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ü¡& a.ðaftr,
I DonaldE.J.Kilmer,Jr.,(SBN: 179986)
2 A Professional
126l LincolnAvenue,Suite111
J SanJose,California95125-3030
Telephone: 4081998-8489
4 Facsimile: 4081998-8487
E-Mail: DKlawOfc@sb
Attornev for Plaintifß

f ì l0

t7 HearingTime: 9: sÒ 4.tkî,:,"
18 Judge: Martin J. Jenkins
ri\ vs. Courthouse: U.S.Court House
t9 450GotdenGateAve.
20 MARY V. KTNG,GAIL STEELE,WILMA California 94102
þ Defendants.
& 24
@ I, Duane Darr, declareas follows:

ffi 26 1. I am one of the namedplaintifß in the above-entitledaction.

27 2. lamacitizenJresident of the Stateof California.

Attomey at l¿w
t a
Le 3. I am a citizenof the United States.
126t Lin@lnAve.
Suitet I I
SanJose,C,{ 95125
Vc: 408/998-8489 Nordvke v. King PageI of 9 Declaration: Duane Darr
I 4. My addressfor servicçof processin this action is: Law Offices of Donald Kilmer; 1261

2 Lincoln Avenue,Suite 111;SanJose,CA 95125.

J 5. I am a 54 year old married man with no children.

4 6. I hold a Bachelor of Sciencedegreein Physics from Santa Claru University.

5 7. I am currently betweenjobs, although I was employedby Epson Portland, Inc., for 16

6 years as a Senior Software Engineer.

7 8. I am a National Rifle Association (|IRA) life member.

8 9. I am a proud member of the gun culture and regularly attend gun shows throughout

9 Northern California (where they still exist) and Nevada.

) 1 0 10. I was a memberof the Silicon Valley NRA Members' Council. That associationhada

11 membershipof approximately 3,000 at its height. The associationwas/is a grassroots

t2 organizationthat works to advancethe NRA's interpretation that the SecondAmendment

l3 to the United StatesConstitution guaranteesan individual, fundamental "right to keep

t4 and bear arms."

l5 11. I believe that this work is especially important given the current interpretation of that

r6 right under current California and Ninth Circuit judicial opinions.

t7 12. I believe that the "right to keep and bear arms" is a core political right that can be

/*"'\j 18 conveyedvia the possessionof firearms at a gun show for the following reasons:

L9 a. Possessionof a gun at a gun show supportsmy belief that the "right to keep and

20 bear arms" is essentialfor the preservationof all rights. For example:

2l i. Before the Turks could engagein the attemptedgenocideof

22 ArmenianChristians,the OttomanEmpirefirst hadto disarmits

23 intendedvictims. This is a historicalfact.

24 ii. This sadfact of history,which hasbeenrepeatedin Germany,

25 China, Cambodia,The Soviet Union, Uganda and Rwanda,must

26 never be forgotten. This history is recounted in the documentary

27 film: InnocentsBetrayed. It is a movie produced by Jews for the

DotraldKilmer .) e
Aftomeyat Iaw La Preservationof Firearm Ownership. I have watched this movie.
126l LincolnAve.
SuireI I I
Sm Jose,CA 95125
Vc: 408/998-8489 Nordvkev. Kine Page2 of 9 Declaration:DuaneDarr
I lll. To helpkeepthe conceptof an armedandevervigilant citizewy,

2 jealousof its liberfy, alive; I takeeveryopporhrnityI canto

J convey "the right to keep and bear arms." This includes attending

4 and participating in gun shows where I have the freedom to

5 purchase,handle, inspect, admire, study and discussreal firearms.

6 b. It is my strongly held belief that so long as I continue to exercisea personalright

to possessfirearms, while meeting with like-minded individuals, that I am

8 contributing to preservationof rights and the marketplaceof ideasby translating

9 abstractrights into tangible and concreteaction.

10 c. It is also my firmly held belief that my possessionof guns at a gun show can

1t convey a particularized messageto people opposedto my views. By reminding

T2 gun control activists, and people who are neutral on the issue, that gun owners

13 are made up of diverse and responsiblemembers of society, I am acting as an

t4 ambassadorfor the gun culture. For example, I agreewith Deferdant Mary V.

15 King that guns are "icons of patriotism." I just reject the implication that this is

16 something to be ashamedof.

T7 d. Finally, by possessinga gun - especially at gun shows in Northern California,

{ 18 where they are in dangerof becoming extinct - I am supporting the National Rifle

T9 Association's position on the SecondAmendment by engagingin the conduct that

20 that right guarantees(i.e., possessingfirearms), according to the NRA's

2T interpretation of the "right to keep and bear arms."

22 13. I attend gun shows and seeother patrons, vendors and exhibitors possessingand

23 displaying firearms, I am in turn receiving many of the messagesI intend to convey by

24 my possessionof guns as set forth above. Additionally:

25 a. I seemy fellow citizens exercising their right to acquire and possess

26 firearms at gun shows,I am encouragedto remain active in the NRA. (i.e.,

27 working for grassroots gun rights, making financial donationsand recruiting new
Donald Kilmer
Aftomey at Iåw 28 members.)
126l Lincoln Ave.
San Jose, CA 95 125
Vc: 408/998-8489 Nordyke v. King Page3 of 9 Declaration: Duane Darr
I b. When I see fellow membersof the gun culture possessingfirearms at gun shows,I

2 am reminded that I am not alone in my belief that a virtuous and anned citizenry

3 is a bulwark againstany person,or group of persons,who could be a potential

4 threat to liberty.

5 c. When I seefellow membersof the gun culture at gun shows,who are able to

6 acquire and possessfrrearms,I am reminded that the United Statesis one of the

7 few countries in the world that extendsrights and privileges to all membersof

8 society without regard to race, religion, gender or national origin.

9 d. I seeadvocatesof stricter gun control at gun showsprotesting my right to

i ' . ) 10 "keep and bear arms" I am reminded of how important the right of dissentis in

1l this country. Thus the conflict of ideas regarding the very nature of acquiring and

12 possessingfirearms, helps to keep the First Amendment alive, while we engagein

I3 rhetoric about the SecondAmendment.

t4 e. If I were to seea group of anti-gun protestersat a gun show burning and/or

15 otherwise mutilating flrearms, I would understandthat they intend to convey a

l6 messagethat they hate guns.

T7 f. I saw pictures of SenatorJohn Kerry, while he was campaigningfor

18 President in the last election, in possessionof a shotgun,while hunting in the

t9 Midwest, I understoodthat he wanted to convey the messagethat he was friendly

20 to hunters and gun owners. I did not believe him. But I understoodhis message.

2l t
Þ' I have personally witnessedformer NRA President Carleton Heston raise an

22 antique SharpsRifle over his head and simply state: "From my cold deadhands."

23 With no other words said, his possessionof the firearm while simultaneously

24 saying that phraseconveysa messageto me that the NRA's interpretation of the

25 SecondAmendment is worth fighting for. I have observedsimilar

26 demonstrations,with less famous speakers,at other gun shows throughout

27 California and Nevada.

Do¡ald Kilmer
Attomey at Iåw 28
t26l LincolnAve.
SuiteI I I
Sm Jose,CA 95125
Vc:408/998-8489 Nordyke v. King Page4 of 9 Declaration: Duane Darr
Fx: 408/998-8487
1 h. Even seeingthe advertisementfor a gun show in the newspaper,television, or

2 posted on a sign board, I am comforted in knowing that other people will be

5 attending a gun show and exercisingtheir rights under our constitution to speak,

4 assembleand "keep and bear arms."

) For me, the personal,private right of obtainingand possessingfirearmsis

6 symbolic of being a free citizen of this republic. "We the People" have
7 inalienable rights. are the sourceand causeof those rights. If we delegateto

8 the governmentour ability to use force for collective selÊdefenseand insure our

9 safety under our penal codes;then it is the citizens of this great republic that are

10 the fountainheadof law and thus the final repository of liberty. Furthermorethe

11 delegation of rights does not extinguish those original rights that exist and which

12 are acknowledgedby the Bill of Rights. Seeingpeople at gun shows,with guns in

t3 their hands,using their rights in a responsiblemanner, is a validation of these

t4 rights and this definition of citizen.

15 J. Finally, when I seeresponsible,law-abiding gun owners and firearm enthusiasts

t6 at gun shows, exercising their right to "keep and bear arms", I am also witnessing

t7 a refutation of the stereotypes,biasesand prejudices directed at gun owners.

18 Every time someonecommits a crime with a gun (like the shootingthatoccurred

I9 at the Alameda County Fair in July of 1998), law-abiding gun owners are

20 demonizedand tough new gun laws are passed. This kind of reactionary

2l legislation is passed without regard to how theselaws treat law-abiding citizens

22 as criminals. (For a good example of this, seeDefendant Mary King's July 20,

23 1999 PressRelease. She inaccuratelyrecounts facts from the Pomona gun show,

24 but admits that the Alameda Show has no such problems.) Seeingthe legitimate

25 gun culture ofcollectors, vendors,hobbyists, and hunters attend a gun show is the

26 best possible rebuttal to those stereotypes,biasesand prejudices; especiallywhen

27 the Defendantsin this caseadmit that gun shows are not a source of crime in
Attomey at Iáw 28 Alameda County.
l26l Lin@lnAve.
Suitet I I
Sm Jose,CA 95125
Vc: 408/998-8489 Nordvkev. Kins Page5 of 9 Declaration: Duane Darr
Fx: 408/998-8487
1 1 4. I have personally witnessed,over the past 10 years,the closing of many venuesfor the

2 "gun culfure." Many storeswhich used to carry firearms have been closed or zoned out
J of existence. Shootingrangesin the Bay Area have been closed. Gun shows have been

4 bannedat fairgrounds in Marin County, SantaCruz, San Mateo, Sonomaand of course

5 Alameda County. Although I am supportive of Russ and Sally Nordyke and consider

6 them good friends, I would never attend a gun show that did not permit its patrons,

7 exhibitor and vendorsto possessand/or display actual (as opposedto pictures of)

8 firearms. The idea that a gun show can take place without guns present is nonsense.

9 15. As a collector of 19ftCentury antique f,rrearms,the ordinancebanning the possessionof

10 actual guns (as opposedto pictures of guns) at gun shows,abridgesmy right to engagein

lt activities associatedwith my hobby in the following ways:

t2 a. I am denied the opportunity to discussand debatevarious historical and

13 technological aspects- including the authenticity - of antique firearms with other

t4 collectors who also display actual firearms at gun shows,because:

l5 (1) Slight differencesin markings, placement of screws or seemingly

T6 minor parts all play highly important roles in identifying and

17 authenticatingantique firearms for the purpose of discussingtheir

t8 historical importance and relevance.This requires a hands-on

I9 inspection of the specimenson display such that photographsand

20 pictures are wholly inadequateto this task. See Exhibit A attached

2T and incorporatedby reference for highlighted excerptsfrom

22 Flaltderman's Guide to Antique American Firearms and their

23 values,6ftEdition, publishedby DBI Books, Inc., written by Norm

24 Flayderman. I use this guide, and rely upon it extensively in the

25 pursuit of my hobby of collecting antique firearms.

26 (2) It is also necessaryto examine a frearm in a good, strong light to

27 examinethe f,rnishon the firearm. Use of a magniffing glassis

Dotrald Kilmer
Attomey at Iåw 28 recommendedto detect scratchmarks, pitting and rust. Use of a
l26l Lin@ln Ave.
Suite I I I
San Jose, CA 95125
vc: 408/998-8489
Fx: 408/998-8487
Nordyke v. Kine Page6 of 9 Declaration: Duane Darr
I magniryingglassis alsonecessary
to uncoverforgeriesor faked
2 firearmsthat havebeen"re-engraved"by unscrupulous
J Picturesandphotographsarewholly inadequate
to accomplishthis
4 task.
5 (3) It is evenpossibleto determineif the finish of a firearmhasbeen

6 alteredby its smell.SeeExhibit B attachedandincorporatedby

7 referencefor highlightedexcerptsfrom The.45-70Springfield,

8 publishedby North CapePublications,written by JoePoyer&

9 CraigRiesch.I usethis guide,andrely uponit extensivelyin the

10 pursuitof my hobbyof collectingantiquef,rrearms.
11 (4) to performa handson inspectionto determinethe
Is alsonecessary
12 caliberof the frrearm,asmanywereretooledandmachinedto
13 acceptdifferentammunitionthroughouttheir servicelife. See

t4 Exhibit C attachedandincorporatedby referencefor highlighted

15 excerptsfromA Collector'sGuideTo The'03 Springfìeld,
t6 published by Andrew Mowbray Publishers,written by Bruce N.

t7 Canfield. I use this guide, and rely upon it extensively in the

18 pursuit of my hobby of collecting antique firearms.

( ì
19 (5) Lastly, it is also sometimesnecessaryto disassemblesome

20 firearms to authenticatetheir origin and manufacturer,as many of

2l thesemarking are hidden by moving parts and the wooden stock.

22 b. Many of theseantiquq firearms arcpartof American History. For example,I

23 currently own antique firearms that were used during the Civil War. [circa: 1860

24 through 18651.

25 (1) I considermyself to be a custodianof historic artifacts,and gun

26 showsprovide a forum for a kind of traveling museum where I can

27 act as an "unoffrcial" (amateur) curator for the transmissionof

Donald K¡lmer
Attomey at Iåw 28 various featuresand aspectsof some of the artifacts that are
126I LincolnAvc.
suite I I I
Su Jose,CA 95125
Vc: 408/998-8489 Nordykev. King PageT of 9 Declaration:DuaneDarr
I symbols of America's struggle to maintain its freedom.

2 (2) The symbolic aspectsof theseantique firearms can be particularly

3 appreciatedat gun showsbecausethese forums are widely

4 advertisedand provide a place for like-minded individuals to

5 assembleand show their appreciationand respectfor the tools of

6 liberfy and icons of patriotism.

