. The pil lot study’s ana alysis included a an analysis of their design. a consideratio on of the energ gy flow in the ese spaces and d application of o the conceptual l models of en nergy to them. 39 .ccsen net. Figur re 11.www. .

8. 6.ccsen net. Th E LATE SYDN NEY Circu ular Quay (histo orical tourist a and trans sportation hub) ) Star Ferry Pier (histo orical and trans sportation hub) ) vicin nity of Raffles and Fulle erton Hotels (histo orical and trans sportation hub) ) MID ial Walsh Bay (residenti mixed use) ue of Stars Avenu (prome enade) a Bay Marina Promenade (prome enade) EMERG GING Barangar roo (mixed use) Victoria Harbour (promen nade) Gardens by the Bay HONG G KONG SINGA APORE 40 . Hong Kong c coastline and w waterfront: urb ban form and case study locations Figure 14 4. Singapore co oastline and w waterfront: urba an form and ca ase study locati ions he case studies s selected Table 3.www. .org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. 2013 Figure 13. No.

3) built form adaptation.ccsenet. 4) identity. 5) buildings. 6) tech connections HONG KONG Star Ferry Pier (historical and transportation hub) INPUTS: same as above OUTPUTS: same as above Avenue of Stars (promenade) INPUTS: same as above OUTPUTS: same as above Victoria Harbour (promenade) INPUTS: same as above OUTPUTS: same as above + energy (wind + solar) SINGAPORE vicinity of Raffles and Fullerton Hotels (historical and transportation hub) INPUTS: same as above OUTPUTS: same as above Marina Bay Promenade (promenade) INPUTS: same as above OUTPUTS: same as above + energy (solar) Gardens by the Bay INPUTS: same as above OUTPUTS: same as above + energy (solar + biological + environmental) 41 . 2) culture. 7) creation of culture. 6) cultural development. Results The water’s edge public spaces in Sydney. 2013 8. 5) time OUTPUTS: 1) social synergy. 5) economic development MID Walsh Bay (residential mixed use) INPUTS: 1) human presence. 4) identity. 6) eventual human presence. 3) heritage. Public spaces in the mid stages of their lifecycle display harvesting of social potential and solar energy. wind and solar energy. Selected case studies in Sydney. No. 3) built form adaptation. 4) avenue of fitness and health. 2) arts.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 4) identity. Selected case studies in Sydney. biological and environmental inclusion. 7) social potential EMERGING Barangaroo (mixed use) INPUTS: 1) design. 3) energy. Hong Kong and Singapore and their inputs and outputs LATE SYDNEY Circular Quay (historical tourist and transportation hub) INPUTS: 1) human presence. 2) resources. Table 5. Hong Kong and Singapore and the conceptual model of energy LATE Circular Quay MID Walsh Bay (residential mixed use) ROOT VEGETABLE (storage) Avenue of Stars (promenade) BRANCHING EMERGING Barangaroo (mixed use) BRANCHING Victoria Harbour ROOT VEGETABLE (storage) Gardens by the Bay ROOT VEGETABLE (storage) SYDNEY BRANCHING Star Ferry Pier HONG KONG BRANCHING vicinity of Raffles and Marina Bay Promenade (promenade) ROOT VEGETABLE (storage) SINGAPORE Fullerton Hotels BRANCHING Key aspects of late. 8) heritage connections. mid and emerging public spaces have been determined and listed in Table 5. 4) ecology. 9) time OUTPUTS: 1) social synergy. 3) built form adaptation. 6. and emerging public spaces exhibit social synergy. 5) economic development.www. 8. 2) arts. 3) heritage. 5) economic development. Table 4. Hong Kong and Singapore can be aligned with the following conceptual models (see Table 4). 2) culture. 2) arts. 4) time OUTPUTS: 1) social synergy.

