International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies


Research Paper

Asari Falguni P1, Prof.M.G.Vanza2

Research Scholar, 2Professor and Head, Applied Mechanics Department, L. D. College of Engineering, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad, Gujarat (India) ABSTRACT
The paper presents the results of an analytical investigation of the seismic response of elevated water tanks using fiction damper. In This paper, the behavior of RCC elevated water tank is studied with using friction damper (FD). For FD system, the main step is to determine the slip load. In nonlinear dynamic analysis, the response of structure for three earthquake time history has been carried out to obtained the values of tower drift base shear and acceleration Time Period. These values are compared with original structure. Results of the elevated tank with FD are compared to the corresponding fixed-base tank design and indicate that friction damper is effective in reducing the tower drift, base shear, time period, and roof acceleration for the full range of tank capacities. The obtained results shows that performance of Elevated water tank with FD is better than without FD.


Address for Correspondence

Friction damper, Elevated water tank, Seismic Response , structural control system, Earthquake Engineering.

I. INTRODUCTION The elevated Water Tank (WT) consists of tank supported by staging system composed of columns, braces and foundations. Elevated WTs have generally performed well in a seismic zones. However large number of tank collapses has been observed during earthquakes from, as early as the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake to the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. [5] The observed damages in recent earthquakes shows that it is necessary to choose new methods in improvement designing of structures. In many earthquake prone countries, buildings as well as water tanks are continuously being retrofitted or constructed with control devices to reduce stresses, displacements and base shear during seismic activity. The three main types of control devices employed in structures are active control, semi-active control and passive control. There are several different types of passive devices and dampers are the part of these seismic controls. Passive friction dampers utilize Coulomb friction to dissipate energy from a structure. These dampers used widely in many retrofitting projects all over the world, because of their low cost and good performance [1]. A. Passive control system Passive dampers are the oldest and most common form of control devices. Passive devices are commonly placed in the cross bracing between two adjacent braced floors. They directly use the displacement of these floors to produce a damping force on the elevated water tank. Unlike active and semi-active devices, passive devices cannot change their damping properties based on the structure’s response and therefore do not require any power or control algorithms to operate. Without any type of sensing equipment or computation, passive devices are generally the least expensive and most widely used devices [1]. Passive control systems based on elements distributed throughout the height of main structure are recognized as a more suitable approach for seismic control of high rise and slender buildings. There is no conceptual difference between the ductile design and the energy dissipation approach. In both IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue III/April-June, 2012/325-328

cases the structure is expected to control the floor displacements and storey shear forces by developing non-linear deformation mechanisms which will both dissipate large amounts of seismic energy [1]. Friction dampers are the prevalent of these passive control systems, because of using in different kind of braces, low cost and suitable efficiency [4]. B. Friction Damper (FD) These devices rely on the resistance developed between two solid interfaces sliding relative to one another [2]. Frictional forces arising from the relative motion of two contacting surfaces are a well-known source of energy dissipation. Sometimes this is an unwanted effect of the design, but it can also be intentionally used to increase the damping of a certain system in a simple and cost-effective way. During severe seismic excitations, the friction damper slips at a predetermined load, providing the desired energy dissipation by friction while at the same time shifting the structural fundamental mode away from the earthquake resonant frequency. Another attractive feature of friction dampers is that they offer stiffness in conjunction with supple-mental damping. While supplemental damping is beneficial in reducing the earthquake forces and amplitudes of vibration, added stiffness is beneficial for stability.[3] Although friction has been used effectively to control motion for centuries, the development of friction devices for use in civil structures to control seismic response was pioneered in the late eighties [5]. Several design variations of these dampers have been studied in the literature and different forms of patented hardware, now available commercially are X-braced friction, diagonal braced friction and chevron braced friction, slotted bolted connection and Sumitomo friction [1]. These devices differ in their mechanical complexity and in the materials used for the sliding surfaces. In this paper only diagonal friction dampers are studied for analysis. C. Slip Load For friction dampers, the main step is to determine the slip load. The value of dissipated energy subjected to FD is product of slip load and drift of all

