Test Review – Chapters 1 and 2.

Chapter 1: Data communications and Networking. The effectiveness of a data communications system depends on three fundamental characteristics: 1.) Delivery: the system must deliver data to the correct destination. 2.) ccuracy: the system must deliver the data accurately. 3.) Timeliness: the system must deliver the data in a timely manner. The data communications system has five components: 1.) !essage: is the information/data to be communicated. 2.) "ender: is the device that sends the data. 3.) Receiver: is the device that receives the data. 4.) !edium: is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. .) #rotocol: is a set of rules that governs data communications. !ommunications between two devices can be simple"# half$duple"# or full$duple". 1.) "imple$: the communication occurs unidirectional# as on a one$way street. %"amples are &eyboards and monitors. 2.) %al&'Duple$: each station can both transmit and receive data# but not at the same time. 3.) (ull'Duple$: both stations can transmit and receive at the same time. This is li&e a two way street with traffic flowing in both directions. )nternational "ervice #roviders. 't the top of the hierarchy are the international service providers that connect nations together. (ational )ervice *roviders +()*s) are bac&bone networ&s created and maintained by speciali,ed companies. To provide connectivity between the end users# these bac&bone networ&s are connected by comple" switching stations# called networ& access points +('*s). -egional internet service providers or regional .)*s are smaller .)*s that are connected to one or more ()*s. /ocal internet service providers provide direct service to the end users. Chapter 2: Network !odels. The layered protocol stac& that dominates data communications and networ&ing today is the five$layered internet model# sometimes called the T!*/.* model. These five layers are: 1.) *hysical. 2.) 0ata lin&. 3.) (etwor&. 4.) Transport. .) 'pplication.

Physical addressing. The physical layer consists of a stream of bits without any interruptions. . Network *ayer. . Flow control. • 0ata rate. This layer also defines the duration of the bit# which is how long it lasts. • • • • • Framing. To be transmitted bits must be encoded into signals# either electrical or optical. The networ& layer is responsible for the source$to$destination delivery of a pac&et possibly across multiple networ&s. This is the layer that transforms the physical layer# a raw transmission facility# to a reliable lin&. This layer coordinates the functions re2uired to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. The sender and receiver not only must use the same bit rate but also must be synchroni. /ayers 1# 2# and 3  physical# data lin&# and networ&  are the networ& support layers1 they deal with the physical aspects of moving data from one device to another. Error control. • Synchronizations of bits. . The transmission rate  the number of bits sent each second  is also defined by the physical layer. #hysical *ayer. Data *ink *ayer.ed at the bit level. • Representation of bits. • Physical characteristics of interfaces and media.f the rate at which the data are absorbed by the receiver is less than the rate produced by the sender# the data lin& layer imposes a flow control mechanism to prevent overwhelming the receiver. Access control. The data lin& layer divides the stream of bits received from the networ& layer into manageable data units called frames.The processes on each machine that communicate at a given layer are called peer$to$ peer processes.f frames are to be distributed to different systems on the networ&# the data lin& layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender and/or receiver of the frame. The physical layer defines the characteristics of the interface between the devices and the transmission media. 3hen two or more devices are connected to the same lin&# data lin& layer protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the lin& at any given time. The data lin& layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding mechanism to detect and transmit damaged or lost frames.

• • • • pplication *ayer. • The Presentation Layer was designed to handle the synta" and semantics of the information e"changed between the two systems. ' message is divided into transmittable segments# each segment containing a se2uence number. . The application layer enables the user# whether human or software# to access the networ&. Error control. Connection control. . ' connectionless transport layer treats each segment as an independent pac&et and delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine.e the interaction between communicating systems. . Segmentation and reassembly.t was designed for data translation# encryption# decryption and compression.ation +. • Port addressing. The networ& layer gets each pac&et to the correct computer1 the transport layer gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer.t was designed to establish# maintain# and synchroni. Routing. /i&e the data lin&# the transport layer is responsible for flow control. The two e"tra layers are: )ession and *resentations. 3hen independent networ&s or lin&s are connected to create an internetwor& or a large networ&# the connecting devices route or switch the pac&ets to their final destination. 4owever# flow control at this layer is performed end to end rather than across a single lin&. Flow control. .t provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail# remote file access and transfer# access to the 3orld 3ide 3eb# and so on. Transport layer. The physical addressing implemented by the data lin& layer handles the addressing problem locally.)5). model# was designed by the international organi. The transport layer is responsible for process$to$process delivery of the entire message.t is a seven layer model. ' connection$oriented transport layer ma&es a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine first before delivering the pac&ets. • The Session Layer is the networ& dialogue controller. !omputers often run several processes at the same time.• • Logical Addressing. The transport layer header must therefore included type of address called a port address. These numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble the message correctly upon arrival at the destination and to identify and replace pac&ets that were lost in the transmission. 'nother model# the open systems interconnection# or 5). +") !odel.ation for standardi. /i&e the data lin& layer# the transport layer is responsible for error control. .