7 (3) Gun shows are not just a place to buy and sell ftrearms,but for the

8 collector representan opportunity to observeand learn the hobby

9 of antique firearm collecting due to the wide assortmentof

10 specimensand examplesbrought to the shows.

11 c. As a collector of 19thCentury antique firearms, the ordinancebanning possession

t2 of actual guns at gun shows,abridgesmy right to engagein commercial speech

l3 activities associatedwith my hobby of collecting antique firearms in the

I4 following ways:

15 It is strongly recommendedby most reputable dealers/collectorsof

t6 antique firearms that they be inspectedby the visual, tactile and

t7 (even) olfactory sensesbefore purchase.Photographs,pictures and

18 written descriptionsare wholly inadequateto this task for the

t9 reasonsstatedabove.

20 ll. There are also Condition Standardsfor Antique Firearms

2l promulgatedby the National Rifle Association. SeeExhibit A

22 attachedand incorporatedby referencefor highlighted excerpts

23 from Flqtderman's Guíde to Antique American Firearms and their

24 values,6üEdition, publishedby DBI Books, Inc., written by Norm

25 Flayderman.

26 iii. Therefore, if it is not possible to physically examine the purported

27 "antique" firearm, to determine its authenticity and condition, it is

Donald Kilmer
Ättomey at I¡w 28 impossibleto assessits value, for value is dependentupon
126l LincolnAve.
Su Jose,CA 95125
Vc:408/998-8489 Nordykev. Kins Page8 of 9 Declaration: Duane Darr
I genuinenessand the condition of the firearm. Without being able

2 to discussthe value of an antique flrearm it is near impossibleto

J engagein the dialogue necessaryto make an offer to purchase,

4 acceptan offer to sell, or trade this type of firearm.

5 d. I would assertcategorically that a "gun show" where actual guns cannotbe shown

6 is a fraud upon the public and a perversionof the English language. Preventing

7 the public from viewing actual guns at gun shows stifles education,retards

8 advancesin the arts and breedscontempt for firearm regulations that might

9 actually accomplish a lesseningof violence in our communities.

t0 r6. Finally, attachedas Exhibit D is a copy of a public speechI gave in support of gun shows

1l in Contra Costa County on March lg, lggT and the internet cover page for that speech.

I declareunder penalty of perjury under the laws of California and the United Statesof
America that the forgoing is true and correct and that this declarationwas executedin SanJose,
Californiaon April 17,2006.

Duane Darr, Plaintiff

ti 18






DoD¡ld Kilmer
Attomey at Law 28
l26l Lincoln Ave.
suite I I I
Sa Jose, CA 95 I 25
Vc: 408/998-8489
Fx; ,108/998-8487
Nordykev. Kine Page9 of 9 Declaration: Duane Darr
lro .¿l.Iìt'froltt
.., a,rtd ttreir rra,ltres

6th Edition

By NormFlayderman

Undoubtedly the world's besr-known antique arms dealer and
authority, Norm Flayderman's name has become synon)Tnous
with historic weapons of all qpes.
Having handled almosr..if notall...antique arms existing, Flay-
derman possessesa prodigious amount of information which he
has shared freely with his fellow collecrors. The "Acknowledge-
ment'section of almost anv anúque arms book published within
the past decades carries his name, often as a m4jor contributor.
Norm has received more honors and oftìcial recognition than
any other professional dealer or collector in his field. An
acknowledged arms historian, he acts in an advisory capacity to
some of the most prestigious,A.merican museums and historical
societies.He is StaffArms Consultant by U.S. Army appoinrmenr
to the famed Springfìeld Armory Museum, Arms Consultant by
Lr.S.Marine Corps appoinrment ro the Marine Corps Historical
Center, Washington, D.C. and Quantico, Virginia, and Arms
Consultant by Legislative Acr and Govemor's appointment to the
State of Connecticut for their historic weapons collections. He
most recently received appointment to the Board of Overseersof
the U.S.S. Constitution Museum ar rhe Navy Yard, Boston, Masr
achusetts. He has the unique distinction of being the only arms
, ruthority on the editorial,/advisory staffof all three major nation-
al collector publications. Incluclecl among rhe mosr notable col-
lections he has oflicially appraised or caraloeed are rhe lt¡esr
Point Museum at the U.S. Military Acacleml', the famecl Win-
chester (lun Musetr¡n at New Har,en, Oonnecticut, ancl Cody,
\À'roming, the ()etrysbtrrg National Mr¡scum, the venerable Colt
Factory collection at Hartforcl, Con¡recticut, the renow¡red
Kindig collectio¡r of Kcnttrckl,rifles and extensil'c a¡ms and mili-
taria collections at t¡e Cowbol' Hall of Fame, Oklahoma City and
the Sn'rithsonian I nsti tution, Washi ngton, D. C.
\{'idelv knor+n ancl respected irr collecting circles in the United weapons that have appeared in narional publications. His multi-
Statesand abr<¡ad,Norm's catlogs enjoyed the longest consecu- faceted career has often been a subject offeature articles appear-
tire run of any eler issued in the antique arms field...1l7 editions ing in national magazinesand the iopular press ovel- the råa¡s. A
over their 40-year span. The detailed descriptions in them, little known facet of his interest is that in \¡!'orld War I ariadon, a
appearing with the earliest issuesin the 1950s set neÌv standards fìelcl in which he is also considered a competent authorin..
for the hobby. In his five decades of actively buving, selling and The outdoors holds a special fascinatiån for Norm. Ée is a^s
appraising American and European weapons he has handled a much at ease behind the sighrs.of a big bore double-rifle as he is
remarkably broad spectrum of antique and historic firearms, in his professional career. He has stalked big game on safarisin
including some of the grearesr r¿riries. It was his sincere interest manv countries of Africa, rvhere he bagged recorcl trophies;
in the entire range of them that was the stimulus to amass the while Europe, Scandinaria, Canada and Icelancl have ofteri been
immense storehouse of knowledge that is reflected in this book. on his hunting and fishing itinerar¡'. Norm is among the handful
An impressive range of accomplishments for an exceptionally of Americans ro hare hunted high in the CaucasusMotultains of
active career. Add to this a hitch in the U.S. NaW in WWII as an southern Russia and the desolate Gobi Desert of Mongolia and
aerial photographer and later as an officer in the U.S. Air Force. Siberia. Hr,rnting expeditions in the Himalaya.s of Indiã, poland
l\{ore recently, in the 1980s,he served 4 years as Civilian Aide to and Turkey were recently followed bv sporting reks in the
the Secretary of the Army, in which capacity he often represent- "Southern Alps" of Nerv Zealand,and the Australiãn Outback.
ed the U.S. Army and the Secrerary on ofücial businessand func- Each day holds something new and di-fferent for Norm. -{s one
tions. Graduation from Boston University and an earlier of the most knorvledgeable hisrorians in the field of ¡\merican
profession in photography all played important roles in his wide swords and edged weapons he is currentlv working on a manu-
rangrng c¿ìreerm antrque arms. script about thóse subjècs; one which shóuld pro*'e a fine com-
Norm's interests are legion. His book, Scrimshnuand Scrimsha,n- panion to this FI,AYDERLIAN'S GUIDE TO Al,il'IQW AXLERIC"N
d¿rs; Whalzsand Whalemm (the indigenous folkart of the Ameri- FIREARMS. Over the years he has amassed great amounts of data
can whalemen and the history of whaling) is considered the for other pet research projects in the arms field, most kept on
definitive treatise on the subject. He has authored two other "back burners" because of his bus1,schedule. Hopefullr-. they,
books in the collecting field and numerous articles about antique too, will find their way to print in the not too distant future.

r s B N0 - 8 7 3 4 9 - 1 6 2 - 9


l{ asicto the understanding of the monetaryrralueof antique look alike.A slight differencein markings,placementof screws
¡, arms is the fact that søted figures are purely arbitrary, and or seemingly minor parts all play highly important roles in
thgre is no such thing as a fixedprice. The distussiotrof gurt identification. The reader is urged to check all these minor
ralues is highly subjective-as often are the v¿Iuesthemselves. technical points in the text accompanyingeachmodel after he
Socialand emotional factors often afiect ar¡object'sworth and has identified his piece from the illustration accompanying
in some c¡u¡esto a very great degree. Rarely indeed will trvo that texL To repeat again, the mere fact that a gun does not
expertslook at a specimen and arrive at the exactsamedollar appear listed in this work (or is apparently unique) does not
valuefor it. With tïe more often encounteredguns,thosesame necessarilyindicate it is either a pricelessrarity or an unknown
two expertsmost likelywould arrive atapricewithin l0 percent model. One should conclude that the specificpiece certainly
of each other; the disparity would rarely be more than 20 possessesan interesting potential and is well worth further
percent. A number of reasonsaccount for the seeminglack of research into its background and identification. Although this
consistencyin this hobby as opposed ro rhe more clèar cut, book doescontain more descriptions,modelsand r¡¿rianttypes
definable ñelds of coins, stampsor books.The primary factor than any other of its type ever published, gapsare inevitable.
is the sizeof the field itself, gun collecting doesnot havénearþ
the following of the latter three hobbies, nor does it hrvê TIIE WORD "VAL['E"-A DES(RIPTION
anyruherenear the percent"ge of full-time large dealersissuing
standard catalogs.The smaller known overall market and thé Intrinsic w.lue and monetary r¡alue a¡e often inseparable to
looser interpretation of prices becauseof less published or the collector. The highly subjectivenature of the former and
otherwise mainøined standardsby professionalscombine to the generalnature of this work precludesa discussionof it, and
make for a decidedly more eccentrit market. Equally impor- we shall conf¡ne ourselvespurely to the latter.
tant is the fact that firearms do not neatlyfill a definitegrariing According to Webstø's NanWorld,Dìdìonar;r Value" is "...afair
categoryas do stamps,coins or boolc; this is made even morè or proper equivalentin mone¡ commodities, etc., for some-
e complex by the mechanical functions which weaponspossess. thing sold or exchanged;fair price. The worth of a thing in
$ þtly, guns feature many more variables and irregularities money or goodsata certain time; market price. The equivalent
than either stamps,coins or books; most important among (of something) in money. Estimated or appraisedworth or
these are historical associations,inscriptions, manufacturinf price; valuation." The Roget'sIntrnational Tlusaurus allows
'. - ',t -
nariations,factory accessories,restorationsand engravings. interchangeable use of value with '...wortÏ, rate, par value,
l j
In order not to discouragethe reader at this poiñt, it mãy be valuation, estimation, appraisement, money's worth, etc."
further quite emphaticallyand accuratelystatedthatjust abo,lt Thus, it is obvious there are many interpretations as to what
every w€apon made does fall within distinct price guidelines comprisesvalue.
É and price categories.These figures are determineã by what For the purpose of this particular work, it is important to be
previous-weaponsof the same type have brought in the open more specific in the use and definition of this key word. In
market, by-nrhatclosely similar weaponsposséssinga similar order to do so, modification must be made to "fair market
degree oJ demand and rarity have brougirt, or in ùre case of value," a more legalisticsounding term which hasbeen quite
9x-uerr¡ely rare, infrequently traded guns what they would suictty defined (by the DepartÍient of the U.S. Treasury in
bring basedon experiõnce and in the iiew of the influencing their publications concerning appraisals) as "..-the price at
factors discussedwithin this section. which the propert)¡ would change hands ben'r'eena willing
buyer and a willing seller,neither being under anycompulsion
CORRECT IDET$TTFICATION to buy or sell and both having reasonableknowledge of the
Fundamental to establishingvalue is accurateidentification Since there are no rigid fixed rules or formulas in arriving
of the gun. The mere similarity of a piecein contour and shape at the price of an antique or collector's firearm, it maybe said
to _o_nepictured herein or in another referencework, is hardly that the "fair market v¿lue" of such arms is determined by
sufïìcient to conclude that the specimenis identical. Looks are consideringall factorsthat reasonablybear on determining the
dgceivingwhen it comesto determining the fine points of gun price and which would be agreed upon between the willing
identification and, consequently, laluã; jumping at conãlu- buyer and the willing seller who were not under any Pressure
sions is often dangerous and costly. As will be ieen in the to act.
thousandsof guns listed in this book and the many hundreds Having thus injected the word "price" into the discussion,it
of photographs, there can often be great v¿riancesin price may be lõgically assumedthat a current value in U.S. dollars
within a singlemodel or type-which io the casualobserverall. has been assigrredto all guns in this work. It may further be