paving and si ignage. In Sydney y.1.1. an nd it is often commemorate c d in plaques. Histo ory is an essen ntial part of public spaces. S Sydney’s Bara angaroo. Hong Kon ng and Singap pore respective ely in that the e upcoming sp paces are harn nessing energy y and attemptin ng to connect with the environ nment. mid and em merging public c spaces in Syd dney. Star F Ferry Pier main ntains the histori ic movements associated wi ith the functional Star Ferry y. 8. In Hong g Kong. And in Sing gapore. cultural l and architect tural connectio ons. re 15. 2013 The data g gathered and li isted above pr rovides the fun ndamental elem ments of emer rging water’s e edge public spaces.1 Mixe ed Use Functio onality Mixed and d multiple use es of buildings s both horizon ntally (in the fo form of traditio onal land use distributions being b more cond densed and fine e grained) and d vertically (in the form of va arious levels or r floors having g different uses s) are apparent in n the proximit ty of the water r’s edge public spaces studied. 8. 8. 6. Boat Quay and Gar rdens by the B Bay all have va arious uses in c close proximity y to the water’ ’s edge. we rely on n the constanci ies provided by the environme ent for season nal change. the proposed d Barangaroo plans p display va arious uses wh hen compared d with Circula ar Quay and W Walsh Bay. . Emerging public spaces dis splay the impo ortance of mai intaining conn nections with t the past.2 Herit tage Preservati ion and Adapt tive Re-Use Appropria ate renovations s are often exp pensive. Marina Bay. And in Singapore. Boat Q Quay maintain ns the historic tie es to the waterf front. 42 . No. econ nomic. the water’s edge public spa aces studied display the follo owing characte eristics. Element ts of emerging public spaces Figur 8. Walsh W Bay displa ays adaptive re e-use in the dev velopment of i its cultural pre ecinct. Often these links an nd/or elements are subtle. Amongst o other aspects observed.3 Gree en Urbanism In assessin ng social.1. I In the water’s edge public sp paces studied. and d these connec ctions are a m major part of sp pecific contem mporary public c engagement. The ‘density y and use’ corr roborates the m mixed use func ctionality in wa ater’s edge emer rging public sp paces.ccsen net. o simi ilarities exist b between the lat te.www. Hong g Kong’s Vic ctoria Harbour a and Singapore e’s Gardens by y the Bay all reinforce the e importance o of green urba anism principles in emerging w water’s edge public p spaces.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol.1 Elemen nts of Emergin ng Water’s Edg ge Public Spac ces Based on t the pilot study. In n Hong Kong. Victoria Har rbour displays various uses wh hen compared d with Star Fer rry Pier and th he Avenue of Stars. Gr reen urbanism m makes the ne ecessary conn nection betwee en urban areas s and suburbia. In Sydney. time c consuming and d require care i in construction n. and the aspira ations for an en nvironmental connection c are immediately y apparent. makin ng the place extre emely conveni ient and useful l. 8. emerging public spaces are visibly green.

