B. 1.

In a typical structure, describe and characterize the ff:

 Fab Portion
Digestion with papain breaks the immunoglobulin molecule in the hinge region before the H-H inter-chain disulfide bond Figure 4. This results in the formation of two identical fragments that contain the light chain and the VH and CH1 domains of the heavy chain. Antigen binding - These fragments were called the Fab fragments because they contained the antigen binding sites of the antibody. Each Fab fragment is monovalent whereas the original molecule was divalent. The combining site of the antibody is created by both VH and VL. An antibody is able to bind a particular antigenic determinant because it has a particular combination of VH and VL. Different combinations of a VH and VL result in antibodies that can bind a different antigenic determinants.

 Fc Portion
Digestion with papain also produces a fragment that contains the remainder of the two heavy chains each containing a CH2 and CH3 domain. This fragment was called Fc because it was easily crystallized.

 Heavy and Light Chains All immunoglobulins have a four chain structure as their basic unit. They are composed of two identical light chains (23kD) and two identical heavy chains (50-70kD)  Variable (V) and Constant (C) Regions
When the amino acid sequences of many different heavy chains and light chains were compared, it became clear that both the heavy and light chain could be divided into two regions based on variability in the amino acid sequences. These are the: 1. Light Chain - VL (110 amino acids) and CL (110 amino acids) 2. Heavy Chain - VH (110 amino acids) and CH (330-440 amino acids)

 Hinge Region
This is the region at which the arms of the antibody molecule forms a Y. It is called the hinge region because there is some flexibility in the molecule at this point.

 Rh sensitization Rh is an antigen. This antibody response is called Rh sensitization and. A woman with Rh-negative blood can get a shot of Rh immunoglobulin (such as RhoGAM) that almost always stops sensitization from occurring. Problems from Rh sensitization have become very rare since Rh immunoglobulin was developed. . This is called a transfusion reaction and can cause serious illness or even death. if Rh disease is not treated. This causes the mother's immune system to make antibodies against the baby's red blood cells in future pregnancies.2. the transfused blood must match your type.  Transfusion reaction Human blood is typed by certain markers (called antigens) on the surface of red blood cells If you get a blood transfusion. Enumerate at least 3 methods of how antibody can be studied and tested and describe. can destroy the red blood cells of the baby before or after it is born. yourimmune system destroys the transfused blood cells. a fetus or newborn can develop mild to severe problems (called Rh disease or erythroblastosis fetalis). The full name for this antigen is Rhesus factor. If sensitization happens. Rh sensitization may occur. The antibodies may be those your body made because of disease or those you get in a blood transfusion. that is. This is why matching blood type is so important. If you get a transfusion of blood with antigens different from yours (incompatible blood). the fetus or newborn may die. depending on when it happens. In rare cases. it must have the same antigens as your red blood cells. If a pregnant woman with Rh-negative blood is pregnant with a baby (fetus) with Rhpositive blood.  Direct Coombs test The direct Coombs test finds antibodies attached to your red blood cells. The baby may have Rh-positive blood if the father has Rh-positive blood. Rh sensitization happens when the baby's blood mixes with the mother's blood during pregnancy or delivery.

 The variable region of antibodies is formed by spicing together different short segments of DNA during the maturation of the B cell. fungi and viruses. Antibodies help defend against pathogens by activating complement. Every different antibody recognizes a specific foreign antigen. The single common feature of all antibodies. located near the tip of the protein. Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen. Although the general structures of different antibodies are very similar. viruses. only the relatively small “variable” regions. All other effects. What are the properties of an antibody? ONE COMMON DEFINING PROPERTY OF ANTIBODIES: ALL ANTIBODIES EXHIBIT SPECIFIC BINDING TO ANTIGEN  Different antibodies may show various combinations of effects. This is because the two tips of its “Y” a re specific to each antigen.3. agglutinating and sterically hindering pathogens and by neutralizing toxins. Within these variable regions are six “hypervariable” regions. and thus different antibodies can be made. on the surface of cells. The diversity contained within these CDRs represents a significant portion of the overall diversity amongst antibodies. millions of different variable regions.   Antibodies. some may be opsonizing but not be capable of agglutination. are involved in the binding of an antibody to a particular target. serving as opsonins. also called immunoglobulins. also known as complementarity determining regions (CDRs). however. is that of specific recognition and binding to antigen. . are large Y-shaped proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens or targets such as viruses and bacteria. are secondary consequences of this specific binding. chemicals. Antigens are large molecules. Antibodies are a class of proteins that are generated by the immune system to neutralize foreign pathogens such as bacteria. bacteria. and is responsible for the ability of otherwise structurally similar antibodies to specifically bind vastly different antigens. usually proteins. physical or biological. fungi. allowing different antibodies to bind to different foreign antigens. Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is called an antigen. Antibodies bind to antigens by attractive forces and complementary (key-in-lock) shapes. some antibodies may precipitate but not interact with complement (and therefore not show cytolysis). and foreign particles. or antigen. Using this mechanisms. and some non-living substances such as toxins.