factured (conseouentlv their greater availability)
present a quantity manufactured.
solid combination of itributes for collector
demand. Other A curiousand intriguing reality of rarity is the fact that a gun
influencing factors are associationwith historical -,
even6, in- tha.t.was the most impractical and poorþ made during its ti"me
triguing mechanical fearures,a wealth of
f"tìirn.a marcrial and henceunpopular and manufacturedin butsmdlquantity
it easyto co[ect ana iaentry in all its may b9 found to be in this presenr day one of the rarest and
vanauons), or a very reasonableor low price seeminfly incon_
sistentwith other pieces. sometimesmostv¿luableof collector'sitems,At the samedme
Reducing-theeñtire subject to its very simplest the well made piece in its day, which enioyed substantial
terms: With_ popular sale,often standsin the shadowof tiré former on the
out demand for a piece, iegardless.dr. ri,ï,
it not only will hobblst markel This fact is purely an often inconsistent
bring a very low doliar value,î"t urr Ueeqffi
ãiffrcult to sell. obsery¿tionand is not by an), means a maior determinant in
2. Raritv price; the demand factor stili weighsheaviiv.
It can thus be seen that althõugh.rariÇ
T-.^1:::ii?_: g.:l"ttion will sufficefor our purposes: defined, exrenuaringcircumstancesãxist ls rather simply
" qualrtyor condition o-fbeing rare (not frequenily wúich st onglyaträci
found; that rariry as ir relates to pri¡e and are not merely
scarce;uncommon; unusual); specifically,rrrao*, ïé¿ irrto
city,etc." scar_ numbersoriginally produced.
In gun collectine rarity may alsobe said to
be the frequency -'ÀLo-.rsr,
3. condition
with which u spetiintn ii enéountered.Tñ
ìt ort rr, d,rr rroi last in order as a factor influencing y¿rue,condi-
always'in direct relationship ø 'rt. q"""îäes
in which thai tion-is tt e most often discussedand used word
particular item wasoriginalf'produceä. in relarion to
In a great many
this is simply determinãd; ø't i"tt"".", *n"å"*ai.rì"'a.pttr cases price. Eventhough more objectivein nature than the demand
havebeen made on oarticut"r"r*r, *âå.io.yorgovernmènt ãr'äry r"oors, the subject,atthough easilydefined (
or other records håve been tttti;;;.ì;;;;exact ner or ótate.ofbeirrg,"ú.Uit r), has consiáerablemargin for
quantities dinferencesin opinión as to whar rhat *stateof
produced of specific models rt"ut ¡t"" å.i..*ine¿.^on being" actuary
piecesit is quiìe simnle to atttt-i"ã tàrä,i"î such ;. õ;." a piece is lessthan .facrory new" and the
ori'F fulther that
oi g.o ã*r"y from that condirion, rhe greater the disparity
the various models'and:"lq'Pt;' wihìnä" "react for filãå
*."pons- ärofiñio.rrabãutit.Basichumanfactorsstronglyaffectopin-
which little or no research data'exists,
th.ä.gr.. i""-ä¿ often tend to cotár,rrog-enq tney cannot be dis-
purely subjectiveand is basedo" titrttt "åo.ityl, of counted.Theseileroftheg'nhasanaturalpropensitytorean
(and are familiar with the fttd;;.y;;tt'*îLn ,ã**¿r over-estimationo-r overdescription of condition-
,h:y3ËË;i *îiË ,r,. buyer is diametricauy opposed and unresscarried
on the market)' or' in some cases,ishighlysp_ecuúÛäl*
basedonly on traditional (and someti;;i;;;".""s) "*äy*rrt.rnLtiorr";;;t;.eptibletosarespitches,wourd
tors'beliefs'Thepassageoftimeandtheinfluxofagrea;;;; collec- norínally tend to underr¿té condirion. It is at this iuncture rhar
new collectors (irooefìrily i"tr"ái"g -""fãìrig.rrt gãåä'rr"trr.a bantering, often playing a domínant role
and researchers)shãuld ä if,. päérr.. students i."rrã.tionr-preceding the sare of any piece,
evolvesinto a
õrcontinuaþ Ããîäi."r.¿ and at times ill-humored debate!
publishing fresh data on American ^tiriq""ir*;;.
contributionswilldispelandtott"ttt"tvi-li:::T3ltt"t"*, fiäZ is good reasonfor the redundancy in our discussion
lng tJrepresentdav collector a much moíe rhroughout this book; the subjectcannotbe
accuratepicrure of treäted "rgri..g"gi.rion
lightly or without a certain amount of repetition in
the relative rariw óf any i"divid"al
Merely knowiie the quantitie-si""ut ;i";;'- order to- impress the reader with its importance. ,{s earlier
i.r, a piece was manu- discussed,a ãecided
facnrred is an insùfücierit basisror po.iti*ty trenJ noticeable in collecting has been
åstaurishing-rela- täÇà*i"g.ondirion-consciousness
tive rarity' several models *ti"'uorr.'iZrI"-"¿. of the market.This is nor
quantities yet are still considered-
"t ;H;;",,lgu.gv¡ory.stgradesdo-notenjoyanypoputarity,
quite *... r*..ñã"i;;å: iä. t.y o:.iaedry do, but coilectors havebeenjustlyeducated
ples are the various smith & wtit""t
under contract for the Rr1ssi11
L *d i;;kü;;".rnmen-ts
but a handful being retained i" rh. U;-iædTätes_gerreratty
3a "-p"r*.à ü#'"*ortæLtu.eãotrr.lrrn¡..ttostriverowardsgetting
with ttre finest conditioned specimensand are thus in a constanr
srateof "upArading." lt wilt ¡e found that wirh some models
into the collecting market' rhe"cdlt ã*î ä¿ fluctuarions in degreesof condition often increase
¡er¿an ,itle is consider- *ñi.r''*rrri¿9oÞ]y.
aDIyscarcerthan its ouantity of production Each make and tlpe of gun musr be
*o.rl¿ irr¿i.",",
"" ',tä"äË-",,¿
j;õä individually. A general rule-oÊthumb is: The grearer
:"'üf$ï::'ig:l*'*lm;:'li:t"m,ç"R;;;;; í theprice
pi-lïl?¡;;*i;.¡*",tdü;iJ.#ìrå.åËäi ": "p.Ço.*.,
rnconsrstentasit chansesfrom oñe degree
o"fconditiorito thá iJË*-rã*..i;ã-,JËilä;å,
next' This occasionalli occurs with a those unfamiliarwirh antique
ñodel manufactured in
very large quantities att¿ ttitl .eaaity sr"r'äa is of extreme importance: ori.ginatfinirhthat aþþears
rounã-;;;-;;iË-..;; ,?.i.ïfirh ,n"u bepresmei at au costs.Any
markeg yet considered scarce,if not rar., in a conditiãn creaningshourd be
that only approximatet lery ã*..iä¿
t.r-, trr, lF t" o."resr of care so as nor to desrroyany of
belnuJor tlæ d¿finitions f.:og:qãiãt;rt"."iÑne ,rr"ii"*¡"i"g finish. Many otherwise fine pieceshavebeen
th" ñRA Co"¿¿r¿o" sìà"d"rd, tu;lt. .""riJå*ury lessenedin vaiire becauseof promiscuousover_
Excellent eximples
marked colt sinsle Action Army ^Cårr-o*fää;;';. martiriÇ ;Ëtr;
Revälve*; ,hi *äËäi "î.îirT,.r"''ramongthenuancesofunderstandingcondition
marked smith & wesson-singÉ action lÀ*.ri..rrr"
'schofìelds'" ará isjffigtheamountoforiginalfinish;inthemajorityofcases
as well as the Mod?l la¡g a;¿ iaäs sn"Çr
cussion cavalry carbines' All these i.î ,iËîr"tr.,,rrg although orhers inctude casehardenins,brown-
*ttt À"ããl' r¡a19n1blr ing,-nickel or silver plating, etc. Merery establishingor accu-
large quantitiés' widelv issuedand ort
.t,iF few, r"iér/lrti*"ting rhe percentage of fïnish remaining is not in
if an¡ left in the arsånal stores ;il;-á;;¿,
¡r.t no*". i".rïqîi,. sufücient. A feature that must arsobe taken into
ì'vearand use'In ;f,::åïäff"'r:5'::rïTî";iiþig
theseinstancesthe rarityráctorasit âtrects
iöo,tör"" isthecondition
dh"d;r;;'ä"î i;1ilä;ïä['r-:äi:1'äåi #il::il::

rruE _T

finish can fall into severaldegreesofcondition. The knack for one-worderswould often be used in catalogingfirearms' Al'
estimatingfinish is quite easilyacquired,but it doesnecessitate though unsatisfactory,they were at least accePtablefor the
actual first-hand experience in seeingand handling the guns most part with no loud grumblings from collectors.This was
themselves. especiallytrue with the less expensiveguns, mzrnyof which
Another interesting observationon the eccentricitiesof the numbered under $50 in those days.As the field grew and the
gun market with respect to "condition" is that the two most demand becamegreater (and consequentlythe prices), the
readily sold typesof guns, and thosewhich experiencethe least need for more detailed descriptions,especiallyfor mailorder
sales¡esistance when they are logically priced, are both the sales,wasquite apparent.It wasone thing to sell a gun for $10
cheapestguns in the worst condition and the very finest guns or $20-if the purchasing party found the piece below his
in the ultimate degreesof condition. The defectivepiecesare expectations,he merelykeptit, sinceto makethe returnwasn't
attractiveboth for their extremely low price and the fact that wolth the trouble. However, with prices ascending,buyers
they havea tremendousfollowing of devoteeswho eqioy doing becamemuch more discriminating, and itwasworth theirtime
their own home gunsmithing (receiving either cashor thera- to send thosemore valuablepiecesbackt Thus, in this dayand
peutic profit). In the caseof the finest piecesthey eventually age, there has evolveda very elaboratemeansfor describing
reach the end of the line and never become alailable again. antique and collectors'firearms accuratelyfor mailorder sales,
The bestquality guns are vanishingfrom the activemarket and and this has generally been the outgrowth of the qntem used
are the subjectof heavycompetition. The greatbulk of antigue in the author's own earlier catalogs.No standard Pattern is
guns availablefall into the condition categoriesbenrreenthese followed by all in the hobby, and there is very little likelihood
two extremes. The "in-betrn¡een"are generally most readily such will ever be the case.The general format developedto
available and are more often "churned" or turnedover bv the describe a firearm is a breakdown into rr¿rious comPonents,
many collectorsin the constant processof upgrading. describing each separately.Thus, for an antique revolver, after
the basic description including barrel length and any special
.TANDARDS FOR GRâDING CONDITION mechanical features or markings, there should be individual
details given for the percentage and condition of original
To understand v¿lues as shown throughout this book, it is finish remaining, the ¿rmountand location of rusting (almost
essentialto establishwelldefined guidelinesforr¡ariousgrades every piece has some even to a minor degree); the condition
of condition. This subject has such wide latitude that a great of the metal, of the markings, and of the grips and the me.
diversion of opinions has alwaysexisted as to what should and chanical functioning of the piece. Any special defects (or
what doesconstitute each degree ofcondition changeaswell attributes!) should also be noted. The buyer is thus lessapt to
as what words should be used to name these degrees. Likely be disappointed after seeing the piece, and the seller will
the subject will never be resolved for the simple matter that minimize the amount of items returned to him witl¡ letters of
firearms have so many variable factors that no one or t$¡o disappointment"
simple words can easily encompasstheir overall condition. As The National Rille fusociation through its committeeson
was stated earlier, once a piece is less than "factory new" and arms collecting has establisheda set of standa¡dsspecifically
as near perfection as possible,opinions as to the exact condi- for antique guns. Although all the words used in these stand-
tion of that piece will vary considerably. ardsor their definitions are not in everydayuseby all collectors
In piractice,i.e., mailorder sales,advertisements,catalogs, or dealers,theseNRA guidelines are the closestto a code that
etc.,simpleone or two word descriptionsof condition havenot the gun collecting ñeld has. They are listed here with the
been found satisfactory.Up to the 1950sor so, these short permission of the NRA


FACTORYNEW-all originalparts;100% anddes¡gnon metal;woodslightlyscratched

finish;in perfectcondit¡on
or¡g¡nal in every or bruised;
boredisregarded fire-
respect, arms.
EXCELLENT-a|| originalparts;over 8070 GOOD-somem¡norreplacement parts;met-
numerals and al smoothlyrustedor lightlypittedin places;
designon metalandwood;unmarred wood; cleaned pr¡nc¡pal
or reblued; numer-
finebore. als anddesignon metallegible;woodref¡n-
ished,scratched,bruisedor minorcracks
FINE-allorig¡nal parts;over30%originalfin- repa¡red;
in goodwork¡ng order.
ish;sharplettering,numerals anddesignon
metalandwood;m¡normarksin wood;good FAIR-somemajorpartsreplaced; m¡norre-
bore. placementparts may be requ¡red;metal
rusted, vigorously
VERYGOOD-alloriginal parts;noneto 30% cleanedor reblued;roundededgesof metal
original metalsurfaces smooth and wood;pr¡nc¡pa! lettering,numerals and
withalledgessharp;clear lettering,
numeralsdesignon metalpartlyobliterated; wood
crackedor repairedwhere undesirable asa collectorsfirearm.
broken;in fairworkingorderor óanbe easily
repairedandplacedinworking order. TheseNRAconditionshavebeenused
by the authoras the guidelinesfor the
PooR-majorandminorqartgreplaced; ma- váluerangesin th¡J work.In orderto use
l?ll:p]3::Tîllp1,t: çg,r¡l.dan'd.extensive rh6il[-coñ;üt, tñereaoer is ursedto
neeoeo;metal pitted;prin- constantlyconsult these conditionétand-
cipal letteling,.numerals
and cles¡gn
Oósignobliter- assessinga qun
o'Oi¡ter-ards when assessing gun before apply-
ated,woodbadlyscratched,bruiseð,cracked ing a value tõ it.
value to ¡t. They
frréi stand
stand as the crux
crux of
orbroken;mechanically inoperative;
generally thË valuationmatter.