Numerical data used for analysis is as shown in Table1 Trestles are subjected to vertical loads due to self weight. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS A series of analysis were made to determine the optimum slip load of friction dampers to achieve minimum response. to avoid the case of nonproportional damping in a structure. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis The slip load of friction damper in an elastic brace constitutes nonlinearity. Total 24 friction dampers were placed. the nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed using three earthquake records. Here straight bracing provided at three levels. suitable for the region. D. [4] In this paper. thus dividing the staging in four column panels. the results obtained using a single record may not be conclusive. North-ridge. Unit weight of rein-forced concrete made with sand and gravel or crushed natural stone aggregate may be IJAERS/Vol. The plan of water tank considered is symmetrical. were used to ensure that possible coincidence of ground motions and structure frequencies was not missed. [1] Friction dampers are placed at all level. For finding the optimum slip load we have selected range of 0 to 30% of total weight of structure. the structural system acts such as braced frame and if this amount is chosen low.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies dampers. for each of the rehabilitation schemes of the frame a realistic model has been prepared and several nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed on the models. These records include El-Centro (1940). 2012/325-328 E-ISSN2249–8974 taken as 25 KN^m3. give widely varying structural response. In the analysis only dead load + live load + earthquake force considering. As different earthquake records even though of the same intensity. Dead loads shall be calculated on the basis of unit weights. Northridge and EL-Centro were used . the damper does not slip and cannot control drift in structure. With these analyses. Table1 Structural Data for Frame type Staging Elevation of Frame Supported Intze Tank Figure 1 Elevation of elevated water tank Figure: 2 Roof acceleration (m/sec^2) v/s Diff slip load kN III. [1] For finding the optimum slip load we select 0 to 30% base shear obtain by response spectrum analysis. which helps damping devices to be distributed symmetrically in a building. the value of slip-load is varied from 0 to 30 percentage of total building weight. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are determined. Therefore. II. Therefore. I/ Issue III/April-June. Three Time history Kobe. The inclination of columns to the vertical is 0 degree. Based on the above. If the slip load is chosen much. Results are investigated for the full tank. INVESTIGATED ELEVATED WATER TANK The numbers of columns considered in the study are eight symmetrically disposed on a circle. and a response spectrum analysis is conducted. the time-history response of the structure during and after an earthquake can be accurately understood [1]. water and live load on the roof for maintenance purpose. The structural layout of RC elevated water tanks having framed staging structure considered for the modeling and analysis is shown in Figure1. (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes. Top ends of the columns are connected by a ring beam and the bottom ends of the columns are connected to the foundation ring beam they are assumed to be fixed for the analysis. 8 dampers are placed at each brace level (figure8). The weight of water shall be considered as dead load in the design of staging. three time-history records. The bottom panel is numbered 1 and the top panel is numbered 4. the analysis and design of water tank requires the use of nonlinear time-history dynamic analysis. For each earthquake. Therefore dissipated energy of structure with FD is depended to slip load. between these amounts the proper slip load is existed that is obtained from nonlinear dynamic analysis. For this reason nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses were carried out using the computer program SAP2000 [1].

. 2012/325-328 Figure: 8 Elevated water tank model with using diagonal friction dampers in SAP2000. Table 2 E-ISSN2249–8974 Figure: 3 Base shear (kN) v/s Diff Slip load( kN) Result of storey drift Figure: 6 Height (m) v/s storey drift (mm) (Northridge) Result of Time period Figure: 7 Time period(s) v/s diff slip load (kN) Figure: 4 Height (m) v/s storey drift (mm) (El-Centro) Table3 Analysis Result of Time period for Diff slip load Figure: 5 Height (m) v/s storey drift (Kobe) IJAERS/Vol. Selected range of slip load given in following Table. I/ Issue III/April-June.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies for nonlinear analysis of elevated water tank.

REFERENCES 1.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974 IV DISCUSSION • We find maximum reduction in base shear for the value of slip load as 60kN (EL-Centro and Kobe) and 90kN(Northridge)(Figure3).99-108 2. Rashmi 'Tina' Pall4 And Avtar pall5. 5. From results. • Using friction damper performance of water tank is better than without FD.(09) – PP. 2012/325-328 . Guru Guruswamy2. ca” 13th World Conference on earthquake Engineering. .Vaseghi. IJAERS/Vol. 4. But overall using friction damper performance of structure batter than without friction damper. March. • From results of Nonlinear time history Analysis. • We find maximum reduction in roof acceleration and Time period for higher value of slip load (Figure 2 and Figure 3). base shear and time period. tower drift base shear and Time period. friction damper is significantly reduces the dynamic response of structure in terms of tip acceleration. Bharat soli1. “seismic rehabilitation of justice headquarter Building” Ottawa. B.C .ASCE Journal. F. John Balazic1. san diego. sharpmemorial hospital. 1953. S. r. Pall. 2004 Paper No. S. John Elliot3. 3. J. Canada 12 thWCEE 2000 N. V CONCLUSION • From the analysis we found that optimum slip load is between 6% to 18% base shear of structure more effective to reduce storey drift acceleration. • From the analysis result optimum slip load value between the 30Kn to 90kN. • From the analysis results we found that increase in slip load value reduce acceleration.Navaei. it can be said that by use of 60kN and 90kN slip load give max reduction for friction damper. PP. Potty. “Response of friction damped braced frames”.Navayinia. pete krebs1*. C. “Seismic Retrofit of Elevated Steel Water Tanks” The International Conference on Construction and Building Technology 2008 (ICCBT2008) . A. I/ Issue III/April-June. Nambissan. dennis baerwald1. • Friction damper also improve ductility in structure. Roshantabari (2009) “A Parametric Assessment of Friction Damper in Eccentric Braced Frame” 208-212. time period as well as tower drift except base shear results for friction damper. August 1-6.1313-1323. S. Tina pall21“Friction dampers for seismic control of ambulatory Care center.