weather and seasonal conditions – displaying flexibility – and keeps evolving with changing variables (catalysts) and parameters (seasonal and cyclical). social. Successful water’s edge public spaces have historically excelled in functional and interpersonal connectivity. including their levels of connections to urban networks. 2013 8. use. the population and its values determine social interaction. 1994). and.1. while in the dynamic Asian model. so when assessing avenues of incomplete urbanism. The formula for the success of our water’s edge public spaces depends on finding a way in which we can tap into environmental.model. (3) the equilibrium model. This is displayed in Makansutra in Gluttons Bay. we note that society’s participation in architectural outcomes varies in the East and the West. one grandiose and the other subtle. Sydney’s Circular Quay. two distinct conceptual forms of public space. These places include opportunities to interpret. the central one given over to public use. and this was contemporary with London’s first square. shop-houses traditionally allowed the street to be an interactive public area. building/structure orientation. 8. Human behaviour and perception is also a key to unlocking the questions associated with liveability. In analysing Sydney. and hydro. and the case studies are more comparable now than they were historically. online and cultural methods to enable them to self-sustain over time. portray and personify an area’s history. (2) the root vegetable. New Haven was laid out in nine regular squares. as an interface or bazaar. very often including the founding place of a city or its reason for being. distinct squares historically allowed gathering and interaction. where energy is transferred and used successfully (site use. and the constant dynamism of change and activity in Hong Kong (i. and the Street. is an Asian concept. 8. The advent of online technologies has altered the previous-locational separations between the East and the West.1. dominate. Over time. connection with Macau and 24-hour activity). where solar/hydro/wind energy is stored for mass use due to the design and functioning of a building/structure. In considering the functioning of the European model. 8. 8. but interaction has become easier as it is enabled by technology and connectivity. wellbeing and transit. it is apparent that improvements are required in the public domain to enhance online and spatial connections. Hong Kong and Singapore.1.3.e.2 Liveability of Cities and Indicators of Sustainability in the Design of Water’s Edges It is assumed in this paper that improving the quality and design of water’s edge public spaces leads directly to benefits in health. Robert Home suggests. where a building/structure is designed to change with temperature.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. it is important to allow change and flexibility within successful water’s edge public spaces. These water’s edge areas aim to utilise renewable energies but may fall short of maintaining a self-sustaining equilibrium that utilises renewable energy. The cities studied are all global. Hong Kong’s Star Ferry Pier and Singapore’s Marina Bay Promenade all display high levels of connectivity with urban networks.www.2 Architectural Links Historically and visibly.6 Harnessing Renewable Energies in the Public Domain Singapore’s Gardens by the Bay and Marina Bay Promenade have both implemented biological and renewable energy technologies using varying formulas. materials. thus urban waterfronts can create a sense of civic pride’ (Breen & Rigby. wind and solar energy optimisation). All water’s edge public spaces can improve levels of technological connectivity. No.1 Social ‘Urban waterfronts usually have historical connections. Singapore (where the food stalls are on wheels).ccsenet. As early as 1638.5 Allowing Avenues of Incomplete Urbanism Cities are constantly evolving.4 Implementing Technological Connectivity.3. Indicators of the sustainable design (within evaluation models) of water’s edge public spaces are enabled by: (1) the branching models. Hong Kong and Singapore’s water’s edge public spaces. The Square is essentially a European concept.3 Convergence and Divergence Between the East and the West 8. water flow and seasonal and biological cycles. 8. While Maintaining and Establishing Connections with Urban Networks In assessing technological connectivity. the use of Adelaide’s riverside venues during the Fringe Festival. Further research needs to be undertaken to establish these relationships in the water’s edge public spaces of Sydney. 8. 6. at Covent 43 . namely the Square and the Street.

use. and four rthly. 8. For exam mple. 1997). wind and environ nmental syner rgies). a European Resident tial Area was s segregated b by a park. Similarly. fi firstly.www. No. Hong Kong and Singa apore cases st tudied display y variation in social and cu ultural aspects s but similarities s in terms of f: 1) mixed use functionality. W along Sydn ney Harbour.5 The Re enewal of Existing Water’s E Edge Public Sp paces Existing w water’s edge public p spaces a are more diffi icult to upgrad de due to exis sting challenge es such as her ritage preservatio on requiremen nts. and was later ren named a Gove ernment Resid dential Area (E Evans & Pirie. enge is not in understanding g that guidelin nes for each a area will be di ifferent based on context. 6. second dly. the 'Nurses Walk'. espec cially through th he incorporation of biological. In the Roc cks area. Singapore pro ovides a quaint t reminder of h heritage in its m much-valued F Fullerton Hotel l. harnes ssing solar.4 The Su ustainable Design of Water’s s Edge Public S Spaces The effect tive design of water’s edge p public spaces includes consi ideration of. agricultural and ecological l concepts in d design. buildings by y the world’s s signature architects are prom minent.all this in n the context of o set indicators for sustainabl le design that are enabled b by specified m models. 200 05) and many waterfront rev vitalisation pro ojects took place e. and indeed d the square has s been called ‘L London’s princ cipal contribut tion to town pl lanning’ (Hom me. in Singa apore. considerin ng the variable es (catalysts) a and changing parameters (c cycles. leaving a co osmopolitan cu ulture. 3) green g urbanism.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. but t this became un nacceptable in the Second W World War. In the 1980s 1 and 199 90s. individu ual interaction with the environment. 8. it is unc clear if this wil ll continue. 5) incomple ete urbanism a and 6) renewab ble energies. the e economic recession starting in 2008. providing a measure o of their influe ence through their work. Hong Kon ng and Singapore cases stud died display co onvergence wh hile retaining social and cul ltural The Sydne differences. ey. recreational and functiona al use. Key steps to achieving sust tainable renew wal of water’s e edge public sp paces Figure 16 44 . 1939). In light of r recent global economic turm moil i.e. Renew wal of these sites may be u undertaken through considerat tion of scale. rapid transformations to ook place. 8. 8. Hong Kong and Singapore e. but b in The challe adopting a method that is viable over m many generatio ons. 2) heritage preservation n and adaptiv ve re-use. 4) connectivit ty. The su ustainable desi ign of water's edge public spa aces will be enabled e throug gh a clearer in ncorporation o of Architectur ral Science in design. pedestrian p flow w. 2013 Garden. and valu ue-adding purs suits. plans were based on ‘seg gregation of ra aces’ with pub blic spaces suc ch as parks used as buffers in i all cities stud died. seasons s) . for example. wat terfronts becam me frontiers where w new forces s for change were w thrown in nto sharp relie ef (Dovey. functi ioning and tra adition.ccsen net. mai intaining biolo ogical connectivi ity through des sign (green urb banism. thirdly. while w Hong Ko ong's Star Ferr ry Pier provide es an operation nal and active h historical refer rence.3.3 Cultu ural Historicall ly. T The use of the e square in co olonial town settlement refle ects the influe ence of Londo on. The Sydn ney. Sydn ney displays a retention of h history that is unparalleled. socioecon nomic and env vironmental fac ctors in design n. allowin ng the shift from territorial-based to global architecture e. In Sydney y. incorpor rating aspects of emerging pub blic spaces and d sustainable de esign in a strat tegic manner. 6.