A few wordsfrom other collecting fields havebeen absorbed price ranges

are those for which the model is most often
into€un collecting. Although the ñRA standardterm "factory encountered.
Rangesfor the earlier piecesusuallyfallbetween
new" is certainly the correciand most accuratedescription foi "good" and lflrne"whilein the latermodels, generallyobsewed
in that particular condition, it hasbeenfound iripractice in better
I Bun condition, categorieswill be 'very good" to "excel-
that the term most often usedto denote "factorynew" Éasbeen lenL"
borrowed from the coin collecting field: "mñf." From time 'The use of these dual ranges will also serve to allow
to time.attempts have been madã to discourageits the
use, but reader an insight intojudging relative condition vs.rarity and
"mint" is a-n ingrained part, of. gun collectinf terminoiogy.
Occasionallysuch terms-as "unisiued" or "unËred" .." uräd
Сnonymouslyfor "factory new" or "mint." OTTIER F}ICTORS AITECTING VALUE
There a¡e other fearuresof antique gunswhich playan impor-
tant role in determining value. The prices listed in this booliare
Great consideration gryen to the matter of range of
-was for the standardstyleand grade manufactured pieceof the maker
values for use in this book. To maximize the readers;
use or the "asissued"piece of government arsenals.Without produc-
thereof, it was felt
ing an urur'ield¡ multi+olume price guide, it is pþrsicallyimpos
sible toidentifirarnl¡ralner¡rrt¡nct-nf uii¡tin¡s ¡ti.-Ii€."tiã¡o
overall price range that a particul". gu" ."*i.å;ã deviations and decorations that often can and do appear on a
enoughbetrueen the nubpricesö pU.. ip.1i great many typesof antique gu¡rs--each featwe of which dæn
f:":-i" Thesetuoþrice,aná the spiead value.Everyweaponmust bejudged on is individual merits,and
betweenthem are sufücient tojudge the ielative increasefrom
this ent^ils fi¡¡ther researchand effort on the pai"tof the reader
one-degreeto another, and wittr a little analyticalthought
the in order to deærminejust how good that parricirlar gtrn might be
reader can reasonablyassessguns both belów and aböve
the and how to properlyeraluaæ it in monea¡y terms.Someofthese
llsted ranges.The matter of pricing "factory new" or "mint"
featu¡esa¡e so often found in certain lines, e.g., Colts, Smittr &
guns or those closeto that conditioñhas been conscientiowly
Wessons,Wìnchesters,etc., that the subjecthasbeen individually
avoided.Such-pricesare subjectboth to distinct differ.o..rií
coveredin eachofthose respectivesections,The matteris treaæá
oprnron aswell as rapid fluctuations.fu guns in those condi_
here asit a.ffecsantique American arms in general.
much fewer in number and subject
co.nstderablyto the whims and emotions of both buyer "and
l. CasedSets
seller, they are thus lesslogically valued than the more
often Complete cased ouúts a¡e a desirable variant of many types of
encountered pieces. .
American firearms. They are most often seen in handgr-rns al-
though cased longarms occasionally appear. Styles of casings and
rary considerabþ certain types, noøbly Colts and
rygyc_ IALUFS) rrAW BEr,¡''Uspi¡nnouenow 7rfns Smith & Wessons, are more often observed while in'some other
GUIDE.The author feels that a work of this nature would serve
makes cased sets are practically unknown. The åct that an item
..T".* useful guide if priceswere given for the conditions
I is in its original case is an immediate enhancement ofr¡alue. One
rn wntcn t.tteguns are most likely to be found. Therefore,
to cannot, however, arrive ataflatpercentage price increasewithout
useone setcondition rangesuchas-good" and "fine" through-
having deails of the case itself, its condition, its appearance and
out the book for all gunsfoutd be bãth unfair and inaccurãte its
accessories.For irutance, afine gun in its original and rare case
tor the.simple reason that not all guns are most often or is
-normally" not greatly increased in value if the case is in poor condition.
encountered in that one-range.This is especially The mere rarity factor of
a case is not su.fficient to enhance value
evident with flintlock vs. percussionguñ, o, percusiion vi. considerably
because the poor condition of the casewould detract
g-FdS9. The later the type of weapo-n,the more apr ir is to from the gunwhen dispLiyed. Bythe
same roken, thatgun in that
be found in much better cônditiorr. to considerboth-the Colt same
case in fine condition would be worth a great deal more,
and Smith & !%sson lines:All of the later cartriágemodels are The
g-eneral-lyencounteredin much finer "avera$e"cändition than condition _styleand color of the lining is important as is the quqtig¡ and
of the lining and the comparEnents. Obviousþ the
the earlier percussionmodels (in the case"ofColts), and the cases
that have been refitted intemally (even though the box itself
later cartridge models are usuallyin better condition than the is
original) are worth a great deal less than if untouched. The
earlier cartridge models (both óolt and Smith & Wesson).A accessories
includedin ttre case each have an individualratue and
stmilar analogymay be made in Winchestersaswell asin other must
be assessedboth as to originality a¡rd correct type for that
trelds of specialization.Thus, basedon the experience of the
particular gun with thei¡ ulues considered in reaching a total for
author. and- many other professional and nän_professional the
authorities throughout the collectingworld, the condition and
Cased sets are eagerly sought after and because'of this have


- #-

6. Unlieted or Unknown Variations 7. Serial Numbers

The mere fact that a model, submodel or variation does An idiosyncrasy of gun collecting is the premium price often
nor appear in this book should not be interpreted as proof placed on arms with very low serial numbers; such prices being
*re guñ is a rarity. In no sense does the author wish to im,ply for the number alone and not for their indication of an early
thaievery known variation or deviation from the manufac- model or the fact that they indicate a low production. This
rurer's "standard" gun has been located or catalogedl The number game plays a more important role with the large
reader is cautioned here, as he is throughout the book, not makers such as Colt, Smith & Wesson, and Winchester and is
to iump to conclusions! The fact that a piece differs from treated separatelyin the textwithin each of those sections. The
su;da;d might even suggest it is not entirely original. Much serial number of the gun in no way affects its appearance,
might have happened to an object that has been in existence purpose or use and is merely a fascinating feature for some
80-rc 275 years since it left the factor)¡ or the maker's collectors on some guns. Before paÉng a premium price for
premises. Not a few interesting and fine quality alterations numbers (one or nøo digits especially), the buyer is cautioned
were made to guns over that period by very comPetent to learn a little about thatgun's numbering system andwhether
gunsmiths, often satis$ing the owner's particular needs or or not the sequence was consecutive from "1" right through to
úhimr. Both the quälity of the workmanship of such altera- the end of production, or whether serial numbers were in
tions and the passage of time tend to give them the air of batch lots. Quite afewAmerican guns are foundwith lowserials
facbry originality. At times the value of a gun may be since theywere marked from "l " to "20" or possibly "l " to "100"
enhanced due to the oddity factor. Most such alterations, and then numbering started all over again; look before you
however, when proven to be non-factory in origin normally leap! Of equal importance is the fact that on many other types
do not increase the value of the gun and in many instances, ofAmerican guns the serial number has yet to be found of any
actually detract from it. significance to collecting, and the best response on certain
When variations are found to be original, quite a number pieces to a very low digit serial is, "So whatt" Although the
.\ of factors must be weighed to assessthe possible increase in numbers occasionally play a role in pricing, it is up to the
alue. Leading factors are the make and model of gun and
J 'demand reader to determine just how much by considering the other
for it on the collector market. The value of the influencing factors.
variation may be said to increase in importance, and hence
value, in direct proportion to the demand for the gun as a 8. Bores
collector's piece. Thus, an unusual barrel length on a small Bores often play a significant role in establishing and affect-
caliber rimfire revolver of one of the lesser known makers ing value. At times they are a primary factor, while with a great
may have merely a curiosity value for a few collectors and a many other guns, bores play no influencing factor whatsoever.
price increase of 20 to 40 percent. That identical variation Generally, the importance of the bore condition may be
found on a similar period gun by one of the more eagerly weighed in direct proportion to the purpose of the weapon.
sought after makers could very well increase value by 100 to For very frne percussion bench rest target rifl es, long-range and
500 percent. Each situation must be analyzed carefully and mid-range single shot breechloading target rifles, and items
weighed on its own merits. . similar in nature, the bore was obviously an important feature
Suspicions should be especially aroused at unique, not when these anns were made and sold, and thus it is equally
previously known or recorded, one-oÊa-kind guns. Should important to the collector today. On the opposite end of the
more than one such ultra-rare piece turn up within a close scale are many guns (e.g., small pocket pistols) on which the
time or geographic proximity then extreme caution and bore is of no consequence whatsoever, Between these two poles
skepticism may be in order. When what is untypical becomes lies a vast amount of pieces in which bores are of varying
typical should immediately be cause for concern. degrees of importance, Not a few collectors would immediately
It is in the area of variations that the counterfeiter and rule a piece out unless it has a fine bore; for others the bore is
-1 -orger has had a veritable freld day. As a matter of fact, he has completely unimportant. The subject is also treated in those
,,1-cheopportunity to hone his inventive abilities to a very fine sections within this book devoted to guns where bore condition
edge. With the knowledge that r¡ariations do appear that have is a critical detail. Although the odds are heavily weighed
never previously been cataloged (one of the interesting as- against most collectors shooting an antique gun, part and
pects of gun collecting) quite a few intriguing variations have parcel of the inspection process of a breechloader is to look
been made strictly to dupe the unwitting collector. Some of down the bore; on mwzleloaders one goes out of his way to do
these were no doubt intended as good humored, pure prac- so only with târget rifles where this feature is absolutely impor-
ticaljokes; an ingredientknown from the dayswhen guns had tant. A poor bore will very likely detract from both demand and
modest values. With the passage of years some of these early price of a very fine quality piece, especially those designed for
fakes or gags have acquired an age patina giving them a more fine target shooting; a deteriorated bore or one ringed inside
credible appearance than the morê recently made forgeries. with a bulge evident on the outside of the barrel is a detriment
The collector is forewarned of such specimens and should to any gun and will detract both in price and demand. On
keep his wits about him when offered an unusual lariant, handguns, bores are generally unimpoftânt on the smaller
coolly analyzing the piece and using good common sense as caliber models, while on the larger sizes, especially pieces
his basiç guide. designed for target shooting, bores play a more dominant role.


pointing out a few of the more obviousviolationsand how they Where a very fine conditioned piece has been clearly-refin-
ished in ttt"-pt to fool a coliector, the question of intent
---tt¡e bã.detected.
miqht "t should be given original fin-
may be raised. Cårefuti'nsþection
Uati. tenet which follows has proven itself valuable on
ishäs in all cases to äscertaintheir originality.
.o.r" occasionsand is one which the author Persona\
Examine the gun in a good, strong light- (daylight prefgr-
r"Ur.¡U"t to and recommends: If in doubt, if a piece looks
wrong or has something about it that you cannot Put your ably); should the finish be suspect,a few other areasrequrre
fingei on, if itjust doesnot add up in y.ourmind, the chances closåstudywith a magnifiing giass:( I ) Look for scratchmarks
gun is-wrong-pass ít by. Very-likely a few good pieces or especiá[y light ruit pittinþndernçath the finish' If either
mav be
"mistedthis la)', but the law of averageswill prove the is prËsent,ii aÏt ftenni¡od tñe gun hasbeen refinished' Prior
oáti.. a sound one. The mere fact that in looking at a gun to'putting on original factory finish mo-sqmetal Parts are
äne has an uneasy feeling is usually sufücient to indicate polished ãlean and s-ooth and are free of any rust pitting or
somethingis wrong. Whether or not one can Put his finger-on iiny pockmarks.In almosteveryinstancescratchesand pits are
thesevibãtions is unimportant; the worst one can do at that ac{úitea after the gun has naã its original -factoryfinish' -(2)
pointis w to rationalizeiomething thatis badinto being good, Loäk very closelyaiatt edgesand markings.In order to realize
ånd hereís*here thoseoldwives talescome into playlike ""'it's a quality refinish, the mãtal must be cleaned and polished
sot to be good becauseof where it came from" or ""'no one *róroughty. In so doing some sharpnesswillusually leave.the
iould takã the time to make that kind of fake" or "..'the price edgesfmost noticeablJon octagonbarrels),and.the markings
is so reasonableit couldn't be wrong." Emotions may causean arJoften lightened or evenpaniallyworn away.With markings
otherwiseastutebuyer to becomecarried away,makingexcuses once sharp'and deep, the édgesof the die struck impres'sion
to rationalize very obvious telltale clues such ascolor changes, are quite ôft"tt tonttã.d and smoothedover' (3) On revolvers
patin-a,signsof pitting, etc. If time permits and other krrown standard with roll engraved scenes on the cylinder' a very
äxamples-areaiaitaUte for comparison, there is certainly a careful inspection of th-isfeature shouldbe madefor sharPness
lood'basis for verifiing the piete thoroughly. Often when and clarity.Anywear,especiallyifuneven,beneatha blue finish
'confronted with the chillenge of a possiblefake, one's hopes .would cléarþ indicate ihe piece wastampered with and very
of what one would like the gun to be takesprecedenceover likely refinished.
goöd judgment. In other words, the buyer becomeshis own
The pathi down which the expert restorer-and fo¡ger have
traveleåare many.The subject ii one which has been treated Markings are critical featuresinjudging rarity and value of
in print frequentiy over the yearsand is certainþworth a mqior an antiqué gun and should be carefullyscrutrnized'Numbers
studyone aäy.Foilowingare somepointswhich the authorhas are equally critical, but only on specificmakes of guns-not
fouid to be-the most pertinent in the matter of alterations' all. Róom'for wrongdoing existsin each area, andit may be
Someotherfactors involung restorationsandfakesare beyond generally said that ihe altération or "imorovement" of mark-
the realm of our coveragehére, but are worth bearing in mind' i-ngsis usually done with the intent to deceiveand p-ossiblyeven
Theseinclude suchintriguing subjectsaswelding, brazingand de-fi'aud.The matter becomesrather hazy though, once the
barrel stretching (that is, restoring shortened barrels to their gun leavesthe originalwrongdoer's handsand is traded down
original length), alteringgunsfrom one model to another and the line. Whethei the original parry who made and sold the
reriorking centerfrre revolvers to rimfire models (as in a very piece told the next buyer what had been done is very much a
few typesãf Coltsand Smith &Wessons).The readerwill often moot point by the time the piece has been in general circula-
heaimerition of using X-raysto detect certain typesof fakcs' tion and pasied through a few hands. At that juncture the
This is an excellentmèthod, but due to general inaccessibility importance for the purPosesof this book is not to comment
and time limitations it is not utilized with any degree of on the gun's unethical manufacture,but how the unsuspecting
purchasermay detect thoseincorrect marksor numbers which
f j ,Èequency.
Änorc'to bear in mind on polishing ànd refrnishing:When õonsiderably detract from r¡alue and rarity. An inexpensive
confronted with a gun that has been heavily polished or has pocket magni$ing glassis an indispensableaid and should be
been entirely refinished, a danger signal should flash in one's þan of every collector's tool kit. Inspect all markings thor-
mind. Both of these.features,although not indicating the item ôughly; the more important they are for the gun, the closer
has necessarilybeen tampered with, should call for a closer they should be studied.Checkfor sharpness,depth and clarity'
inspection.Polishing and refinishing can conceala multitude If the gun is heavilyworn but the markingsare sharp 1d gf_ea1'
of iins. By removing the normal patina and aging of the gun, this obvious inconsistencyindicatesthat some work has likely
the faker can obscure r¡arious areas that might have been been performed. Markings should showthe sameevenwear or
worked over and such arms should be closelyinspected' rust pitting and corrosion found on the rest of the gun.
Restamping or "freshening" the markings is not n_ormal]-y
A.REFINISHING consideied an assetor an improvement and most often will
deÛact from the value.Worsestill, any altering of markings to
Refinishingantique gunsis generallyfrownedupon; in quite ones that never appearedon the gun is completely fraudulent.
a few instancèsit actuallydetractsfrom value,resulting in a less Where remarking hasbeen done with die stampsitwill easily
desirableand lessvaluableitem (eventhough good money has showup under a magni$ing glassasinconsistent.In most cases
beenspentfor the refinish). The practirceof ry1king 1_relatively where die stampsare usedbyforgersto re-mark or fraudulently
worn gun, or one that has been heavily used,look like new is mark a piece, they are singleor individual dies, and the letters
rathei incongruous, and the effect on the gun is quite the will appèar quite unevenwhen magnified. The original manu-
same.Any antique item, especiallya gun, used,and no longer factuiérs normally had stamps or rolls made on complete
new,should look its age and stand on its own merits.Reñnish- singledieswhich had averyeven,regularappearance.Itshould
ing is akin to taking aì SGyear-oldman and dressinghim in be iemembered, though, that the rarer and more v¿luablethe
thé clothes of a teenager. Such a gun is, of course, simply piece, the more effortìhe exPertforger will expend to fake iq
detectedand, for the most part, has the samevalue refinished ihus, in some casesentire dies simulating those of the manu-
asunrefinished.However, the restored statushaschangedthe facturer have been made. Fortunatelythe use of these sophis-
weapon'sdemand and desir¿bility on the collectors' market. ticated dies is rare in comparisonto the single stamp method.

If the forger has freshened or re-marked the piece by hand have bee.n especially
prolifìc with fancy engraved guns while
engraving in, a similar style to the original die jtamp, tiris wiU the inscribed
presentation pieces have become moË frequent
quite easilyshowup urrder a,magnifyingglass;the cånsistency only in recent
ye-ar-sas historical specimens have acquiied a
ot ttre_handengraved markings are quite obviouslydiffereni greater degree
ofdemand and significance, The presence of
than those of the stamped mãrkings. If well done, the hand either fancy
engraving or historic inscriptions loiboth) aads
engraved marks might fool the naked eye when not viewed considerably
to the value of any gun, and hence, it is in both
closely,.but.areimpossibleto srand up unãer magnification. these areas that special care should be given in judging origi-
Another investigatoryavenuefor the verificatiõn of authen- nality. It does
take experience and practice to distinguish goõa
tic marking-sis any sign of age appearingwithin them, a detail from bad,
and fortunately the mqjority of fakers leave telltale
seenbest with magnification. If a gun haswear of any type, its clues and
are inept enough to allow for quick and easyspotting
markings should show the exact samepercentageof wéaì and of their handiwork.
fu in any group of craftsmen (the word ii
normal rust, pitting or corrosion, dents,scratchmarks or mars used here loosely),
there are degrees of talent; it is with the few
ofany form found on that samearea ofthe gun proper, clever, artistic workers that one must rely on the most expert
The collecting world has been consistentf wamed about a eye to differenriate
^ a bad piece.
few specific_typesof American anns which Éavebeen forged A few basic details to check are: (1) The style ofengraving.
and regrlarly appear on rhe marker. This book will cail süch Some styles
were not used in the period of manufacture whil,e
piecesto the readers'attention whereverpossible.A few ofthe others are purely modern in form, shape and desþ and even
most notorious types are worth discussiõnhere. Most often appeaf incongnrous
on antique guns. The word style applies
seen and most often written about is the Model lg42 percus_ to both decorated
and engraved guns as well as to the présen-
sion.U.S.rnartial pistol
þearing ?almerto Armory{olumbia, tation or historical inscriptions on them. Several styles of
S.C,' markings.Counterfeit diei were made by someunnamed lettering
are purely modern in form and appearance and
forger to resemble the original markings foí t¡is model; the therefore
could not be contempo¡Ìrry on antique guns. The
forger took the standard Model lg42 tj.S. pistol with either study
of known original specimens as well as considerable
Johnson or Aston markings; ground them offon both barrel literature on the subject is helpful in determining background.
and lock and then restampeã rhese parts with the false pal_ (2) The
wearand aging on either the engraving-or theìnscrip
. ) metto markings, afterwardsaging the gun. Armed with fore_ tion should
be consistent with the rest of the gun. Some
Il"*l9OS. and awareness,rhese1!n: are quite easyto spoL e1q-aved or inscribed specimens have been refinished, many
The dies do not match the ori_ginalpalmetto ma¡ki"gr.*"';try
of them in gold and silver plating. Remember, refinishes often
and, as is the casewith most fákes,the faker cannoiperfectly cover
a multitude ofsins beneath, some ofwhich can no longer
achieve the aged patina on the metal. To detect this lattei
be seen. When these refïnishes appear on deluxe specimens,
teature, though, does take some experiencein distinguishing
they should serve as a warning to inspect the gun clôser.
betr¡'eenfalseand genuine patinas.
_ Asecond gun known to havehad its marks counterfeited is D. RECONVERSIONS
the Model 1842 boxlock U.S. Navy_p-ercussion pistol bearin!
"Deringer - Philadelphia" markings.Here too théfaker
hashaã The subject of reconversions often creates heated, emo.
ores srmrlar to the original made. By taking the more often
tional discussions. One such topic of debate is that of restoring
encountered Ames marked 1842 pistols, removing the lock_ flindock
guns that were converred (c. 1830s-l840s) to thé
plate markings, and restriking-therirwith the Derinþer die, he
percussion ignition system and have been returned to their
has made a more r¡aluable(if undetected) piece. Ãgain,
the original flintlock condition by gunsmiths in this modern era.
key features ,9..,ï¿y a1etfe sharpnessof íhL markin"gs,their
The practice has iæ protagonists and its antagonists. Although
pistol's overall condition and thã patina reconversions-are by no means thought
:îîï,.".y Tir¡^rhe
ot the mehl. Of course, the very best method is to have unethical, it is strongly
a suggested and recommended that the fact of reconversionLe
genuine specimen for comparisón since spurious markings
made known by the seller. Ethical codes suggest an internal
would not match the originaì when closelyviewed.
lock marking by the restorer to indicate such lork. Only with
yp"."f S-"_lnot infrequently seenwith fake markings are the
i ' ) { considerable rarity has the author encountered a specific
sized Henry. Dgrig.l'Philadelphi4 percussiõn pistols instance of such markings being made. As for disclosure to the
teaturing agent/dealer barrel stampings.On riiese the lock a¡rd buyer, that
can be likened to the other repair and restoration
?:eech-markings (of the maker) are usually genuine. Further work previously mentioned in which thê whole matter be-
appearsin the section pertaining to deringer pistols; comes a moot point
me pK9 matkings are normally detected in the samemanner once the gun is in general circulation and
as has passed through three or four hands. By then whateverwork
on ttle toregoing Palmetto and Deringer tlæes.
was performed has either been accidentally or purposely for-
Serial numbers are critical øth cãrtaín models and makes gotten,
and the piece must stand on its own ounuard appear-
of guns while on others they bear very little importance. The
ance. As with other restoràtive work-there are good woilimen
most noteworthy make where serialsplay a proirrirrerrtrole
i, and bad workmen. A hack's handiwork is quite obvious; and
the Colt. Where serial numbers are requiräd to match one
the m4jority of the pieces encountered are amateurish. It is
another and are part of the valuation_pioc.r., tne stampinls
with the work of experts that the buyer must be especially
should be looked ar very carefully. Ni¡mberi ãre subject to
careful; quite proper it is to say that all flintlocks should be
deceptivepracticesand aiterationsio improve value;a few fine
'ihe inspected closely.
points about them are worth noting. subject has been There is no firm formula for pricing a gun that has been
at length-in the textuat *iæ¡"1accJmpanying the converted from flintlock
1t::::::_9 to percussion. On U.S. martial hand-
Liolt section of this book, to which the reader is re-ferrã¿.-tt¡is
guns or longarms percussion conversions can vary from 40
samediscussionas it perrains to Colt is applicable to all other
percent to 70 percent of the price of the piece for the same
guns in which numbers are important.
model in flintlock; it is dependent on the relative rariry and
demand for each individual model. With other Çpes of arms
such as very fine Kentucky rifles or guns ofexceptional qualiry
or possessing unique features, the fact of a conversion may
_ -Iî
worked l,eas of gngraving and inscriptions the forgers have affect value to an even lesser degree; each piece must be
with considerablesuccessfor quite a few yeãrs.They ev¿luated on its own merits, importance and special attributes.


The price differential between an original flintlock and a singledetail is in itself conclusiveevidenceof restoraúonwork.
restored flintlock is often considerable,no matter how fine the As an example, consider the matter of touchhole; on original
job ofrestoration. But a reasonableand accuratereflecúon of flintlocks thè touchhole wasenlargedfrom veryheavywearand
the general feeling of the collectors' market is that a fine use to the point where rebushing was necessaryduring the
restoration to aflintlock enhancesboth the appearanceaswell period ofits original use.Thus, it is necessaryto take all factors
as the value of the gun. Collectors and dealers in general, into account when passingjudgment on flintlocks.
though, are quite emphaticin stating that no matter how good
the restoration to flintlock, that piece is never worth the same E. BORES: RERIFLINGAND SLEEVING
as the original flindock specimen.Generally its v¿lue should
be that ofthe percussionconversionplus whateverchargesare Boresare an important e\r¿luatingdetail of sometypesof arms.
involved in restoring it to flintlock, plus possiblya small pre- When this feature plap such a role, it is important to watch for
mium or percentage above that if the work is of excellent inconsistencieswhièh would indicate alterationshavebeen made.
quality. Thus, if a flintlock U.S. musket is worth $750 and that With many of the later single shot breechloading ta¡get rifles or
sàme-piece as a percussion conversion is worth $250, the lever-action repeating rifles, calibersa¡e often marked (but not
specimen that hasbeen reconvertedprobably would be worth on the barrel by the factory.A primary checkwould consist
anyrvherefrom $325to $500depending on the quality and cost "l*yt)
of veri$ing that the gun is in is originat marked caliber and
of the restoration.When a restored piece is being offered and chambers a round for which it was originally intended. If not,
priced as an original flintlock, the questionable practicesand there are clear indications that the bore was either shot out,
intent of the seller arise. A few basic procedures helpful in rerifled and rechambered to soniething elsecloseto the original
distinguishing reconversionsare: (l) Alwaysremove the lock caliber, or possibly changed at the whim of the original owner
completely. (2) Closely examine the type of flashpan and during its period of r¡se.In either event,price is seriouslyaffecæd
method of attachment to the lock. That part Presentstl¡e most in terms of the weapon'scollectibility. The piece certainly contin-
diffrculty to the restorer, and it is there where the most obvious uesto havevalue, but the figure is considerab\rlessthan if in the
., 'løle signsand defectswill appear. The primary stepwould original "asmade" caliber.
f . to ascertain what type offlashpan wason the gun originally; The most often encountered bore alteration is sleevingor
with martial flinttocks a simple matter to check from several relining. The original barrel is reamedor bored out, and a new
illustrated books and articles.The method of attaching the pan liner is inserted and rifled to the desired size.Generally this
and its general appearanceand ñt are clues which suggesthow sleeving or lining was done to suit the personal taste of the
long it has been on the gun. Remember that the flashpan is owner/shooter, whoseconcern wasmore with its functioning
one part liable to much wear and to black powder corrosion; than its collector's appeal.However,relining merely to better
the latter should be consistentand even on both the pan and the appearanceand quality of an antique or collector's piece
the surrounding lock parts, all details quite evident when the is not unknown. Only rarely is it possible to determine the
lock is removed. Other telltale clues are the false aging or acid reasonsforreboring or relining on a gun, but usuallythis was
aging colors on the inside of the lock (if a new Pan has been to take the place of or cover up a barrel defecr
frtted), and possiblythe absenceof anypitting or rust corrosion In many casesrelining work is obvious and telltale signs
on the inside of the lock, particularly when such signs are indicate the nature of the work. Most noticeableare the marls
visible on the exterior of the pan iaelf. (3) Other lock parts seenat the muzzle or the breech of the barrel liner itsel4 the
should be closelyinspectedfor aging consistentwith the rest small seamvisible benÂreen the huopiecesof metal. Fine weld-
of the lock. However,suchsignsin themselvesdo notpreclude ing, though, can concealthis, and it is then a matter of verifying
that the piece is original as some of these pafis could merely the rifling and the caliber. This may be diffrcult and is not
be replacements.(4) A key factor in establishingoriginality of alwayspossible,but other sþs may serveastip-offs that some-
a flindock is the touchhole, an areawhere the restorersoften thing hashappened. If one is familiarwith the rifling of certain
çail miserably. Normally on converting to percussion, the flint- manufacturers,then looking down the bore is sufücient to give
/'. i !k touchhole was enlarged considerably in order to affix a clues that the piece is suspect;liners rarely match original
.rärge metal part (drum or bolster) to hold the percussion rifling. Kentucky rifles and other muzzleloaders are often
nipple. To restore this back to flintlock, the large aperture or found with smooth bores (astheir rifling wasshot out by use),
hole left by the nipple and drum has to be closed and a new and liners will sometimesbe found. Besidesthe telltale clues
touchhole bored. Often one can easilydetectsignsofthe larger of seammarks at the muzzle,a good tipoffis condition of the
hole having been bushed with telltale signs where the new rifling, usually perfect and like new and thus inconsistentwith
metal has been fitted. In other casesclever welding and aging the normal overall wear of the rest of a piece which likely had
can concealsuchclues.The bestway to veri$ the touchhole is its bore shot out.
to remove the breech plug and tang from the barrel and The more a gun's v¿lue is dependent on bore, the more
examine the area from the inside. This, though, is quite diffr- detrimental to price will be a lining or sleevingjob. Relined
cult to accomplish and sometìmes is not worth pursuing. breechloading arms of modern vintagewould havetheir value
Another method is the X-ray,a rarely used technique because lessenedconsiderably whereas the more antique or mr¡zzle-
of its inaccessibilityaswell astime and cost factors.The touch- loading pieces (of course, depending on the type) are less
hole itself must be looked at closely, and if the gun shows affected,Two casesin mr¡zzle-loadingarms where sleevingor
considerableuse and wear from firing and the touchhole is relining alters the price drastically downward are with heavy
tiny with sharp edges,there is a decided inconsistency;nor- percussionbench rest slug rifles or fine target rifles. With both
mally the touchholewearsand enlargeswith the greateruseof typesrifling and bores are critical and specimensare actively
the gun. (5) Verification of the fit of the lock should be sought becauseof the quality of their rifling and the makerst
carefullystudied.Somereconversionshavebeen cleverþ made names that appear on them. Any alteration of bores affects
by merely installing a completelynew and original flintlock to price strongly.
the gun. Besideschecking the area of the touchhole as pre-
viously discussed,the endre aperture or mortise in the gun F. AGINGAND PATINA
srock that holds the lock should be carefully scrutinizedfor
new cuts or filled in areas. One of the most often used words in antique collecting in
All the foregoing are but the most obvious checkpoints; no general and guns in particular is "patina." The dictionary
34 cutoE
T defines it as'-.any thin coating or color change resulting from