M. (1992). Liddle.doi. the study of individuals in public spaces and the focus on connection. and their histories and contexts remain unique. architectural and cultural links over time. Functionally. Cuthbert. Then and now: Evolving community in the context of a retirement village.. P. Bartlam.. While Sydney displays user participation and a patchwork approach to development and upgrade. Lessons can be learnt from the different approaches. D. & Sim. The relationships between Eastern and Western cities are continually changing and maturing and the water’s edge public spaces studied emphasise this connection.00049 City and Community. M. This paper suggests that a greater incorporation of architectural science is needed in initial stages of design to maintain required links between biological/seasonal cycles. interaction and reliance. 5) allow avenues of incomplete urbanism. (2001). Australia in the Asian Century. Acknowledgements This study received financial support from the Zero Waste Research Centre for Sustainable Design and Behaviour (sd+b Centre) at the University of South Australia. (2003). http://dx. G.CO.. R.doi.ccsenet. McGraw-Hill Inc.. A. Routledge. 183-199. D. Hong Kong is going through a new awakening to heritage.1890/1540-9295(2003)001[0376:ASSIE]2. Francis. T. T. Beauregard... Ageing and Society. 376-382. (1994). & Rigby.0. hence the use of comparative urbanism. Canberra.. Island Press.doi.2 Bernard. liveability and urban renewal as a result of the incorporation of architectural science in the initial stages of design will be enormous. (2012). Island Press. USA. 9-24. the case study cities have different drivers and approaches. belonging. each of which provides sustainable outcomes to varying degrees. Australia in the Asian Century Implementation Task Force. E. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. specific differences exist. Rivlin..www.org/10. 1(7). New York. 8. welfare. 45 .org/10. Waterfronts: Cities Reclaim their Edge. Understanding Cities: Method in urban design. S. K. trade/commerce and innovation. White Paper. APA Journal. Conclusion This paper analysed emerging water’s edge public spaces in three Asia-Pacific cities and determined that these public spaces: 1) encourage mixed use functionality. (2011). (2008). (2012). Green Urbanism Down Under: Learning from Australia’s Sustainable Communities. Haydon. Public Space. Differences exist in terms of society and culture. http://dx. and 6) harness renewable energies in the public domain. environmental connections and processes in time. J. T. & Newman.1017/S0144686X11000079 Breen. London. A. and Singapore demonstrates the benefits of a grand new vision through reinvention and large-scale development of the waterfront. Water’s edge developments are a key to the identity and perceived image of the selected cities. 6. based on context in the handling of water’s edge public spaces in the chosen cities. The authors are grateful to colleagues (especially Katharine Thornton for editing). The future of public space: Beyond invented streets and reinvented places.org/10. Scharf. Washington.org/10. 3) promote green urbanism. 67(1).1111/1540-6040. causing significant social and economic benefits to health and wellbeing. DC.. http://dx. (2003). The implications for sustainability. Beatley. City of superlatives. T. J. B. 103. http://dx. Alternative stable states in ecology. and similarities exist in these emerging water’s edge public spaces in terms of environmental connections.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. B. Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning. while encouraging the development of valued social.5822/978-1-59726-986-5 Beatley. T. and to reviewers for constructive suggestions that helped improve this paper. Cambridge. and others who provided comments on earlier drafts. 32(1). 2013 9. & Cuddington. energy harnessing and want of social diversity. (2011). Carr.. ACT. Cambridge University Press. References Australian Government. 2(3). A. 4) implement technological connectivity while maintaining and establishing connections to urban networks.doi. R. & Stone. Banerjee. M.. exhibiting retrofitting and large redevelopment projects. A.. Beisner. The authors found that a further outcome of this study was that though commonalities exist. No. L. 2) preserve heritage and encourage adaptive re-use.