value. Theymaybe simplypart ofavery legitimate restoration
age, as on old wood; a fine crust or film on bronze or copper; orblending-overofaveryminorand honestrepair.Where they
is usually green or greenish blue and is formed bv nátural attempt to hide and conceal factors likely to significantly
oxidation." For arms collecting purposes, patina is ihe color influence the value of that particular weapon, they are very
formed by natural aging on wood or metal. It is to collecting much indicators to the buyer that he should proceed with
4 wh_aq is to whisky or wine. A collector's practiced eyé caution.
quickly learns discern genuine patina formedbnþ by genu-
ine aging vs. a false or faked patina caused by chemical or õther G.REPRODUCTIONS
agents. The knack for knowing patina is acquired through
experience and involves quite a few subtleties; none of them
Quite a few faithfully copied, modern made reproductions
diflicult to masrer. It may be likened to a jeweler with the of anúque arms are on today's market. The great majority are
acquired talent of discerning various shadesof coloration to of antique Colt revolvers, but others are based on Remingtons,
seeking the ultimare blue-white in a diamond. With practice Sharps, Smith and Gallager carbines, Civil War 186l muskets,
and exposure, the art can be skillfully mastered. the French Model 1763 Charleville musket, the famed British
AII woods and all metals age differently. As they age, they flintlock Brown Bess musket and many individually crafted
agquire color changes. In woods this is usually by absorption Kentucky rifles and pistols. More will come as muzzleloading
of pains, dyes, stains, grease, dirt in the hand that has rubUed shooting, the fast growing hobby in the fìrearms field, contin-
it and any other number of materials, changing humidities and ues to mushroom. All these reproduction guns have been
temperatures, Iight,
1!r and bmoke, etc. With metals, patina is made with the most honor¿ble intentions for the v¿st black
usually caused by oxìdation; in iron, aging brings rust causing powder market, including those groups specializing in battle-
a turn to brown; in brass or copper, the turn is to a very darÈ field skirmishes and reenactments. As to be expected, the
greenish color. There is no single exact shade or coloration of temptation was great for the untalented faker to try his hand
various patinas; just general tones and ones to which the with these reproductions, and thus a small number of spurious
practiced eye very much responds! examples have found theirway to the antique gun market and
The subject of aging and parinarion is covered in quite a few a¡e sold as originals. They are found with the modern makers'
books on antiques in general and in the Harold L. peterson markings removed and in a beat-up, battle-worn appearance
work Hottt Do You Knou lt's Old? in particular; the reader is with applied false patinas..Faked reproduction guns represenr
referred to these reference works. Our intention here is merelv neither a threat to the collecting world nor to the forewarned
to advise of the imporrance of this fearure and the fact that collector, and in every case known to the author, the buyer
patinas are the source of highly important clues io both resto- exercised the most imprudentjudgment in acquiring such a
rations and fakery. piece. As a mqjority of the reproductions are Colts, the subject
Perfectly matching age patina is practically impossible; a few is treated in greater detail in the text accompanying the Colt
very expert workmen have come close (and those that might section of this book, to which the reader is referred.
have done so are obviously so good that no one as yet has bé=en
able to telll).In the process of restoration it may 6e necessary BIBLIOGRAPHY
to clean metal orwood in the area repaired to the pointwherå
patina is altered or destroyed; the *Ackerman, k O. &re and Rcþair of Muzzl¿Load"ers.
þatina musr ìhen be re- Albuquer-
stored- Thus, if a piece under careful inspection shows rr¿ri- que, New Mexico: Muzzle Loader's Library, 1966.A small24
ances in patination, this is usually a good sign that alterations page monogtaph directed to the person who can accom-
were made and further investigation is in order. A standard plish thejob with but basichand tools.
agent for aging on iron is acid. In var''rng strengths *Ackley, P. O. HomeG,m &re and Reþair.Harrisburg, Pennsyl-
and formulas acids create parterns of pitting wÉch"are geäer- vania: The StackpoleCompan¡ 1969. A manual that has
ally inco.rrect, differing dècidedly from thã normal p"o gone through numerous printings, Contains some good
terns still present on the gun. "S;
material on repairsand maintenance of collector guns.
i') Again the waming is repeated here that the buyer should be
extremely wary of pieces that have been polished bright or
*Angier, k H. FirearmBlueingand,Brouning. Harrisburg, Penn-
sylvania:The StackpoleCompan¡ 1936.Practicalmanualon
refinished. Whatvery likely happened is thai repairs weremade
the chemicaland heat coloring of aII barrel steelsand other
where itwas impossible to match patina and thus, the restorer gun metalsfrom earliest soft carbon to the latest"rustless."
merely destroyed all existing patina giving the piece a new and Basic@tn Repair,SimplcHottrTo Method,s. Los Angeles:Petersen
consistent finish to conceal the work. Publishing Company,1973.Written for the beginner;shows
in itself is a very desirable finish, particularþ on iron someof the stepsnecessaryin getting started.Somesections
when it has turned a nice, smooth, even browniih color. devoted to antique restoration.
Although caused strictly by rusting and aging over the years, Bish, T. L. Hom¿&tnsmithingDigest,srd Edition. Northbrook,
mese shades of brown are often very rich, and they lend the Illinois: DBI Books,Inc., 1984.Wide coveragefrom repair-
Piece averymellowpleasingappearance, There are no maxims ing, modi-fring,converting to maintaining andjust "tinker-
on acceptable patina, very much a matter of personal prefer- ing" with firearms.
ence, but a general consensus is that when aþiece has a fine *Bro¡vnell, k GtnsmithKlzËs.Montezuma, Iowa: F. Brownell
patina, it should certainly be left intact and in no way marred
& Son Publishers,1969.Varied accumulation of shortcuts,
or destroved.
techniquesand commentsby professionalgunsmiths.
The cieation of false patina is usually by means of a *Burch, M. Qtn Careand Reþøir.New York: WinchesterPress,
chemical. With iron the tã¡hnique is mosi ofíen some type 1978. Step-by-step*how-to" in words and photos on
ol:u:tilg or combination browñing and rusting solutioáïf gunsmithing techniques.
which the formulas ur" n,-t*e.or-=s. Their prirpose is to *Carmichel, . Do It
J New York: Harper &
create in a few days or weeks an appearance eqúal to what Row, 1977. 40 do-it-yourselfinstallments by the respected
would normally require years of h-onest use or äging. With shooting editor of OutdoorLife.
woods, stains and varnishes are usually used to ai=teript the +Chapel, C. E. Conþl¿teGuid¿To Gunstnithing:Gun Careand
same thing. These processes are.not necessarily detrimental
Repaàr. Cranbury,NewJersey:A. S. Barnes& Co., Inc., 1962.
to an antique gun, nor do they necessarily detract from
Has gone through many printings. Wide coverirgefrom the


Fer Gefl[eet@rs

t )


Joe Poyer



This book is intended to help the collector determine if the .45-70
Springfield which he or she intends to buy, or already possesses,is
authentic and correct for the period in which it was manufactured.
The prices of .45-70 Springfields are rising quickly as they gain
nertr recognition among collectors. A .45-70 carbine from the
so-c¿IledCuster Period (prior to June 1876)is easilyworth several
thousand dollars. Certain later period .45-70s are approaching
similar price levels. Whenevera commoditybecomesthis valuable,
plenty of unscrupulous people appear willing to forge and fake to
steal your money. The fake .45-70 SpringfÏeld Carbine has been
the scourgeof the beginning collector for more than forty years.
With this book in hand you can no,fl examine each separate
oomponent of a .45-70 Springfield rifle, cadet rifle, carbine or
round rod bayonet rifle and determine when each and every part
was manufactured and indeed, whether it is a "real" or "fake"
To assistyou, we list each oomponenton the following pagesand
show you how to identiff its pe¡iod of manufacture.Obviously, a
rifle manufactured in 1884 would not have been issued with a
Model 1877rear sight.
We have given measurements in decimal inches only because
i ) many dimensions are too fine for the English system.We suggest
you acquire a 6 inch machinist's scale at a hardware store, which
measuresin 10ths and 100thsofan inch. The techniquesdescribed
may not follow good engineeringpracticesbut they do reduce the
amount of disassemblyrequired.
A word of caaÍrbn:The period in which the .45-70 Springfield was
manufactured(1373-1893)was an era of financial instability, tighr
money and tighter government budgets. When a particular

part, has been refinished. Refinishing an antique firearm can

reduceits collector's value by 50Voor more.
Pricing .45-70 Springfields is beyond the scope of this text. We
suggest you consult Elaydermanb Gude to Arltlgae Anertc¿n
frteatms . . . and their wlues, DBI Books, Inc., Northfield,
Pleasenote that this is not a history of the development and use
of the .45-70 Springfield. For those wishing to pursue this aspect,
a bibliography is included in Appendtr E A Glossary of
unfamiliar or period terms is included in AropendtrF.

Note: The authors have included a form at the end this book
to assistyou in docuinentingyour .45-70 Springfield. The
form may be freely copied and distributed. The authors
would appreciatereceivinga copy of your completed form
for our computerizeddata base on .45-70 Springfields.
The information will be used to improve knowledge of
this fine American military arm. And it will also be used
to revise later editions of this book.
Finally, the authors strongly suggesrthar you equip yoursetf with
the following aides when anaþing a .45-70 Springfield, or
considering one offered for sale: small tape measure, 6 inch
{" ", machinist's scale, screwdriver with interchangeable narrow and
1.. ,l
wide blades, magni$ing glass-preferably with a built in
light-and bore light. And, sinceit is not possiblero c¿¡rryaround
a library describing the .45-70Springfield, this book.
We hope this book proves helpful. We would appreciate any
comments,or informationyou might care to add.

After circa serial #60,000, the letters are 0.130 inches high and
the eagleis 0.270 inches high. If measuredfrom top of the
"'V' to the bottom of the eaglq the overall height should
be 0.560inches.

Some barrels benveenserial #s 75,W to 80,000may not have

any markings (including proofs), as old barrel stock was

Points To Watch For:

All barrels should be measuredfor correct length and diameter,
both at the muzzle and breech.

All barrel markingswere stamped,not engraved.

The wall thickness of all barrels at the muzzle end is 0.140

inches.If a carbine barrel wall exceedsthis thickness it is
probably a cut-down rifle or cadetbarrel.

A carbine barrel should always be examinedto see that it has

the correct diameter at both breech end (1.045 inches)
and muzzle (0.730 inches). If it does not, it may be a
cut-down and retaperedrifle or cadetrifle barrel.

Examine the area around the sight stud carefully. The join of
the stud to the barrel should be almost invisible. During
manufacture, the sight stud was inserted into a milled
cutout in the barrel and brazed in place. If the barrel is
i i not worn or pitted, a squarisharea surrounding the sight
stud should be detectible only by its different texture.

WARNING: All .45-70 SpringfTeldbarrels were blued with

mercuric salts. If the bluing is uneven or wispy, or looks
grayish, sniff it carefully. If you detect a slight peppery
smell, the barrel has been treated with "cold bluing," a
modern chemical process that leaves a soft plate of


seleniumsalts on the metal to reproducethe original

blue. This is done only to enhancethe value of the
firearm,and is not original.

Breech blocks for the .45:70 Springfietd rifle, carbine and cadet
are identical and interchangeable.The breech block assembly
consistsof the following parts: Bre€chBlock, Breech Block Screw,
Cam l¡tch, Cam latch Spring, Firing Pin, Firing Pin Spring
(omitted circa serial #85,000), Firing Pin Screw,Thumb Pieceand
BreechBlock Cap.
There are sevenvariations of the .45-70Springfield Breech block.

Firing pin wall

High arch Low Arch

¡':-.';;, Appearance
i t
The breech block was machinedto shapefrom a single metal bar.
The hole,s for the firing pin and the c¿m latch assembly were
drilled. The firing pin hole anglesdown and to the left so that the
point of the firing pin projects from the front center of the breech


NOTE: .45-70 Springfieldsin original condition have been

observedwith early 1873-datedlock plates installedin
serial#s ashigh as the low 100,000s.

Bridle and


\ Sear

WARNING: Reproductions of .45-70 Springfietd lock plates

have been made by a number of surplus arms dealers.
Check dimensions and markings carefulty. Plates with
datesother than 1873 were madeand installed by surplus
dealers,not the National Armory. Some lock plates were
bent or crushed at the National Armory before disposal.
Someof thesewere salvagedand repaired.The repairs are
'li usuallyvisible on close examination.

The mainspringwas for-
ged from spring steel,
then hardenedin oil and
tempered. No changes
were madeto the main-
springduring its service


This butt plate was used from circa serial #155,000 to the end
of production.

Butt plate screwsare 1.5 inches (bottom) and L.Z inches (tang)

Model 1888 Round Rod Bayonet Rifle Butt plare

This variation of the .45-70rifle usedthe Model 1gg1carbinebutt
plate becausethe headlessshell extractor, M1g79 Combination
Tool and Wiping Head were housedin the butt stock.

Cadet Rifle Butt Plate

The butt plate used for the cadet rifle is 5ß2', (0.156 inches)
narrower and 5ß2" shorter than that usedfor the rifle and carbine
to fit the smaller and narrower cadet rifle butt stock.

Cadet rifle butt platesnormally havethe..[.J.S."marking above

the tang screw hole, although some late examples will
have the nU.S.nmarking below.

Cadet rifle butt plate screws(Z) are 1.5 inches long.

NOTE: Watch for fake cadet rifle butt plates made from
reshapedrifle butt plates. The tang length and width and
the positioning of the screwholes are the same.If you see
(. grinding marks and uneven edgeswhere the butt plate was
_) narrowed and shortened, it was not manufactured at the
National Armory.

NOTE: The cadet rifle butt plate was never manufacturedwith

a trap for ramrodsand tools.


The second most common process is hot rebluing. There are

various methods available but all apply a chemical blue finish to
metal. The degree of blue depends on how highly rhe meral is
polished. Because the metal surface must be potíshed with
abrasivesand carefully degreased,hot rebluing is relatively easyto
l,ook for rounded edges and oorners and screw holes that are
"dished" during the polishing proc€ss.Examine lettering carefully.
The top edges of lettering on an antique firearm should appear
rough under a magniffing glassand open outrvard. If the top edges
are smooth and at right angleswith the surface, they have been
polished over. The trough of a letter or number stamped into
metal should show dirt and the effectsof rust and corrosion.

Stocks that have been refinished will often show rounded edges
and sanding marks. Examine suspectedareas with a magniffing
glass.Metal parts inlerred into .45-70Springfield srocksare always
slightly below the surface in fine to new condition fïrearms.The
wood may have worn down even with metal parts on .45-70
Springfields that have seen hard service.If the metal parts project
above the surface and stock edgesare rounded, the stock may have
been refinished.
Stock cartouches,or some part of them, should be visible on all
but the most service-wornstocks. Inspection cartouchesare often
worn partially away on carbinesby the action of the carbine sling
snap hook which generallyrubbed a groove behind the sling bar. If
the subinspector's cartouche or the fïring proof (script p in a
circle) is not visible, check the stock carefully for signs of
t , j refinishing.
NOTE: The authors are aware of at least trvo sourcesfor ,.fake"
cartouches. Original c¿rtouchesproduced very fine lines when
stamped into the stock. The fake cartouches produce heavy lines
and often depressthe wood around the borders.

& #ffitutuffiffiwffiffi'ffi Kffi


1 1


- .4\t'
,ú, ët flI)

**'€J ANDREWMOWBRAY / publishers,

P.O.Box 460,Lincoln,Rhodelsland,02865
'0 3

(top) M1903 rifle with alterationsof 1905.Note the location of the M1905rear sight. (bottom) M1903"Rod
Bayonet" rifle. Note the early type of søfetyand the M1903 rear sight.

completerod bayonet'03rifles. Somerestored lar to thatusedwith the Krag. It wasdetermined

'03bayonetrifleswill be foundwith later
.30-06 thatthebayonetusedwith the '03 shouldhavea
barrels.Thesecan easilybe identifiedby their 16" bladeratherthanthe 12" Ikagbladeto com-
shorter length (the .30-06 barrels are .200" pensatefor the '03's shorterbarrel.The very
shorterthanthe .30-03banels)and their mark- first examplesof this bayonethad a crossbolt
ings.However,one must look very closely to lockingplungerasusedon the Kragbut thiswas
í l determineif suchmarkingshave been buffed quickly changedto an under handletype.The
out. It shouldalsobe remembered that a .30-06 newbayonetwas approvedfor adoptionon AprÍl
cartridgewill fit in a .30-03chamberbut the re- 2,1905asthe"Bayonet,Modelof 1905".
verseis not true. With the questionof what type of bayonetto
useanswered,the OrdnanceDepartmentturned
M1903RIFLEWTIT{MODIFICATIONSOF to themethodwith which to attachthenewbayo-
1905 net to the rifle. Clearly, the rod bayonetandits
SPRINGFIELDARMORY AND ROCK IS- relatedpartshad to be removed.A front band
I.AND ARSENAL with a bayonetlug was developedwhichcould
l905-November 1906 be adaptedto the rifles alreadymanufactured al-
Table#2 thoughthestocks had to be shortened.
With all work suspended on the M1903 rifle, TheOrdnanceDepartmentdecidedto takead-
the OrdnanceDepartmentbeganto look for a vantagein this lull in rifle productionandgive
suitablebayonetandmethodof attachmentto the furtherconsideration to the type of sightsused
'03 rifle.
Severalbayonetdesignswereevaluated on theM1903rifle. It was decidedto change the
andit wasdecidedto adopta knifebayonetsimi- rearsightfrom the ramptypeto onewith anim-


(.30-03) cartridge,either a rod bayonet or tion to ceaseonceagain.The Ordnance Depart-

M1903i05,is a very desirableitem andthe seri- ment was closelywatchingthe progress being
ous'03collectorwill want to adda specimento madeby the German-developed sharppointed
his collection.The usualadviceaboutbuying spiøer bullet.After thenecessary developmental
guns ín the best possibleconditionshouldal- work and subsequent testing,a new cartridge
waysbe remembered but whenonecomesacross was adoptedon October15, 1906as the "Car-
an opportunity to purchase suchan extremerarity tridge, Ball, Caliber.30, Model of 1906".The
theconditionis obviouslynot asmuchof a factor new cartridgehad superbballisticperformance
aswith a morecommonlyavailablepiece.This is andhassubsequently becomeprobablythemost
. . )
not to saythatoneshouldjump at thefirst oppor- famous of all American rifle cartridges,the
tunity to buy thefirst suchrifle thatcomesalong "Thirty Aught Six". The M1906 cartridgere-
regardless of condition,but sincetheseweapons quired a chamber.200" shorterthan that of the
very,very rarelyappearfor saleonemustusehis M1903 rifle, so the M1903/05rifles which had
judgment.If sucha rifle is reasonablypricedfor beencompletedwererecalledandtheirbanelsal-
is originalityandconditionit shouldprobablybe tered accordingly.Rod bayonetrifle barrels
purchased evenif theconditionmay leavesome- which \rere convertedto 1905specifications and
thing to be desired.If not, a collectormay regret .30-06caliberarevery uncommontodaywhile
havingpassedon an opportunityto acquirea later 1905datedbanels(originallycaliber.30-03
specimen which mayeludehim for therestof his for the M,l9O3/05rifle) areseenmuchmorefre-
collectingdays.As an illustration,many Colt quently.The rearsight leaf usedwith the .30-03
collectorsare"conditionnuts" andinsiston hav- cartridgewas graduatedto 2400 yardsand was
ing90Vo+gunsin their collection.However,if replacedby a leaf with different graduations
oneis consideringthe acquisitionof a Walker, showinga maximumof 2850yards.
thenhis usualconditionstandards will obviously
have to be relaxedas Walkersdon't come in POST-1906VARIATIONS
9OVo+ condition.While thetypical.30-03caliber Therewill be manydifferent"variations"of the
Springfieldwill be found in muchbettercondi- '03 rifle discussedin this book. Technically
tion thanthetypicalColt Walker,few arein "fac- speaking, whatmost'03collectorsreferto asva-
tory new" condition.A "good to very good" rod riationsareactuallyonly productionchangesand
bayonetor M1903/05rifle is certainlybetterthan modifications(mostlyof a relativelyminor na-
not havingsucha specimenat all evenif every ture)andarenot actuallyvariationsof thebasic
otherrifle in the collectionis excellentto mint. M1903 rifle in the strictestsenseof the word.
Again,it mustbe stressed that suchgunsusually There\¡/erea few "official" variationsof thestan-
comewith very high price tagsandmany areof dard '03 which will be discussedsuch as the
questionable origin so one must be extremely Mark I, the M190341, the M190343 and the
careful before a purchaseis consummated. M190344.However,eventhoughtheywerenot
officially recognizedvariations,the manyrela-
THE MODEL OF 1906CARTRIDGE tively smallchangeswhich wereincorporatedin
Soonafterthemanufacture of theM1903rifle the '03 duringits long periodof productionare
with the 1905alterationsgot underway,there quiteimportantto the'03 collectoras theypro-
wasstill anotherchangewhich causedproduc- vide evidenceof whetheror not a particularrifle


of 12-29or later.MostoriginalTypeC stocksof special"Marine Corps'03" exceptfor a sniper

1930svintagewill be foundwith an *SA/SPG' variantto be discussed later.The"MarineCorps"
cartouche on the left side(SpringfieldArmory/ front sightbladesarestill quitecommontoday
SamuelP. Green).Of course,most such"non- and the fact that a rifle hasoneaffixeddoesnot
NationalMatch"M190341 rifles extantprobably meanthat thatparticularweaponwasdefinitely
wereoriginallypurchased by membersof NRA usedby the Corps.A rifle so equippedshould
sanctioned rifle clubs.An M190341 rifle of not bring any sort of premiumprice over any
"pure" 1930svintageis a desirableadditionto a other'03 of like vintageandcondition.As will
'03 collection.A collectorwishing
to acquire be discussed laterin this bookthereweresome
sucha specimen mustbe surethatsucha rifle is '03 barrelsmarked"USMC'which were pro-
l ) fitted with a pre-WorldWar II SpringfieldType ducedas replacement barrelsduringWorldWar
C stockratherthanone of the commonWorld II.
WasII contractstocks.The 1930svintageType
C stocksarevery well madeand proportioned NATIONAL MATCH'03
while theWorld War II Type C stocksarenot as SpringfieldArmory
attractiveand are much "fatter", especially r92L-t940
aroundthepistolgrip areathantheearlystocks. Perhapsthe mostpopularnon-service rifle var-
Of coursethelaterstockslack the"SA,/SPG"car- iant of the '03 is the NationalMatchrifle. Since
touche. its introductionin L921,theNM'03 hasalways
JustafterWorld War I, the UnitedStatesMa- beenvery popularwith competitiveshooters. Be-
rine Corpsdeveloped an improvedtypeof front fore the '03 caughton with today'scollectors,
sightbladefor the '03 which was manufactured theNationalMatch rifle wasoneof thefew vari-
in limitednumbersby the SpringfieldArmory for ationsof theweaponwhich hasalwaysenjoyed
useby theUSMC.This MarineCorpsfront sight highdemand.
bladewas noticeablyhigher than the standard Although the M1903 rifle had replacedthe
i: bladeandrequiredits own specialtypeof sight
cover.This blade was easily interchangeable
Krag in National Match competitionby 1908,
there were no special "National Match" rifles
with thestandardblade.The Marinesretro-fitted producedprior to 7921.Beforethis date,the ri-
this specialfront sight bladeto manyof the ser- fles utilized for suchpurposesweresimplystan-
vice riflesin their inventory,especiallythosebe- dard'03 servicerifles which hadbeenspecially
ing usedfor matchpurposes.Sincetherewere selectedand "fine tuned".It speaksvery highly
no specialmarkingsto indicateUSMC'03 rifles of the quality of thesepre-WorldWar I '03sthat
duringtheseyears,it is impossibleto determine evenstandardservicerifles couldbe usedalmost
if a rifle foundtodaywith this featurewasorigi- "off the shelf' for suchprecisionmatchcompeti-
nally Marine Corpsissueor if the front sight tion.
bladewasaddedby a subsequent owner.A col- ln L92L,it wasdecidedto producea versÍonof
lector will occasionallyencountera "Marine the M1903 rifle which was built "from the
Corps"'03rifle for sale.Even thoughthe Ma- groundup" as a NationalMatcharm.It is inter-
rinesusedmanythousands of '03sfrom just af- estingto note that it was necessary for the Na-
ter theturnof thecenturyuntil at leastaslateas tional Rifle AssociationandtheNationalBoard
theKoreanWar,therereally is no suchthing asa for thePromotionof Rifle Practiceto lobbvCon-