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www.ccsenet. Built form encouraging history and re-use HIGH SYDNEY Circular Quay Walsh Bay Barangaroo HONG KONG Victoria Harbour Star Ferry Pier Avenue of Stars SINGAPORE Marina Bay Boat Quay Gardens by the Bay X X X X X X X X X MEDIUM LOW Table 8. 6. 8. Hong Kong and Singapore: information gathered Table 6. No. Density and Use HIGH SYDNEY HONG KONG SINGAPORE Circular Quay Victoria Harbour Marina Bay MEDIUM Walsh Bay Star Ferry Pier Boat Quay LOW Barangaroo Avenue of Stars Gardens by the Bay Table 7. 2013 Appendix A Water’s edge public spaces in Sydney. Environment and life connections HIGH SYDNEY Circular Quay Walsh Bay Barangaroo HONG KONG Victoria Harbour Star Ferry Pier Avenue of Stars SINGAPORE Marina Bay Boat Quay Gardens by the Bay X X X X X X X X X MEDIUM LOW 48 .org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol.

ccsenet. Change and flexibility HIGH SYDNEY Circular Quay Walsh Bay Barangaroo HONG KONG Victoria Harbour Star Ferry Pier Avenue of Stars SINGAPORE Marina Bay Boat Quay Gardens by the Bay X X X X X X X X X MEDIUM LOW Table 11. Networking with adjoining spaces HIGH SYDNEY Circular Quay Walsh Bay Barangaroo HONG KONG Victoria Harbour Star Ferry Pier Avenue of Stars SINGAPORE Marina Bay Boat Quay Gardens by the Bay X X X X X X X X X MEDIUM LOW Table 10. Proactive utilisation of cyclical processes HIGH SYDNEY Circular Quay Walsh Bay Barangaroo HONG KONG Victoria Harbour Star Ferry Pier Avenue of Stars SINGAPORE Marina Bay Boat Quay Gardens by the Bay X X X X X X X X X MEDIUM LOW 49 . 6. 8. No.www. 2013 Table 9.org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol.

ccsen net.org/jsd Journal of Su ustainable Devel lopment Vol. . 8. Marina Ba ay Promenade and Gardens b by the Bay Fi 50 . Ho ong Kong (left t to right): Star r Ferry Pier. 6. Walsh Bay an nd Barangaroo o Figure 18. No. 2013 Appendix xB Case stud dy sites: Sydne ey. Av venue of Stars s and Victoria H Harbour igure 19. Sydney ( (left to right): C Circular Quay. Singa apore (left to r right): Boat Qu uay.www. Hong Kon ng and Singapore Figure e 17.

www. with first publication rights granted to the journal. 51 . 8.org/licenses/by/3.ccsenet. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons. No.0/).org/jsd Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 2013 Copyrights Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s). 6.