or'0344 shouldhavethe "R" markingon most

parts, '03s producedby other manufacturers
shouldn't.An "R" markedparton any '03 other
than a Remingtonindicatesthat the part is not
originalto theweaponandshouldbe causefor a
potentialpurchaser to look at therifle in question
The rebuiltearlier'03rifles and the '0343 ri-
fles areworth roughlythe sameamountgiven
comparable conditionandoriginality.The Rem-
ingtonM1903(Modified)rifles areharderto find
thanthe'0343 riflesbut pricesarenot extremely Initials of arsenal rebuílt '03 found on left síde of
higherthanthoseof the '43. Original,unmodi- stock This rifle was overhauledat the Ogden,Utah
fied earlyRemingtonM1903rifles retainingall arcenaL
of their milled parts,black parkerizing,finger andsawonly extremelylimited actionin thePa-
groovetype S stocksandotheroriginal features cific during the closingdaysof thewar. The '03
are very hardto find and areworth a great deal wasalsowidely usedasa platformfor launching
morethantheotherWorld War II eraRemington rifle grenades duringWorld War II astherewas
and Smith-Corona'03 variantswith the excep: somedifficulty in developinga satisfactorygre-
tion of the '0344. nadelauncherfor the M1 rifle. While thebulk of
The lastof theM190343 rifles were manufac- the'03and'0343 riflesmadeduringWorldWar
turedin Februaryof.1944.Theserifles were the II wereutilizedas trainingweaponsstateside, a
last of a famousbreedand every '03 collection numberwere,in fact, employedin combatsitua-
shouldhaveat leastonerepresentative example tionsin both the EuropeanandPacificTheaters
. . , of a World War II produced'03. Exceptfor the during the war. Of course,they playeda sup-
first RemingtonM1903smade,theseWorld \Mar portingrole to the M1 Garandandthe M1 car-
II '03variantswerenot the mostvisually appeal- bineasthewar progressed.
ing of the M1903rifles. However,they served AlthoughWorld War II broughtan endto the
our nation'sarmedforcesat a very crucialtime manufacture of the M1903 rifle, it wasusedfor a
andwereusefultrainingandsupplementalcom- numberof yearsthereafterby theUnitedStates
batrifles. military.Both the Army's M190344sniperrifle
As statedpreviously,mostof the earlybattles andtheU.S.Marine Corps'M190341rifle with
in thePacificTheaterwereactuallyfoughtwith the USMC Unertl telescopewereemployedas
the '03 rifle in the handsof the Marines.By snipingarmsin the KoreanWar.Therewaseven
1943,mostof our frontline combattroopswere anofficial TechnicalManualbeingprintedfor the
armedwith the Ml Garand.However,the'03 M190344rifle as late as December1970at the
was usedin surprisingnumbersevenup through heightof theVietnamWar.
the endof thewar.The M190344 was the only For all intentsandpurposes, however,thesto-
sniperrifle usedto anyextentby theU.S.Army ry of the'03 rifle as an Americanmilitaryweap-
duringWorldWarII, astheMlC Garandsniper on endedwith the SecondWorld War.The'03
rifle was introducedat the very end of the war wasthelast servicerifle of this nationwhich was


a lot of collectors.It is vital thatanycollector,es-

peciallythe beginner,be armedwith as much
severalhundredto severalthousanddollarsare
spenton suchan '03 sniperrifle. Too manypo-
tentialcollectorshavebeen"bumed"by purchas-
ing a fake and havegivenup the hobbyin dis-
gust.This is quite unfortunateand,hopefully,
thisbookwill be of helpto thecollectingfraterni-
The first "official" useof riflesfitted with tele-
Typical "R" markingsfound on most component scopicsightsfor combatpurposesby theAmeri-
parß of all Remington
produced'03rifles. canmilitary datesbackto Civil War times.These
early "sniper rifles" were generallybench-rest
avidlysoughtafterby civilian competitiveshoot- targetrifles which werefittedwith thesomewhat
ers andhunters.Its successor, the Ml Garand, crude telescopicsights of the day. However,
eventually becamea successful military rifle but theseweaponswereactuallycapableof remarka-
it took a while for it to be asrespected astheven- ble accuracy.Therewas not a standardsniping
erableold'03.The'03Springfield, Iike the Ml rifle developedduring the Civil War asthearms
Garand,wasratherslow to catchon with today's so employedwere basicallyprivatelypurchased
martialcollectorsbut now it is recognizedasbe- rifles of manyvarieddesignsandpattems.After
ing analmostidealcollectingtheme. the Civil War ended,the U.S. military aban-
donedthe ideaof a telescopic-sighted sniperri-
THE'03 SPRINGFIELDSNIPERRIFLES fle. Therewere some"Marksman'sRifles"of the
Althoughthey havebeenbriefly mentioned "TrapdoorSpringfield"patternproducedduring
I previouslyin this book,the sniperrifle variants the 1880sbut thesedid not havetelescopicsights
of the'03 arevery populartodayandareimpor- andwere intendedfor competitivematchshoot-
tant additionsto a collection.They are among ing ratherthancombatsnipinguse.
someof the most desirable'03s and, unfortu- After the .30-40 Krag rifle was adoptedin
nately,a greatmanyfakeswill be encountered. L892thercwas somedevelopmental work done
Sincethe '03 sniperrifle was generallya stan- which involved teamingthis weaponwith a tele-
dardservicerifle fitted with a telescopicsight,it scopicsight. In 1900threeM1898 Krag rifles
is relativelyeasyto build a bogusexampleof were fitted with telescopes procuredfrom the
mostof the snipervariants.This sectionof the CataractTool & OpticalCompanyfor testingand
book will give detailedinformationregarding evaluation.The Reportof the Chiefof Ordnance
what a collectorshouldlook for to determineif for 1900publishedthe resultsof thesetestsand
an '03 sniperrifle is original.Of course,suchin- it was recommended that the Krag rifle andthe
formationmay be criticizedasgiving a con artist Cataractscopeshouldbe thoroughlyfield tested.
the necessary datato producea betterfake.This However,at aboutthe sametime development of
is a very real risk, but manyof thesedishonest theM1900andM1901rifleswasin progress and
individualsknowmostof thesedetailsbetterthan furtherwork on the Krag "sniperrifle" wassus-



RemingtonM1903A4Sniper rífle with WeaverMT3BI scope.

this purposewhile the '0341ÂJnertlrifles were of the conversionrequiringany degreeof exper-

convertedspecificallyassnipingweapons. tisewouldbe cuttingout of theholeandthemill-
TheseWorld War II USMC/unertl rifles we¡e ing downof the handguard. Thereseemsto be a
fitted with thefïnely craftedpre-warType C full somewhatgreater degreeof standardization
pistolgrip stocks,manyof which were marked found in the methodof conversionin theWorld
with a drawingnumber.Someof the National War II '0341/[Jnertlsnipingrigs thanin thepre-
MatchM190341rifles convertedto snipersalso WWU '03/ASweapons.Nevertheless,
had theÍrstocksstampedwith the rifles' serial sincethe
{ \ conversionwork on the World War II weapons
numbersaswell. wasperformedat severalMarineCorpsordnance
Sincethemodificationsperformedby the Ma_ depotsby a numberof armorers,somevariation
rine corpson the'0341/unertlrifles werevery in originalspecimenscanbe expected.
muchlike thosedoneon the earlierUSMC'03/ Thesame
advicegiven regardingthe ,O31AS rifles holds
A5 rifles,so too aretheproblemsencountered by truewith theselater weapons.If a personis con-
today'scollectorswith fakes.The vast majority sideringthe purchaseof a 'O3Al/unertlUSMC
of M190341 rifles wiich we¡e later fitted \¡/ith sniperrifle, the alteredhandguardshouldbevery
the USMC Unertl scopeswere prod_uced by the closelyscrutinized.Many of the bogus..putto-
SpringfieldArmory in the 1930s.As statedbe- gether"weaponswill havecrudelyalteredhand-
fore, manyof thesewere NationalMatch rifles. guardswhile the originalswill evidencehigh
Given an M190341 rifle in the proper serial quality workmanship.Again, however,a well
numberrange,barreldate,and other features,a donealterationis no guaranteethat a rifle is au_
Unertl USMC snipertelescopecould be easily thentic.These\¡/eaponsare fairly scarceand
mountedto "create"a bogussniperrifle. Until there are definitely more fakes than originals
just a few yearsagosurplusscopes,mountsand
aroundanda greatpremiumshouldnot bã paid
baseswererelativelyeasyto find. The only part for sucha rifle unlessits backgroundis definitely

ProhibitionistsAttemptto B .GunShowsat ContraCostaCountyFr ìrounds Page1 of2

Prohibitionists Failed to Ban Gun Shows at Contra Costa County Fairgrounds

Following is an excellent article by one attendeeand the text of a speechby Duane Darr which drew a
standingovation.Enjoy ...

Backto Back Wins for the GoodGuvs!

The Board of Directors of the Contra Costa County Fairgroundsvoted unanimously at their meeting last
evening in Antioch to continue gun shows at the fairgrounds. Citing their own statewidestudy of gun
shows at county fairgrounds, the Board found that there was no evidence of illegal activity taking place
at ANY of the shows.

' -.\ Proponentsof the ban included the usual cast of charactersfrom Handgun Control, Inc. and its spin-offs:
\., ,.1 Legal Community Against Violence and the Pacific Center for Violence Prevention. Their allies, the
Contra CostaCounty League of Women Voters and the OaklandÆastBay Junior League,addedthe
local flavor to the gun grabbers'San Francisco-basedroad show.

Approximately 100 people attendedthe meeting. Severallaw enforcementofficers spoke on behalf of

continuing gun shows. Three Antioch City Council Members also spoke for continuing the gun shows:
Norma Hernandez,Angel Sudario, and Mayor Pro Tem Manny Soliz. But, ten year old Jamesstole the
show when he addressedthe Fair Board about the educationalvalue of gun shows. Jamesspoke of the
firearms safety information he received at the shows and displayed2pamphlets he received there: A
Citizen's Guide to Flag Etiquette and The Constitution of the United States.

The low point of the evening came when Andres Soto, of the Pacific Center for Violence Prevention,
menacingly pulled a dummy hand grenadeout of his shoulderbag, stating he purchasedit at a gun show.
Two sheriffs deputiesstood poised restrain Mr. Soto should the need arise. The crowd remainedcalm.
"'\ Obviously, Mr. Soto missed the irony that flourishing even a dummy hand grenadeat a public meeting
\-.-./ is a direct, violent threat to public health and safety. Shameon you, Andres!

Coming on the heels of Don Gage'svictory in the Santa Clara County Supervisor'srace, the Contra
Costa County Fairgrounds Board decision to continue gun shows underscoreswhat gtassroots citizen
action can do to make a difference. Kudos to Fair Board membersJeff Weidemann, Tom Cogburn, Paul
Lamborn, Louis Mangini, Lynette Tanner and Jack Roddy.

Bonnie McCIory

c.t997 all rights reserved.

Anotherhighlightof this Wednesday,

March 19, 1997,meetingof the ContraCostaCountyFair Board,
wasa passionate speechby DuaneDarr that drewa standingovation.To fully appreciateit, you must
know thatmostpro-Second
'We AmendmentCalifornianshavebeenrepeatedlydeniedproperaccessto
public hearings. areusedto rudetreatment,personalattacksagainstour integrityin our absence, and

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shtml 4/18/2006
Duane Darr PageI of2

Deliveredbeforethe Contra CostaCounty tr'airBoard,March 19,1997

Good evening;

I notice in the room the usual representativesfrom the various anti-gun show groups - Handgun Control,
Inc., the Legal Community Against Violence, the Pacif,rcCenter For Violence Prevention, Californians
For ResponsibleGun Laws, etc. However, tonight, they look a little uncomfortable.You see,open
public hearingsare not what they prefer. They would rather meet behind closed doors with local
officials when giving their presentations;thus, avoiding public discussionand questioning of their
statements.That is how they operatedwhen they came to my county, SantaClara.

They know they have no evidence showing that the Antioch gun show is detrimental to this community.
The fact that they can form a coherentsentencecontaining the words gun show, youth violence, and
crime is not proof that a connection exists! They are attempting to convict you people of the community,
who attendthe gun show, of contributing to the problems of this county, while failing to presentany
) evidenceagainstyou.

I will limit my remarks to only documentedbenefits and risks to this community by the Antioch gun
show. Anything less would be hearsay,speculation,or innuendo.


Froma financialstandpoint;thousandsandthousandsof dollarsper yearvoluntarilygoing to the support

of the fairgroundsandlocal economy.

Froma communitystandpoint;year afteryear,thousands uponthousandsof individuals,families,and

groupsattendingthis gun showin "thepursuitof happiness."
Meaningfor recreational,historical,

risksto this communityby gun showsat this Fairgrounds:
1' ''r
Documentedrisks, none! Not one documentedrisk.

Last year, Handgun Control's Assistant Director Barrie Becker (who is now the Executive Director of
the Legal Community Against Violence) went on record as admitting "...there are not yet definitive
studiesdocumentingillegal salesat gun shows,...."

But let's talk about the real reasonthey are here tonight. It is their simple minded belief that guns cause
violence. Once this dogma becomesaccepted,the focus is directed not at criminals, but at legal
purchasesby law abiding citizens. Their approachpurposely blurs the distinction between the legitimate
and criminal use of firearms.

Our battle to reduce crime and violence is then deflectedto their elite lead crusadewhich attemptsto
increasingly restrict or eliminate legal salesby any meanspossible. The weaponsthey use include
misinformation and collusion with council membersand supervisors.Progressin their crusadeis
measuredby the number of local ordinancespassedand gun shows banned,rather than crimes prevented
and casessolved.

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shtml 4n8t2006
DuaneDarr Page2of 2

As you listento eachspeaker's thatlinks

claimstonight,pleasedemandthe supportingdocumentation
their claim to this gun show.

which only accepts

Perhapsthereal risk to this countyis not gun shows,but a Boardof Supervisors
thinkingthat parallelsits own.

DuaneR. Darr. a SanJoseresident

æ Returnto Members'Council Home Page

* ContactUs

,,i \

NRA Memberst Counci] of East Contra Costa Countv

P.O. Box 2364

Antioch, CA 9453L-2364

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http:II www.,/contracosta,/duanedar. 4/18/2006